Sample records for lamina propria invasion

  1. Mesenchymal Cells of the Intestinal Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Powell, D.W.; Pinchuk, I.V.; Saada, J.I.; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow–derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

  2. Lamina propria T cells in Crohn's disease and other gastrointestinal inflammation show defective CD2 pathway-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Boirivant; Marco Marini; Gabriella Di Felice; Anna Maria Pronio; Chiara Montesani; Roberto Tersigni; Warren Strober

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Normal human lamina propria lymphocytes manifest increased unstimulated apoptosis compared with peripheral lymphocytes, which are enhanced after stimulation via the CD2 activation pathway. This activation-induced apoptosis down-regulates cell expansion and cytokine production. In previous studies, it was shown that lamina propria T cells from patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis manifest abnormal proliferation and cytokine production.

  3. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F0). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male, 6 female). Results showed that the vocal fold lamina propria, like many other soft tissues, exhibits both elastic and viscous behavior. Specifically, the transient mechanical responses of cyclic stress relaxation and creep were observed. A three-network constitutive model composed of a hyperelastic equilibrium network in parallel with two viscoplastic time-dependent networks proves effective in characterizing the cyclic stress relaxation and creep behavior. For male vocal folds at a stretch of 1.4, significantly higher peak stress was found in the vocal ligament than in the vocal fold cover. Also, the male vocal ligament was significantly stiffer than the female vocal ligament. Our findings may help explain the mechanisms of some widely observed transient phenomena in F0 regulation during phonation, such as the global declination in F0 during the production of declarative sentences, and local F0 changes such as overshoot and undershoot. PMID:19122858

  4. Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W

    2009-01-01

    The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male, 6 female). Results showed that the vocal fold lamina propria, like many other soft tissues, exhibits both elastic and viscous behavior. Specifically, the transient mechanical responses of cyclic stress relaxation and creep were observed. A three-network constitutive model composed of a hyperelastic equilibrium network in parallel with two viscoplastic time-dependent networks proves effective in characterizing the cyclic stress relaxation and creep behavior. For male vocal folds at a stretch of 1.4, significantly higher peak stress was found in the vocal ligament than in the vocal fold cover. Also, the male vocal ligament was significantly stiffer than the female vocal ligament. Our findings may help explain the mechanisms of some widely observed transient phenomena in F(0) regulation during phonation, such as the global declination in F(0) during the production of declarative sentences, and local F(0) changes such as overshoot and undershoot. PMID:19122858

  5. High proportion of granzyme B-positive (activated) intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes in lymphocytic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, G; Bodingbauer, M; Mosberger, I; Stolte, M; Vogelsang, H

    1998-04-01

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LpLs) have not been well studied in gastric mucosa, particularly in lymphocytic gastritis. Therefore, they were immunohistologically characterized with antibodies recognizing CD3, CD8, CD57, T cell-restricted intracellular antigen (TIA-1), and granzyme B (GrB). The TIA-1 labels cytotoxic granules of resting and activated T-cells, whereas GrB decorates activated cytotoxic T cells. Thirty patients with celiac disease, including 20 taking gluten and 10 on a gluten-free diet, 15 patients with nonceliac disease-associated lymphocytic gastritis, and 20 controls were studied. Stained cells were counted and results were given as IELs/100 epithelial cells or percentage of lamina propria cells. Sixty percent to 90% of CD3+ IELs and up to 12% of lamina propria cells contained TIA-1-positive cytotoxic granules. The number of GrB+ IELs and LpLs was increased in Helicobacter pylori-positive controls (p < 0.03 vs. H pylori-negative controls) and celiac disease patients taking gluten (p < 0.05 vs. controls). The highest number of GrB+ IELs and LpLs was found in nonceliac disease-associated lymphocytic gastritis (p < 0.009 vs. controls, p < 0.05 vs. celiac disease). This study shows that a high proportion of gastric IELs and LpLs is potentially cytotoxic in nature. Through stimuli not yet identified, a proportion of them becomes activated after H pylori infestation and in lymphocytic gastritis. PMID:9537473

  6. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis. PMID:25599879

  7. Microbiota Controls the Homeostasis of Glial Cells in the Gut Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

  8. Cytotoxic activity of intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Massimo, A M; Placido, R; Bach, S; Anastasi, A M; Mastino, A; Capobianchi, M R; Colizzi, V

    1992-01-01

    The phenotype and cytotoxic activity of lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) from the colorectal mucosa have been investigated primarily to analyse the role of LPL in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The results reported here show that LPL strictly required a proliferative stimulus [either interleukin-2 (IL-2) or phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) to develop strong in vitro cytotoxicity, since freshly isolated LPL do not exhert cytotoxicity against either natural killer (NK)-sensitive or NK-resistant target cells. The cytotoxicity of activated LPL against a large panel of myeloid tumours or colorectal carcinoma target cells shows the irrelevance of the tissue origin of target cells. Moreover, activated LPL lysed HIV-infected H9 cells more efficiently than peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and were susceptible to HIV infection. In contrast, unstimulated LPL failed to be cytotoxic and susceptible to HIV. Thus, we strongly suggest that for the lymphocytes of the colorectal mucosa expression of cytotoxic activity and susceptibility to HIV-infection show two faces of the same coin, and therefore may be relevant in understanding the mechanisms and paths of transmission of HIV infection. PMID:1628889

  9. Initiation of an Inflammatory Response in Resident Intestinal Lamina Propria Cells -Use of a Human Organ Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

  10. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the Murine Lamina Propria Requires Retinoic Acid-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Patrycja; Ferstl, Ruth; Ziegler, Mario; Frei, Remo; Nehrbass, Dirk; Lauener, Roger P.; Akdis, Cezmi A.; O'Mahony, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103+RALDH+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103+RALDH+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation. PMID:23704880

  11. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)? and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4+T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  12. Non-equilibrium and differential function between intraepithelial and lamina propria virus-specific TCR??+ CD8??+ T cells in the small intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Isakov; A Dzutsev; I M Belyakov; J A Berzofsky

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa regularly encounters commensal and pathogenic microbiota. Gut mucosal lymphocytes consist of two phenotypically different populations residing in the intestinal intraepithelial (IEL) compartment and lamina propria (LP). Little is known about compositional and functional differences of antigen-specific T cells from these mucosal compartments after mucosal infection, or the degree of trafficking between them. We here studied the B8R20?27-specific

  13. Immunomodulatory effect of mushrooms on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of intestinal lamina propria leukocytes does not necessarily depend on ?-glucan contents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Oka, Kohsuke; Watanabe, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNF?, IFN?, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to ?-glucan content of the mushroom. PMID:25213921

  14. Morphometric and Quantitative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Disease-Related Changes in the Upper (Suburothelial) Lamina Propria of the Human Bladder Dome

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Thomas; Moles Lopez, Xavier; Sagaert, Xavier; Libbrecht, Louis; Roskams, Tania; Rorive, Sandrine; Decaestecker, Christine; Salmon, Isabelle; De Ridder, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The upper (suburothelial) lamina propria (ULP) is a distinct region in the human bladder with dense populations of interstitial cells (IC), fine vascular networks and variable development of muscularis mucosae (MM). It is more and more obvious that the ULP plays an important role in bladder physiology and bladder disease, and in the present study we have quantified changes in the cellular key players of the ULP in bladders from patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS), multiple sclerosis (MS) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS). Tissue samples for the different patient groups were obtained from radical cystectomy-specimens. Standardized immunohistochemistry with a panel of specific cell markers was used to characterise the ULP cellular structures, followed by digitalised morphometry and quantitative staining analysis. Alterations in the ULP area were most pronounced in MS bladders, but also present in BPS and CIS bladders. We observed an increased thickness and increased variability in thickness of the ULP IC area in MS and BPS bladders; a significantly increased development of MM in MS bladders; a changed organization of vascular plexuses in the lamina propria in most pathologic bladders and a changed phenotype of ULP IC: a significantly decreased expression of progesterone receptor in MS bladders and a trend towards decreased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in BPS bladders. We show here for the first time the presence of disease-specific changes in organisation and/or phenotype of the different key players of the ULP area in human bladder. The present findings further support the hypothesis that the ULP area is involved and altered in different bladder diseases. PMID:25973881

  15. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 is an anti-inflammatory signal for colonic lamina propria lymphocytes in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Fiorucci, S; Mencarelli, A; Palazzetti, B; Distrutti, E; Vergnolle, N; Hollenberg, M D; Wallace, J L; Morelli, A; Cirino, G

    2001-11-20

    The proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is a member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors for proteases. Proteases cleave PARs within the extracellular N-terminal domains to expose tethered ligands that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. PAR-2 is highly expressed in colon in epithelial and neuronal elements. In this study we show that PAR-2 activation prevents the development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. A role for PAR-2 in the protection against colon inflammation was explored by the use of SLIGRL-NH(2), a synthetic peptide that corresponds to the mouse tethered ligand exposed after PAR-2 cleavage. TNBS-induced colitis was dose-dependently reduced by the administration of SLIGRL-NH(2), whereas the scramble control peptide, LSIGRL-NH(2), was uneffective. This beneficial effect was reflected by increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, decrease in mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines, protein, and mRNA, and a diminished myeloperoxidase activity. SLIGRL-NH(2), but not the scramble peptide, directly inhibited IFN-gamma secretion and CD44 expression on lamina propria T lymphocytes. Protection exerted by PAR-2 in TNBS-treated mice was reverted by injecting mice with a truncated form of calcitonin gene-related peptide and by sensory neurons ablation with the neurotoxin capsaicin. Collectively, these studies show that PAR-2 is an anti-inflammatory receptor in the colon and suggest that PAR-2 ligands might be effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11717450

  16. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 is an anti-inflammatory signal for colonic lamina propria lymphocytes in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, Stefano; Mencarelli, Andrea; Palazzetti, Barbara; Distrutti, Eleonora; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Wallace, John L.; Morelli, Antonio; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    The proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is a member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors for proteases. Proteases cleave PARs within the extracellular N-terminal domains to expose tethered ligands that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. PAR-2 is highly expressed in colon in epithelial and neuronal elements. In this study we show that PAR-2 activation prevents the development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. A role for PAR-2 in the protection against colon inflammation was explored by the use of SLIGRL-NH2, a synthetic peptide that corresponds to the mouse tethered ligand exposed after PAR-2 cleavage. TNBS-induced colitis was dose-dependently reduced by the administration of SLIGRL-NH2, whereas the scramble control peptide, LSIGRL-NH2, was uneffective. This beneficial effect was reflected by increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, decrease in mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines, protein, and mRNA, and a diminished myeloperoxidase activity. SLIGRL-NH2, but not the scramble peptide, directly inhibited IFN-? secretion and CD44 expression on lamina propria T lymphocytes. Protection exerted by PAR-2 in TNBS-treated mice was reverted by injecting mice with a truncated form of calcitonin gene-related peptide and by sensory neurons ablation with the neurotoxin capsaicin. Collectively, these studies show that PAR-2 is an anti-inflammatory receptor in the colon and suggest that PAR-2 ligands might be effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11717450

  17. Successful granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment of Crohn's disease is associated with the appearance of circulating interleukin-10-producing T cells and increased lamina propria plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mannon, P J; Leon, F; Fuss, I J; Walter, B A; Begnami, M; Quezado, M; Yang, Z; Yi, C; Groden, C; Friend, J; Hornung, R L; Brown, M; Gurprasad, S; Kelsall, B; Strober, W

    2009-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has proved to be a successful therapy for some patients with Crohn's disease. Given the known ability of G-CSF to exert anti-T helper 1 effects and to induce interleukin (IL)-10-secreting regulatory T cells, we studied whether clinical benefit from G-CSF therapy in active Crohn's disease was associated with decreased inflammatory cytokine production and/or increased regulatory responses. Crohn's patients were treated with G-CSF (5 µg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 4 weeks and changes in cell phenotype, cytokine production and dendritic cell subsets were measured in the peripheral blood and colonic mucosal biopsies using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry. Crohn's patients who achieved a clinical response or remission based on the decrease in the Crohn's disease activity index differed from non-responding patients in several important ways: at the end of treatment, responding patients had significantly more CD4+ memory T cells producing IL-10 in the peripheral blood; they also had a greatly enhanced CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cell infiltration of the lamina propria. Interferon-? production capacity was not changed significantly except in non-responders, where it increased. These data show that clinical benefit from G-CSF treatment in Crohn's disease is accompanied by significant induction of IL-10 secreting T cells as well as increases in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the lamina propria of the inflamed gut mucosa. PMID:19094118

  18. Different expression of IL-2 receptor ?-chain on a lamina propria T cell population and goblet cells in rats orally tolerized or sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) after colonization with an OA-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    DAHLMAN-HÖGLUND, A; AHLSTEDT, S; HANSON, L ?; DAHLGREN, U; TELEMO, E

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the local gut immune response in sensitized and orally tolerized experimental animals. The development of IgE/IgG antibodies and the DTH to OA was studied in rats made orally tolerant to OA and compared with sensitized control rats after colonization with an Escherichia coli genetically engineered to produce OA. At 3 weeks of age, pups were weaned onto a standard diet without OA or an OA-containing diet for 4 weeks and then switched to a standard diet without OA. Both groups of rats were parenterally immunized with a mixture of OA and human serum albumin (HSA) in Freund's complete adjuvant when they were 8 weeks old. After DTH measurement 2 weeks later, all rats were colonized with an E. coli producing OA for 5 days. The local immune response in the small intestine was assessed, using immunohistochemistry, as the expression of MHC class II molecules and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) ?-chain. The OA-tolerant rats showed the classical signs of oral tolerance, with a reduced IgE and IgG antibody and DTH response to OA before colonization. The difference between the two groups in the anti-OA antibody response became even more pronounced after colonization with the E. coli that produce OA. Rats orally tolerant to OA maintained a normal villus architecture after colonization, with a normal expression of MHC class II molecules similar to non-treated adult rats, but with a significantly higher (P = 0.004) expression of IL-2R ?-chain on T cells in the lamina propria of the villus core compared with sensitized control rats. The tolerant rats showed a very weak staining with the anti-IL-2R ?-chain-specific antibody on a few goblet cells in only one out of seven rats. In the sensitized control rats, a marked local immune response was seen with an intense staining with a monoclonal anti-IL-2R ?-chain-specific antibody on goblet cells in five out of seven rats (P = 0.019) and also an increased expression of MHC class II molecules in the epithelial cells and cells in the lamina propria of all rats. Rats orally tolerant to OA maintained a normal villus architecture after colonization, but with a significantly higher (P = 0.004) expression of IL-2R ?-chain on T cells in the lamina propria of the villus core compared with sensitized control rats. The novel finding that goblet cells express IL-2R ?-chain and the striking difference in expression of the receptor and the numbers of goblet cells between tolerant and sensitized rats may suggest a direct T cell regulation of the goblet cells. A possibility that oral tolerance might be maintained by the activated T cells expressing IL-2R ?-chain in the lamina propria of the villus core is also discussed. PMID:8973624

  19. NCX-1015, a nitric-oxide derivative of prednisolone, enhances regulatory T cells in the lamina propria and protects against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fiorucci, Stefano; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Del Soldato, Piero; Flower, Roderick J; Clark, Mark J Paul; Morelli, Antonio; Perretti, Mauro; Ignarro, Louis J

    2002-11-26

    NCX-1015 is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of prednisolone. In this study we show NCX-1015 protects mice against the S. A. development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The beneficial effect of NCX-1015 was reflected in increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, a decrease in the mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines (protein and mRNA), and diminished myeloperoxidase activity in the colon. In contrast to its NO derivative, only very high doses of prednisolone were effective in reproducing these beneficial effects. NCX-1015 was 10- to 20-fold more potent than the parent compound in inhibiting IFN-gamma secretion by lamina propria mononuclear cells. Protection against developing colitis correlated with inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65Rel A in these cells. In vivo treatment with NCX-1015 potently stimulated IL-10 production, suggesting that the NO steroid induces a regulatory subset of T cells that negatively modulates intestinal inflammation. PMID:12427966

  20. Proactive approach to treat high-grade lamina-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandhani, Anil

    2011-04-01

    Urothelial cancer, despite advances in the field of medicine, remains an enigmatic problem with no tangible solution to treat it once it goes beyond the detrusor muscle. Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer form the majority of bladder cancer at presentation and high-grade lamina-invasive bladder cancer (HGLIbc) previously known as T1G3 is the most controversial subtype as far as treatment is concerned. Should the patient be given BCG or is an initial cystectomy a better outcome? If BCG is started should the patient be kept on maintenance? Urothelial cancer has no effective adjuvant treatment, therefore being proactive in identifying aggressive tumors to begin with would help in improving survival. This short review, based on the contemporary literature has tried to evolve an approach which may help in making clinical decision to treat HGLIbc. PMID:21814315

  1. Characterization of the vocal fold lamina propria towards voice restoration

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Mariah S

    2004-01-01

    During normal speech, human vocal folds sustain greater than 100 high impact collisions each second. When the pliability of this complex biomechanical system is reduced by scarring, voice quality may be compromised. ...

  2. Restructuring the Vocal Fold Lamina Propria with Endoscopic Microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Dailey, Seth H.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Klemuk, Sarah A.; Askeland, Ryan W.; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S.; Heaford, Andrew C.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke’s space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Study Design Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Methods Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. Results MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. Conclusions MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke’s space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. PMID:23959803

  3. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen ? chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV ? chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that ?1(IV)/?2(IV) and ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, ?1(IV)/?2(IV) chains preceded ?5(IV)/?6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen ?(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen ?(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen ?(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC. PMID:22694915

  4. CTLA-4 promotes Foxp3 induction and regulatory T cell accumulation in the intestinal lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, M J; Griseri, T; Johnson, A M F; Young, W; Powrie, F; Izcue, A

    2013-01-01

    Thymic induction of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells relies on CD28 costimulation and high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) signals, whereas Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) induction on activated peripheral CD4+ T cells is inhibited by these signals. Accordingly, the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) promoted, but was not essential for CD4+ T-cell Foxp3 induction in vitro. We show that CTLA-4-deficient cells are equivalent to wild-type cells in the thymic induction of Foxp3 and maintenance of Foxp3 populations in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, but their accumulation in the colon, where Treg cells specific for commensal bacteria accumulate, is impaired. In a T cell–transfer model of colitis, the two known CTLA-4 ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, had largely redundant roles in inducing inflammation and promoting Treg cell function. However, B7-2 proved more efficient than B7-1 in inducing Foxp3 in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal an unappreciated role for CTLA-4 in establishing the Foxp3+ compartment in the intestine. PMID:22910217

  5. Isolation and cytokine analysis of lamina propria lymphocytes from mucosal biopsies of the human colon.

    PubMed

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Malter, Lisa B; Chen, Lea Ann; Wolff, Martin J; Robertson, Ian; Rifkin, Daniel B; Poles, Michael; Cho, Ilseug; Loke, P'ng

    2015-06-01

    Much of our understanding of gut-microbial interactions has come from mouse models. Intestinal immunity is complex and a combination of host genetics and environmental factors play a significant role in regulating intestinal immunity. Due to this complexity, no mouse model to date gives a complete and accurate representation of human intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. However, intestinal tissue from patients undergoing bowel resection reflects a condition of severe disease that has failed treatment; hence a more dynamic perspective of varying inflammatory states in IBD could be obtained through the analyses of pinch biopsy material. Here we describe our protocol for analyzing mucosal pinch biopsies collected predominantly during colonoscopies. We have optimized flow cytometry panels to analyze up to 8 cytokines produced by CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as for characterizing nuclear proteins and transcription factors such as Ki67 and Foxp3. Furthermore, we have optimized approaches to analyze the production of cytokines, including TGF-beta from direct ex vivo cultures of pinch biopsies and LPMCs isolated from biopsies. These approaches are part of our workflow to try and understand the role of the gut microbiota in complex and dynamic human intestinal diseases. PMID:25769417

  6. Demonstration of invasiveness of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in adult rabbits by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, B K; Townsend, S F; Scarpino, P V; Twedt, R M

    1979-01-01

    To determine possible pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus-host-organ system interactions, studies of invasiveness were made by a direct fluorescent-antibody method. Broth cultures of live cells isolated from seafish or symptomatic humans were inoculated separately into ligated ileal loops of young New Zealand white rabbits. After suitable incubation, rabbits were sacrificed, and ileal loops and tissue specimens were aseptically removed. Ileal loops were prepared and stained with specific fluorescein-tagged antibody, and organ specimens were cultured for isolation of the inoculated Vibrio strain. All strains tested penetrated into the lamina propria of the ileum and were isolated from the cultured tissue specimens, indicating that the organism is capable of more than a superficial colonization of the gut. The presence of Vibrio in cultured tissue specimens suggests invasion of deeper tissue by either the lymphatic or the circulatory system. Images PMID:378131

  7. The intriguing plant nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Ciska, Malgorzata; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a complex protein mesh attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which is also associated with nuclear pore complexes. It provides mechanical support to the nucleus and nuclear envelope, and as well as facilitating the connection of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton, it is also involved in chromatin organization, gene regulation, and signaling. In metazoans, the nuclear lamina consists of a polymeric layer of lamins and other interacting proteins responsible for its association with the INM and chromatin. In plants, field emission scanning electron microscopy of nuclei, and thin section transmission electron microscopy of isolated nucleoskeletons, reveals the lamina to have a similar structure to that of metazoans. Moreover, although plants lack lamin genes and the genes encoding most lamin-binding proteins, the main functions of the lamina are fulfilled in plants. Hence, it would appear that the plant lamina is not based on lamins and that other proteins substitute for lamins in plant cells. The nuclear matrix constituent proteins are the best characterized structural proteins in the plant lamina. Although these proteins do not display strong sequence similarity to lamins, their predicted secondary structure and sub-nuclear distribution, as well as their influence on nuclear size and shape, and on heterochromatin organization, suggest they could be functional lamin analogs. In this review we shall summarize what is currently known about the organization and composition of the plant nuclear lamina and its interacting complexes, and we will discuss the activity of this structure in the plant cell and its nucleus. PMID:24808902

  8. invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Broennimann; U. A. Treier; H. Muller-Scharer; W. Thuiller; A. T. Peterson; A. Guisan

    Niche-based models calibrated in the native range by relating species observations to climatic variables are commonly used to predict the potential spatial extent of species invasion. This climate matching approach relies on the assumption that invasive species conserve their climatic niche in the invaded ranges. We test this assumption by analysing the climatic niche spaces of Spotted Knapweed in western

  9. Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Bjerke; T S Halstensen; F Jahnsen; K Pulford; P Brandtzaeg

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by

  10. The immunoglobulin-bearing cells in the lamina propria and the clinical response to a gluten-free diet in dermatitis herpetiformis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Vermeer; J. Lindeman; C. J. G. R. van der Harst-Oostveen; A. S. Pefia; W. A. van Vloten

    1977-01-01

    In 17 patients with DH, multiple duodenal and jejunal biopsies were performed. In all patients the small-intestinal biopsy-specimens showed histopathological changes compatible with coeliac disease. Fourteen of the patients maintained a gluten-free diet (GFD) for more than 8 months. The small-intestinal lesions improved in all patients investigated during the GFD. The dosage of Dapsone needed to control the skin lesions

  11. Versican in the developing brain: lamina-specific expression in interneuronal subsets and role in presynaptic maturation.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-09-14

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix help stabilize synaptic connections in the postnatal brain and impede regeneration after injury. Here, we show that a CSPG of the lectican family, versican, also promotes presynaptic maturation in the developing brain. In the embryonic chick optic tectum, versican is expressed selectively by subsets of interneurons confined to the retinorecipient laminae, in which retinal axons arborize and form synapses. It is a major receptor for the Vicia villosa B4 lectin (VVA), shown previously to inhibit invasion of the retinorecipient lamina by retinal axons (Inoue and Sanes, 1997). In vitro, versican promotes enlargement of presynaptic varicosities in retinal axons. Depletion of versican in ovo, by RNA interference, results in retinal arbors with smaller than normal varicosities. We propose that versican provides a lamina-specific cue for presynaptic maturation and discuss the related but distinct effects of versican depletion and VVA blockade. PMID:16162928

  12. Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma invading the muscularis propria with multiphoton microscopy Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, J. X.; Chen, G.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Jiang, X. S.

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the muscularis propria (mp) of human colorectum tissue with carcinoma invasion and help to advance the development for the diagnosis and therapy of early colorectal cancer. Multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the second harmonic generation (SHG) images of samples respectively through the two-channel model. This work demonstrates the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in obtaining clear images from thick layers of label-free tissues. Combined with endoscopy and miniaturization probes will be helpful for representing new methods to assess the functional behaviors of tissue and diagnose the early colorectal cancer in vivo.

  13. The Nuclear Lamina and Its Functions in the Nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosef Gruenbaum; Robert D. Goldman; Ronit Meyuhas; Erez Mills; Ayelet Margalit; Alexandra Fridkin; Yaron Dayani; Miron Prokocimer; Avital Enosh

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a structure near the inner nuclear membrane and the peripheral chromatin. It is composed of lamins, which are also present in the nuclear interior, and lamin-associated proteins. The increasing number of proteins that interact with lamins and the compound interactions between these proteins and chromatin-associated proteins make the nuclear lamina a highly complex but also a

  14. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  15. How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Jessica

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined ...

  16. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosed?lová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krej?í, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  17. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosed?lová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krej?í, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  18. Activation of spinobulbar lamina I neurons by static muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L B; Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2002-03-01

    Spinal lamina I neurons are selectively activated by small-diameter somatic afferents, and they project to brain stem sites that are critical for homeostatic control. Because small-diameter afferent activity evoked by contraction of skeletal muscle reflexly elicits exercise-related cardiorespiratory activation, we tested whether spinobulbar lamina I cells respond to muscle contraction. Spinobulbar lamina I neurons were identified in chloralose-anesthetized cats by antidromic activation from the ipsilateral caudal ventrolateral medulla. Static contractions of the ipsilateral triceps surae muscle were evoked by tibial nerve stimulation using parameters that avoid afferent activation, and arterial blood pressure responses were recorded. Recordings were maintained from 13 of 17 L(7) lamina I spinobulbar neurons during static muscle contraction, and 5 of these neurons were excited. Three were selectively activated only by muscle afferents and did not have a cutaneous receptive field. Spinobulbar lamina I neurons activated by muscle contraction provide an ascending link for the reflex cardiorespiratory adjustments that accompany muscular work. This study provides an important first step in elucidating an ascending afferent pathway for somato-autonomic reflexes. PMID:11877534

  19. Nuclear lamina remodelling and its implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Alexandre; Ong, Peh Fern; Dreesen, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    The intermediate filament A- and B-type lamins are key architectural components of the nuclear lamina, a proteinaceous meshwork that lies underneath the inner nuclear membrane. In the past decade, many different monogenic human diseases have been linked to mutations in various components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA (encoding lamin A and C) cause a variety of human diseases, collectively called laminopathies. These include cardiomyopathies, muscular dystrophies, lipodystrophies and progeroid syndromes. In addition, elevated levels of lamin B1, attributable to genomic duplications of the LMNB1 locus, cause adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy. The molecular mechanism(s) enabling the mutations and perturbations of the nuclear lamina to give rise to such a wide variety of diseases that affect various tissues remains unclear. The composition of the nuclear lamina changes dynamically during development, between cell types and even within the same cell during differentiation and ageing. Here, we discuss the functional and cellular aspects of lamina remodelling and their implications for the tissue-specific nature of laminopathies. PMID:25532872

  20. Der Feinbau des Gefäßorgans der Lamina terminalis beim Kaninchen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Weindl; A. Schwink; R. Wetzstein

    1967-01-01

    The organum vasculosum laminae terminalis may be divided into two zones: the external zone borders on the cisterna praechiasmatica and contains numerous astrocytic processes; the internal zone contains many perikarya and bulges into the 3rd ventricle forming “bulbous protrusions”. The organ is characterized by a special vascular arrangement: At the boundary between the cisterna and the external zone a branch

  1. Epithelial-derived basal lamina regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, H C; Cummings, E; Bringas, P; Honig, L S

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms by which epithelial-mesenchymal interactions result in differentiation are not known. A number of recombinations between vertebrate tissues associated with epidermal organs (e.g. skin, feather, mammary gland, salivary gland, tooth organ) indicate that regional mesenchymal specificity is instructive for determination and differentiation of epithelial phenotypes. In epidermal organs within which mesenchyme becomes determined and differentiates into a unique phenotype, such as during tooth organogenesis and odontoblast differentiation. Does the epithelial-derived basal lamina regulate mesenchymal differentiation into odontoblasts and the expression of dentine extracellular matrix? Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that murine or avian epithelial-derived basal lamina possess information which is instructive for determined dental mesenchyme to differentiate into odontoblasts. The strategy was to examine homologous and heterologous tissue recombinants between Theiler stage 25 C57BL/6 molar tooth organs and Hamburger-Hamilton equivalent stage 22-26 Japanese Pharoah quail mandibular processes. Trypsin-dissociated molar epithelium and mesenchyme, reconstituted, secreted a basal lamina within 8 hours and mesenchyme differentiated into odontoblasts and formed dentine matrix within 3 days. Isolated trypsin-dissociated mesenchyme did not differentiate in vitro, whereas heterologous recombinants between odontogenic mesenchyma and quail epithelia resulted in odontoblasts and dentine production. Mouse tooth or quail mandibular epithelia served to regulate odontogenic mesenchyme differentiation. EDTA-dissociated mouse molar mesenchyme, in the absence of epithelium but with adherent basal lamina, routinely differentiated into odontoblasts. Control tooth organs routinely formed both dentine and enamel extracellular matrices within 7-10 days in our serumless, chemically-defined organ culture system. Regulation of determined mesenchymal cells to differentiate into functional and highly specialized odontoblasts appears to be mediated by epithelial-derived basal lamina and is not species or organ-specific. PMID:7122570

  2. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  3. Migration of lymphocytes through the cutaneous basal lamina in normal skin: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Warfel, K A; Hull, M T

    1984-03-01

    Incubation of skin in 2 N sodium bromide allows separation of dermal and epidermal layers leaving an intact basal lamina covering the dermal portion. Examination of the surface of the dermis by SEM shows cells migrating through the basal lamina. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy, these cells have the characteristics of lymphocytes. The migrating lymphocytes produce a sequence of basal lamina deformations including dome formation, effacement of corrugations, and central fenestrations with hole formation allowing lymphocyte passage. Following passage there is reestablishment of a relatively smooth basal lamina in the crater base, effacement of the crater rim, and finally reformation of basal lamina corrugations. This deformability of the basal lamina supports the hypothesis that basal lamina is thixotropic. This study is the first demonstration in three dimensions of lymphocyte traffic across the basal lamina, an important component of skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). PMID:6721230

  4. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2nd to 4th middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26078585

  5. The formation of flocculated clay laminae in the sediments of a meromictic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic A. Hodgson

    1999-01-01

    Sediments of Lake Fidler, a meromictic lake in south-west Tasmania, contain distinctive laminae. In order to determine their composition and formation, these laminae were studied using a combination of X- ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectrometry. Results indicated that the laminae were composed of clay originating from the adjacent Gordon River estuary. The clay was also

  6. Biomass investment in leaf lamina versus lamina support in relation to growth irradiance and leaf size in temperate deciduous trees.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Kull, Olevi

    1999-05-01

    Foliar biomass investment in support and assimilative compartments was studied in four temperate deciduous tree species along a natural light gradient across the canopy. The species ranked according to shade tolerance as Betula pendula Roth. < Populus tremula L. < Fraxinus excelsior L. < Tilia cordata Mill. Long-term light conditions at sampling locations were characterized as seasonal mean integrated quantum flux density (Q(int), mol m(-2) day(-1)) estimated by a method combining hemispherical photography and light measurements with quantum sensors. Leaf morphology was altered by Q(int) in all species. Both lamina and petiole dry mass per lamina area (LMA and PMA, respectively) increased with increasing Q(int). Shade-tolerant species had lower LMA at low Q(int) than shade-intolerant species; however, PMA was not related to shade tolerance. Across species, the ratio of petiole dry mass to lamina dry mass (PMR) varied from 0.07 to 0.21. It was independent of Q(int) in the simple-leaved species, but decreased with increasing Q(int) in the compound-leaved F. excelsior, which also had the largest foliar biomass investment in petioles. Differences in leaf mass and area, ranging over four orders of magnitude, provided an explanation for the interspecific variability in PMR. Species with large leaves also had greater biomass investments in foliar support than species with smaller leaves. This relationship was similar for both simple- and compound-leaved species. There was a negative relationship between PMR and petiole N concentration, suggesting that petioles had greater carbon assimilation rates and paid back a larger fraction of their construction cost in species with low PMR than in species with high PMR. This was probably the result of a negative relationship between PMR and petiole surface to volume ratio. Nevertheless, petioles had lower concentrations of mineral nutrients than laminas. Across species, the ratio of petiole N to lamina N varied from only 3 to 6%, demonstrating that petiole costs are less in terms of nutrients than in terms of total biomass, and that the petiole contribution to carbon assimilation is disproportionately lower than that of the lamina contribution. PMID:12651556

  7. Statistical characterization of the fatigue behavior of composite lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict statistically the effects of constant and variable amplitude fatigue loadings on the residual strength and fatigue life of composite lamina. The parameters in the model were established from the results of a series of static tensile tests and a fatigue scan and a number of verification tests were performed. Abstracts for two other papers on the effect of load sequence on the statistical fatigue of composites are also presented.

  8. Spectral responses and chromatic processing in the dragonfly lamina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Yang; D. Osorio

    1996-01-01

    The dragonfly Hemicordulia tau has five spectral classes of photoreceptor which drive five lamina monopolars, m1-m5. The monopolars encode spectral information. Here, spectral coding by m2, m4 and m5 are described. m2 is the most sensitive to dim light. m4 and m5 are less sensitive than m2, and so we call them photopic cells. The effects of selective adaptation of

  9. Material Damping Analysis of a Smart Hybrid Composite Lamina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijayan Baburaj; Yuji Matsuzaki

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses an analytical approach to evaluate the inherent material Specific Damping Capacity (SDC) of a smart hybrid fiber reinforced polymer composite lamina. Analytical equations for the material specific damping capacity have been derived by assuming a linear viscoelastic material property for the constituent fiber-matrix system. The damping properties corresponding to all the six in-plane and out-of-plane applied stresses

  10. Evidence that large myelinated primary afferent fibers make synaptic contacts in lamina II of neonatal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Coggeshall; Ernest A. Jennings; Maria Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Choleragenoid horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP) is a retrogradely transported marker that selectively labels large cutaneous myelinated primary afferent fibers. In adults, B-HRP labelled large afferent fibers are seen to enter laminae III–V, and to a lesser extent lamina I, whereas lamina II, which is the major termination site of unmyelinated primary afferents, remains unlabelled. In the neonate, however, there is extensive

  11. Cellular and Synaptic Organization in the Lamina of the DragonFly Sympetrum rubicundulum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Armett-Kibel; I. A. Meinertzhagen; J. E. Dowling

    1977-01-01

    The cellular and synaptic organization within the cartridges of the lamina of the dragon-fly have been analysed by light- and electron-microscopy. The ommatidium contains eight retinular (photoreceptor) cells all of which project to a single cartridge in the lamina. Six of the retinular cells terminate within the cartridges of the lamina (retinular terminals R 1-5 and R 8) and two

  12. Bone lamina thickness, bone apposition rates, and age estimates in sauropod humeri and femora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Martin Sander; Christian Tückmantel

    2003-01-01

    Laminar fibrolamellär bone from the mid-shaft region of sauropod humeri and femora was analyzed quantitatively to understand\\u000a Variation in lamina thickness and apposition rate. The samples were derived from five taxa (Apatosaurus, Barosaurus, an indeterminate gracile diplodocid,Brachiosaurus, Janenschia) and two localities (Tendaguru beds, Tanzania, and Howe-Stephens Quarry, Morrison Formation, Wyoming, USA). Lamina thickness\\u000a is rather constant at 4–6 laminae\\/mm (mean

  13. Evolution of centrosomes and the nuclear lamina: Amoebozoan assets.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Ralph; Batsios, Petros; Meyer, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The current eukaryotic tree of life groups most eukaryotes into one of five supergroups, the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Excavata and SAR (Stramenopile, Alveolata, Rhizaria). Molecular and comparative morphological analyses revealed that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) already contained a rather sophisticated equipment of organelles including a mitochondrion, an endomembrane system, a nucleus with a lamina, a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and a flagellar apparatus. Recent studies of MTOCs, basal bodies/centrioles, and nuclear envelope organization of organisms in different supergroups have clarified our picture of how the nucleus and MTOCs co-evolved from LECA to extant eukaryotes. In this review we summarize these findings with special emphasis on valuable contributions of research on a lamin-like protein, nuclear envelope proteins, and the MTOC in the amoebozoan model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:25952183

  14. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  15. A nomenclature for vertebral laminae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The vertebrae of sauropods are characterized by numerous bony struts that connect the costovertebral and intervertebral articulations, centrum, and neural spine of the presacral, sacral, and anterior caudal vertebrae. A nomenclature for sauropod vertebral laminae is proposed that: 1) utilizes the morphological landmarks connected by the laminae (rather than their spatial orientation); and 2) provides the same name for serial

  16. Molecular Image Analysis: Quantitative Description and Classification of the Nuclear Lamina in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Righolt, Christiaan H.; Raz, Vered; Vermolen, Bart J.; Dirks, Roeland W.; Tanke, Hans J.; Young, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an intermediate filament network that provides a structural framework for the cell nucleus. Changes in lamina structure are found during changes in cell fate such as cell division or cell death and are associated with human diseases. An unbiased method that quantifies changes in lamina shape can provide information on cells undergoing changes in cellular functions. We have developed an image processing methodology that finds and quantifies the 3D structure of the nuclear lamina. We show that measurements on such images can be used for cell classification and provide information concerning protein spatial localization in this structure. To demonstrate the efficacy of this method, we compared the lamina of unmanipulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at passage 4 to cells activated for apoptosis. A statistically significant classification was found between the two populations. PMID:21490732

  17. Extracting paleo-climate signals from sediment laminae: A new, automated image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, S. Q.; Scholz, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Lake sediment laminations commonly represent depositional seasonality in lacustrine environments. Their occurrence and quantitative attributes contain various signals of their depositional environment, limnological conditions and climate. However, the identification and measurement of laminae remains a mainly manual process that is not only tedious and labor intensive, but also subjective and error prone. We present a batch method to identify laminae and extract lamina properties automatically and accurately from sediment core images. Our algorithm is focused on image enhancement that improves the signal-to-noise ratio and maximizes and normalizes image contrast. The unique feature of these algorithms is that they are all direction-sensitive, i.e., the algorithms treat images in the horizontal direction and vertical direction differently and independently. The core process of lamina identification is to use a one-dimensional (1-D) lamina identification algorithm to produce a lamina map, and to use image blob analyses and lamina connectivity analyses to aggregate and smash two-dimensional (2-D) lamina data for the best representation of fine-scale stratigraphy in the sediment profile. The primary output datasets of the system are definitions of laminae and primary color values for each pixel and each lamina in the depth direction; other derived datasets can be retrieved at users’ discretion. Sediment core images from Lake Hitchcock , USA and Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, were used for algorithm development and testing. As a demonstration of the utility of the software, we processed sediment core images from the top of 50 meters of drill core (representing the past ~100 ky) from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana.

  18. Axon Diversity of Lamina I Local-Circuit Neurons in the Lumbar Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena YX; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III–IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal “processing units” in the dorsal horn. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2719–2741, 2013. PMID:23386329

  19. Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-08-15

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn. PMID:23386329

  20. The proteome of mouse brain microvessel membranes and basal lamina

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Hyun Bae; Scott, Michael; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Baird, Andrew; Yates, John; Torbett, Bruce E; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a multicellular vascular structure separating blood from the brain parenchyma that is composed of endothelial cells with tight intercellular junctions, surrounded by a basal lamina, astrocytes, and pericytes. Previous studies have generated detailed databases of the microvessel transcriptome; however, less information is available on the BBB at the protein level. In this study, we specifically focused on characterization of the membrane fraction of cells within the BBB to generate a more complete understanding of membrane transporters, tight junction proteins, and associated extracellular matrix proteins that are functional hallmarks of the BBB. We used Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology to identify a total of 1,143 proteins in mouse brain microvessels, of which 53% were determined to be membrane associated. Analyses of specific classes of BBB-associated proteins in the context of recent transcriptome reports provide a unique database to assess the relative contribution of genes at the level of both RNA and protein in the maintenance of normal BBB integrity. PMID:21792245

  1. Recent advances in OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Ian A; Wang, Bo; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Akagi, Tadamichi; Girard, Michael J A

    2014-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and modelling, a number of recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have dramatically improved the ability to visualise the LC, such that it is now possible to image the LC in vivo in humans and animals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in OCT imaging of the LC, in the technology, processing and analysis, and discuss the impact that these will have on the ability to diagnose and monitor glaucoma, as well as to expand our understanding of its pathophysiology. With this manuscript, we aspire to share our excitement on the achievements and potential of recent developments as well as advise caution regarding the challenges that remain before imaging of the LC and optic nerve can be used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:24934221

  2. Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abuelfoutouh, Nader Mohamed; Verrilli, M. J.; Halford, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms. The effect of the fiber orientation on loading direction is accounted for while predicting composite life. The application is currently limited to isothermal cases where the internal thermal stresses that might arise from thermal strain mismatch between fibers and matrix are negligible. The theory is formulated to predict the fatigue life of a composite lamina under either load or strain control. It is applied currently to predict the life of tungsten-copper composite lamina at 260 C under tension-tension load control. The calculated life of the lamina is in good agreement with available composite low cycle fatigue data.

  3. Differentiation of lamina I spinomedullary and spinothalamic neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David; Krout, Karl E; Craig, A D Bud

    2003-04-01

    We characterized spinomedullary neurons that project to the ventrolateral portion of the medulla that receives lamina I terminations in two sets of experiments in the cat. First, their distribution was examined using single unilateral iontophoretic injections of cholera toxin subunit B. The injection sites were characterized by microelectrode recordings from nociceptive- and thermoreceptive-specific units, indicative of lamina I input. The spinomedullary neurons were symmetrically distributed bilaterally, predominantly (63-69%) in lamina I but also in laminae V-VIII and the thoracic lateral horn (intermediolateral cell column). In horizontal sections, spinomedullary lamina I neurons included all three main morphological types described earlier. Second, spinomedullary and spinothalamic neurons were compared in retrograde double-labeling experiments. Different combinations of tracers were injected in the right thalamus and the left or right ventrolateral medulla (guided by recordings). The numbers of spinomedullary and spinothalamic neurons on the left side were comparable, and the segmental and laminar distributions were similar, except that a greater proportion of spinomedullary neurons originated from thoracic segments. However, the proportion of double-labeled neurons was consistently approximately 1%, indicating that spinomedullary and spinothalamic pathways arise from separate subpopulations. Spinomedullary neurons were more ventrally located within lamina I than spinothalamic neurons. A significantly greater proportion of spinomedullary neurons had fusiform somata (49% vs. 36%). These observations indicate that lamina I is the major source of spinal input to this portion of the ventrolateral medulla, that the projection includes several morphological types of inputs, and that this projection is distinct from the spinothalamic projection. These findings are consistent with the concept that lamina I projections constitute an ascending homeostatic afferent pathway relating the physiological condition of the body. PMID:12619080

  4. The number and arrangement of elements in the lamina cartridge of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum.

    PubMed

    Meinertzhagen, I A; Armett-Kibel, C J; Frizzell, K L

    1980-01-01

    Five monopolar cells and two long visual fibres are a consistent component of the lamina cartridge of the ventral half of the eye of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum. They communicate with the chiasm via a cartridge axon bundle comprising a minimum of ten fibres. The arrangement of these elements is documented with respect to the ommatidial photoreceptor axon bundle innervating them. These relationship are described both within the lamina cortex and in the cross-section of the underlying cartridge. PMID:7388897

  5. Reduced tension sealant systems -- EIFS joint design properties and lamina stresses initiating substrate failure

    SciTech Connect

    Baerveldt, K. [Emseal Corp., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) completed during 1994 a research program that investigated, amongst other aspects, joint design and sealant bond to EIF Systems. Eight different joint designs were tested as well as sealant bond strengths to the EIFS lamina (either finish or base coat). Polyurethane and silicone sealants as well as an impregnated expanding foam sealant composite were selected for testing based on the presumption of having either a low modulus characteristic, or of being representative of industry wide usage. Bond strength results indicated, that for the uniform samples tested, loads (stress) greater than 670 N (the cohesive strength of the EIFS lamina/EPS foam interface), will initiate substrate failure. Due to over-stressing of the EIFS lamina joint movement may occur without external visual signs. Capillaries or voids may be created either within the lamina or between basecoat and EPS foam that will effect short or long-term life expectancy. Of the joint design configurations tested, several could overly damage the EIFS lamina, even with limited movement. A series of joint designs has emerged based on either a binary sealant configuration or double joint with vented cavity (rain-screen principle) that show low lamina stress values. While these joints may not be fully pressure equalized rain-screen designs, the net effect is to prevent further moisture penetration into the EIF System.

  6. Basal Lamina Scaffold-Anatomy and Significance for Maintenance of Orderly Tissue Structure

    PubMed Central

    Vracko, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    The basal lamina is an extracellular scaffold positioned between parenchymal cells and connective tissue. Parenchymal cells attach to one of its surfaces and the other is anchored to connective tissue. By its presence it defines the spatial relationships among similar and dissimilar types of cells and between these cells and the space occupied by connective and supportive tissues. Replenishment of cells which have died during normal functioning or have become damaged in course of injury occurs with new cells in an orderly way along the framework of the basal lamina scaffold. This process appears to be aided by the polarity of the basal lamina and by an apparent specificity for cell types, and it enables multicellular organisms to reconstitute histologic structures of most tissues and organs to what they were prior to loss of cells. If the basal lamina is destroyed, the healing in most tissues results in formation of scar and loss of function. The properties of the basal lamina concerned with maintenance of histologic order in organs and tissues offer new ways to interpret the pathogenesis of several common disorders, including emphysema, scars, adhesions, cirrhosis of liver and excessive accumulation of basal lamina material as, for example, it occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8 PMID:4614671

  7. Ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Kagemann, Larry; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Brennen, Peter M; Townsend, Kelly A; Gabriele, Michelle L; Schuman, Joel S

    2008-01-01

    Study of the structure of the lamina cribrosa is critical in glaucoma research. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging protocol for the digital isolation and display of the lamina cribrosa. Three-dimensional datasets centered on the lamina cribrosa were obtained with 200 X 200 to 512 X 512 A-scan densities. The effect of scan density and c-mode slab thickness was subjectively compared. Increasing slab thickness reduced the sharpness of visible prelamina and lamina cribrosa structures. In retrolamina structures, thin slabs provided good visualization, but increased slab size increased the visibility of deeper structures. Scan times as short as 2.3 seconds (256 X 256 A-scans) degraded visualization of the shape of the optic nerve head. The optical scan protocol for lamina cribrosa imaging appears to be a 3 x 3 mm 200 X 200 A-scan volume with the lamina cribrosa positioned near direct current. PMID:18777881

  8. Investigating Invasives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Lightbody

    2008-11-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive nonnative species can provide the focus for projects that engage students in authentic science investigations. Here the author describes how she launched her students into a study of invasives while supporting their local environment using the 5E Learning Cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate).

  9. The Meiotic Nuclear Lamina Regulates Chromosome Dynamics and Promotes Efficient Homologous Recombination in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Johannes; Göb, Eva; Baar, Johannes; Ortega, Sagrario; Benavente, Ricardo; Alsheimer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope and is well known for its central role in nuclear organization and maintaining nuclear stability and shape. In the past, a number of severe human disorders have been identified to be associated with mutations in lamins. Extensive research on this topic has provided novel important clues about nuclear lamina function. These studies have contributed to the knowledge that the lamina constitutes a complex multifunctional platform combining both structural and regulatory functions. Here, we report that, in addition to the previously demonstrated significance for somatic cell differentiation and maintenance, the nuclear lamina is also an essential determinant for germ cell development. Both male and female mice lacking the short meiosis-specific A-type lamin C2 have a severely defective meiosis, which at least in the male results in infertility. Detailed analysis revealed that lamin C2 is required for telomere-driven dynamic repositioning of meiotic chromosomes. Loss of lamin C2 affects precise synapsis of the homologs and interferes with meiotic double-strand break repair. Taken together, our data explain how the nuclear lamina contributes to meiotic chromosome behaviour and accurate genome haploidization on a mechanistic level. PMID:23382700

  10. Iunconsistencies in Accumulation Rates of Black Sea Sediments Inferred from Records of Laminae and 210Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Anderson, R. F.

    1992-04-01

    Recently-published estimates for the age of the unit 1-unit 2 contact in Black Sea sediments based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements [Jones, 1990; Calvert et al., 1991] appear to be older than those based on the previously published chronology based on lamina couplets [Degens et al., 1980; Hay, 1988] by a factor of 2 to 3. To help reconcile the differences, we compare sediment accumulation rates based on the 210Pb method with estimates based on lamina counts for two cores from the Black Sea abyssal plain. Accumulation rates estimated using the 210Pb technique have varied little over the last 150 years from the averages of 55 and 50 g m-2 yr-1 at stations in the western and eastern basins, respectively. These values are about a factor of 2 lower than accumulation rates derived by counting lamina couplets over the dated intervals. Close examination of the laminae suggests that the discrepancy exists both because it is difficult to count the very fine laminae and because a complete couplet is not deposited every year. In order to provide a useful stratigraphic horizon for future investigators studying sedimentary records of the Black Sea, we estimate the age of a distinct black marker horizon which can be easily identified across the entire abyssal plain to be 150±8 years (deposited in 1838±8 A.D.).

  11. Identity of Myelinated Cutaneous Sensory Neurons Projecting to Nocireceptive Laminae Following Nerve Injury in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    WOODBURY, C. JEFFERY; KULLMANN, FLORENTA A.; McILWRATH, SABRINA L.; KOERBER, H. RICHARD

    2009-01-01

    It is widely thought that, after peripheral injury, some low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTMR) afferents “sprout” into pain-specific laminae (I–II) of the dorsal horn and are responsible for chronic pain states such as mechanical allodynia. Although recent studies have questioned this hypothesis, they fail to account for a series of compelling results from single-fiber analyses showing extensive projections from large-diameter myelinated afferents into nocireceptive layers after nerve injury. Here we show that, in the thoracic spinal cord of naïve adult mouse, all myelinated nociceptors gave rise to terminal projections throughout the superficial dorsal horn laminae (I–II). Most (70%) of these fibers had large-diameter axons with recurving flame-shaped central arbors that projected throughout the dorsal horn laminae I–V. This morphology was reminiscent of that attributed to sprouted LTMRs described in previous studies. After peripheral nerve axotomy, we found that LTMR afferents with narrow, uninflected somal action potentials did not sprout into superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. Only myelinated noiceptive afferents with broad, inflected somal action potentials were found to give rise to recurving collaterals and project into superficial “pain-specific” laminae after axotomy. We conclude that the previously undocumented central morphology of large, myelinated cutaneous nociceptors may very well account for the morphological findings previously thought to require sprouting of LTMRs. PMID:18335545

  12. Nuclear envelope lamin-A couples actin dynamics with immunological synapse architecture and T cell activation.

    PubMed

    González-Granado, José M; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando G; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-04-22

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins regulate multiple cellular functions, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction; however, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. We showed that the abundance of A-type lamins was almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but was increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). The increase in lamin-A was an early event that accelerated formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Polymerization of F-actin in T cells is a critical step for immunological synapse formation, and lamin-A interacted with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex to promote F-actin polymerization. We also showed that lamin-A expression accelerated TCR clustering and led to enhanced downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling, as well as increased target gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced lamin-A-dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice lacking lamin-A in immune cells exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response. PMID:24757177

  13. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II. PMID:21569622

  14. In vitro guidance of retinal axons by a tectal lamina-specific glycoprotein Nel

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yulan; Obama, Hiroya; Kuan, Soh Leh; Nakamura, Ritsuko; Nakamoto, Chizu; Ouyang, Zhufeng; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Nel is a glycoprotein containing five chordin-like and six epidermal growth factor-like domains and is strongly expressed in the nervous system. In this study, we have examined expression patterns and in vitro functions of Nel in the chicken retinotectal system. We have found that in the developing tectum, expression of Nel is localized in specific laminae that retinal axons normally do not enter, including the border between the retino-recipient and non-retinorecipient laminae. Nel-binding activity is detected on retinal axons both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that retinal axons express a receptor for Nel. In vitro, Nel inhibits retinal axon outgrowth and induces growth cone collapse and axon retraction. These results indicate that Nel acts as an inhibitory guidance cue for retinal axons, and suggest its roles in the establishment of the lamina-specificity in the retinotectal projection. PMID:19249368

  15. Endothelial cell connecting filaments anchor endothelial cells to the subjacent elastic lamina in the developing aortic intima of the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine C. Davis

    1993-01-01

    The ultrastructural association of endothelial cells with the subjacent elastic lamina was investigated in the developing mouse aorta by electron microscopy. In the 5-day postnatal aorta, extensive filament bundles extend along the subendothelial matrix connecting the endothelial cells to the underlying elastic lamina. The connecting filaments form lateral associations with the abluminal surface of the endothelial cells in regions of

  16. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E Eldridge; Mary Bartlett Bunge; Richard P. Bunge; Patrick M. Wood

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum-free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE

  17. Zur Morphologie und Histochemie von Subfornicalorgan, Organum Vasculosum Laminae Terminalis und Area Postrema bei Kaninchen und Ratte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Weindl

    1965-01-01

    Subfornical organ, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, and area postrema are examined both histologically and histochemically in adult rabbits and rats of both sexes. The results are as follows:1)The three organs in question are present in both species. Although the subfornical organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis show in rabbits specific differentiations, the three organs — if compared

  18. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons selectively sensitive to histamine: a central neural pathway for itch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Craig; D. Andrew

    2001-01-01

    We found a class of lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons selectively excited by iontophoretic histamine. The responses of this class of neurons parallel the pure itching sensation this stimulus elicits in humans, and match the responses of peripheral C-fibers that have similar selectivity. These neurons have distinct central conduction velocities and thalamic projections, indicating that they constitute a unique

  19. Sprouting of A? fibers into lamina II of the rat dorsal horn in peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena A. Lekan; Susan M. Carlton; Richard E. Coggeshall

    1996-01-01

    Cholera toxin ?-subunit conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used to label the large myelinated (A?) fiber input to the dorsal horn in a model of peripheral neuropathy induced by tight ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves. Following induction of neuropathy, A? fibers were present in lamina II of the ipsilateral dorsal horn, a region normally devoid of A?

  20. The number and arrangement of elements in the lamina cartridge of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Meinertzhagen; C. J. Armett-Kibel; K. L. Frizzell

    1980-01-01

    Five monopolar cells and two long visual fibres are a consistent component of the lamina cartridge of the ventral half of the eye of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum. They communicate with the chiasm via a cartridge axon bundle comprising a minimum of ten fibres. The arrangement of these elements is documented with respect to the ommatidial photoreceptor axon bundle innervating

  1. Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

  2. Role of Fixative and Osmotic Pressure in Vesiculation of Thin Cytoplasmic Laminae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. DOGGENWEILER; JOHN E. HEUSER

    The sheaths from freshly teased nerve fibers of the prawn exhibit a positive radial bire- fringence, consistent with their EM appearance as highly organized laminated structures composed of numerous thin cytoplasmic sheets or laminae bordered by unit membranes and arranged concentrically around the axon. The closely apposed membranes in these sheaths are fragile and often break down into rows of

  3. Arthroscopic Lamina-Specific Double-Row Fixation for Large Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Funakoshi, Noboru; Yamashita, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    Delamination is a commonly observed finding at the time of rotator cuff repair, but few studies have described the surgical techniques used for delaminated rotator cuff tears (RCTs) or their clinical outcomes. We developed a technique using a combination of a double row and an additional row, which we call lamina-specific double-row fixation, for large delaminated RCTs. The lamina-specific double-row technique is performed using an additional row (lamina-specific lateral row) of suture anchors placed between the typical medial and lateral rows of suture anchors. The technique is performed as follows: (1) medial-row sutures are passed through the inferior (articular-side) and superior (bursal-side) layers in a mattress fashion; (2) lamina-specific lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the inferior layer; and (3) lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the superior layer. We believe that this technique offers the following advantages: (1) creation of a larger area of contact between the inferior layer and the footprint, (2) higher initial fixation strength of the articular-side components of the repaired rotator cuff tendon, and (3) an adaptation between the superficial and inferior layers. This technique represents an alternative option in the operative treatment of large delaminated RCTs. PMID:25685671

  4. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  5. Spinal lamina I neurons that express neurokinin 1 receptors: morphological analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Cheunsuang; R Morris

    2000-01-01

    The morphology of neurons in lamina I of the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord which express neurokinin 1 receptors in the rat has been investigated. On the basis of soma and dendritic measurements, these neurons form two populations. One group consists of large neurons that stain intensely for the neurokinin 1 receptor with the immunochemical methods employed. They

  6. Distinct structural and mechanical properties of the nuclear lamina in HutchinsonGilford

    E-print Network

    McGaughey, Alan

    and support many basic activities, including gene regulation. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding A type fragility seen in lmna null cells, the lamina network in HGPS cells has unique mechanical properties or stroke (1, 2). Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding lamins A and C, were recently identified as the cause

  7. Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Lacy J.; Wilmington, Shameika R.; Martin, Melinda J.; Skopec, Hannah M.; Lovander, Kaylee E.; Pinto, Belinda S.; Geyer, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. LEM domain (LAP2, emerin, MAN1 domain, LEM-D) proteins are components of the nuclear lamina, identified by a shared ?45-amino-acid motif that binds Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a chromatin-interacting protein. Drosophila melanogaster has three nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, named Otefin (Ote), Bocksbeutel (Bocks), and dMAN1. Although these LEM-D proteins are globally expressed, loss of either Ote or dMAN1 causes tissue-specific defects in adult flies that differ from each other. The reason for such distinct tissue-restricted defects is unknown. Here, we generated null alleles of bocks, finding that loss of Bocks causes no overt adult phenotypes. Next, we defined phenotypes associated with lem-d double mutants. Although the absence of individual LEM-D proteins does not affect viability, loss of any two proteins causes lethality. Mutant phenotypes displayed by lem-d double mutants differ from baf mutants, suggesting that BAF function is retained in animals with a single nuclear lamina LEM-D protein. Interestingly, lem-d double mutants displayed distinct developmental and cellular mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Drosophila LEM-D proteins have developmental functions that are differentially shared with other LEM-D family members. This conclusion is supported by studies showing that ectopically produced LEM-D proteins have distinct capacities to rescue the tissue-specific phenotypes found in single lem-d mutants. Our findings predict that cell-specific mutant phenotypes caused by loss of LEM-D proteins reflect both the constellation of LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of functional compensation of the remaining LEM-D proteins. PMID:24700158

  8. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase Anchors de Novo Thymidylate Synthesis Pathway to Nuclear Lamina for DNA Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald D.; Woeller, Collynn F.; Chiang, En-Pei; Shane, Barry; Stover, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    The de novo thymidylate biosynthetic pathway in mammalian cells translocates to the nucleus for DNA replication and repair and consists of the enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 and 2? (SHMT1 and SHMT2?), thymidylate synthase, and dihydrofolate reductase. In this study, we demonstrate that this pathway forms a multienzyme complex that is associated with the nuclear lamina. SHMT1 or SHMT2? is required for co-localization of dihydrofolate reductase, SHMT, and thymidylate synthase to the nuclear lamina, indicating that SHMT serves as scaffold protein that is essential for complex formation. The metabolic complex is enriched at sites of DNA replication initiation and associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and other components of the DNA replication machinery. These data provide a mechanism for previous studies demonstrating that SHMT expression is rate-limiting for de novo thymidylate synthesis and indicate that de novo thymidylate biosynthesis occurs at replication forks. PMID:22235121

  9. Transient piezothermoelastic problem for a laminated composite strip composed of angle-ply and piezoelectric laminae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ootao; Y. Tanigawa; N. Hoshino

    2003-01-01

    Summary. This paper is concerned with the theoretical treatment of transient piezothermoelastic problem which is developed for a laminated composite strip composed of angle-ply laminae and a piezoelectric material of crystal class mm2, subject to nonuniform heat supply in the width direction. We obtain the exact solution for the two-dimensional temperature change in a transient state and the transient piezothermoelastic

  10. Characterization of pre-impregnated graphite-epoxy lamina with gas-coupled ultrasonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Fortunko; D. E. Chimenti

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of employing gas-coupled ultrasonics in the nondestructive evaluation of pre-impregnated graphite-epoxy sheets (“pre-preg”). Furthermore, we show that the gas-coupled approach may be useful for online inspection of such lamina. To determine the quality of the prepreg, a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasonic beam is transmitted through a 0.15-mm thick sample of the material and

  11. Spinothalamic lamina I neurones selectively responsive to cutaneous warming in cats.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2001-12-01

    1. In order to further characterize the role of lamina I as the source of central ascending neural pathways for thermoreception and thermoregulation, experiments were performed on anaesthetized cats to determine the quantitative response characteristics of warming-specific lumbosacral spinothalamic lamina I neurones. 2. We identified 10 neurones out of 474 that were selectively excited by cutaneous warming (Warm cells). Their thresholds were all in the range 35-37 degrees C at a baseline of 34.5 degrees C, and their discharge linearly encoded the temperature of graded, innocuous warming stimuli with a sensitivity of 2.1 Hz x degrees C(-1). 3. The stimulus-response function of the Warm cells plateaued at temperatures that were in the noxious heat range. 4. The Warm cells were distinguished from other classes of spinothalamic lamina I neurones by their peripheral inputs, central conduction velocities and level of ongoing activity. 5. The discharge of Warm cells compares well with the known human psychophysics of warm sensibility, and these neurones are likely to be crucial to discriminative thermoreception. Additionally, a role in thermoregulation, a defining feature of mammalian homeostasis, is suggested. PMID:11731580

  12. Fission yeast Lem2 and Man1 perform fundamental functions of the animal cell nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Yanira; Saito, Akira; Sazer, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins. PMID:22540024

  13. Peripheral axotomy induces only very limited sprouting of coarse myelinated afferents into inner lamina II of rat spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Bao; Hui Fredrik Wang; Hai-Jiang Cai; Yong-Guang Tong; Shan-Xue Jin; Ying-Jin Lu; Gunnar Grant; Tomas Hokfelt; Xu Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral axotomy-induced sprouting of thick myelinated afferents (A-fibers) from laminae III-IV into laminae I-II of the spinal cord is a well-established hypothesis for the structural basis of neuropathic pain. However, we show here that the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), a neuronal tracer used to demonstrate the sprouting of A-fibers in several earlier studies, also labels unmyelinated afferents (C-fibers) in

  14. Responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurons to maintained noxious mechanical stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2002-04-01

    Noxious mechanical stimuli that are maintained for minutes produce a continuous sensation of pain in humans that augments during the stimulus. It has recently been shown with systematic force-controlled stimuli that, while all mechanically responsive nociceptors adapt to these stimuli, the basis for such pain can be ascribed to A-fiber rather than C-fiber nociceptors, based on distinctions in their respective response profiles and stimulus-response functions. The present experiments investigated whether similar distinctions could be made in subsets of nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons using similar maintained stimuli. Twenty-eight lamina I STT neurons in the lumbosacral dorsal horn of barbiturate-anesthetized cats were tested with noxious mechanical stimuli applied with a probe of 0.1 mm(2) contact area at forces of 25, 50, and 100 g for 2 min. The neurons were classified as nociceptive-specific (NS, n = 14) or polymodal nociceptive (HPC, n = 14) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli. The NS neurons had greater responses and showed less adaptation than the HPC neurons in response to these stimuli, and they encoded stimulus intensity better. Comparison of the normalized response profiles of all 28 nociceptive lamina I STT neurons, independent of cell classification, revealed 2 subgroups that differed significantly: "Maintained" cells with responses that remained above 50% of the initial peak rate during stimulation and "Adapting" cells with responses that quickly declined to <50%. The Maintained neurons encoded the intensity of the mechanical stimuli better than the Adapting neurons, based on ratiometric functions. A k-means cluster analysis of all 28 cells distinguished the identical two subgroups. These categories corresponded closely to the NS and HPC categories: Maintained cells were mostly NS neurons (10 NS, 3 HPC), and Adapting cells were mostly HPC neurons (4 NS, 11 HPC). Thus the present data are consistent with the distinctions between A-fiber and C-fiber nociceptors observed previously, because A-fiber nociceptors are the predominant input to NS lamina I STT neurons and C-fiber nociceptors are the predominant input to HPC neurons. These findings support the view that NS, but perhaps not HPC, lamina I STT neurons have a role in the pain caused by maintained mechanical stimuli and contribute to the sensations of "first" pain and "sharpness." Nonetheless, none of the units studied showed increasing responses during the stimuli, suggesting a role for other ascending neurons or forebrain integration in the augmenting pain produced by maintained mechanical stimulation. PMID:11929909

  15. Influences of Biogenic Gas Production on Lamina-Scale Microbial Microfabrics in Modern and Ancient Stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, C. L.; Eilers, K. G.; Mata, S. A.; Stork, N. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.; International Geobiology Course 2010

    2010-12-01

    Stromatolites provide a record of Earth’s earliest ecosystems, yet attributing stromatolite characteristics to uniquely biogenic processes is often difficult. Siliceous stromatolites growing at the rim of Obsidian Prime Pool, Yellowstone National Park, USA, resemble finely laminated stromatolites common in Precambrian rocks. Because they consist of well-preserved silicified filaments, they provide a unique opportunity to examine biogenic structures that are analogous ancient stromatolites where biogenicity can be ambiguous. Alternating light-dark laminae couplets in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites reflect variability in density and orientation of silicified filaments. The thinner, dark laminae (10-80 ?m) are comprised of dense networks of silicified filaments, generally oriented parallel to the lamination. The thicker light laminae (40-220 ?m) consist of an open, more porous network of filaments with variable orientation, and include dense hourglass-shaped bundles of filaments surrounding mm-scale, spherical to vertically-elongate pores. These pores are interpreted to have formed from gas bubbles on the lamina surface that were “colonized” by filamentous cyanobacteria that rapidly silicified, preserving the bubble morphology. Quantitative analysis of filament orientation reveals that filament meshes in light laminae are preferentially oriented normal to the lamination surface rather than vertically. However, dense bundles of filaments surrounding bubble pores are often vertically oriented, likely reflecting the influence of vertically migrating gas bubbles. Experiments with living microbial mats confirmed that filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of “colonizing” gas bubbles, and that variability in gas bubble production produces different microstructures, including some that are similar to those in the Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites. Thicker filament bundles, which commonly occur around gas bubbles, may be more robust than filament meshes, and therefore have greater preservation potential. Thus, vertically oriented structures may be preferentially preserved in the geologic record. Indeed, comparisons of fabrics in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites with stromatolite fabrics in the Neoproterozoic Beck Spring Dolomite reveal similar vertical structures surrounding round pores, which likely indicate the presence of photosynthetic microbes and very rapid lithification. In summary, results indicate that biogenic gas production can distinctly influence lamination characteristics in stromatolites and that fabrics with rounded pores may be good indicators of microbial metabolic activity and motility. Furthermore, vertical fabrics in ancient stromatolites may reflect gas bubble production rather than phototaxis.

  16. Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi

    E-print Network

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    Chapter 10 Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi Glossary Biological invasion The process by which species on its environment. Invasibility The vulnerability of a habitat, community, or ecosystem of biological invasions. Invasional meltdown The phenomenon in which multiple nonnative species facilitate one

  17. Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center The Challenge Aquatic invasive species (AIS ecosystems and our state's natural heritage. The Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center. FundsareneededtorenovatetheFisheriesandEngineeringholdingfacilitytosafely house, raise and study aquatic invasive species

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of the major polypeptides of the nuclear pore complex-lamina fraction. Interphase and mitotic distribution

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    This laboratory has previously isolated a fraction from rat liver nuclei consisting of nuclear pore complexes associated with the proteinaceous lamina which underlies the inner nuclear membrane. Using protein eluted from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels, we have prepared antibodies in chickens to each of the three predominant pore complex- lamina bands. Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis shows that each of these individual bands cross-reacts strongly with all three antisera. In immunofluorescence localization performed on tissue culture cells with these antibodies, we obtain a pattern of intense staining at the periphery of the interphase nucleus, with little or no cytoplasmic reaction. Electron microscope immunoperoxidase staining of rat liver nuclei with these antibodies labels exclusively the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, reaction occurs in areas which contain the lamina, but not at the pore complexes. While our isolation procedure extracts the internal contents of nuclei completely, semiquantitative Ouchterlony analysis shows that it releases negligible amounts of these lamina antigens. Considered together, our results indicate that these three bands represent major components of a peripheral nuclear lamina, and are not structural elements of an internal "nuclear protein matrix." Fluorescence microscopy shows that the perinuclear interphase localization of these lamina proteins undergoes dramatic changes during mitosis. Concomitant with nuclear envelope disassembly in prophase, these antigens assume a diffuse localization throughout the cell. This distribution persists until telophase, when the antigens become progressively and completely localized at the surface of the daughter chromosome masses. We propose that the lamina is a biological polymer which can undergo reversible disassembly during mitosis. PMID:102651

  19. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons selectively sensitive to histamine: a central neural pathway for itch.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2001-01-01

    We found a class of lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons selectively excited by iontophoretic histamine. The responses of this class of neurons parallel the pure itching sensation this stimulus elicits in humans, and match the responses of peripheral C-fibers that have similar selectivity. These neurons have distinct central conduction velocities and thalamic projections, indicating that they constitute a unique subset of STT neurons. These findings can explain why a lesion of the lateral STT disrupts itch along with pain and temperature sensations. Our findings provide strong evidence that itch is subserved by specific neural elements both peripherally and centrally. PMID:11135647

  20. Responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurons to repeated brief contact heat stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D; Andrew, D

    2002-04-01

    It was recently shown that repeated heat stimulation, using brief contacts (<1 s) with a preheated thermode at sufficiently short interstimulus intervals (ISIs <5 s) and high temperatures (> or =51 degrees C), will elicit in humans a sensation of rapidly augmenting "second" (burning) pain with only a weak "first" (sharp) pain sensation. Most strikingly, at short intertrial intervals (ITIs >5 s) such summation will reset, or begin again at baseline. In the present experiments, the responses of nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic (STT) neurons in the lumbosacral dorsal horn of barbiturate-anesthetized cats were examined using this repeated brief contact heat paradigm. The neurons were classified as nociceptive-specific (NS, n = 8) or polymodal nociceptive (HPC, n = 8) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli; all had receptive fields on the glabrous ventral hindpaw. A pneumatic piston was used to apply a thermode preheated to 34, 46, 49, 53, or 58 degrees C with a contact dwell time of approximately 0.7 s to the ventral hindpaw repeatedly (15 times) at ISIs of 2, 3, and 5 s, with 3-5 min between trials. The mean responses of the 16 nociceptive lamina I STT cells showed rapid temporal summation that was directly dependent on temperature and inversely dependent on ISI, with the greatest increases occurring between the 3rd and 10th contacts. The temporal profiles of this family of curves correspond with the psychophysical data on human sensation. Further analysis showed that this summation was due to the HPC cells, which all showed strong summation; in contrast, the NS cells showed little, if any. The HPC responses to the repeated heat stimuli lagged each contact by approximately 1 s, consistent with the strong, monosynaptic C-fiber input that is characteristic of HPC cells and also with the dependence of second pain on C-fiber nociceptors. HPC cells also displayed the reset phenomenon at short ITIs, again in correspondence with the psychophysical data. The summation and the reset displayed by HPC cells were not related to skin temperature. Thus the results presented in this study, together with those in the preceding article, demonstrate a double dissociation indicating that NS and HPC lamina I STT cells can subserve the qualitatively distinct sensations of first (sharp) and second (burning) pain, respectively. These findings support the concept that the lamina I STT projection comprises several discrete sensory channels that are integrated in the forebrain to generate distinct sensations. PMID:11929910

  1. Invasive Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive plant species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  2. Invasive Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents this group of documents on invasive species. The materials include a webquest, an informational flyer, service standards, National Science Education Standards, and a guide for creating public service announcements. The materials are supplied in PDF format and would be useful for biology or ecology teachers. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  3. Constitutive nuclear lamina–genome interactions are highly conserved and associated with A/T-rich sequence

    PubMed Central

    Meuleman, Wouter; Peric-Hupkes, Daan; Kind, Jop; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Pagie, Ludo; Kellis, Manolis; Reinders, Marcel; Wessels, Lodewyk; van Steensel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans, the nuclear lamina is thought to play an important role in the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes, by providing anchoring sites for large genomic segments named lamina-associated domains (LADs). Some of these LADs are cell-type specific, while many others appear constitutively associated with the lamina. Constitutive LADs (cLADs) may contribute to a basal chromosome architecture. By comparison of mouse and human lamina interaction maps, we find that the sizes and genomic positions of cLADs are strongly conserved. Moreover, cLADs are depleted of synteny breakpoints, pointing to evolutionary selective pressure to keep cLADs intact. Paradoxically, the overall sequence conservation is low for cLADs. Instead, cLADs are universally characterized by long stretches of DNA of high A/T content. Cell-type specific LADs also tend to adhere to this “A/T rule” in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated cells. This suggests that the A/T rule represents a default positioning mechanism that is locally overruled during lineage commitment. Analysis of paralogs suggests that during evolution changes in A/T content have driven the relocation of genes to and from the nuclear lamina, in tight association with changes in expression level. Taken together, these results reveal that the spatial organization of mammalian genomes is highly conserved and tightly linked to local nucleotide composition. PMID:23124521

  4. Maintenance of glia in the optic lamina is mediated by EGFR signaling by photoreceptors in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Sun, Y Henry

    2015-04-01

    The late onset of neurodegeneration in humans indicates that the survival and function of cells in the nervous system must be maintained throughout adulthood. In the optic lamina of the adult Drosophila, the photoreceptor axons are surrounded by multiple types of glia. We demonstrated that the adult photoreceptors actively contribute to glia maintenance in their target field within the optic lamina. This effect is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands produced by the R1-6 photoreceptors and transported to the optic lamina to act on EGFR in the lamina glia. EGFR signaling is necessary and sufficient to act in a cell-autonomous manner in the lamina glia. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the trafficking of the autophagosome/endosome to the lysosome. The loss of EGFR signaling results in cell degeneration most likely because of the accumulation of autophagosomes. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for the role of adult neurons in the maintenance of glia and a novel role for EGFR signaling in the autophagic flux. PMID:25909451

  5. [Basal lamina with a garland-like pattern in a case of sclero-atrophic lichen. Ultrastructural study].

    PubMed

    Dupré, A; Viraben, R

    1988-01-01

    The basal lamina stands at the heart of dermal-epidermal interactions. Its formation and pathology are more or less directly related to the basal keratinocytes, so that any lesion of these cells, such as vacuolar alterations of the interface, results in pathological changes in the basal lamina. Images of rupture, discontinuities, multiplications, festooning and budding of the basal lamina have been reported in psoriasis, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus and lichen sclerosus and atrophicus. We present a case of lichen sclerosus and atrophicus of the glans penis. Histopathological examination was performed, using the routine technique, the semi-thin large area sections technique and electron microscopy. Histological changes in the basal lamina were particularly pronounced, with garlands penetrating deeply into the dermis. Electron microscopy showed that the basal lamina contained immature collagen fibres, but no anchoring fibres. This garland-like pattern undoubtedly represents an extreme degree of the festooning and budding classically described in the diseases listed above. A pathogenic theory is offered to explain the formation of that pattern. PMID:2453133

  6. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jennifer C.; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to the nuclear periphery. We identify YY1 (Ying-Yang1) binding sites as enriched in relocating sequences. Knockdown of YY1 or lamin A/C, but not lamin A, led to a loss of lamina association. In addition, targeted recruitment of YY1 proteins facilitated ectopic LAD formation dependent on histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and histone H3 lysine di- and trimethylation. Our results also reveal that endogenous loci appear to be dependent on lamin A/C, YY1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2/3 for maintenance of lamina-proximal positioning. PMID:25559185

  7. Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and nucleoplasmic lamins in adult stem cell regulation and disease?

    PubMed Central

    Gesson, Kevin; Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

    2014-01-01

    A-type lamins are components of the lamina network at the nuclear envelope, which mediates nuclear stiffness and anchors chromatin to the nuclear periphery. However, A-type lamins are also found in the nuclear interior. Here we review the roles of the chromatin-associated, nucleoplasmic LEM protein, lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) in the regulation of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior. The lamin A/C–LAP2? complex may be involved in the regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-mediated pathway and other signaling pathways balancing proliferation and differentiation, and in the stabilization of higher-order chromatin organization throughout the nucleus. Loss of LAP2? in mice leads to selective depletion of the nucleoplasmic A-type lamin pool, promotes the proliferative stem cell phenotype of tissue progenitor cells, and delays stem cell differentiation. These findings support the hypothesis that LAP2? and nucleoplasmic lamins are regulators of adult stem cell function and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we discuss potential implications of this concept for defining the molecular disease mechanisms of lamin-linked diseases such as muscular dystrophy and premature aging syndromes. PMID:24374133

  8. Chronic laminitis is associated with potential bacterial pathogens in the laminae.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Michael J; Fugaro, Michael N

    2012-08-17

    A common sequella of chronic laminitis in horses is repeated abscesses with variable lameness and drainage. It is unclear whether the exudate represents the debridement phase of a non-septic inflammatory process involving clearance of laminar tissue damaged during the acute episode of laminitis, or a response to a microbial infection developed by ascent of microbes from the environment to the tissue via the white line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility that an undiagnosed microbial infection in laminar tissue is present in laminar tissue collected from chronically laminitic horses without an active hoof abscess. Methods to collect laminar tissue, aseptically, from control (non-laminitic) horses and those with chronic/recurrent laminitis are described. Laminae homogenates were evaluated for the presence of bacteria. Bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and sequencing of 16S rRNA and virulence genes. Laminae from chronically laminitic horses revealed 100-fold higher levels (P=0.002) of bacteria compared to control, non-laminitic horses. Although environmental organisms were identified, potential pathogens were identified. Included were Gram positive bacteria, Brevibacterium luteolum, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. as well as Gram negative bacteria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Alcaligenes faecalis. Further research is warranted to evaluate the role of bacteria in equine chronic laminitis. PMID:22410310

  9. Boomerang deformity of cervical spinal cord migrating between split laminae after laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Gomibuchi, F; Shimoda, H; Ikezawa, Y; Segawa, H; Kaneko, F; Uchiyama, S; Homma, T

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy were studied to elucidate the mechanism underlying boomerang deformity, which results from the migration of the cervical spinal cord between split laminae after laminoplasty with median splitting of the spinous processes (boomerang sign). Thirty-nine cases, comprising 25 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 8 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and 6 patients with cervical disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis, were examined. The clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively compared between patients with (B group, 8 cases) and without (C group, 31 cases) boomerang sign. Moderate increase of the grade of this deformity resulted in no clinical recovery, although there was no difference in clinical recovery between the two groups. Most boomerang signs developed at the C4/5 and/or C5/6 level, where maximal posterior movement of the spinal cord was achieved. Widths between lateral hinges and between split laminae in the B group were smaller than in the C group. Flatness of the spinal cord in the B group was more severe than in the C group. In conclusion, the boomerang sign was caused by posterior movement of the spinal cord, narrower enlargement of the spinal canal and flatness of the spinal cord. PMID:10823431

  10. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  11. Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and nucleoplasmic lamins in adult stem cell regulation and disease.

    PubMed

    Gesson, Kevin; Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

    2014-05-01

    A-type lamins are components of the lamina network at the nuclear envelope, which mediates nuclear stiffness and anchors chromatin to the nuclear periphery. However, A-type lamins are also found in the nuclear interior. Here we review the roles of the chromatin-associated, nucleoplasmic LEM protein, lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) in the regulation of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior. The lamin A/C-LAP2? complex may be involved in the regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-mediated pathway and other signaling pathways balancing proliferation and differentiation, and in the stabilization of higher-order chromatin organization throughout the nucleus. Loss of LAP2? in mice leads to selective depletion of the nucleoplasmic A-type lamin pool, promotes the proliferative stem cell phenotype of tissue progenitor cells, and delays stem cell differentiation. These findings support the hypothesis that LAP2? and nucleoplasmic lamins are regulators of adult stem cell function and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we discuss potential implications of this concept for defining the molecular disease mechanisms of lamin-linked diseases such as muscular dystrophy and premature aging syndromes. PMID:24374133

  12. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  13. Quantitative response characteristics of thermoreceptive and nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D; Krout, K; Andrew, D

    2001-09-01

    The physiological characteristics of antidromically identified lamina I spinothalamic (STT) neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord were examined using quantitative thermal and mechanical stimuli in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. Cells belonging to the three main recognized classes were included based on categorization with natural cutaneous stimulation of the hindpaw: nociceptive-specific (NS), polymodal nociceptive (HPC), or thermoreceptive-specific (COOL) cells. The mean central conduction latencies of these classes differed significantly; NS = 130.8 +/- 55.5 (SD) ms (n = 100), HPC = 72.1 +/- 28.0 ms (n = 128), and COOL = 58.6 +/- 25.3 ms (n = 136), which correspond to conduction velocities of 2.5, 4.6, and 5.6 m/s. Based on recordings made prior to any noxious stimulation, the mean spontaneous discharge rates of these classes also differed: NS = 0.5 +/- 0.7 imp/s (n = 47), HPC = 0.9 +/- 0.7 imp/s (n = 59), and COOL = 3.3 +/- 2.6 imp/s (n = 107). Standard, quantitative, thermal stimulus sequences applied with a Peltier thermode were used to characterize the stimulus-response functions of 76 COOL cells, 47 HPC cells, and 37 NS cells. The COOL cells showed a very linear output from 34 degrees C down to approximately 15 degrees C and a maintained plateau thereafter. The HPC cells showed a fairly linear but accelerating response to cold below a median threshold of approximately 24 degrees C and down to 9 degrees C (measured at the skin-thermode interface with a thermode temperature of 2 degrees C). The HPC cells and the NS cells both showed rapidly increasing, sigmoidal response functions to noxious heat with a fairly linear response between 45 and 53 degrees C, but they had significantly different thresholds; half of the HPC cells were activated at ~45.5 degrees C and half of the NS cells at approximately 43 degrees C. The 20 HPC lamina I STT cells and 10 NS cells tested with quantitative pinch stimuli showed fairly linear responses above a threshold of approximately 130 g/mm(2) for HPC cells and a threshold of approximately 100 g/mm(2) for NS cells. All of these response functions compare well (across species) with the available data on the characteristics of thermoreceptive and nociceptive primary afferent fibers and the appropriate psychophysics in humans. Together these results support the concept that these classes of lamina I STT cells provide discrete sensory channels for the sensations of temperature and pain. PMID:11535691

  14. Spinothalamic lumbosacral lamina I cells responsive to skin and muscle stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A D; Kniffki, K D

    1985-01-01

    The response characteristics of lamina I neurones recorded extracellularly in the lumbosacral enlargement of chloralose-anaesthetized cats were examined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation, adequate mechanical and thermal stimulation of hind-limb skin, and algesic mechanical and chemical stimulation of musculotendinous structures, particularly the gastrocnemius-soleus (g.s.) muscle. Antidromic activation from an electrode array that spanned the contralateral thalamus was used to identify lamina I spinothalamic tract (lam.I-s.t.t.) neurones. Recordings were made from a total of 218 lumbosacral lam.I-s.t.t. neurones. Their mean central conduction latency was 90.1 ms (range 20-300 ms), corresponding to a mean conduction velocity of 3.7 m/s (range 1.1-16.7). Neurones responsive only to peripheral A delta fibre stimulation had significantly shorter central conduction latencies (mean = 62.8 ms) than those with both A delta and C fibre input (mean = 81.9 ms) and those with only C fibre input (mean = 134.6 ms). Of these 218 neurones, 103 (47%) projected only to medial thalamus, 41 (19%) only to lateral thalamus, and 56 (26%) to both; 18 (8%) were classified as mid-thalamic projecting cells. About 10% of all cells had ongoing activity when first isolated. Ninety-three lam.I-s.t.t. neurones responded to stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The response characteristics of forty-seven of these were examined with the complete set of stimuli used. Twenty-four non-s.t.t. lamina I neurones were also characterized for comparison. Twenty-eight of the lam.I-s.t.t. neurones tested with the complete set of stimuli responded specifically to either cutaneous noxious (n = 19), cutaneous innocuous cold (n = 6) or algesic musculo-tendinous (n = 3) stimulation. Thirteen neurones responded to cutaneous noxious stimulation, and, in addition, to cold stimulation (n = 6), to deep stimulation (n = 4), or to both (n = 3). Six cells did not respond to any of the natural stimuli employed. All of the cold-specific and many of the multireceptive cold-sensitive neurones had ongoing discharge. The average central conduction latencies of cold-sensitive neurones (65.5 ms) and unresponsive neurones (48.7 ms) were shorter than that of nociceptive neurones (91.2 ms). Two response categories had distinct thalamic projection patterns. The majority of cold-specific neurones projected only to medial thalamus. Almost all multireceptive cold-sensitive neurones projected to both medial and lateral thalamus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4032311

  15. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, ?, without the need for caustic staining.

  16. Selective innervation of lamina I projection neurones that possess the neurokinin 1 receptor by serotonin-containing axons in the rat spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Polgár; Z Puskár; C Watt; C Matesz; A. J Todd

    2002-01-01

    Axons containing serotonin descend from brainstem to spinal cord and are thought to contribute to stimulation-produced and opioid analgesia, partly by a direct inhibitory action of serotonin on projection neurones. The density of serotoninergic innervation is highest in lamina I, which contains many nociceptive projection neurones. Two sets of anatomical criteria have been used to classify lamina I projection neurones:

  17. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Polgár; Annie D Campbell; Lynsey M MacIntyre; Masahiko Watanabe; Andrew J Todd

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive) primary afferents, we know

  18. Quantitative responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurones to graded mechanical stimulation in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, David; Craig, A D (Bud)

    2002-01-01

    Nociceptive spinothalamic tract (STT) neurones in lamina I of the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats were characterized by recording their responses to graded mechanical stimulation with controlled forces of 10-120 g and probes of 5.0, 0.5 and 0.1 mm2 contact area. Neurones were identified by antidromic activation from the contralateral thalamus, and cells that responded to noxious stimulation were categorized as either nociceptive specific (NS, n = 20) or as polymodal nociceptive (HPC, responsive to heat, pinch and cold, n = 19) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli. The mean responses of the 39 units increased linearly as stimulus intensity increased, and the population stimulus-response curves evoked by each of the three probes were all significantly different from each other. Thresholds were 45 g for the 5.0 mm2 probe, 30 g for the 0.5 mm2 probe and 20 g for the 0.1 mm2 probe. Further analysis showed that the NS neurones encoded both stimulus intensity and area (probe size) significantly better than HPC neurones in terms of their thresholds to individual probes, their peak discharge rates, their suprathreshold responsiveness and their ability to discriminate the three different probe sizes. These differences are consistent with the known differences between the mechanical encoding properties of A-fibre nociceptors, which provide the dominant inputs to NS neurones, and C-fibre nociceptors, which are the dominant inputs to HPC cells. Comparison of the stimulus-response curves of NS and HPC neurones indicated that the discharge of NS neurones better match the psychophysics of mechanical pain sensations in humans than the discharge of the HPC neurones do. Our findings support the view that NS neurones have a prominent role in mechanical pain and sharpness, and they corroborate the concept that the lamina I STT projection comprises several discrete channels that are integrated in the forebrain to generate qualitatively distinct sensations. PMID:12482896

  19. Endothelin-1 Mediated Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Collagens in Cells of Human Lamina Cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vidhya R; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R; Yorio, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Endothelin-1(ET-1), a potent vaso-active peptide, mediates extracellular matrix regulation resulting in an increase in collagen deposition in various cell types and tissues and has been proposed to play a key role in glaucoma pathology. The role of ET-1 in the regulation of extracellular matrix collagens at the level of optic nerve head is not known. In this study we have examined the role of ET-1 in extracellular matrix collagen regulation in primary cultures of human lamina cribrosa cells. Our hypothesis is that ET-1 increases remodeling of the ECM of cells of the lamina cribrosa. Such actions could contribute to the development of optic neuropathy. QPCR analysis revealed that ET-1 mediated an increase in mRNA levels of collagen type I alpha 1 and collagen type VI alpha 1 chains at all doses of ET-1 with a significant increase at 1nM and 10nM concentration in LC cells. A dose dependent increase in collagen type I and type VI protein deposition and secretion was also observed by Western blot in response to ET-1 and was significant at 10nM and 100nM concentrations of ET-1. ET-1 increased the [3H] proline uptake in LC cells suggesting that ET-1 contributed to an increase in total collagen synthesis in LC cells. ET-1 -mediated increase in collagen type I, type VI and total collagen synthesis was significantly blocked by the ETA receptor antagonist, BQ610, as well as with the ETB receptor antagonist, BQ788, suggesting the involvement of both receptor subtypes in ET-1 mediated collagen synthesis in LC cells. These results suggest that ET-1 regulates extra cellular matrix–collagen synthesis in LC cells and may contribute to ECM remodeling at the level of LC of POAG subjects who have elevated plasma and aqueous humor levels of endothelin-1. PMID:18420197

  20. Quantitative responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurones to graded mechanical stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David; Craig, A D Bud

    2002-12-15

    Nociceptive spinothalamic tract (STT) neurones in lamina I of the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats were characterized by recording their responses to graded mechanical stimulation with controlled forces of 10-120 g and probes of 5.0, 0.5 and 0.1 mm(2) contact area. Neurones were identified by antidromic activation from the contralateral thalamus, and cells that responded to noxious stimulation were categorized as either nociceptive specific (NS, n = 20) or as polymodal nociceptive (HPC, responsive to heat, pinch and cold, n = 19) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli. The mean responses of the 39 units increased linearly as stimulus intensity increased, and the population stimulus-response curves evoked by each of the three probes were all significantly different from each other. Thresholds were 45 g for the 5.0 mm(2) probe, 30 g for the 0.5 mm(2) probe and 20 g for the 0.1 mm(2) probe. Further analysis showed that the NS neurones encoded both stimulus intensity and area (probe size) significantly better than HPC neurones in terms of their thresholds to individual probes, their peak discharge rates, their suprathreshold responsiveness and their ability to discriminate the three different probe sizes. These differences are consistent with the known differences between the mechanical encoding properties of A-fibre nociceptors, which provide the dominant inputs to NS neurones, and C-fibre nociceptors, which are the dominant inputs to HPC cells. Comparison of the stimulus-response curves of NS and HPC neurones indicated that the discharge of NS neurones better match the psychophysics of mechanical pain sensations in humans than the discharge of the HPC neurones do. Our findings support the view that NS neurones have a prominent role in mechanical pain and sharpness, and they corroborate the concept that the lamina I STT projection comprises several discrete channels that are integrated in the forebrain to generate qualitatively distinct sensations. PMID:12482896

  1. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karyn G; Mendonca, Janet L; Militar, Jaimee L; Theroux, Mary C; Dabney, Kirk W; Shah, Suken A; Miller, Freeman; Akins, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ?80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE) relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), synaptic laminin ?2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin ?2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups. Thus, NMJ disruption in CP was found to principally involve components of the synaptic basal lamina and subtle ultra-structural modifications but appeared unrelated to neuromotor maturational status. PMID:23976945

  2. Ventral lamina terminalis mediates enhanced cardiovascular responses of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons during increased dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julye M; Bardgett, Megan E; Stocker, Sean D

    2009-08-01

    Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurons of the forebrain lamina terminalis (LT) mediated these changes in the RVLM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without LT lesions were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl for 14 to 15 days. Unilateral injection of l-glutamate into the RVLM produced significantly larger increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure of sham rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, these differences were not observed between ventral LT-lesioned rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. Similar findings were observed when angiotensin II or gamma-aminobutyric acid was injected into the RVLM. Interestingly, a subset of animals drinking 0.9% but with damage restricted to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis did not show enhanced responses to l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid. In marked contrast, RVLM injection of l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid produced exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses in animals drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water after an acute ventral LT lesion or chronic lesion of the subfornical organ. Additional experiments demonstrated that plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were increased at night in rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl. These findings suggest that neurons of the ventral LT mediate the ability of increased dietary salt to enhance the responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic neurons. PMID:19506102

  3. British Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This month marks the 35th anniversary of the Beatles' arrival in America, an event that sparked the "second British Invasion" of 1964-67. Soon after their historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, a string of British bands sought their fortune on the US pop charts, as American youths clamored for singles, clothes, and anything else hip and new from the old country. This new site from the Encyclopedia Brittanica offers brief histories of the influences, careers, and members of some of the principal British invaders, including the Beatles, the Who, the Rolling Stones, the Kinks, and the Hollies. Other resources include RealPlayer music clips, a section on London fashion with a movie of a 1966 Carnaby Street fashion show, band trading cards, and sections exploring the roots of British rock.

  4. Synaptic Reorganization in the Substantia Gelatinosa After Peripheral Nerve Neuroma Formation: Aberrant Innervation of Lamina II Neurons by Ab Afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuhide Koham; Kuniko Ishikawa; Jeffery D. Kocsis

    2000-01-01

    Intracellular recording and extracellular field potential (FP) re- cordings were obtained from spinal cord dorsal horn neurons (laminae I-IV) in a rat transverse slice preparation with attached dorsal roots. To study changes in synaptic inputs after neuroma formation, the sciatic nerve was sectioned and ligated 3 weeks before in vitro electrophysiological analysis. Horseradish per- oxidase labeling of dorsal root axons

  5. A preformed basal lamina alters the metabolism and distribution of hyaluronan in epidermal keratinocyte "organotypic" cultures grown on collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Tammi, R H; Tammi, M I; Hascall, V C; Hogg, M; Pasonen, S; MacCallum, D K

    2000-04-01

    A rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) line which exhibits histodifferentiation nearly identical to the native epidermis when cultured at an air-liquid interface was used to study the metabolism of hyaluronan, the major intercellular macromolecule present in basal and spinous cell layers. Two different support matrices were used: reconstituted collagen fibrils with and without a covering basal lamina previously deposited by canine kidney cells. REKs formed a stratified squamous, keratinized epithelium on both support matrices. Hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, colocalized in the basal and spinous layers similar to their distribution in the native epidermis. Most (approximately 75%) of the hyaluronan was retained in the epithelium when a basal lamina was present while most (approximately 80%) diffused out of the epithelium in its absence. While REKs on the two matrices synthesized hyaluronan at essentially the same rate, catabolism of this macromolecule was much higher in the epithelium on the basal lamina (half-life approximately 1 day, similar to its half-life in native human epidermis). The formation of a true epidermal compartment in culture bounded by the cornified layer on the surface and the basal lamina subjacent to the basal cells provides a good model within which to study epidermal metabolism. PMID:10857478

  6. How cellulose-based leaf toughness and lamina density contribute to long leaf lifespan of shade tolerant species

    E-print Network

    Kitajima, Kaoru

    and methanol extraction. Leaf dry mass content (LDMC) was determined by dividing dry mass by fresh mass for #12How cellulose-based leaf toughness and lamina density contribute to long leaf For cutting test, each fresh leaf disk was trimmed and oriented so that the cutting pass was sufficiently long

  7. A catecholaminergic neuron connecting the first two optic neuropiles (Lamina ganglionaris and Medulla externa) of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Elofsson; Dick Nässel; Harry Myhrberg

    1977-01-01

    The crustacean optic neuropiles, the lamina ganglionaris and especially the medulla externa, show a specific pattern of green fluorescence with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck-Hillarp. Normally, only the terminals and the cell bodies fluoresce, but in reserpine-treated animals exogenous catecholamines are taken up by the whole adrenergic neuron and are thus visualized as a whole. Incubating crayfish optic neuropiles

  8. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics. PMID:21910862

  9. Contribution of substance P and neurokinin A to the differential injury-induced thermal and mechanical responsiveness of lamina I and V neurons.

    PubMed

    Mazarío, Javier; Basbaum, Allan I

    2007-01-24

    In a previous report, we compared the properties of lamina V neurons of the spinal cord dorsal horn in wild-type mice and in mice with a deletion of the preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene, which encodes substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA). The mutant mice had pronounced deficits in the response to thermal stimulation, both before and after mustard oil induced sensitization. Here, we extended our analysis to the properties of lamina I neurons and also examined responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Consistent with the properties of lamina V neurons, in the PPT-A mutant mice we found significantly reduced responses of lamina I neurons to noxious thermal stimulation, and mustard oil sensitization of these neurons to heat was lost. In contrast, not only were the responses of lamina I neurons to noxious mechanical stimulation unchanged in the mutant mice, but in neither the wild-type nor the mutant mice could sensitization be induced. However, mustard oil profoundly sensitized lamina V neurons to mechanical stimulation in both wild-type and mutant mice. We conclude that SP and/or NKA are required for the transmission of noxious thermal stimulation by lamina I and V neurons, both before and after tissue injury. The persistence of mechanical sensitization of lamina V neurons in the mutant mice further shows that mustard oil induces mechanical and thermal sensitization through different mechanisms. Finally, we conclude that lamina I sensitization to mechanical stimulation is not required for this form of injury-increased responsiveness of lamina V neurons. PMID:17251415

  10. The physical resistance of grass patches to invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Barthram; D. A. Elston; C. E. Mullins

    2005-01-01

    One of the important factors determining success in plant competition is the ability of a plant to extend laminae in order to capture resources.To do this in mixed swards the laminae of one plant must first grow into the volume that contains laminae of another. The ability of laminae to overcome the resistance presented by a neighbour, and the ability

  11. Invasive Species Conservation Biology

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    Invasive Species Conservation Biology Dr. Philpott Thanks to Dr. Mayer for many images and text #12 · Bluegrass in Kentucky · Zebra mussels in Lake Erie #12;Invasive Species · Terminology · Routes of Invasion species · What is the difference between exotic, non-indigenous, non-native, alien, nuisance, and invasive

  12. Cortical lamina-dependent blood volume changes in human brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Huber, Laurentius; Goense, Jozien; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Trampel, Robert; Guidi, Maria; Reimer, Enrico; Ivanov, Dimo; Neef, Nicole; Gauthier, Claudine J; Turner, Robert; Möller, Harald E

    2015-02-15

    Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to large draining veins reduces its local specificity and can render the interpretation of the underlying laminar neural activity impossible. The application of the more spatially specific cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based fMRI in humans has been hindered by the low sensitivity of the noninvasive modalities available. Here, a vascular space occupancy (VASO) variant, adapted for use at high field, is further optimized to capture layer-dependent activity changes in human motor cortex at sub-millimeter resolution. Acquired activation maps and cortical profiles show that the VASO signal peaks in gray matter at 0.8-1.6mm depth, and deeper compared to the superficial and vein-dominated GE-BOLD responses. Validation of the VASO signal change versus well-established iron-oxide contrast agent based fMRI methods in animals showed the same cortical profiles of CBV change, after normalization for lamina-dependent baseline CBV. In order to evaluate its potential of revealing small lamina-dependent signal differences due to modulations of the input-output characteristics, layer-dependent VASO responses were investigated in the ipsilateral hemisphere during unilateral finger tapping. Positive activation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex and negative activation in ipsilateral primary sensory cortex were observed. This feature is only visible in high-resolution fMRI where opposing sides of a sulcus can be investigated independently because of a lack of partial volume effects. Based on the results presented here, we conclude that VASO offers good reproducibility, high sensitivity and lower sensitivity than GE-BOLD to changes in larger vessels, making it a valuable tool for layer-dependent fMRI studies in humans. PMID:25479018

  13. Comparison of Effects of Inhibitors of Viral and Cellular Protein Kinases on Human Cytomegalovirus Disruption of Nuclear Lamina and Nuclear Egress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayuri

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) kinase UL97 is required for efficient nuclear lamina disruption during nuclear egress. However, cellular protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in this process in other systems. Comparing the effects of UL97 and cellular kinase inhibitors on HCMV nuclear egress confirms a role for UL97 in lamina disruption and nuclear egress. A pan-PKC inhibitor did not affect lamina disruption but did reduce the number of cytoplasmic capsids more than the number of nuclear capsids. PMID:24965476

  14. Interstitial flow through the internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tada, S; Tarbell, J M

    2000-05-01

    Interstitial flow through the tunica media of an artery wall in the presence of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), which separates it from the subendothelial intima, has been studied numerically. A two-dimensional analysis applying the Brinkman model as the governing equation for the porous media flow field was performed. In the numerical simulation, the IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flux, except for the fenestral pores, which were uniformly distributed over the IEL. The tunica media was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical smooth muscle cells (SMCs) embedded in a fiber matrix simulating the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen fibers. A series of calculations was conducted by varying the physical parameters describing the problem: the area fraction of the fenestral pore (0. 001-0.036), the diameter of the fenestral pore (0.4-4.0 microm), and the distance between the IEL and the nearest SMC (0.2-0.8 microm). The results indicate that the value of the average shear stress around the circumference of the SMC in the immediate vicinity of the fenestral pore could be as much as 100 times greater than that around an SMC in the fully developed interstitial flow region away from the IEL. These high shear stresses can affect SMC physiological function. PMID:10775138

  15. Application of Elliptic Fourier analysis to describe the lamina cribrosa shape with age and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, P G; Grimm, J L; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K L; Sigal, I A

    2014-11-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47-91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mmHg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric center of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using Elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC 1), or inversely (PC 2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC 3). Only PC 3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth. PMID:25193035

  16. Imaging of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma: perspectives of pathogenesis and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Kagemann, Larry; Girard, Michaël J A; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Sung, Kyung Rim; Leung, Christopher K; Schuman, Joel S; Wollstein, Gadi

    2013-09-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a sieve-like structure in the sclera where retinal ganglion cell axons exit from the eye. The LC has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. With the advent of imaging technologies, such as enhanced depth imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables us to unveil the LC in vivo features. The application of adaptive optics technology and a compensatory image-processing algorithm has further improved the visualization of the beams and pores and neural pathways of the LC and the scleral insertion sites. Monitoring the changes of these structures in relation to acute and chronic elevation of intraocular pressure would be germane to decipher the relationship between the stress and strain response of the LC and optic nerve damage and improve our understanding of glaucoma pathophysiology. While the impact of investigating the integrity of LC is substantive, considerable challenges remain for imaging the LC. Nevertheless, with the rapid development of the OCT technology, it is expected that some of these limitations can be overcome and the potentials of LC imaging will be unraveled. PMID:23768229

  17. Anatomic Consideration of the C1 Laminar Arch for Lateral Mass Screw Fixation via C1 Lateral Lamina : A Landmark between the Lateral and Posterior Lamina of the C1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Seung-Ho; Cho, Sung-Min; You, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the landmark for deciding the entry point for C1 lateral mass screws via the posterior arch by using 3-dimensional (3D) computed images. Methods Resnick insisted that the C1 posterior arch could be divided into pure posterior and lateral lamina (C1 pedicle). Authors studied where this transition point (TP) is located between the posterior lamina and the C1 pedicle and how it can be recognized. The 3D computed images of 86 cadaver C1s (M : F=45 : 41) were used in this study. Results The superior ridge of the C1 posterior arch had 2 types of orientation. One was in the vertical direction in the C1 posterior lamina and the other was in the horizontal direction in the C1 pedicle. The TP was located at the border between the 2 areas, the same site as the posterior end of the groove of the vertebral artery. On posterior-anterior projection, the posterior arch was sharpened abruptly at TP. We were unable to identify the TP in 6.4% of specimens due to complete or partial osseous bridges. A total of 93.8% of the TP were located between the most enlarged point of the spinal canal and the medial wall of the vertebral artery. Conclusion The anatomic entry zone of C1 lateral laminar screws was clarified and identified based on the TP by using preoperative 3D computed images. PMID:24044076

  18. Intrahaemocoelic infection of Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus does not induce tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling.

    PubMed

    Means, John C; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2014-03-01

    Infection of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) by the oral route stimulates activation of host matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and effector caspases, a process dependent on expression of the viral fibroblast growth factor (vFGF). This pathway leads to tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling, enabling virus escape from the primary site of infection, the midgut epithelium, and establishment of efficient systemic infection. In this study, we asked whether the MMP-caspase pathway was also activated following infection by intrahaemocoelic injection. We found that intrahaemocoelic infection did not lead to any observable tracheal cell or midgut epithelium basal lamina remodelling. MMP and caspase activities were not significantly stimulated. We conclude that the main role of the AcMNPV vFGF is in facilitating virus midgut escape. PMID:24300553

  19. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  20. INVASIVE ANTS Invasive species, those species that demonstrate

    E-print Network

    Suarez, Andrew V.

    PART IV INVASIVE ANTS Invasive species, those species that demonstrate ecological, environmental own right. Though invasive ants currently comprise ant species, the contribution of these species to understanding ant ecology is dis- proportional to their number. Invasive ants represent

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta-regulated gene transcription and protein expression in human GFAP-negative lamina cribrosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Ruaidhrí P; Leonard, Martin O; Murphy, Madeline; Clark, Abbot F; O'Brien, Colm J

    2005-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a progressive optic neuropathy, which is a major cause of worldwide visual impairment and blindness. Pathological hallmarks of the glaucomatous optic nerve head (ONH) include retinal ganglion cell axon loss and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of the lamina cribrosa layer. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important pro-fibrotic modulator of ECM metabolism, whose levels are elevated in human POAG lamina cribrosa tissue compared with non-glaucomatous controls. We hypothesize that in POAG, lamina cribrosa (LC) glial cells respond to elevated TGF-beta, producing a remodeled ONH ECM. Using Affymetrix microarrays, we report the first study examining the effect of TGF-beta1 on global gene expression profiles in glial fibrillary acidic acid (GFAP)-negative LC glial cells in vitro. Prominent among the differentially expressed genes were those with established fibrogenic potential, including CTGF, collagen I, elastin, thrombospondin, decorin, biglycan, and fibromodulin. Independent TaqMan and Sybr Green quantitative PCR analysis significantly validated genes involved in regulation of cell proliferation (platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF-alpha]), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), ECM accumulation and degradation (CTGF, IL-11, and ADAMT-S5), and growth factor binding (ESM-1). Bioinformatic analysis of the ESM-1 promoter identified putative Smad and Runx transcription factor binding sites, and luciferase assays confirmed that TGF-beta1 drives transcription of the ESM-1 gene. TGF-beta1 induces expression and release of ECM components in LC cells, which may be important in regulating matrix remodeling in the lamina cribrosa. In disease states such as POAG, the LC cell may represent an important pro-fibrotic cell type and an attractive target for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:16078232

  2. Second harmonic generation imaging of the pig lamina cribrosa using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope-based microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Agopov; L. Lomb; O. La Schiazza; J. F. Bille

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based on a video-rate second harmonic generation imaging microscope.\\u000a A titanium:sapphire femtosecond laser was coupled to a modified SLO. The laser beam was scanned over the sample, and the light\\u000a produced by second harmonic generation (SHG) was collected for imaging at video-speed. The device was used for imaging the\\u000a lamina cribrosa (LC) of

  3. Selective innervation of NK1 receptor-lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baseer, Najma; Al-Baloushi, Abdullah S; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shehab, Safa A S; Todd, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Fine myelinated (A?) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to A? nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r(+) and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by A? nociceptive afferents. PMID:25168670

  4. Selective innervation of NK1 receptor–lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Najma; Al-Baloushi, Abdullah S.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shehab, Safa A.S.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine myelinated (A?) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to A? nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r+ and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by A? nociceptive afferents. PMID:25168670

  5. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Broers, Jos L.V. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Oestlund, C. [Departments of Medicine and of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Worman, H.J. [Departments of Medicine and of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Endert, J. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ramaekers, F.C.S. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  6. Host and pathogen transcriptional profiles of acute Brucella melitensis infection 

    E-print Network

    Rossetti, Carlos Alberto

    2009-05-15

    migration, many bacteria were observed alive inside neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes or free in the interstitium and lymphatic vessels of lamina propria. The invasion process via conjunctiva was accompanied by an submucosal inflammatory reaction... by local macrophages and transported to the regional lymph nodes. Failure to destroy the bacteria at this stage, results in dissemination to organs that are rich in elements of the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes...

  7. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22?/? fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  8. What is relationship between the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and Kallmann syndrome?

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Agustín; González-Toledo, Juan M; de Paz-Carmona, Héctor; Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Carmona-Calero, Emilia M

    2013-08-01

    The medial preoptic area is a structure located in the hypothalamic anteroventral third ventricle region, and is closely related to the olfactory brain development and sexual differentiation of the brain. The medial preoptic area surrounds the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and both structures are the main areas where synthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone occurs in the brain. Neurons synthesizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone migrate from the medial nasal epithelium to the rostral brain and reach the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the medial preoptic area. Kallmann syndrome is a genetic disorder which combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is characterized by the absence or reduced levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and anosmia due to olfactory bulb aplasia. This paper speculates on the connection between the development of the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and olfactory bulbs with Kallmann syndrome, since the anteroventral third ventricle region is crucial for the normal development of these structures and its connection with the olfactory nerves and sexual maturation. PMID:23702295

  9. Native Grasses Collected from Invasions Demonstrate Invasion Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Sebade; Ann L. Hild; Brian A. Mealor

    2012-01-01

    Native grasses can persist in areas dominated by invasive species, yet resistance to invasion by the selected remaining natives is largely unknown. We examine native grass lineages differing in history of survival within invasions, when transplanted into association with 2 invasive perennials. Invaded plants were collected from Russian knapweed (Rhaponticum repens) invasions, and non-invaded plants were collected outside invasions. We

  10. SFRSF: Invasive Exotic Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) site discusses the problem of invasive exotic species in southern Florida. Topics covered include what invasive species are, where they come from, where they exist at this time, what controls them, their effect on restoration, the use of natural enemies to tame some invasive plants, and what can be done about other invasive animals and plants. There are links provided for additional information.

  11. Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Al Ghamdi; E. Polgár; A. J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn contains neurons that project to various brain regions, and ?80% of these projection cells express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), the main receptor for substance P. Two populations of NK1r-immunoreactive neurons have been identified in lamina I: small weakly immunoreactive cells and large cells with strong immunolabelling [Cheunsuang O and Morris R (2000)

  12. Invasive Group B Streptococcal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    illness among newborns. Invasive infections in neonates can result in pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty- four percent proportion of EOD and most cases of LOD (3­8). Different studies have suggested that most neonatal invasive

  13. Invasive Species: Lightning Round!

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Invasive Species: Lightning Round! Dan Gullickson, MnDOT Peter Leete, MN DNR;#12;#12;Metro Ash Tree Inventory Research Project #12;#12;AquaCc Invasive Species Peter Leete #12;AquaFc Invasive Species Minnesota has several state laws intended

  14. Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).

    PubMed Central

    Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

    1985-01-01

    The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

  15. Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).

    PubMed

    Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

    1985-06-01

    The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

  16. Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure ?-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P?=?0.01) and control eyes (P?=?0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P?=?0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P?=?0.01), and transverse diameter (P?=?0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

  17. Sensitization of sodium appetite: evidence for sustained molecular changes in the lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Seth W; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2014-12-15

    Animals with a history of sodium depletions exhibit increases in salt intake, a phenomenon described as the sensitization of sodium appetite. Using a novel experimental design, the present experiments investigated whether putative molecular markers of neural plasticity and changes in the message for components of the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) accompany the sensitization of sodium appetite. An initial set of experiments examined whether the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 would attenuate sodium appetite sensitization and prevent changes in mRNA expression associated with sensitization. Rats with repeated sodium depletions exhibited enhanced sodium appetite and mRNA expression for components of the RAAS in areas along the lamina terminalis (LT), a region of the brain that is important for the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, and these effects were significantly attenuated by MK-801 pretreatment. A second set of experiments investigated whether successive sodium depletions would elevate sodium intake and induce a pattern of fos-B staining consistent with the ?fos-B isoform in areas along the LT. The pattern of fos-B staining in the subfornical organ was consistent with the characteristics of ?fos-B expression. Specifically, fos-B/?fos-B expression was increased 4 days after the last of a series of sodium depletions, fos-B/?fos-B expression was nearly absent in control rats, and the quantity of fos-B/?fos-B staining was directly associated with a history of sodium depletions. These findings demonstrate that the sensitization of sodium appetite is associated with sustained molecular alterations in the LT that are indicative of neural plasticity and upregulation of the central RAAS. PMID:25354727

  18. Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the LT (OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions, including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and, following a 1-week recovery period, they were subjected to either hypertonic saline administration (0.5 M NaCl, 1 mL/100 g i.p.), 24-h water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating angiotensin II; 50 microg/kg s.c.), heat exposure (39 degrees C for 60 min) or permitted 180 min spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the vlPAG and double-labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration, and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG-projecting neurons, and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

  19. Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).

    PubMed

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2002-02-01

    We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces. PMID:11788405

  20. Internal elastic lamina affects the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2004-08-01

    The internal elastic lamina (IEL), which separates the arterial intima from the media, affects macromolecular transport across the medial layer. In the present study, we have developed a two-dimensional numerical simulation model to resolve the influence of the IEL on convective-diffusive transport of macromolecules in the media. The model considers interstitial flow in the medial layer that has a complex entrance condition because of the presence of leaky fenestral pores in the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to both water and solute except for the fenestral pores that were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The media were modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of an array of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen fiber matrix. Results for ATP and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) demonstrate a range of interesting features of molecular transport and uptake in the media that are determined by considering the balance among convection, diffusion, and SMC surface reaction. The ATP concentration distribution depends strongly on the IEL pore structure because ATP fluid-phase transport is dominated by diffusion emanating from the fenestral pores. On the other hand, LDL fluid-phase transport is only weakly dependent on the IEL pore structure because convection spreads LDL laterally over very short distances in the media. In addition, we observe that transport of LDL to SMC surfaces is likely to be limited by the fluid phase (surface concentration less than bulk concentration), whereas ATP transport is limited by reaction on the SMC surface (surface concentration equals bulk concentration). PMID:15016628

  1. Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity induced by central hyperosmolality.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Stocker, Sean D; Toney, Glenn M

    2007-12-01

    The contribution of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in mediating central hyperosmolality-induced increases of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) was assessed in anesthetized rats. Solutions of graded NaCl concentration (150, 375, and 750 mM) were injected (150 mul) into the forebrain vascular supply via an internal carotid artery (ICA). Time-control experiments (n = 6) established that ICA NaCl injections produced short-latency, transient increases of renal SNA (RSNA) and mean ABP (MAP) (P < 0.05-0.001). Responses were graded, highly reproducible, and unaltered by systemic blockade of vasopressin V1 receptors (n = 4). In subsequent studies, stimulus-triggered averaging of RSNA was used to accurately locate the OVLT. Involvement of OVLT in responses to ICA NaCl was assessed by recording RSNA and MAP responses before and 15 min after electrolytic lesion of the OVLT (n = 6). Before lesion, NaCl injections increased RSNA and MAP (P < 0.05-0.001), similar to time control experiments. After lesion, RSNA responses were significantly reduced (P < 0.05-0.001), but MAP responses were unaltered. To exclude a role for fibers of passage, the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol was microinjected into the OVLT (50 pmol in 50 nl) (n = 6). Before muscimol, hypertonic NaCl increased RSNA, lumbar SNA (LSNA), and MAP (P < 0.05-0.001). After muscimol, both RSNA and LSNA were significantly reduced in response to 375 and 750 mM NaCl (P < 0.05). MAP responses were again unaffected. Injections of vehicle (saline) into OVLT (n = 6) and muscimol lateral to OVLT (n = 5) each failed to alter responses to ICA NaCl. We conclude that OVLT neurons contribute to sympathoexcitation by central hyperosmolality. PMID:17898124

  2. Cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning in mouse neocortex is lamina specific.

    PubMed

    Gniel, Helen M; Martin, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is able to confer neuroprotection when delivered at least 1 day in advance of an ischemic event. However, its ability to confer neuroprotection in a more immediate time frame has not previously been investigated. Here we have used mouse neocortical brain slices to study the effects of repeated episodes of CSD in layer V and layer II/III pyramidal neurons. In layer V, CSD evoked at 15-min intervals caused successively smaller membrane depolarizations and increases in intracellular calcium compared with the response to the first CSD. With an inter-CSD interval of 30 min this preconditioning effect was much less marked, indicating that preconditioning lasts between 15 and 30 min. A single episode of CSD also provided a degree of protection in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by significantly lengthening the time a cell could withstand OGD before anoxic depolarization occurred. In layer II/III pyramidal neurons no preconditioning by CSD on subsequent episodes of CSD was observed, demonstrating that the response of pyramidal neurons to repeated CSD is lamina specific. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl theophylline (8-CPT) reduced the layer V preconditioning in a concentration-related manner. Inhibition of extracellular formation of adenosine by blocking ecto-5'-nucleotidase with ?,?-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate prevented preconditioning in most but not all cells. Block of equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 with dipyramidole alone or in combination with 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-?-d-ribofuranosylpurine also prevented preconditioning in some but not all cells. These data provide evidence that rapid preconditioning of one CSD by another is primarily mediated by adenosine. PMID:23515796

  3. Three-dimensional organization of local excitatory and inhibitory inputs to neurons in laminae III–IV of the spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Kosugi, Masafumi; Mizuno, Masaharu; Strassman, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning photostimulation was used to map the distribution of the synaptic input zones (sites that give local synaptic inputs) for dorsal horn laminae III–IV neurons, in parasagittal and transverse slices of the rat lumbar spinal cord, and examine how these inputs differed for neurons of different morphologies. All neurons received local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from within laminae III–IV, while a subset of neurons also received excitatory input from the superficial laminae, especially lamina IIi, as well as the II/III border region. Two anatomical properties were found to be predictive of the dorsoventral position of a neuron's input zone relative to its soma: (1) both excitatory and inhibitory input zones were more dorsal for neurons with longer dorsal dendrites, and (2) excitatory, but not inhibitory, input zones were more dorsal (relative to the soma) for more ventral neurons, with the transition between the dorsal input zones of laminae III–IV neurons and the ventral input zones of lamina II neurons occurring at the II/III border. The observed morphophysiological correlations support the idea that interlaminar connectivity is mediated via translaminar dendritic extensions and that, more generally, local connectivity within the dorsal horn is governed by rules relating the position of a neuron's soma and dendrites to the position of the local presynaptic neurons from which it receives inputs, which are specific to the axis and direction (dorsal vs. ventral), whether the input is excitatory or inhibitory, and the laminar position of the postsynaptic neuron. PMID:23981716

  4. NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

  5. Elevated maxi-K(+) ion channel current in glaucomatous lamina cribrosa cells.

    PubMed

    Irnaten, Mustapha; Barry, Richard C; Wallace, Deborah M; Docherty, Neil G; Quill, Barry; Clark, Abbot F; O'Brien, Colm J

    2013-10-01

    The connective tissue plates of the lamina cribrosa (LC) region are continuously exposed to a mechanically dynamic environment. To study how the LC cells respond to these mechanical forces, we measured the mechano-sensitive calcium dependent maxi-K(+) ion channel current in the cell membrane of LC cells of glaucoma and normal subjects. Primary culture LC cells from 7 normal and 7 age matched glaucoma donors were studied. Perfusion of cells with hypotonic solution was used to stretch the cell membrane. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the basal (non stretched) and hypotonic stretch-induced changes in maxi-K(+) ion channel activity in normal and glaucoma LC cells. The role of membrane-type Ca(2+) entry channel inhibition (verapamil) and internal Ca(2+) store re-uptake blockade (2-APB) on maxi-K(+) activity was also examined. Basal and stretched-induced maxi-K(+) current were significantly elevated in the glaucoma LC cells compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). In normal LC cells hypotonic stretch elevated the mean maxi-K(+) current from 18.5 ± 5.7 pA/pF (at Vp = +100 mV) to 88.4 ± 12.4 pA/pF (P < 0.05), and from 39.5 ± 7.3 pA/pF to 133.1 ± 18.5 pA/pF in glaucoma LC cells (P < 0.02). Verapamil and 2-APB significantly reduced basal maxi-K(+) current in glaucoma LC cells (33.1 ± 8.2 pA/pF to 17.9 ± 5.6 pA/pF; and 32.2 ± 8.3 pA/pF to 17.3 ± 5.4 pA/pF, P < 0.05, respectively) but not in normal LC cells (P > 0.05). Following hypotonic stretch, verapamil and 2-APB significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the maxi-K(+) current in both normal and glaucoma LC cells. Baseline and hypotonic stretch induced Ca(2+)-dependent maxi-K(+) channel activity are elevated in LC cells of glaucoma patients, which may result from the abnormally high levels of intracellular calcium in glaucoma LC cells. PMID:23906962

  6. What is an Invasive Species? Invasion Ecology's terminology problem

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    What is an Invasive Species? #12;Invasion Ecology's terminology problem Lockwood text #12;What is an Invasive Species? · Non-native · Capable of surviving without direct help from people (naturalized consequences #12;Why are Invasive Species here? #12;Why are Invasive Species here? · We brought them here

  7. Invasive Species Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website contains information about Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) projects concerning invasive species in the Pacific Southwest. Native ecosystems in this region are being threatened by invasion of non-native plant and animal species. This project is to detect, monitor, and predict the effect and threat of invasive species on the region. Case studies of particular ecosystems include the Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, Sierra Nevada Mountains, and San Joaquin Valley.

  8. Incorporation of the nuclear pore basket protein Nup153 into nuclear pore structures is dependent upon lamina assembly: evidence from cell-free extracts of Xenopus eggs

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, Carl; Jenkins, Hazel E.; Hutchison, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    In cell-free extracts of Xenopus eggs that support the assembly of replication-competent nuclei, we found that lamin B3 specifically associates with four polypeptides (termed SLAPs, soluble lamin associated proteins). Here, one SLAP is identified as the nuclear pore complex protein Nup153, one member of the F/GXFG motif-containing nucleoporins. In vitro translated Nup153 and lamin B3 co-immunoprecipitate, and lamin B3 interacts specifically with the C-terminal domain of Nup153. During nuclear envelope assembly, other F/GXFG-containing nucleoporins are incorporated into the nuclear envelope preceding lamina assembly. Incorporation of Nup153 occurs at the same time as lamina assembly. When lamina assembly is prevented using the dominant-negative mutant XlaminB?2+, Nup153 does not appear at the nuclear envelope, while other F/GXFG-containing nucleoporins and Nup93 are recruited normally. When the lamina of pre-assembled nuclei is disrupted using the same dominant-negative mutant, the distribution of other nucleoporins is unaffected. However, Nup153 recruitment at the nuclear envelope is lost. Our results indicate that both the recruitment and maintenance of Nup153 at the pore are dependent upon the integrity of the lamina. PMID:10921874

  9. Chordoid Gliomas of the Third Ventricle Share TTF-1 Expression With Organum Vasculosum of the Lamina Terminalis.

    PubMed

    Bielle, Franck; Villa, Chiara; Giry, Marine; Bergemer-Fouquet, Anne-Marie; Polivka, Marc; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Bernier, Michèle; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Viennet, Gabriel; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Duyckaerts, Charles; Sanson, Marc; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mokhtari, Karima

    2015-07-01

    Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle (CG3V) is a rare tumor developing in a stereotyped localization. It has been related to the circumventricular organ of the lamina terminalis, in the anterior part of the third ventricle, but its oncogenesis is poorly understood. TTF-1 transcription factor is involved in the development and adult physiology of the ventral forebrain. We studied the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a multicentric series of 17 cases of CG3V. We described additional histologic patterns (solid, fibrosing, and fusiform) to the typical chordoid pattern. TTF-1 was constantly expressed in CG3V, as in developing and adult lamina terminalis. The anti-TTF-1 SPT24 clone was more sensitive than the 8G7G3/1 clone. No mutation of IDH1 R132, IDH2 R172, or BRAF V600 codons was found. We showed TTF-1 as a useful marker for the diagnosis of CG3V and the understanding of its oncogenesis. PMID:25786084

  10. Constitutive lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of high endothelial venules is regulated by the autotaxin/lysophosphatidic acid axis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhongbin; Cai, Linjun; Umemoto, Eiji; Takeda, Akira; Tohya, Kazuo; Komai, Yutaka; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti Thanikachalam; Hata, Erina; Sugiura, Yuki; Kubo, Akiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Hayasaka, Haruko; Okudaira, Shinichi; Aoki, Junken; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Albers, Harald M H G; Ovaa, Huib; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    Lymphocyte extravasation from the high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes is crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this article, we report that lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of the HEVs is regulated, at least in part, by autotaxin (ATX) and its end-product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is an HEV-associated ectoenzyme that produces LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), which is abundant in the systemic circulation. In agreement with selective expression of ATX in HEVs, LPA was constitutively and specifically detected on HEVs. In vivo, inhibition of ATX impaired the lymphocyte extravasation from HEVs, inducing lymphocyte accumulation within the endothelial cells (ECs) and sub-EC compartment; this impairment was abrogated by LPA. In vitro, both LPA and LPC induced a marked increase in the motility of HEV ECs; LPC's effect was abrogated by ATX inhibition, whereas LPA's effect was abrogated by ATX/LPA receptor inhibition. In an in vitro transmigration assay, ATX inhibition impaired the release of lymphocytes that had migrated underneath HEV ECs, and these defects were abrogated by LPA. This effect of LPA was dependent on myosin II activity in the HEV ECs. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that HEV-associated ATX generates LPA locally; LPA, in turn, acts on HEV ECs to increase their motility, promoting dynamic lymphocyte-HEV interactions and subsequent lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of HEVs at steady state. PMID:23365076

  11. SOAP, a novel malaria ookinete protein involved in mosquito midgut invasion and oocyst development.

    PubMed

    Dessens, Johannes T; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Mendoza, Jacqui; Mahairaki, Vassiliki; Khater, Emad; Vlachou, Dina; Xu, Xiao-Jin; Kafatos, Fotis C; Louis, Christos; Dimopoulos, George; Sinden, Robert E

    2003-07-01

    An essential, but poorly understood part of malaria transmission by mosquitoes is the development of the ookinetes into the sporozoite-producing oocysts on the mosquito midgut wall. For successful oocyst formation newly formed ookinetes in the midgut lumen must enter, traverse, and exit the midgut epithelium to reach the midgut basal lamina, processes collectively known as midgut invasion. After invasion ookinete-to-oocyst transition must occur, a process believed to require ookinete interactions with basal lamina components. Here, we report on a novel extracellular malaria protein expressed in ookinetes and young oocysts, named secreted ookinete adhesive protein (SOAP). The SOAP gene is highly conserved amongst Plasmodium species and appears to be unique to this genus. It encodes a predicted secreted and soluble protein with a modular structure composed of two unique cysteine-rich domains. Using the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei we show that SOAP is targeted to the micronemes and forms high molecular mass complexes via disulphide bonds. Moreover, SOAP interacts strongly with mosquito laminin in yeast-two-hybrid assays. Targeted disruption of the SOAP gene gives rise to ookinetes that are markedly impaired in their ability to invade the mosquito midgut and form oocysts. These results identify SOAP as a key molecule for ookinete-to-oocyst differentiation in mosquitoes. PMID:12828632

  12. Invasion of the Whiteflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As invasive alien species spread, they often displace indigenous species, thus altering ecological communities and adversely affecting agricultural pest management, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. Despite the importance of invasive species, the processes enabling them to become estab...

  13. Anionic sites in the glomerular basement membrane. In vivo and in vitro localization to the laminae rarae by cationic probes

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Cationized ferritin (CF) of narrow pI range (7.3-7.5) and the basic dye ruthenium red (RR) have been used as cationic probes to partially characterize anionic sites previously demonstrated in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). When CF was given i.v. to normal rats and the left kidney was fixed by perfusion 15 min thereafter, clusters of CF molecules were found throughout the lamina rara interna (LRI), lamina rara externa (LRE), and mesangial matrix distributed at regular (approximately 60 nm) intervals. When kidneys were perfused with aldehyde fixative containing RR, small (20 nm) RR-stained particles were seen in the same locations distributed with the same 60 nm repeating pattern, forming a quasiregular, lattice-like arrangement. Fine (approximately 3 nm) filaments connected the sites and extended between them and the membranes of adjoining endothelial and epithelial cells. When CF was given i.v. followed by perfusion with RR in situ, both probes localized to the same sites. CF remained firmly bound after prolonged perfusion with 0.1-0.2 M KCl or NaCl. It was displaced by perfusion with buffers of high ionic strength (0.4-0.5 M KCl) or pH (less than 3.0 or greater than 10.0). CF also bound (clustered at approximately 60 nm intervals) to isolated GBM's, and binding was lost when such isolated GBM's were treated with buffers of high ionic strength or pH. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a quasi- regular, lattice-like network of anionic sites in the LRI and LRE and the mesangial matrix. The sites are demonstrable in vivo (by CF binding), in fixed kidneys (by RR staining), and in isolated GBM's (by CF binding). The results obtained with CF show that the binding of CF (and probably also RR) to the laminae rarae is electrostatic in nature since it is displaced by treatment with buffers of high ionic strength or pH. With RR the sites resemble in morphology and staining properties the proteoglycan particles found in connective tissue matrices and in association with basement membranes in several other locations. PMID:90048

  14. Repeatability of in vivo 3D lamina cribrosa microarchitecture using adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X.; Schuman, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the repeatability of lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture for in vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of healthy, glaucoma suspects, and glaucomatous eyes. Eyes underwent two scans using a prototype adaptive optics spectral domain OCT (AO-SDOCT) device from which LC microarchitecture was semi-automatically segmented. LC segmentations were used to quantify pore and beam structure through several global microarchitecture parameters. Repeatability of LC microarchitecture was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating parameter imprecision. For all but one parameters (pore volume) measurement imprecision was <4.7% of the mean value, indicating good measurement reproducibility. Imprecision ranged between 27.3% and 54.5% of the population standard deviation for each parameter, while there was not a significant effect on imprecision due to disease status, indicating utility in testing for LC structural trends. PMID:24761293

  15. Transport, interactions and retention of plasma proteins in the intima: the barrier function of the internal elastic lamina.

    PubMed

    Smith, E B

    1990-08-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of our current understanding of the relation between plasma macromolecules and atherogenesis. Plasma proteins enter normal intima by vesicular transport across normal endothelium, and convective transport within the intima; accumulation depends mainly on molecular size and the molecular sieve properties of the internal elastic lamina. Within the intima the proteins may be modified; particularly striking changes occur in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and in fibrinogen. Fibrinogen appears to be converted to fibrin which is then lysed, providing a continuing source of fibrin degradation products (FDP). Fibrin also seems to be associated with a tightly bound, plasmin-releasable apo-B-containing lipoprotein; work in progress suggests that much of this fraction is accounted for by lipoprotein(a). PMID:2226536

  16. Repeatability of in vivo 3D lamina cribrosa microarchitecture using adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X; Schuman, Joel S

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the repeatability of lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture for in vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of healthy, glaucoma suspects, and glaucomatous eyes. Eyes underwent two scans using a prototype adaptive optics spectral domain OCT (AO-SDOCT) device from which LC microarchitecture was semi-automatically segmented. LC segmentations were used to quantify pore and beam structure through several global microarchitecture parameters. Repeatability of LC microarchitecture was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating parameter imprecision. For all but one parameters (pore volume) measurement imprecision was <4.7% of the mean value, indicating good measurement reproducibility. Imprecision ranged between 27.3% and 54.5% of the population standard deviation for each parameter, while there was not a significant effect on imprecision due to disease status, indicating utility in testing for LC structural trends. PMID:24761293

  17. Rapid Development of Brain Abscess Caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes Following Penetrating Skull Injury via the Ethmoidal Sinus and Lamina Cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Gerilmez; Cömert, Serhat; Altinors, Nur

    2010-01-01

    Objective Streptococcus pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to Lancefield serogroup A, also known as group A streptococci (GAS). There have been five reported case in terms of PubMed-based search but no reported case of brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of penetrating skull injury. We present a patient who suffered from penetrating skull injury that resulted in a brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Methods The patient was a 12-year-old boy who fell down from his bicycle while cycling and ran into a tree. A wooden stick penetrated his skin below the right lower eyelid and advanced to the cranium. He lost consciousness on the fifth day of the incident and his body temperature was measured as 40?. While being admitted to our hospital, a cranial computed tomography revealed a frontal cystic mass with a perilesional hypodense zone of edema. There was no capsule formation around the lesion after intravenous contrast injection. Paranasal CT showed a bone defect located between the ethmoidal sinus and lamina cribrosa. Results Bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The abscess located at the left frontal lobe was drained and the bone defect was repaired. Conclusion Any penetrating lesion showing a connection between the lamina cribrosa and ethmoidal sinus may result in brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. These patients should be treated urgently to repair the defect and drain the abscess with appropriate antibiotic therapy started due to the fulminant course of the brain abscess caused by this microorganism. PMID:20717517

  18. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  19. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim H van der Putten; John N Klironomos; David A Wardle; WH van der Putten

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have considered the effects of invasive microbes, or interactions of invasive plant and animal species

  20. Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mark A.

    Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis 2 biology 2 MarkA.DavisInvasionBiology2 1 With the exception of climate change, biological invasions have probably received more attention during the past ten years than on the subject, Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological

  1. The economics of biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Perrings

    2001-01-01

    Biological invasions are an economic problem. Invasions are typically the intended or unintended consequence of economic activity. They impose real costs on society, and the risk of invasion depends on human behaviour. Effective control of invasions depends on using the right economic instruments and developing the right institutions. The problem has two special features. The first is that the risks

  2. The Lionfish Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This case study addresses the invasion of lionfish, a native to coral reefs in the tropical waters of the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, to the Alantic Ocean off the southeastern United States. The study explains how scientists are using newly collected data and technology to learn how an invasive species like the lionfish affects an ecosystem. Students can learn about the environmental and economic consequences of invasive species using the recent invasion of the lionfish as a case study. Supporting resources include student and teacher guides, interactive quizzes, exercises with real data, and interviews with National Ocean Service scientists that explore how scientists think. In addition, an instructor section provides materials and resources for use in the classroom.

  3. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A scientist from the North Carolina Aquarium removes an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found in coastal North Carolina's hard bottom habitat, to prevent ecological impacts due to its predation and competition with native fishes....

  4. Predicting Biological Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Heger; Ludwig Trepl

    2003-01-01

    There are various approaches to explain the mechanisms of biological invasions. It is possible (1) to focus on the characteristics\\u000a of invading species and (2) on those of the ecosystems invaded, (3) to investigate the relationship between these two factors\\u000a (key–lock approach), or (4) to differentiate the invasion process in time. Each of these approaches may serve to improve the

  5. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. André; S. C. Antunes; F. Gonçalves; R. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge

  6. The functional and structural border between the CSF-and blood-milieu in the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, subfornical organ, area postrema) of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Krisch; H. Leonhardt; W. Buchheim

    1978-01-01

    The present study continues a previous investigation on the median eminence (EM) (Krisch et al., 1978). In rats with high levels of neurohormones (LHRH, vasopressin) a limited immunohistochemical labeling of perivascular tanycyte processes can be observed surrounding capillaries in the marginal region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and in the inner part of the subfornical organ (SFO). This

  7. Projection Neurons in Lamina I of Rat Spinal Cord with the Neurokinin 1 Receptor Are Selectively Innervated by Substance P-Containing Afferents and Respond to Noxious Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Todd; Zita Puskar; Rosemary C. Spike; Catriona Hughes; Christine Watt; Lisa Forrest

    2002-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord is densely innervated by nociceptive primary afferents, many of which contain substance P. It con- tains numerous projection neurons: the majority of these re- spond to noxious stimuli, however some are activated by cool- ing. In the rat, 80% of the projection neurons express the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, on which substance P acts,

  8. Use of C2 spinous process screw for posterior cervical fixation as substitute for laminar screw in a patient with thin laminae

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kosei; Baba, Satoshi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    Rigid screw fixation of C2 including transarticular screw and pedicle screw contain the risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. On the other hand, translaminar screws are considered to be safer for patients with anomalous VA. But C2 translaminar screw placement was limited in patients who have thin laminas and there is marked variation in C2 laminar thickness. Appropriate C2 fixation method for a patient who has thin laminas and high-riding VA together was controversial. Here, we present a case of an elderly Asian woman who had thin laminas and high-riding VA together with progressive myelopathy to report a first case of C2 spinous process screw insertion. Although the stability and safety of C2 spinous process screw was reported in cadaver series, there was no clinical report to our knowledge. Spinous process screw can be an option of C2 fixation for patients with high-riding VA and severe degenerated cervical spines including thin C2 laminas. PMID:23814004

  9. Plant invasions in the landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Vilà; Inés Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Biological invasions and changes in land-use are two components of global change affecting biodiversity worldwide. There is\\u000a overriding evidence that invasions can dramatically change the landscape and that particular land-use types facilitate invasions.\\u000a Still, these issues have not formally percolated into risk analysis of biological invasions, and only recently has the influence\\u000a of the surrounding landscape on invasive species spread

  10. The chemerin receptor 23 agonist, chemerin, attenuates monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing rat spinal cord neurons in inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has shown that the chemerin receptor 23 (ChemR23) represents a novel inflammatory pain target, whereby the ChemR23 agonists, resolvin E1 and chemerin, can inhibit inflammatory pain hypersensitivity, by a mechanism that involves normalisation of potentiated spinal cord responses. This study has examined the ability of the ChemR23 agonist, chemerin, to modulate synaptic input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing (NK1R+) dorsal horn neurons, which are known to be crucial for the manifestation of inflammatory pain. Results Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pre-identified lamina I NK1R+ neurons, in rat spinal cord slices, revealed that chemerin significantly attenuates capsaicin potentiation of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency, but is without effect in non-potentiated conditions. In tissue isolated from complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) treated rats, chemerin significantly reduced the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons, termed chemerin responders. However, chemerin did not alter the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre eEPSCs in control tissue. Furthermore, paired-pulse recordings in CFA tissue demonstrated that chemerin significantly reduced paired-pulse depression in the subset of neurons classified as chemerin responders, but was without effect in non-responders, indicating that chemerin acts presynaptically to attenuate monosynaptic C-fibre input to a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons. Conclusions These results suggest that the reported ability of ChemR23 agonists to attenuate inflammatory pain hypersensitivity may in part be due to a presynaptic inhibition of monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I NK1R+ neurons and provides further evidence that ChemR23 represents a promising inflammatory pain target. PMID:24716552

  11. Selective lamina dysregulation in granular retrosplenial cortex (area 29) after anterior thalamic lesions: an in situ hybridization and trans-neuronal tracing study in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, E; Wright, N; Poirier, G L; Thomas, K L; Erichsen, J T; Aggleton, J P

    2010-09-01

    There is growing evidence that lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei cause long-lasting intrinsic changes to retrosplenial cortex, with the potential to alter its functional properties. The present study had two goals. The first was to identify the pattern of changes in eight markers, as measured by in-situ hydridisation, in the granular retrosplenial cortex (area Rgb) following anterior thalamic lesions. The second was to use retrograde trans-neuronal tracing methods to identify the potential repercussions of intrinsic changes within granular retrosplenial cortex. In Experiment 1, adult rats received unilateral lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei and were perfused 4 weeks later. Of the eight markers, four (c-fos, zif268, 5ht2rc, kcnab2) showed a very similar pattern of change, with decreased levels in superficial retrosplenial cortex (lamina II) in the ipsilateral hemisphere but little or no change in deeper layers (lamina V). A fifth marker (cox6b) showed a shift in activity levels in the opposite direction to the previous four markers. Three other markers (cox6a1, CD74, ncs-1) did not appear to change activity levels after surgery. The predominant pattern of change, a decrease in superficial cortical activity, points to potential alterations in plasticity and metabolism. In Experiment 2, wheat germ agglutin (WGA) was injected into the anterior thalamic nuclei in rats given different survival times, sometimes in combination with the retrograde, fluorescent tracer, Fast Blue. Dense aggregations of retrogradely labeled cells were always found in lamina VI of granular retrosplenial cortex, but additional labeled cells in lamina II were only found: (1) in WGA cases, that is never after Fast Blue injections, and (2) after longer WGA survival times (3 days). These layer II Rgb cells are likely to have been trans-neuronally labeled, revealing a pathway from lamina II of Rgb to those deeper retrosplenial cells that project directly to the anterior thalamic nuclei. PMID:20570608

  12. Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

    1998-03-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

  13. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  15. center for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE)

    E-print Network

    center for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE invasive species threats to Texas' aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Invasive species are affecting aquatic assess- ment for future invasive species attacks to aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Texas Agri

  16. Resolving the genetic basis of invasiveness and predicting invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Weinig; Marcus T. Brock; Jenny A. Dechaine; Stephen M. Welch

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in determining traits underlying invasiveness. Yet, identifying a set of traits that\\u000a commonly confers invasiveness in a range of species has proven elusive, and almost nothing is known about genetic loci affecting\\u000a invasive success. Incorporating genetic model organisms into ecologically relevant studies is one promising avenue to begin\\u000a dissecting the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. Molecular

  17. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  18. Virus-Induced Tubule: a Vehicle for Rapid Spread of Virions through Basal Lamina from Midgut Epithelium in the Insect Vector

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Aiming; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Lianhui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant reoviruses, plant rhabdoviruses, tospoviruses, and tenuiviruses are transmitted by insect vectors in a persistent propagative manner. These viruses induce the formation of viral inclusions to facilitate viral propagation in insect vectors. The intestines of insect vectors are formed by epithelial cells that lie on the noncellular basal lamina surrounded by visceral muscle tissue. Here, we demonstrate that a recently identified plant reovirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of virus-encoded nonstructural protein P7-1 to directly cross the basal lamina from the initially infected epithelium toward visceral muscle tissues in the intestine of its vector, the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Furthermore, such tubules spread along visceral muscle tissues through a direct interaction of P7-1 and actin. The destruction of tubule assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the P7-1 gene inhibited viral spread in the insect vector in vitro and in vivo. All these results show for the first time that a virus employs virus-induced tubule as a vehicle for viral spread from the initially infected midgut epithelium through the basal lamina, facilitating the rapid dissemination of virus from the intestine of the insect vector. IMPORTANCE Numerous plant viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by sap-sucking insects, including thrips, aphids, planthoppers, and leafhoppers. These viruses, ingested by the insects, establish their primary infection in the intestinal epithelium of the insect vector. Subsequently, the invading virus manages to transverse the basal lamina, a noncellular layer lining the intestine, a barrier that may theoretically hinder viral spread. The mechanism by which plant viruses cross the basal lamina is unknown. Here, we report that a plant virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced tubules to pass through the basal lamina from the initially infected midgut epithelium of the insect vector, thus revealing the previously undescribed pathway adapted by the virus for rapid dissemination of virions from the intestine of the insect vector. PMID:24965461

  19. Lamina-associated Polypeptide-1 Interacts with the Muscular Dystrophy Protein Emerin and is Essential for Skeletal Muscle Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Méndez-López, Iván; Wang, Yuexia; Hays, Arthur P.; Tanji, Kurenai; Lefkowitch, Jay H.; Schulze, P. Christian; Worman, Howard J.; Dauer, William T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is caused by loss-of-function of emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane. Yet emerin null mice are essentially normal, suggesting the existence of a critical compensating factor. We show that the lamina-associated polypeptide1 (LAP1) interacts with emerin. Conditional deletion of LAP1 from striated muscle causes muscular dystrophy and this pathology is worsened in the absence of emerin. LAP1 levels are significantly higher in mouse than human skeletal muscle and reducing LAP1 by approximately half in mice also induces muscle abnormalities in emerin null mice. Conditional deletion of LAP1 from hepatocytes yields mice that exhibit normal liver function and are indistinguishable from wild type controls. These results establish that LAP1 interacts physically and functionally with emerin and plays an essential and selective role in skeletal muscle maintenance. They also highlight how dissecting differences between mouse and human phenotypes can provide fundamental insights into disease mechanisms. PMID:24055652

  20. National Invasive Species Management Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.

  1. Plants & Animals Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    See Also: Plants & Animals Invasive Species Insects (and Butterflies) Evolutionary Biology Earth) for S. invicta; and Garret Suen and Cameron Currie (University of Wisconsin-Madison) for A. cephalotes, guaranteed results! SwissFrenchSchool.ch AFM Tips by NanoAndMore AFM Tips For Any Application. Fast Delivery

  2. Invasive Spiny Water Flea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An invasive species, the spiny water flea, is likely a primary driver of changes in Lake Huron's food web over the past decade. Recent USGS research suggests that consumption of prey by invertebrates is outweighing consumption by fish in Lake Huron, and one invertebrate in particular – the in...

  3. Mechanisms regulating glioma invasion.

    PubMed

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-06-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  4. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ciara A; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma. PMID:25821737

  5. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Ciara A.; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma. PMID:25821737

  6. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  7. Uncorrected Modeling Marine Invasions: Current

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    been and could be useful in understanding marine biological invasions. Mathematical models have long into biological processes in general, and invasion dynamics in particular. The mathematical tools associated of small populations, and have G. Rilov, J.A. Crooks (eds.) Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. 71

  8. Risk Assessment for Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Andersen; Heather Adams; Bruce Hope; Mark Powell

    2004-01-01

    Although estimates vary, there is a broad agreement that invasive species impose major costs on the U.S. economy, as well as posing risks to nonmarket environmental goods and services and to public health. The domestic effort to manage risks associated with invasive species is coordinated by the National Invasive Species Council (NISC), which is charged with devel- oping a science-based

  9. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Eunmi Lee

    2002-01-01

    The evolutionary genetics of invasive species has been relatively unexplored, but could offer insights into mechanisms of invasions. Recent studies suggest that the invasion success of many species might depend more heavily on their ability to respond to natural selection than on broad physiological tolerance or plasticity. Thus, these studies stress the importance of genetic architecture, selection upon which could

  10. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  11. Age and gender-related elastin distribution changes in human vocal folds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS H. HAMMOND; STEVEN D. GRAY; JOHN BUTLER; RUIXIA ZHOU; ELIZABETH HAMMOND

    1998-01-01

    The composition of the lamina propria in human vocal folds has been shown to affect vocal performance. Elastin plays a significant role in the biomechanical effects of the lamina propria. We obtained 19 larynges from the state medical examiner from subjects whose cause of death was unrelated to the trachea and laryngeal regions. The sample contained male and female subjects

  12. The importance of hyaluronic acid in vocal fold biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Chan; Steven D. Gray; Ingo R. Titze

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the biomechanical properties of the human vocal fold cover (the superficial layer of the lamina propria). Study design: Vocal fold tissues were freshly excised from 5 adult male cadavers and were treated with bovine testicular hyaluronidase to selectively remove HA from the lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM). Linear viscoelastic

  13. Isolation and purification of CD14-negative mucosal macrophages from normal human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip D Smith; Edward N Janoff; Meg Mosteller-Barnum; Michael Merger; Jan M Orenstein; John F Kearney; Martin F Graham

    1997-01-01

    Mucosal macrophages play a fundamental role in the regulation of immunological events and inflammation in the small intestine. Because no information is available on normal small intestinal macrophages, we developed a technique for the isolation and purification of jejunal lamina propria macrophages in order to study their phenotype and activity. From sections of normal human jejunum, lamina propria mononuclear cells

  14. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  15. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle. PMID:25042128

  16. Collagen IV tx3, c 4, and ct5 Chains in Rodent Basal Laminae: Sequence, Distribution, Association with Laminins, and Developmental Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey H. Miner; Joshua R. Sanes

    1994-01-01

    Collagen IV is a major component of ver- tebrate basal laminae (BLs). Studies in humans have revealed a family of genes encoding or-or6 collagen IV chains and implicated ot3-ot6 in disease processes (Goodpasture and Alport syndromes and diffuse leiomyomatosis). To extend studies of these compo- nents to an experimentally accessible animal, we cloned cDNAs encoding partial collagen t~3, u4, and

  17. Nociceptive spinal cord neurons of laminae I-III exhibit oxidative stress damage during diabetic neuropathy which is prevented by early antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG).

    PubMed

    Raposo, D; Morgado, C; Pereira-Terra, P; Tavares, I

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord neurons located in laminae I-III respond to nociceptive stimuli and participate in the transmission of painful information to the brain. In the present study we evaluated if nociceptive laminae I-III neurons are affected by oxidative stress damage in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of a preventive antioxidant treatment with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) in nociceptive neuronal activation and behavioural signs of DNP. Three days after diabetes induction, a treatment protocol of STZ rats with an aqueous solution of EGCG in the drinking water was initiated. Ten weeks after the onset of treatment, the spinal cords were immunoreacted against validated markers of oxidative stress damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG) and of nociceptive neuronal activation (Fos). Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed before and after EGCG treatment. Untreated STZ rats presented increased levels of 8-OHdG immunoreaction, higher numbers of Fos-immunoreacted neurons and high levels of co-localization of 8-OHdG and Fos in laminae I-III. Treatment with EGCG normalized the increase of the above mentioned parameters and ameliorated mechanical hypersensitivity. The present study shows that nociceptive neurons in spinal cord laminae I-III exhibit oxidative stress damage during diabetic neuropathy, which probably affects ascending pain transmission during DNP. The neurobiological mechanisms and translational perspectives of the beneficial effects of a preventive and sustained EGCG treatment in DNP need to be evaluated in the future. PMID:25522867

  18. Reduction of anion reversal potential subverts the inhibitory control of firing rate in spinal lamina I neurons: towards a biophysical basis for neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A Prescott; Terrence J Sejnowski; Yves De Koninck

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction of the transmembrane chloride gradient in spinal lamina I neurons contributes to the cellular hyperexcitability producing allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury. The resultant decrease in anion reversal potential (i.e. shift in Eanion to less negative potentials) reduces glycine\\/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but the large increase in membrane conductance caused by inhibitory input can nonetheless shunt concurrent excitatory

  19. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area.

    PubMed

    André, A; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. PMID:19361901

  20. Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    been suggested (1,4). Thus, honey bees in Hawaii may facilitate the invasion of exotic plant species, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects

  1. Giant invasive prolactinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, F.Y.; Vesely, D.L.; Jordan, R.M.; Flanigan, S.; Kohler, P.O.

    1987-11-01

    Two of the largest prolactinomas ever documented that have been followed for nine and 10 years, respectively, demonstrate how aggressive prolactinomas may become and how difficult invasive prolactinomas are to treat. One of these prolactinomas invaded both internal auditory canals and simultaneously grew inferiorly, reducing the bony support of the skull and necessitating the patient to utilize both hands to hold his head up. The second patient's prolactinoma invaded the sphenoidal, ethmoidal, and cavernous sinuses. Both of these patients had neurosurgical debulking of their tumors followed by radiation therapy. Neither patient's prolactin levels decreased significantly during their first five years post-surgically, at which time bromocriptine was added. Since then, there has been a gradual lowering of serum prolactin levels and a decrease in the size of these tumors. These cases demonstrate that prolonged treatment and very large doses of bromocriptine may be necessary for tumor reduction in patients with invasive prolactinomas.

  2. Understanding Invasion Ecology: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    How can a single species of insect pose a threat to millions of acres of forests, orchards, and street trees? What can we do about the Asian longhorned beetle and other plants and animals that invade our farms, cities, and forests? The study of ecology helps us to find answers to these questions. Through applying ecological principles and conducting research, scientists are learning to manage invasive species. Students can learn alongside the scientists and, in some cases, help them. This chapter defines the term invasive species using a variety of examples--such as the Asian longhorned beetle and Chestnut Blight--and discusses their ecological implications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

  3. Correlation between Lamina Cribrosa Tilt Angles, Myopia and Glaucoma Using OCT with a Wide Bandwidth Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kuroda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Masayuki; Baba, Motoyoshi; Hangai, Masanori; Araie, Makoto; Yoneya, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure horizontal and vertical lamina cribrosa (LC) tilt angles and investigate associated factors using prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a broad wavelength laser light source. Design Cross sectional study. Methods Twenty-eight no glaucoma eyes (from 15 subjects) and 25 glaucoma eyes (from 14 patients) were enrolled. A total of 300 optic nerve head B-scans were obtained in 10 µm steps and the inner edge of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) was identified as the reference plane. The vertical and horizontal angles between BMO line and approximate the best-fitting line for the surface of the LC were measured and potential associated factors were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The median (interquartile range) horizontal and vertical tilt angles were 7.10 (2.43–11.45) degrees and 4.15 (2.60–6.85) degrees in eyes without glaucoma and 8.50 (4.40–14.10) degrees and 9.30 (6.90–14.15) degrees in glaucoma eyes, respectively. The refractive errors had a statistically significant association with horizontal LC tilt angles (coefficients, ?1.53 per diopter) and glaucoma had a significant correlation with vertical tilt angles (coefficients, 6.56) using multiple logistic regression analysis (p<0.001). Conclusions OCT allowed evaluation of the internal tilting of the LC compared with the BMO. The horizontal internal LC tilt angle was correlated with refractive errors, corresponding to myopic physiological changes, and vertical internal LC tilt was correlated with glaucoma, corresponding to glaucomatous pathological changes. These parameters have important implications for investigation of the correlation between myopia, glaucoma and LC morphological features. PMID:25551632

  4. Neurochemical characterisation of lamina II inhibitory interneurons that express GFP in the PrP-GFP mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn play important roles in modulating sensory transmission, and these roles are thought to be performed by distinct functional populations. We have identified 4 non-overlapping classes among the inhibitory interneurons in the rat, defined by the presence of galanin, neuropeptide Y, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and parvalbumin. The somatostatin receptor sst2A is expressed by ~50% of the inhibitory interneurons in this region, and is particularly associated with nNOS- and galanin-expressing cells. The main aim of the present study was to test whether a genetically-defined population of inhibitory interneurons, those expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the PrP-GFP mouse, belonged to one or more of the neurochemical classes identified in the rat. Results The expression of sst2A and its relation to other neurochemical markers in the mouse was similar to that in the rat, except that a significant number of cells co-expressed nNOS and galanin. The PrP-GFP cells were entirely contained within the set of inhibitory interneurons that possessed sst2A receptors, and virtually all expressed nNOS and/or galanin. GFP was present in ~3-4% of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn, corresponding to ~16% of the inhibitory interneurons in this region. Consistent with their sst2A-immunoreactivity, all of the GFP cells were hyperpolarised by somatostatin, and this was prevented by administration of a selective sst2 receptor antagonist or a blocker of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Conclusions These findings support the view that neurochemistry provides a valuable way of classifying inhibitory interneurons in the superficial laminae. Together with previous evidence that the PrP-GFP cells form a relatively homogeneous population in terms of their physiological properties, they suggest that these neurons have specific roles in processing sensory information in the dorsal horn. PMID:24176114

  5. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article. PMID:20605753

  6. Pathways in Plant Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Kowarik; Moritz von der Lippe

    At least at a global scale, species transfer through human agency is much more frequent, efficient and effective than through\\u000a natural mechanisms and has no parallel in evolutionary history (Elton 1958; Mack et al. 2000). As propagule pressure is one\\u000a of the most powerful bottlenecks in invasions (Williamson 1996), human-mediated dispersal is a key process in the range expansion\\u000a of

  7. Non invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, U S; Simonds, A K

    2000-04-01

    Non-invasive ventilation refers to the technique of providing ventilatory support to a patient without an endo/orotracheal airway. It is a promising and rapidly upcoming new technique and is being used as first line therapy in a wide variety of conditions causing respiratory failure. The major indications for its use include respiratory failure due to a variety of causes (chest wall abnormalities, neuromuscular disease, COPD), weaning and stabilization of cardio-respiratory status before and after surgery. Patients who are candidates for this modality usually have a hypercapnic respiratory failure but are able to protect the airway and cooperate with treatment. The biggest advantage of the technique is its simplicity and avoidance of complications of intubation like trauma, infection and delayed complications like tracheal stenosis. Patient comfort is significantly improved and important functions like speech, swallowing and cough are preserved. Several purpose built ventilators are available for use including pressure preset and volume present machines, each of which have their own advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice. A range of patient interfaces is available. The initiation of non-invasive ventilation is much easier as compared to invasive ventilation and can be done for most patients in an intermediary care unit thereby cutting down treatment costs and saving precious intensive care beds. Titration of ventilatory parameters can usually be done using simple tests like oxymetry and blood gases. Several technique related problems like skin pressure sores, nasal symptoms and abdominal distension can be managed with simple measures. Non invasive ventilation has got a special and evolving role in management of COPD, both in acute exacerbations and chronic respiratory failure. In short, the advantages of this form of ventilation are numerous and physicians must familiarize themselves with this new technique, facilities for which should be available in all hospitals admitting patients with respiratory failure. PMID:11273177

  8. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  9. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus is recognized as one of the most important invasive pest species described for other invasive termite and ant species. Keywords Isoptera Á Invasive insect Á Microsatellites1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-011-0087-7 Genetic

  10. Alex Lester Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance?

    E-print Network

    Young, Terence

    Alex Lester 3/18/2013 Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance? Invasive plant species have moved with invasive plant species in some form causing damage or impacting a landscape, and often times the only real of action is to remove invasive species, it is beneficial to look at what negative impacts invasive plant

  11. Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade?

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? #12;Many are introduced, few become invasive #12;Hypotheses about why invaders succeed: 1. Invasive species have traits that favor establishment and spread 2. Invasive species are released from enemies 3. Invasive species exploit empty niches

  12. Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade?

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? #12;Hypotheses about why invaders succeed: 1. Invasive species have traits that favor establishment and spread 2. Invasive species are released from enemies 3. Invasive species exploit empty niches 4. Invasive species are favored by anthropogenic

  13. Aquatic Invasive Species Vector Risk Assessment Project

    E-print Network

    Zavaleta, Erika

    Aquatic Invasive Species Vector Risk Assessment Project Invasive Species In today's global society by invasive species. San Francisco Bay itself is widely considered to be an invasive species hot spot. Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) can upset ecological stability, outcompete native species, and impact water quality

  14. Minimally invasive periorbital rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, Jonathan; Hoenig, Danya

    2013-08-01

    Minimally invasive procedures have become increasingly popular over the last decade. In many cases, the use of neuromodulators and fillers has replaced surgical procedures. This article reviews the analysis and evaluation of the aesthetic patient presenting for periorbital rejuvenation. A layered approach is used, evaluating the skin, fat, muscle, and bone to determine which procedure is best suited for each patient. Volume enhancement with the use of fat and fillers and muscle manipulation with the use of neuromodulators are discussed. A brief summary of currently available skin-resurfacing techniques is also discussed. PMID:23884851

  15. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents. PMID:20919576

  16. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Magder, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Although invasive hemodynamic monitoring requires considerable skill, studies have shown a striking lack of knowledge of the measurements obtained with the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). This article reviews monitoring using a PAC. Issues addressed include basic physiology that determines cardiac output and blood pressure; methodology in the measurement of data obtained from a PAC; use of the PAC in making a diagnosis and for patient management, with emphasis on a responsive approach to management; and uses of the PAC that are not indications by themselves for placing the catheter, but can provide useful information when a PAC is in place. PMID:25435479

  17. INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    ), which also has a broad geographical range including New Zealand, Africa, Asia and the Americas (BeadellINVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru in Neotropical birds from two different regions of Peru. We detected an overall prevalence of 32.4 % comprising

  18. INVASION NOTE Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    the publication of Elton's book (see also Simberloff (2004), Garci´a-Berthou (2007), Ricciardi and Mac- IsaacINVASION NOTE Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book Emili Garci´a-Berthou Received: 13 of the ecological niche (Macfadyen 1992; Simberloff 2000; Hardy 2002). His 1927 book Animal Ecology was reprinted

  19. Reproductive effort in invasive and non-invasive Rubus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. McDowell; David P. Turner

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the physiological costs and the total amount of resources allocated to reproduction in two closely related species of Rubus, one of which is invasive. These two species share several morphological and life-history characteristics and grow together in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Reproductive effort was manipulated in canes of both species by removing flower buds. The non-invasive species,

  20. Peripherally driven low-threshold inhibitory inputs to lamina I local-circuit and projection neurones: a new circuit for gating pain responses

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system which relays primary afferent input to supraspinal areas. However, little is known about how the signal is modulated by its intrinsic network including local-circuit neurones (LCNs) and much less numerous anterolateral tract projection neurones (PNs). Here, we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings in an isolated spinal cord preparation to examine properties of identified LCNs (n = 85) and PNs (n = 73) in their functionally preserved local networks. Forty LCNs showed spontaneous rhythmic firing (2–7 Hz) at zero current injection, which persisted in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic transmission. In the remaining cases, most LCNs and PNs fired tonically in response to depolarizing current injections. We identified LCNs and PNs receiving low-threshold primary afferent-driven inhibitory inputs, which in many cases were disynaptic and temporally preceded classical high-threshold excitatory inputs. This direct inhibitory link between low-threshold afferents and PNs can function as a postsynaptic gate controlling the nociceptive information flow in the spinal cord. The LCNs were found to be integrated into the superficial dorsal horn network by their receipt of monosynaptic and disynaptic inputs from other lamina I and II neurones. One-third of LCNs and two-thirds of PNs tested responded to substance P application. Thus, substance P released by a noxious afferent stimulation may excite PNs in two ways: directly, and via the activation of presynaptic LCN circuitries. In conclusion, we have described important properties of identified lamina I neurones and their roles in a new circuit for gating pain responses. PMID:24421354

  1. Populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in lamina II of the adult rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by a combined electrophysiological and anatomical approach

    PubMed Central

    Yasaka, Toshiharu; Tiong, Sheena Y.X.; Hughes, David I.; Riddell, John S.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Lamina II contains a large number of interneurons involved in modulation and transmission of somatosensory (including nociceptive) information. However, its neuronal circuitry is poorly understood due to the difficulty of identifying functional populations of interneurons. This information is important for understanding nociceptive processing and for identifying changes that underlie chronic pain. In this study, we compared morphology, neurotransmitter content, electrophysiological and pharmacological properties for 61 lamina II neurons recorded in slices from adult rat spinal cord. Morphology was related to transmitter content, since islet cells were GABAergic, while radial and most vertical cells were glutamatergic. However, there was considerable diversity among the remaining cells, some of which could not be classified morphologically. Transmitter phenotype was related to firing pattern, since most (18/22) excitatory cells, but few (2/23) inhibitory cells had delayed, gap or reluctant patterns, which are associated with A-type potassium (IA) currents. Somatostatin was identified in axons of 14/24 excitatory neurons. These had variable morphology, but most of those tested showed delayed-firing. Excitatory interneurons are therefore likely to contribute to pain states associated with synaptic plasticity involving IA currents. Although noradrenaline and serotonin evoked outward currents in both inhibitory and excitatory cells, somatostatin produced these currents only in inhibitory neurons, suggesting that its pro-nociceptive effects are mediated by disinhibition. Our results demonstrate that certain distinctive populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneuron can be recognised in lamina II. Combining this approach with identification of other neurochemical markers should allow further clarification of neuronal circuitry in the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:20817353

  2. Mechanisms of local invasion in enteroendocrine tumors: identification of novel candidate cytoskeleton-associated proteins in an experimental mouse model by a proteomic approach and validation in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Christophe; Bollard, Julien; Couté, Yohann; Massoma, Patrick; Poncet, Gilles; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Gadot, Nicolas; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are defined as locally invasive only after extension to the muscularis propria. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms, we applied a proteomic approach to an orthotopic xenograft model to identify candidate proteins evaluable in human SI-NETs. After grafting STC-1 neuroendocrine tumor cells on the caecum of nude mice, comparative proteomic studies were performed between the pre-invasive and the invasive stages, respectively 2 and 8 weeks after grafting. We identified 24 proteins displaying at least a 1.5-fold differential expression between 2 and 8 week-stages. Most were cytoskeleton-associated proteins, among which five showed decreasing expression levels (CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2, vimentin, desmin) and two increasing expression levels (14-3-3?, CK8). Changes for CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2 and 14-3-3? were confirmed in experimental tumors and in a series of 28 human SI-NETs. In conclusion, our results underline the relevance of proteomics to identify novel biomarkers of tissue invasion. PMID:25224486

  3. Gastrointestinal candidiasis in an Aldabra giant tortoise (Geochelone gigantea).

    PubMed

    Juniantito, Vetnizah; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yonezawa, Masao; Ito, Shu; Yamate, Jyoji

    2009-09-01

    An adult female Aldabra giant tortoise (Geochelone gigantea) was found dead with a 2 month-history of decreased appetite. At necropsy, multiple ulcers were seen in the mucosa of stomach and colon. Histopathologically, the ulcers were characterized by extensive necrosis, hemorrhage, and marked edema, along with numerous chlamidospores and aseptate fungal hyphae. Fungal structures infiltrated into the lamina propria, submucosa and muscle layer; their invasion into blood vessels formed thrombosis. Immunohistochemically, the fungal structures were strongly positive with an antibody against Candida spp. This case is the first report on gastrointestinal candidiasis in an Aldabra giant tortoise. PMID:19801914

  4. Restoring Ecological Function with Invasive Species Management

    E-print Network

    Hanna, Cause

    2012-01-01

    Invasive Species Management Restores a Plant-Pollinator Mutualism in Hawaii………..Invasive Species Management Restores a Plant-Pollinator Mutualism in HawaiiHawaii, pollination, resource partitioning, Vespula Introduction Invasive species

  5. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  6. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The...

  7. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document...45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  8. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  9. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  10. Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions

    E-print Network

    Pringle, Anne

    Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions Anne Pringle,1 James D. Bever,2 Monique Gardes,3 Jeri L mycorrhizal, conservation biology, ectomycorrhizal, fungi Abstract The factors that influence a plant of dif- ferent mechanisms depends on the specific invasion. Here we consider one factor--mycorrhizal

  11. Minimally Invasive Retroperitoneal Pancreatic Necrosectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Connor; P. Ghaneh; M. Raraty; R. Sutton; E. Rosso; C. J. Garvey; M. L. Hughes; J. C. Evans; P. Rowlands; J. P. Neoptolemos

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Open surgery for pancreatic necrosis is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We report the results of a recently developed minimally invasive technique that we adopted in 1998. Methods: A descriptive explanation of the approach is given together with the results of a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent a minimally invasive retroperitoneal pancreatic necrosectomy (MIRP) between August 1998

  12. MEDUSAHEAD INVASION, IMPLICATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead invasion of western rangelands is at a cross-road, either an aggressive effort to prevent its invasion of new areas is initiated, or millions of acres will be lost. Medusahead is an aggressive, exotic, annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. The rapid spread of me...

  13. An agenda for invasion biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geerat J. Vermeij

    1996-01-01

    Here I advocate a comparative and systematic approach in which invasion (the extension of species ranges to areas not previously occupied by that species) is studied from the perspective of individual species as well as of the regions and biotas that export and receive invaders. In order to go beyond the particulars of invasion, it is important to ask: (1)

  14. Genetic reconstructions of invasion history.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-05-01

    A diverse array of molecular markers and constantly evolving analytical approaches have been employed to reconstruct the invasion histories of the most notorious invasions. Detailed information on the source(s) of introduction, invasion route, type of vectors, number of independent introductions and pathways of secondary spread has been corroborated for a large number of biological invasions. In this review, I present the promises and limitations of current techniques while discussing future directions. Broad phylogeographic surveys of native and introduced populations have traced back invasion routes with surprising precision. These approaches often further clarify species boundaries and reveal complex patterns of genetic relationships with noninvasive relatives. Moreover, fine-scale analyses of population genetics or genomics allow deep inferences on the colonization dynamics across invaded ranges and can reveal the extent of gene flow among populations across various geographical scales, major demographic events such as genetic bottlenecks as well as other important evolutionary events such as hybridization with native taxa, inbreeding and selective sweeps. Genetic data have been often corroborated successfully with historical, geographical and ecological data to enable a comprehensive reconstruction of the invasion process. The advent of next-generation sequencing, along with the availability of extensive databases of repository sequences generated by barcoding projects opens the opportunity to broadly monitor biodiversity, to identify early invasions and to quantify failed invasions that would otherwise remain inconspicuous to the human eye. PMID:25703061

  15. Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus Common Name: Oriental bittersweet Physical this invasive species from the native, Celastrus scandens whose flowers and fruit are more terminally located

  16. Characterisation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1: a novel basal lamina component expressed at cell-tooth interfaces.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Pierre; Wazen, Rima M; Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Nanci, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Functional genomic screening of the rat enamel organ (EO) has led to the identification of a number of secreted proteins expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, including amelotin (AMTN) and odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM). In this study, we characterise the gene, protein and pattern of expression of a related protein called secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1). The Scpppq1 gene resides within the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (Scpp) cluster. SCPPPQ1 is a highly conserved, 75-residue, secreted protein rich in proline, leucine, glutamine and phenylalanine. In silico data mining has revealed no correlation to any known sequences. Northern blotting of various rat tissues suggests that the expression of Scpppq1 is restricted to tooth and associated tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the protein is expressed during the late maturation stage of amelogenesis and in the junctional epithelium where it localises to an atypical basal lamina at the cell-tooth interface. This discrete localisation suggests that SCPPPQ1, together with AMTN and ODAM, participates in structuring the basal lamina and in mediating attachment of epithelia cells to mineralised tooth surfaces. PMID:25193156

  17. Concha bullosa mucocele with orbital invasion and secondary frontal sinusitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although concha bullosa (CB) is the most common variants of the middle turbinate, mucocele of CB is uncommon. Furthermore, CB mucocele with orbital invasion and secondary frontal sinusitis has not been reported previously. Case presentation A 42-year-old Korean male presented with gradually progressive proptosis of right eye and right-sided frontal headache. He had previously undergone endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) 15 and 9 years ago. The endoscopic examination showed an expansive, large middle turbinate with normal mucosa filled the majority of right nasal cavity and displaced the septum to the left. A computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well demarcated cystic huge mass at right nasal cavity extending to ethmoid sinus and orbit. The mass caused a bony defect on the lamina papyracea and displaced medial rectus muscle and orbit laterally. Moreover, the right frontal and ethmoid sinus was totally opacified. This article reports orbital invasion and frontal sinusitis complicating a CB mucocele, which was successfully treated by endoscopic resection of the lateral wall of CB and frontal sinusotomy. Conclusions This case illustrates that CB mucocele could develop to such a massive extent that it leads to orbital complication and secondary frontal sinusitis. Therefore, we consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of orbital complications and secondary sinusitis caused by intranasal mass. PMID:24299615

  18. Managing Invasive PlantsManaging Invasive Plants In our yard

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    's rocket Poplar Poison sumac "To be designated as an invasive species, a plant must be so aggressive, purple loosestrife was first brought to the U.S. in the hold of a ship via ballast water, then later

  19. Minimally invasive cervical microendoscopic laminoforaminotomy.

    PubMed

    Coric, Domagoj; Adamson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Spine surgery has seen parallel interest and development in the areas of motion preservation and minimally invasive surgery. Posterior microendoscopic laminoforaminotomy (MELF) allows for neural decompression while maintaining motion via a minimally invasive approach. This technique shares the advantage of maintenance of motion with arthroplasty, but without the need for instrumentation. Therefore, the procedure is motion preserving, minimally invasive and cost-effective. The ideal indications for posterior MELF include unilateral radiculopathy secondary to "hard disc" or spondylosis, as well as soft disc herniations. The authors present a modified surgical technique for posterior MELF as well as a case study illustrating its synergy with anterior arthroplasty. PMID:18673049

  20. Elastomechanical model of tumor invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiot, Caterina; Pugno, Nicola; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Tumor invasion concerns the tumor capability of colonizing the host by means of several complex biochemical processes. Since certain aspects of the problem present a striking resemblance with well known physical mechanisms, the authors propose here an analogy between tumoral invasive branching in a tissue and the mechanical insertion of a solid inclusion in an elastic material specimen. The model, which is an extension of a previous one, based on the universal growth law of West et al. [Nature (London) 413, 628 (2001)], is discussed in the case of multicellular tumor spheroids (and cords), but it may be adapted to understand invasion also in real tumors.

  1. Predicting invasion success in complex ecological networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara N. Romanuk; Yun Zhou; Ulrich Brose; Eric L. Berlow; Richard J. Williams; Neo D. Martinez

    2009-01-01

    A central and perhaps insurmountable challenge of invasion ecology is to predict which combinations of species and habitats most effectively promote and prevent biological invasions. Here, we integrate models of network structure and nonlinear population dynamics to search for potential generalities among trophic factors that may drive invasion success and failure. We simulate invasions where 100 different species attempt to

  2. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  3. Biological Invasion: Observations, Theory, Models, Simulations

    E-print Network

    Biological Invasion: Observations, Theory, Models, Simulations Sergei Petrovskii Department;Introduction: What it is all about The term biological invasion is a common name for a variety of phenomena invasionStages of biological invasion. (a) Introduction of an alien species: (b) Establishment

  4. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-012-0345-3 The rise, and community structure (Juliano 1998, 2009; Ellis et al. 2006). From an invasion biology perspective, con of the invasives and decline of the natives: insights revealed from adult populations of container-inhabiting Aedes

  5. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    Martone, Patrick T.

    1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Volume 14 Number 8 Biol Invasions (2012) 14:1651-1663 DOI 10.1007/s10530-012-0178-0 Adapted for invasion? Comparing attachment, drag and dislodgment of native 12 months after publication. #12;ORIGINAL PAPER Adapted for invasion? Comparing attachment, drag

  6. Invasion of Nile Perch in

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    Invasion of Nile Perch in Lake Victoria #12;Lake Victoria Haplochromine cichlids !800 species !Lake Victoria !Lake Malawi !Fast radiation... #12;Nile perch (Lates niloticus) #12;Nile perch (introduced

  7. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass; MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... The surgeon will then find and prepare an artery on your chest wall to attach to your ...

  8. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  9. Invasion of the zebra mussel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-08

    Zebra mussels were brought to North America in the ballast water of ships. Since 1988, the zebra mussels have pushed native freshwater mussels to near-extinction. The zebra mussel invasion is a great example of time delays.

  10. 1 Invasion Ecology syllabus, spring 2012 Description: Mechanisms and hypotheses to explain biological invasions. Impacts of

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    biological invasions. Impacts of invasions on communities and ecosystems, management approaches, design and analysis of experiments. Offered spring term in even-numbered years. Biological invasions are second only) Davis, M.A. (2009). Invasion Biology. Oxford, UK: Oxford. ISBN: 0199218757 Fifty Years of Invasion

  11. 60 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species SYMBIONTS OF INVASIVE INSECTS: CHARACTERIZATION,

    E-print Network

    60 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species SYMBIONTS OF INVASIVE INSECTS: CHARACTERIZATION of the major invasive species. The information we do have is largely limited to two specific types are really invasive species complexes. 2. Symbionts can enhance the invasive potential of introduced species

  12. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    character- istics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species. ­ Preslia or in the laboratory. Invasive species significantly differ from naturalized non-invasive species in propagule length/width ratio (by having lower ratio, i.e. more rounded propagules) and fecundity (invasive species are more

  13. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

  14. Outcomes after minimally invasive esophagomyotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D Luketich; Hiran C Fernando; Neil A Christie; Percival O Buenaventura; Robert J Keenan; Sayeed Ikramuddin; Philip R Schauer

    2001-01-01

    Background. Thoracic surgeons traditionally performed thoracotomy and myotomy for achalasia. Recently minimally invasive approaches have been reported with good success. This report summarizes our single-institution experience using video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) or laparoscopy (LAP) for the treatment of achalasia.Methods. A review of 62 patients undergoing minimally invasive myotomy for achalasia was performed. There were 27 male and 35 female patients. Mean

  15. Minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N T; Follette, D M; Lemoine, P H; Roberts, P F; Goodnight, J E

    2001-08-01

    Ivor Lewis esophagectomy consists of a laparotomy and right thoracotomy for resection of the intrathoracic esophagus. Recent advances in minimally invasive surgical technology have allowed surgeons to apply laparoscopy and thoracoscopy to perform esophagectomy. However, there have been few reports that describe a totally minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. We present a case of combined laparoscopic and thoracoscopic resection of the distal third esophagus with an intrathoracic esophagogastric reconstruction for esophageal carcinoma. PMID:11515902

  16. Cancer Invasion: Patterns and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Krakhmal, N. V.; Zavyalova, M. V.; Denisov, E. V.; Vtorushin, S. V.; Perelmuter, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer invasion and the ability of malignant tumor cells for directed migration and metastasis have remained a focus of research for many years. Numerous studies have confirmed the existence of two main patterns of cancer cell invasion: collective cell migration and individual cell migration, by which tumor cells overcome barriers of the extracellular matrix and spread into surrounding tissues. Each pattern of cell migration displays specific morphological features and the biochemical/molecular genetic mechanisms underlying cell migration. Two types of migrating tumor cells, mesenchymal (fibroblast-like) and amoeboid, are observed in each pattern of cancer cell invasion. This review describes the key differences between the variants of cancer cell migration, the role of epithelial-mesenchymal, collective-amoeboid, mesenchymal-amoeboid, and amoeboid- mesenchymal transitions, as well as the significance of different tumor factors and stromal molecules in tumor invasion. The data and facts collected are essential to the understanding of how the patterns of cancer cell invasion are related to cancer progression and therapy efficacy. Convincing evidence is provided that morphological manifestations of the invasion patterns are characterized by a variety of tissue (tumor) structures. The results of our own studies are presented to show the association of breast cancer progression with intratumoral morphological heterogeneity, which most likely reflects the types of cancer cell migration and results from different activities of cell adhesion molecules in tumor cells of distinct morphological structures. PMID:26085941

  17. Plant invasions and extinction debts

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether introduced species invasions pose a major threat to biodiversity is hotly debated. Much of this debate is fueled by recent findings that competition from introduced organisms has driven remarkably few plant species to extinction. Instead, native plant species in invaded ecosystems are often found in refugia: patchy, marginal habitats unsuitable to their nonnative competitors. However, whether the colonization and extinction dynamics of these refugia allow long-term native persistence is uncertain. Of particular concern is the possibility that invasive plants may induce an extinction debt in the native flora, where persistence over the short term masks deterministic extinction trajectories. We examined how invader impacts on landscape structure influence native plant persistence by combining recently developed quantitative techniques for evaluating metapopulation persistence with field measurements of an invaded plant community. We found that European grass invasion of an edaphically heterogeneous California landscape has greatly decreased the likelihood of the persistence of native metapopulations. It does so via two main pathways: (i) decreasing the size of native refugia, which reduces seed production and increases local extinction, and (ii) eroding the dispersal permeability of the matrix between refugia, which reduces their connectivity. Even when native plant extinction is the deterministic outcome of invasion, the time to extinction can be on the order of hundreds of years. We conclude that the relatively short time since invasion in many parts of the world is insufficient to observe the full impact of plant invasions on native biodiversity. PMID:23297239

  18. Integration time in a subset of spinal lamina I neurons is lengthened by sodium and calcium currents acting synergistically to prolong subthreshold depolarization.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A; De Koninck, Yves

    2005-05-11

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in processing and relaying nociceptive information to the brain. It comprises physiologically distinct cell types that process information in fundamentally different ways: tonic neurons fire repetitively during stimulation and display prolonged EPSPs, suggesting operation as integrators, whereas single-spike neurons act like coincidence detectors. Using whole-cell recordings from a rat spinal slice preparation, we set out to determine the basis for prolonged EPSPs in tonic cells and the implications for signal processing. Kinetics of synaptic currents could not explain differences in EPSP kinetics. Instead, tonic neurons were found to express a persistent sodium current, I(Na,P), that amplified and prolonged depolarization in response to brief stimulation. Tonic neurons also expressed a persistent calcium current, I(Ca,P), that contributed to prolongation but not to amplification. Simulations using NEURON software demonstrated that I(Na,P) was necessary and sufficient to explain amplification, whereas I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) acted synergistically to prolong depolarization: initial activation of the slower current (I(Ca,P)) depended on the faster current (I(Na,P)) but maintained activation of the faster current likewise depended on the slower current. Additional investigation revealed that I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) could dramatically increase integration time (>30x) and thereby encourage temporal summation but at the expense of spike time precision. Thus, by prolonging subthreshold depolarization, intrinsic inward currents allow tonic neurons in spinal lamina I to specialize as integrators that are optimally suited to encode stimulus intensity. PMID:15888650

  19. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Characterization of the Healthy Human Lamina Cribrosa With Adaptive Optics Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the in vivo three-dimensional (3D) lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture of healthy eyes using adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT). Methods. A multimodal retinal imaging system with a light source centered at 1050 nm and AO confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was used in this study. One randomly selected eye from 18 healthy subjects was scanned in a 6° × 6° window centered on the LC. Subjects also underwent scanning with Cirrus HD-OCT. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture was semiautomatically segmented and quantified for connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), beam thickness, pore diameter, pore area, and pore aspect ratio. The LC was assessed in central and peripheral regions of equal areas and quadrants and with depth. A linear mixed effects model weighted by the fraction of visible LC was used to compare LC structure between regions. Results. The nasal quadrant was excluded due to poor visualization. The central sector showed greater CTVF and thicker beams as compared to the periphery (P < 0.01). Both superior and inferior quadrants showed greater CTVF, pore diameter, and pore mean area than the temporal quadrant (P < 0.05). Depth analysis showed that the anterior and posterior aspects of the LC contained smaller pores with greater density and thinner beams as compared to the middle third (P < 0.05). The anterior third also showed a greater CTVF than the middle third (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In vivo analysis of healthy eyes using AO-SDOCT showed significant, albeit small, regional variation in LC microarchitecture by quadrant, radially, and with depth, which should be considered in further studies of the LC. PMID:25228539

  20. Cells in Laminae III and IV of the Rat Spinal Cord that Possess the Neurokinin1 Receptor and Have Dorsally Directed Dendrites Receive a Major Synaptic Input from Tachykinin-Containing Primary Afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Naim; Rosemary C. Spike; Christine Watt; Safa A. S. Shehab; Andrew J. Todd

    Many neurons with cell bodies in laminae III or IV of the spinal dorsal horn possess the neurokinin 1 receptor and have dorsal dendrites that arborize in the superficial dorsal horn. We have performed a confocal microscopic study to determine whether these cells receive inputs from substance P-containing primary afferents. All neurons of this type received contacts from substance P-immunoreactive

  1. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and immunocytochemical labeling in podobranchial filament and lamina of the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz: evidence for the existence of sodium transport in the filaments.

    PubMed

    Barradas, C; Wilson, J M; Dunel-Erb, S

    1999-10-01

    In the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, the podobranch, bearing respiratory and ion-transporting filaments, is attached to the lamina. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is higher in filaments than in lamina. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we can observe that the immunoreactivity of the antibody is different for each kind of structure. The lamina presents an ion-transporting type epithelium, which is thick and presents a developed apical infolding system but no developed basolateral infolding system. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the lamina is very weak. Respiratory filaments present a thin epithelium with a few small apical folds and scarce mitochondria. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the respiratory filaments is very weak. In contrast, the ion-transporting filament epithelium is thick, presents a short apical infolding system, a well-developed basal infolding system, and numerous mitochondria. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the ion-transporting filaments is strong. Ion-transporting filaments, which have a cuticle permeable to cations, seem particularly implicated in Na(+)regulation, by way of the sodium pump. PMID:18627870

  2. Increased Leaf Angle1, a Raf-Like MAPKKK That Interacts with a Nuclear Protein Family, Regulates Mechanical Tissue Formation in the Lamina Joint of Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jing; Zhang, Baocai; Wang, Nili; Zhou, Yihua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), which function at the top level of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, are clustered into three groups. However, no Group C Raf-like MAPKKKs have yet been functionally identified. We report here the characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, increased leaf angle1 (ila1), resulting from a T-DNA insertion in a Group C MAPKKK gene. The increased leaf angle in ila1 is caused by abnormal vascular bundle formation and cell wall composition in the leaf lamina joint, as distinct from the mechanism observed in brassinosteroid-related mutants. Phosphorylation assays revealed that ILA1 is a functional kinase with Ser/Thr kinase activity. ILA1 is predominantly resident in the nucleus and expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf lamina joints. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified six closely related ILA1 interacting proteins (IIPs) of unknown function. Using representative IIPs, the interaction of ILA1 and IIPs was confirmed in vivo. IIPs were localized in the nucleus and showed transactivation activity. Furthermore, ILA1 could phosphorylate IIP4, indicating that IIPs may be the downstream substrates of ILA1. Microarray analyses of leaf lamina joints provided additional evidence for alterations in mechanical strength in ila1. ILA1 is thus a key factor regulating mechanical tissue formation at the leaf lamina joint. PMID:22207574

  3. Neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord with the neurokinin-1 receptor receive few contacts from unmyelinated primary afferents which do not contain substance P

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Sakamoto; R. C Spike; A. J Todd

    1999-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that neurons in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which possess the neurokinin-1 receptor and have long dorsal dendrites receive a major synaptic input from substance P-containing primary afferents and a more limited input from myelinated afferents. In the present study we have carried out a quantitative analysis of the contacts which cells

  4. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. PMID:22006671

  5. Minimally-invasive parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Bellantone, R; Raffaelli, M; DE Crea, C; Traini, E; Lombardi, C P

    2011-08-01

    During the last two decades, several techniques for minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy have been developed, including open approaches (open minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy - OMI P), minimally-invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MI-RP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy through a lateral approach (VAP-LA) and purely endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP). We have reviewed the pertinent literature, analyzing the indications, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques. Even if the field of minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy is heterogeneous, there is some evidence that minimally-invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy (MIVAP) should be preferred over OMIP for better cosmetic outcomes, improved visualization of neck structures and control of pain. There is also low-level evidence that MIVAP has some advantages over other purely endoscopic procedures for parathyroidectomy and VAP-LA, in terms of technical difficulties, in addition to the possibility to perform bilateral exploration and associated procedures on the thyroid gland. While the data on medium-term results are encouraging, longer follow-up times are still needed to confirm its safety and rate of cure with respect to conventional surgery. It has been demonstrated that MIVAP is also feasible in secondary and familial hyperparathyroidism, although no conclusive data are available. PMID:22065831

  6. Innovations in minimally invasive hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Beri; Falcone, Tommaso

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal hysterectomy, when feasible, is the safest and most cost-effective route for hysterectomy, however, when this is not possible, minimally invasive hysterectomy is often the next best option. Laparoscopic hysterectomy has advanced significantly since 1988, when it was first introduced. Continued improvements in instrumentation, energy sources, hemostatic agents, and vaginal cuff closure techniques have expanded the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy. Variations of laparoscopy, specifically laparoendoscopic single-site surgery hysterectomy and robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy, have further expanded the role of minimally invasive hysterectomy with the goal of decreasing morbidity. As with any evolving technology, well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness before wide-spread adoption. PMID:24145361

  7. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Cota, Jason M; Frei, Christopher R

    2008-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. PMID:21694882

  8. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  9. Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Research Station

    E-print Network

    Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Mountain Research Station Contents RMRS Invasive Species Research Program.......................................2 Common themes of RMRS invasive species research ...................3 RMRS Invasive Species Research Priorities and Future Direction....3 Summary of Taxa

  10. Clear and Present Danger: Invasive Species Threats toInvasive Species Threats to

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    11/10/2010 1 Clear and Present Danger: Invasive Species Threats toInvasive Species Threats, gypsy moth, cogongrass ­ Emerald ash borer, thousand cankers disease Invasive Species Impacts Invasive Species Impacts Economies Nationally: Annual cost is approxAnnual cost is approx. $138 billion

  11. Water use by invasive eastern

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Water use by invasive eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the Nebraska Sandhills David Wedin semi-arid regions (GLACE et al. 2004). #12;Research by Awada/Wedin group on physiology and water use and season of water uptake by trees and grasses (stable isotopes) 3. Tree and stand-level transpiration

  12. GEOHORIZONS Correction of invasion effects

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    and quantify the effects of mud-filtrate invasion on apparent resistivity, nuclear, and magnetic resonance logs petrophysical interpretation methods yield abnormally high estimates of water saturation in some of the reservoir units that produce gas with null water influx. Such an anomalous behavior is caused by relatively

  13. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  14. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  15. Do grazers prefer invasive seaweeds?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Cacabelos; Celia Olabarria; Mónica Incera; Jesús S. Troncoso

    2010-01-01

    Sargassum muticum is an invasive alga that affects biodiversity of benthic communities. Its proliferation in recipient communities may be due to several factors including limited grazing effects by native herbivores (“Enemy Release Hypothesis”, ERH). Until now, there is no information about grazing preferences exerted by native herbivores over S. muticum and native seaweeds on the Galician coast. The aim of

  16. RANGELAND MONITORING AND INVASIVE WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the serious biological obstacles that must be addressed in any comprehensive revision of rangeland ecological condition assessment is what to do with sites dominated by exotic self invasive species. In certain cases such species have truncated succession so that with a bare minimum of distur...

  17. Invasive gastric mucormycosis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan D; Horton, Karen M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2008-09-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon fungal infection primarily seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a patient whose hospital course was rapidly complicated by invasive mucormycosis, which caused his death. Computed tomography (CT) was very helpful in characterizing the extent of involvement and directing clinical management. PMID:18071767

  18. Aquatic Invasives Public Service Announcement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents a public service announcement on invasive aquatic species. Running time for the clip is 59 seconds. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  19. Non invasive fetal ECG monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Karin; M. Hirsch; O. Segal; S. Akselrod

    1994-01-01

    A new fetal electronic monitoring system (FEMO) is developed at Tel-Aviv University and implemented by Medco Ltd. It is used to detect fetal heart rate from a maternal abdominal, noninvasive ECG (AECG) signal, and to calculate an average fetal ECG complex. A comparison test with the “gold standard” direct, scalp fetal ECG data, obtained invasively during labor, was performed in

  20. Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida #12;· General Whitefly Introduction · Other Problems Whiteflies · Managing Whiteflies Outline #12;· 1500 species worldwide, at least 60 have been reported from in Madeira, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion, Taiwan, Hawaii, Portugal · Found in Florida in 2011 · Not much

  1. THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann K. Sakai; Fred W. Allendorf; Jodie S. Holt; David M. Lodge; Jane Molofsky; Syndallas Baughman; Robert J. Cabin; Joel E. Cohen; Norman C. Ellstrand; David E. McCauley; Pamela O'Neil; Ingrid M. Parker; John N. Thompson; Stephen G. Weller

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract Contributions from the field of population biology hold promise for understanding and managing invasiveness; invasive species also offer excellent oppor- tunities to study basic processes in population biology. Life history studies and demo- graphic models may be valuable for examining the introduction of invasive species and identifying life history stages where management will be most effective. Evolution- ary

  2. Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery Maria Vatshaug Ottermo Department-- A preliminary design of a remote palpation in- strument for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is given. The lack mm * 18 mm * 45 mm. I. INTRODUCTION Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is one of the meth- ods

  3. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Alex Rodriguez; William E. Holben

    2004-01-01

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote `exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare

  4. Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN D. BAKKER; SCOTT D. WILSON

    Summary 1. Biological invasion can permanently alter ecosystem structure and function. In- vasive species are difficult to eradicate, so methods for constraining invasions would be ecologically valuable. We examined the potential of ecological restoration to constrain invasion of an old field by Agropyron cristatum , an introduced C 3 grass. 2. A field experiment was conducted in the northern Great

  5. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    A proposed unified framework for biological invasions Tim M. Blackburn1,2 , Petr Pysek3,4 , Sven for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 propose a unified framework for biologi- cal invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features

  6. The Nuts and Bolts of Invasion Ecology

    E-print Network

    Nathan, Ran

    103 Chapter 9 A Movement Ecology Approach to Study Seed Dispersal and Plant Invasion: an Overview and Application of Seed Dispersal by Fruit Bats Asaf Tsoar, David Shohami and Ran Nathan Movement EcologyPart 4 The Nuts and Bolts of Invasion Ecology 101 #12;#12;Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology

  7. Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore A. Kennedy; Shahid Naeem; Katherine M. Howe; Johannes M. H. Knops; David Tilman; Peter Reich

    2002-01-01

    Biological invasions are a pervasive and costly environmental problem that has been the focus of intense management and research activities over the past half century. Yet accurate predictions of community susceptibility to invasion remain elusive. The diversity resistance hypothesis, which argues that diverse communities are highly competitive and readily resist invasion, is supported by both theory and experimental studies conducted

  8. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  9. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    by A. albopictus, leading to partial displacement of A. triseriatus. Although the invasive species, amplifying public health concerns. Keywords Competitive displacement Á Invasive species Á Interspecies-012-0345-3 #12;successful invasive species on the planet (Juliano 1998; Lounibos 2002). From a public health

  10. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities

    E-print Network

    A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 #12;A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 United States Department Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 iii We thank Carlos

  11. The Landscape Ecology of Invasive Spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Although habitat loss, fragmentation, and invasive species collectively pose the greatest threats to biodiversity, little theoretical or empirical research has addressed the effects of landscape structure—or spa- tial pattern more generally—on the spread of invasive species. Landscape ecology is the study of how spatial pattern affects ecological process. Thus, a landscape ecology of invasive spread involves understanding how spatial pattern,

  12. SOX2 contributes to melanoma cell invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha D Girouard; Alvaro C Laga; Martin C Mihm; Richard A Scolyer; John F Thompson; Qian Zhan; Hans R Widlund; Chung-Wei Lee; George F Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of melanoma invasion are poorly understood despite extensive inquiry. SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is an embryonic stem cell transcription factor that has recently been discovered to be expressed in human melanoma where it is associated with dermal invasion and primary tumor thickness. To assess the potential role of SOX2 expression in melanoma invasion, we examined

  13. Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Dispatches Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc that can become economically and ecologically threatening. Recent studies of biological invasions, however

  14. Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted versus Minimally Invasive Nonendoscopic Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fík, Zden?k; Astl, Jaromír; Zábrodský, Michal; Lukeš, Petr; Merunka, Ilja; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET) represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient's comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques. PMID:24800227

  15. FAK Is Required for Schwann Cell Spreading on Immature Basal Lamina to Coordinate the Radial Sorting of Peripheral Axons with Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  16. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  17. Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

  18. Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V; Mus, Liselot M; Parmar, Virinder S; De Wever, Olivier; Mareel, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the chick heart assay is to offer a relevant organ culture method to study tumor invasion in three dimensions. The assay can distinguish between invasive and non-invasive cells, and enables study of the effects of test compounds on tumor invasion. Cancer cells - either as aggregates or single cells - are confronted with fragments of embryonic chick heart. After organ culture in suspension for a few days or weeks the confronting cultures are fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The three-dimensional interaction between the cancer cells and the normal tissue is then reconstructed from serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin or after immunohistochemical staining for epitopes in the heart tissue or the confronting cancer cells. The assay is consistent with the recent concept that cancer invasion is the result of molecular interactions between the cancer cells and their neighbouring stromal host elements (myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix components, etc.). Here, this stromal environment is offered to the cancer cells as a living tissue fragment. Supporting aspects to the relevance of the assay are multiple. Invasion in the assay is in accordance with the criteria of cancer invasion: progressive occupation and replacement in time and space of the host tissue, and invasiveness and non-invasiveness in vivo of the confronting cells generally correlates with the outcome of the assay. Furthermore, the invasion pattern of cells in vivo, as defined by pathologists, is reflected in the histological images in the assay. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) analysis of the results obtained with numerous potentially anti-invasive organic congener compounds allowed the study of structure-activity relations for flavonoids and chalcones, and known anti-metastatic drugs used in the clinic (e.g., microtubule inhibitors) inhibit invasion in the assay as well. However, the assay does not take into account immunological contributions to cancer invasion. PMID:26131648

  19. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  20. National Invasive Species Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's an invasive species? It's a great question and one that is much more complex than one might think. The United States Department of Agriculture has created the online National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC) to bring together key resources on these types of species in the United States as well as other corners of the world. On the site, visitors can Browse by Subject to find Aquatic Species, Plants, Animals, and Microbes. In each of these areas, visitors can read the legal definitions of these species and also use the search feature to look for additional resources. The Spotlights area also contains a useful interactive learning module, a calendar of related conferences, government bills, and funding resources.

  1. Why Ecology of Invasive Species?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    Your students may think of ecologists as people who pick up trash and protest for a cleaner environment. In this manual, the term ecologist is used to refer to scientists who study ecology--that is, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment. Through the readings, exercises, protocols, and research projects in Invasion Ecology, students will learn not only abut important ecological concepts, but also about how ecologists conduct research. Furthermore, they will learn how ecological science and research can be applied to solving a real-life environmental problem--the control of invasive species. This free selection also includes a bonus section--Inquiry and Ecology, the Table of Contents, and Introduction.

  2. Angiogenesis and invasion in glioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Onishi; Tomotsugu Ichikawa; Kazuhiko Kurozumi; Isao Date

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical and medical therapy, glioblastoma consistently remains a fatal disease. Over the last 20 years,\\u000a no significant increase in survival has been achieved for patients with this disease. The formation of abnormal tumor vasculature\\u000a and glioma cell invasion along white matter tracts are believed to be the major factors responsible for the resistance of\\u000a these tumors to treatment.

  3. Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

    \\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

  4. Origin and hierarchy of basal lamina-forming and -non-forming myogenic cells in mouse skeletal muscle in relation to adhesive capacity and Pax7 expression in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Tamaki; Kayoko Tono; Yoshiyasu Uchiyama; Yoshinori Okada; Maki Masuda; Shuichi Soeda; Masahiro Nitta; Akira Akatsuka

    2011-01-01

    As a novel approach to distinguish skeletal myogenic cell populations, basal lamina (BL) formation of myogenic cells was examined\\u000a in the mouse compensatory enlarged plantaris muscles in vivo and in fiber-bundle cultures in vitro. MyoD+ myogenic cells located inside the regenerative muscle fiber BL were laminin? but interstitial MyoD+ cells were laminin+. This was also confirmed by electron microscopy as

  5. Two populations of neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that differ in AMPA receptor subunit composition and density of excitatory synaptic input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Polgár; K. S. Al Ghamdi; A. J. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). It has been reported that these cells can undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which may result from insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPArs) containing GluA1 or GluA4 subunits. We therefore investigated synaptic AMPAr expression on these cells with immunocytochemistry following antigen-retrieval. We also examined

  6. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776

  7. Distribution of immunoglobulin producing cells is different in normal human appendix and colon mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Bjerke; P Brandtzaeg; T O Rognum

    1986-01-01

    The densities of IgG-, IgA-, IgM- and IgD-producing immunocytes were determined by paired immunofluorescence staining and morphometric analysis in the lamina propria of normal appendix specimens. Normal colon specimens were used as reference material, mostly paired from individual subjects. The density (median of cells\\/mm2 lamina propria area) of IgA immunocytes tended to be slightly higher in the appendix than in

  8. Epithelium and Associated Lymphocytes of Developing Human Fetal Appendix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack L. Haar

    1977-01-01

    The epithelium and lamina propria of the human fetal appendix between 7.5 and 18 weeks of gestation was examined with electron microscopy. At 7.5 weeks the epithelium was composed of stratified columnar cells; scattered mesenchymal cells appeared in the lamina propria. By 13.5 weeks of gestation the epithelium was composed of simple columnar cells with a microvillous surface, goblet cells

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate promote morphogenesis and block invasion of prostate cancer cells in three-dimensional organotypic models

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, V; Knuuttila, M; Virtanen, J; Mirtti, T; Kohonen, P; Kovanen, P; Happonen, A; Kaewphan, S; Ahonen, I; Kallioniemi, O; Grafström, R; Lötjönen, J; Nees, M

    2012-01-01

    Normal prostate and some malignant prostate cancer (PrCa) cell lines undergo acinar differentiation and form spheroids in three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. Acini formed by PC-3 and PC-3M, less pronounced also in other PrCa cell lines, spontaneously undergo an invasive switch, leading to the disintegration of epithelial structures and the basal lamina, and formation of invadopodia. This demonstrates the highly dynamic nature of epithelial plasticity, balancing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition against metastable acinar differentiation. This study assessed the role of lipid metabolites on epithelial maturation. PC-3 cells completely failed to form acinar structures in delipidated serum. Adding back lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) rescued acinar morphogenesis and repressed invasion effectively. Blocking LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) functions by siRNA (small interference RNA) or the specific LPAR1 inhibitor Ki16425 promoted invasion, while silencing of other G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to LPA or S1P mainly caused growth arrest or had no effects. The G-proteins G?12/13 and G?i were identified as key mediators of LPA signalling via stimulation of RhoA and Rho kinases ROCK1 and 2, activating Rac1, while inhibition of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of cAMP may be secondary. Interfering with these pathways specifically impeded epithelial polarization in transformed cells. In contrast, blocking the same pathways in non-transformed, normal cells promoted differentiation. We conclude that LPA and LPAR1 effectively promote epithelial maturation and block invasion of PrCa cells in 3-D culture. The analysis of clinical transcriptome data confirmed reduced expression of LPAR1 in a subset of PrCa's. Our study demonstrates a metastasis-suppressor function for LPAR1 and G?12/13 signalling, regulating cell motility and invasion versus epithelial maturation. PMID:21996742

  10. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. PMID:25469955

  11. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) provides research and technical assistance relating to invasive species management concerns, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, FORT scientists are developing the Invasive Species Information Node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a comprehensive, Web-accessible database of invasive plant and animal species and disease agents. From these data, and in partnership with Colorado State University, the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), and others, FORT scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species behavior for more effective management. FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  12. Role of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis for the chronic cardiovascular effects produced by endogenous and exogenous ANG II in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre A; Nahey, David B; Collister, John P

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous circulating ANG II acts at one of the central circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO), to modulate chronic blood pressure regulation. However, at the forebrain, another important CVO is the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the OVLT mediates the hypertension or the hypotension produced by chronic infusion of ANG II or losartan (AT1 antagonist), respectively. Six days after sham or OVLT electrolytic lesion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (280-320 g, n = 6 per group) were instrumented with intravenous catheters and radiotelemetric blood pressure transducers. Following another week of recovery, rats were given 3 days of saline control infusion (7 ml/day) and were then infused with ANG II (10 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or losartan (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 days, followed by 3 recovery days. Twenty-four hour average measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were made during this protocol. Hydromineral balance (HB) responses were measured during the experimental protocol. By day 9 of ANG II treatment, MAP had increased 16 ± 4 mmHg in sham rats but only 4 ± 1 mmHg in OVLT lesioned rats without changes in HR or HB. However, the hypotension produced by 10 days of losartan infusion was not modified in OVLT lesioned rats. These results suggest that the OVLT might play an important role during elevation of plasma ANG II, facilitating increases of blood pressure but is not involved with baseline effects of endogenous ANG II. PMID:20861280

  13. Renal responses produced by microinjection of the kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50-488H, into sites within the rat lamina terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cynthia; Fortepiani, Lourdes; Nguyen, Tin; Rangel, Yolanda; Strong, Randy; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2015-01-01

    Activation of central kappa opioid receptors (KOR) has been demonstrated to produce marked free water diuresis with a concurrent increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This study investigated the cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects evoked by central activation of KOR in two lamina terminalis sites, the median preoptic area (MPA) and anterolateral division of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST). Rats anesthetized with urethane alpha-chloralose were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, heart rate, RSNA, and urine output (V). Rats were infused with isotonic saline (25 ?L/min) and urine samples were collected during two 10-min control periods and six consecutive 10-min experimental periods following microinjection of vehicle, U50-448H (U50, KOR agonist) alone or norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, KOR antagonist) plus U50. Microinjection of U50 into the BST increased V (peak at 30 min, 84.8 ± 12.9 ?L/min) as compared to its respective control, vehicle, or nor-BNI plus U50. This diuretic effect occurred without any significant changes in CV parameters, RSNA, or urinary sodium excretion. In contrast, U50 injection into the MPA significantly increased RSNA (peak at 20 mins: 129 ± 9.9) without increasing the other parameters. This study demonstrated novel sites through which activation of KOR selectively increases V and RSNA. The ability of U50 to increase V without affecting sodium excretion and RSNA raises the possibility that LT neurons could be an important substrate through which drugs targeting KOR could selectively facilitate water excretion in sodium-retaining diseases such as congestive heart failure. PMID:26038693

  14. Coupled molecular and 14C studies of microbial carbonate laminae formation and growth rates in dolomite stromatolites from Lagoa Salgada, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Montluçon, D.; Eglinton, T. I.; Matsuda, N.; França, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the application of radiocarbon (14C) measurements for age determination of the growth rate of modern dolomite stromalites from Lagoa Salgada, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Improved estimation of growth rates related with microbial processes during stromatolite formation may provide insights into ancient microbial carbonate sedimentation processes. Radiocarbon dating is frequently used to determine the age of carbonate materials, however, lagoonal carbonates often contain significant 14C content anomalies due to the "hard water effect." Lagoonal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) may sometimes achieve isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, and, in such cases, a coherent 14C chronology for paleo-carbonate precipitates may be established. However, more frequently, DIC does not show complete equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 due to major inputs of groundwater carbon. As a consequence, paleo-lagoonal carbonates often yield 14C ages which, after isotopic normalization, are older than those obtained, for instance, for time-equivalent terrestrial organic matter. Located on the Rio de Janeiro coastline, Lagoa Salgada is a unique environment, which has been studied for its particular carbonate sedimentation and development of dolomite stromatolites. This milieu provides an opportunity to test how Earth surface processes can change from normal carbonate sedimentation to the formation of microbialite structures (e.g., stromatolites, oncolites). In Lagoa Salgada, the formation of laminated structures involves diverse groups of microorganisms, which leads to the trapping of distinctive biomarkers or organic molecules as intracrystalline organic matter within the stromatolite laminae. We report on our research into the characterization of this trapped organic matter and the potential to utilize it to radiometrically determine the growth rate of these modern stromatolites. We also report 14C measurements of DIC from Lagoa Salgada.

  15. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  16. Invasive aliens on tropical East Asian islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    2010-01-01

    Tropical East Asia (TEA) has numerous islands, both continental and oceanic. This study uses information on invasive aliens\\u000a in terrestrial habitats on these islands to test the generality of the continental-oceanic contrast in invasibility, assess\\u000a the conservation impacts of invasive species, and suggest ways to mitigate these. The continental islands of Hong Kong and\\u000a Singapore are worst-case scenarios for continental

  17. Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

  18. Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level and herbivory was weak. We suggest that invasive plants may possess novel phytochemicals with anti-herbivore properties in addition to allelopathic and anti-microbial characteristics. Herbivory could be employed as an easily measured predictor of the likelihood that recently introduced exotic plants may become invasive. PMID:17148226

  19. Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

  20. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  1. PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY Aquatic Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    . 3 1. Abstract Ten North Umpqua Hydroelectric Project impoundments were surveyed for aquatic invasive Energy's North Umpqua Hydroelectric Project includes 11 impoundments within the North Umpqua River

  2. National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species communitya?|

  3. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Blumenthal; R. A. Chimner; J. M. Welker; J. A. Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Summary • Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion.  Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive

  4. Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions #12;Invasive Species as Predators Towns et al., 2006 #12;Invasive Species as Competitors #12;Invasive species impacts on ecosystem function Vila et al;Invasive species impacts on biodiversity Vila et al., 2011 #12;Abundance Declines in Concord Willis et al

  5. 206 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America Invasion Terminology

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mark A.

    of "invasive species" in Presi- dent Clinton's recent Executive Or- der on Invasive Species (Order 13112, February 3, 1999): "`Invasive species' means an alien species whose intro- duction does or is likely:// invasives.fws.gov/> defines invasive species according to this Executive order: "Sometimes known as `exotic

  6. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

  7. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these features enable a degree of decentralization and distributed ownership that have helped other types of scientific information services succeed in recent years.

  8. Potential interactions between invasive woody shrubs and the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ), an invasive insect herbivore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan W. McEwan; Lynne K. Rieske; Mary A. Arthur

    2009-01-01

    As the range of the invasive and highly polyphagous gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) expands, it increasingly overlaps with forest areas that have been subject to invasion by non-native shrubs. We explored\\u000a the potential for interactions between these co-occurring invasions through a gypsy moth feeding trial using the following\\u000a three highly invasive, exotic shrubs: honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), privet (Ligustrum sinense) and

  9. The Invasion of Exotic Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    1998-01-01

    In a news announcement last week, US Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt stated "the invasion of noxious weeds has created a level of destruction to America's environment and economy that is matched only by the damage caused by floods, earthquakes, wildfire, hurricanes and mudslides." Given recent media attention to the loss of native species, this week's In The News focuses on the spread of exotic plants across the globe, considered by some experts to be "the second-most important threat" behind habitat destruction. The eight resources discussed offer information on exotics, from local case studies to international examples, with comprehensive discussions of the topic.

  10. Coevolution between Native and Invasive Plant Competitors: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely...

  11. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  12. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  13. Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities

    E-print Network

    Damschen, Ellen

    Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities W. Brett Mattingly provoked much interest in assessing how native plant species diversity affects invasibility. Although common exotic invasive species. In this study, niche complementarity provides a potential mechanism

  14. ARTICLE / ARTICLE Effects of invasive American signal crayfish

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

    ARTICLE / ARTICLE Effects of invasive American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. The invasive American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852)) has recently been implicated by invasive species. Key words: Gasterosteus aculeatus, threespine stickleback, Pacifastacus leniusculus

  15. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  16. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting...SUMMARY: The meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC...is comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders...

  17. Bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) invasion in Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Laufer; Andrés Canavero; Diego Núñez; Raúl Maneyro

    2008-01-01

    This is the first report of North American bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana), invasion in Uruguay. This Anura was introduced for farming proposes in 1987, but at present most of the farms are closed.\\u000a At one of these closed farms, located at Rincón de Pando, Canelones, we report the occurrence of a feral population of L. catesbeianus. This invasion point

  18. ECOLOGICALLY BASED INVASIVE PLANT MANAGEMENT NEWSLETTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript describes the characteristics that make a plant invasive, and some of the existing theories of "invasions". It compares non-relational approaches (identifying characteristics that make something a weed) to relational approaches (drawing on relationships between a species and an ecos...

  19. Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Increased soil nitrogen (N) availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might be expected to reduce those invasions and favor native species. Numerous studies have examined effects of low N availability on specific invaders, but a synthesis of these stu...

  20. Indirect effects of parasites in invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

  1. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Grosholz

    2002-01-01

    Although coastal estuarine and marine systems are among the most heavily invaded systems in the world, the study of nonindigenous species in these systems has, historically, lagged behind that of terrestrial and freshwater systems. However, in the past decade, a rapid increase in studies of coastal invasions has provided important insight into the invasion process in these systems and how

  2. Imaging guidance in minimally invasive prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Angela D.; Han, Misop

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive prostatectomy, such as laparoscopic and robot-assisted prostatectomy, has become more popular, with similar short-term outcomes as open radical retropubic prostatectomy series. The purpose of this article is to review different imaging modalities that have been developed with a goal of further improving the surgical outcomes in minimally invasive prostatectomy. PMID:21555105

  3. Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Robinia pseudoacacia

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Robinia pseudoacacia Common Name: Black locust Physical Description: Growth Type: Robinia pseudoacacia is a tree growing anywhere from 40-100 feet with a straight ridges can reach several inches on a mature tree. #12;Invasive Nature: The root system on Robinia

  4. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean D'Angelo

    2010-04-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS

  5. Plant Invasions on an Oceanic Archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Greimler; Tod F. Stuessy; Ulf Swenson; Carlos M. Baeza; Oscar Matthei

    2002-01-01

    Plant invasions are particularly noticeable on oceanic islands. For many ecological or evolutionary phenomena, oceanic islands offer advantages in comparison to continental regions, because they are often simpler systems. The Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) Islands, located 667 km west of continental Chile, provide an especially favorable case study of plant invasions on an oceanic archipelago. They have little flora, no

  6. Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Charles Elton proposed that more diverse communities should be less susceptible to invasion by exotic species, empirical studies have both supported and refuted Elton's hypothesis. Here, I use grassland community microcosms to test the effect of functional diversity on the success of an invasive annual weed (Centaurea solstitialis L.). I found that high functional diversity reduced

  7. Invasive blood pressure curves simulation device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Kijonka; Marek Penhaker; Jindrich Cernohorsky

    2011-01-01

    Patient monitor modules have various inputs for vital function measurement. We can practice many of these measurements with some students in the laboratory of biomedical engineering. However, invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurement demonstration is impossible. This paper is dealing with design and realization of a programmable invasive blood pressure simulator. This device is able to generate programmable behavior of voltage

  8. Ecological Principles for Invasive Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses continue to advance at an alarming rate despite efforts of control by land managers. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a holistic framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes and adaptive management into a succ...

  9. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  10. Options for Managing Invasive Marine Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Thresher; Armand M. Kuris

    2004-01-01

    Marine biological invasions are increasingly recognised as a threat to biodiversity and coastal industry, including fisheries. Globally, efforts are underway to contain, if not eradicate, several high-impact marine invasive species. However, working in a marine environment places unique social, political and technical constraints on options for pest control, which we explored in a series of stakeholder workshops. Results suggest that

  11. Invasion and Intracellular Survival of Burkholderia cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL W. MARTIN; CHRISTIAN D. MOHR

    2000-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pulmonary pathogen in immunocompromised patients and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of B. cepacia, although the persistent and sometimes invasive infections caused by B. cepacia suggest that the organism possesses mechanisms for both cellular invasion and evasion of the host immune response. In

  12. Avian Seed Dispersal of an Invasive Shrub

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Bartuszevige; David L. Gorchov

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of an animal-dispersed exotic plant species into the diet of native frugivores can be an important step to that species becoming invasive. We investigated bird dispersal of Lonicera maackii, an Asian shrub invasive in eastern North America. We (i) determined which species of birds disperse viable L. maackii seeds, (ii) tested the effect of gut passage on L.

  13. Plant Invasions in China – Challenges and Chances

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause serious environmental and economic harm and threaten global biodiversity. We set out to investigate how quickly invasive plant species are currently spreading in China and how their resulting distribution patterns are linked to socio-economic and environmental conditions. A comparison of the invasive plant species density (log species/log area) reported in 2008 with current data shows that invasive species were originally highly concentrated in the wealthy, southeastern coastal provinces of China, but they are currently rapidly spreading inland. Linear regression models based on the species density and turnover of invasive plants as dependent parameters and principal components representing key socio-economic and environmental parameters as predictors indicate strong positive links between invasive plant density and the overall phytodiversity and associated climatic parameters. Principal components representing socio-economic factors and endemic plant density also show significant positive links with invasive plant density. Urgent control and eradication measures are needed in China's coastal provinces to counteract the rapid inland spread of invasive plants. Strict controls of imports through seaports need to be accompanied by similarly strict controls of the developing horticultural trade and underpinned by awareness campaigns for China's increasingly affluent population to limit the arrival of new invaders. Furthermore, China needs to fully utilize its substantial native phytodiversity, rather than relying on exotics, in current large-scale afforestation projects and in the creation of urban green spaces. PMID:23691164

  14. Optimal Spatial Containment of an Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Burnett

    Strategies used to manage invasive species include prevention, eradication, suppression, containment, and adaptation. A central question in the invasive species discussion is how to execute these strategies optimally. Policymakers generally use a combination of these tools to ward off economically detrimental species. While the literature has explicitly addressed optimal prevention, eradication, suppression, and adaptation, the economics of containment remain uncharted.

  15. Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody

    E-print Network

    Ostertag, Rebecca

    Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody Species Removal in Hawaiian Lowland Wet the impacts and legacy of invasive species are reversible. An excellent place to examine these questions. Publico,1 and Jaime H. Enoka1 1 Department of Biology, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii 96720

  16. How trade politics affect invasive species control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Margolis; Jason F. Shogren; Carolyn Fischer

    2005-01-01

    Trade has become the main mode of transport for many invasive species, including diseases and agricultural pests. Most species are brought to their new homes unintentionally, which constitutes a market failure rooted in international trade. Unless it is practical to drive invasion risk to zero, the external costs may justify a tariff. In this paper, we analyze the political process

  17. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  18. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  19. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  20. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  1. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as sti

  2. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; Del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  3. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K.; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R.; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at ‘invasion hubs’. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2 242 000 to 1 385 000 km2. Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate. PMID:21345870

  4. Eating the competition speeds up invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels. PMID:20961884

  5. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-03-18

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  6. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  7. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  8. Genetic susceptibility to invasive Salmonella disease.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, James J; MacLennan, Calman A; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-06-25

    Invasive Salmonella disease, in the form of enteric fever and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease, causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children and adults in the developing world. The study of genetic variations in humans and mice that influence susceptibility of the host to Salmonella infection provides important insights into immunity to Salmonella. In this Review, we discuss data that have helped to elucidate the host genetic determinants of human enteric fever and iNTS disease, alongside data from the mouse model of Salmonella infection. Considered together, these studies provide a detailed picture of the immunobiology of human invasive Salmonella disease. PMID:26109132

  9. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion. PMID:25629807

  10. Suppression of cancer invasiveness by dietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Tumor invasion and cancer metastasis are interrelated processes involving cell growth, cell adhesion, cell migration and proteolytic degradation of tissue barriers, which are mediated by aberrant intracellular signaling in cancer cells. Natural (green tea polyphenols, soy isoflavones) or dietary compounds (mushroom G. lucidum) markedly decreased AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling and suppressed invasiveness of cancer cells. This review will summarize alternative approaches for the inhibition of invasive behavior of cancer cells by dietary compounds, which can be considered in adjuvant or combination therapy for the prevention and treatment of cancer metastasis. PMID:18537723

  11. Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

  12. National Institute of Invasive Species Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS) supports a database with extensive information on invasive species around the United States. The data on individual species can be searched by scientific name, common name or National Resource Convervation Service (NRCS) Code. There is also a geographic search that allows users to locate invasives by state, county, National Park Service unit, Fish and Wildlife Service refuge, or by state parks. A query/search/browse function permits browsing by organization, location, species, project, or map. The front page features links to news articles and information on new products.

  13. Contrasting effects of an invasive ant on a native and an invasive plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori LachChadwick; Chadwick V. Tillberg; Andrew V. Suarez

    2010-01-01

    When invasive species establish in new environments, they may disrupt existing or create new interactions with resident species.\\u000a Understanding of the functioning of invaded ecosystems will benefit from careful investigation of resulting species-level\\u000a interactions. We manipulated ant visitation to compare how invasive ant mutualisms affect two common plants, one native and\\u000a one invasive, on a sub-tropical Indian Ocean island. Technomyrmex

  14. Is there an equivalence of non-invasive to invasive referenciation in computer-aided surgery?

    PubMed

    Grauvogel, Tanja D; Grauvogel, Juergen; Arndt, Susan; Berlis, Ansgar; Maier, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    Various navigation systems with non-invasive patient referenciation and registration methods have been developed in times of minimal-invasive and computer-aided surgery. However, hard data proving the equivalence of different referenciation systems are missing. The present study investigated invasive and non-invasive referenciation systems with regard to overall navigation accuracy as well as navigation accuracy at specific anatomic locations. Four skull models were individually fabricated with a 3D printer based on patient's CT data sets and fitted with an individual customized silicone skin. 26 titanium screws on defined anatomic locations served as target fiducials. Two non-invasive referenciation systems (headband and headset) were compared with the invasive skull fixed reference array. Registration was done with laser surface scan. The mean accuracy was calculated and the target registration error for eight anatomical locations was measured. Mean accuracy was 1.3 ± 0.12 mm for the skull fixed reference array, 1.44 ± 0.24 mm for the headset and 1.46 ± 0.15 mm for the headband referenciation (non-significant). Navigation accuracy of the invasive referenciation system was significantly superior to the accuracy of both non-invasive systems on the ethmoid sinus with respect to the selected anatomic locations. In the midface headband referenciation was statistically significantly worse than the invasive system. Invasive and non-invasive referenciation systems seem to be on par in terms of overall navigation accuracy, but not regarding specific anatomic locations. Therefore, invasive referenciation systems should be preferred in high precision surgery. PMID:22562399

  15. Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern, process and scale in invasion ecology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey Gillson; Anneli Ekblom; Katherine J. Willis; Cynthia Froyd

    2008-01-01

    Invasion ecology has made rapid progress in recent years through synergies with landscape ecology, niche theory, evolutionary\\u000a ecology and the ecology of climate change. The palaeo-record of Holocene invasions provides a rich but presently underexploited\\u000a resource in exploring the pattern and process of invasions through time. In this paper, examples from the palaeo-literature\\u000a are used to illustrate the spread of

  16. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Minimally invasive vein harvesting significantly reduces pain and wound morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Black; R. N. Karen Campbell; Keith M. Channon; Chandi Ratnatunga; Ravi Pillai

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting is advocated to reduce wound morbidity. Our early experience with minimally invasive techniques, however, suggested that increased tissue traction and trauma might follow. We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive harvesting reduces post-operative pain and inflammation. A secondary objective was to determine if minimally invasive harvesting could be performed efficiently. Methods: Forty

  18. Minimally invasive vein harvesting significantly reduces pain and wound morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A Black; R. N Karen Campbell; Keith M Channon; Chandi Ratnatunga; Ravi Pillai

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting is advocated to reduce wound morbidity. Our early experience with minimally invasive techniques, however, suggested that increased tissue traction and trauma might follow. We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive harvesting reduces post-operative pain and inflammation. A secondary objective was to determine if minimally invasive harvesting could be performed efficiently. Methods: Forty

  19. An Invasions Special Issue Michael E. Hochberg1

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    , France 2 Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0086, USA `Invasion' evokes by Conrad Labandeira), when discussing `invasion', most biologists think of contemporary biological, most introductions have not developed into full-scale biological invasions. A major push in invasion

  20. Biological Invasions 4: 457459, 2002. Contents Volume 4 2002

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Diego

    Biological Invasions 4: 457­459, 2002. Contents Volume 4 2002 Volume 4 Numbers 1­2 2002 Special Issue: Biological Invasions in Southern South America: a First Step towards a Synthesis Guest Editors.P. V´azquez 175­191 Species invasiveness in biological invasions: a modelling approach D.E. Marco, S

  1. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of detection. By increasing resources to detect invasive species, managers may increase

  2. Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions?

    E-print Network

    Padilla, Dianna

    Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Jessica Gurevitch and Dianna K. Padilla on the most effective ways to reduce or mitigate extinction threats from invasive species. Ecologists to understanding the role of invasive species in extinctions. What do we know about invasive species

  3. Adaptive evolution in invasive species Peter J. Prentis1

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    Adaptive evolution in invasive species Peter J. Prentis1 , John R.U. Wilson2 , Eleanor E. Dormontt1, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia Many emerging invasive species display evidence of rapid in invasive species. The literature on non-invasive model or agronomic plant species, however, details a range

  4. Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds By Annabel Major

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds Awareness By Annabel Major Nebraska Invasive Species, with support from the Nebraska Environmental Trust, kicked off the first Nebraska Invasive Species Conference in Lincoln. The event attracted invasive species managers from across Nebraska. Speakers were from a variety

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by Altering Fitness Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Peacor; Stefano Allesina; Rick L. Riolo; Mercedes Pascual

    2006-01-01

    Understanding species invasion is a central problem in ecology because invasions of exotic species severely impact ecosystems, and because invasions underlie fundamental ecological processes. However, the influence on invasions of phenotypic plasticity, a key component of many species interactions, is unknown. We present a model in which phenotypic plasticity of a resident species increases its ability to oppose invaders, and

  6. Minimally invasive ventricular assist device surgery.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sebastian V; Avsar, Murat; Hanke, Jasmin S; Khalpey, Zain; Maltais, Simon; Haverich, Axel; Schmitto, Jan D

    2015-06-01

    The use of mechanical circulatory support to treat patients with congestive heart failure has grown enormously, recently surpassing the number of annual heart transplants worldwide. The current generation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), as compared with older devices, is characterized by improved technologies and reduced size. The result is that minimally invasive surgery is now possible for the implantation, explantation, and exchange of LVADs. Minimally invasive procedures improve surgical outcome; for example, they lower the rates of operative complications (such as bleeding or wound infection). The miniaturization of LVADs will continue, so that minimally invasive techniques will be used for most implantations in the future. In this article, we summarize and describe minimally invasive state-of-the-art implantation techniques, with a focus on the most common LVAD systems in adults. PMID:25735454

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multimedia gallery Multimedia Archive Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  8. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  9. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  10. EBIPM 2013 planner for preventing weed invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....

  11. Group A Streptococcus invasive infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl A.; Laverdière, Michel

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections has been increasing worldwide, and there is no obvious explanation for this phenomenon. In 1993, a working group on severe GAS infections was established to define accurately what constitutes an invasive infection. Three types of infection are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and a newly defined entity, named streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) because of a certain analogy with its staphylococcal counterpart. GAS produces many toxins responsible for its clinical manifestations. Some of them, labelled streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, have been characterized as superantigens. These proteins play a key role in initiating the immune response to GAS and are mostly responsible for the precipitous course of invasive infections. Death rates are high in streptococcal invasive infections, ranging from about 20% for necrotizing fasciitis to almost 100% for myositis. Therapy consists mainly of high doses of antibiotic combinations, aggressive surgery, and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins for STSS. PMID:9030079

  12. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  13. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability. PMID:25567917

  14. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Hon?k, Alois; Skuhrovec, Ji?í; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  15. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  16. Galactomannan antigenemia in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, E; Lehmann, P F

    1979-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) extracted from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus with cold dilute alkali reacted with antiserum specific for an antigen that circulated in invasive aspergillosis in rabbits and humans. The GM was purified by its affinity for concanavalin A and was separated from a nonantigenic glucan by gel permeation on Sephacryl S-200. The GM molecular weight of between 25,000 to 75,000 was smaller than the antigen present in infected rabbit serum which was retained by an ultrafiltration membrane that had a nominal molecular weight limit of 125,000. The ratio of galactose to mannose present in GM was 1:1.17. The serological activity of GM was stable to boiling but labile to 0.01 N HCl, implicating galactofuranose as an antigenic determinant. Analysis of purified GM by methylation-gas chromatography suggested a structure consisting of a 1 leads to 6-linked mannan backbone with oligogalactoside side chains 3 units long, terminating in galactofuranose. The presence of mannose as a side chain component was also inferred. Another antigen of A. fumigatus, which did not bind to concanavalin A, was isolated after tandem chromatography on diethylaminoethyl- and carboxymethyl-Sephadex and was identified as a galactan. The galactan inhibited the immune precipitation of GM was specific antiserum. Images PMID:383620

  17. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  18. Evolution of minimally invasive bariatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon C Gould; Bradley J Needleman; E. Christopher Ellison; Peter Muscarella; Carol Schneider; W. Scott Melvin

    2002-01-01

    Background. Minimally invasive Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency. It is an advanced laparoscopic procedure with a steep learning curve. With experience, it can be performed in a reasonable amount of time with minimal morbidity. Methods. We first performed minimally invasive gastric bypass with the hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) technique. After significant experience

  19. SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF RICKETTSIAL INVASION PROTEIN, INVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JARIYANART GAYWEE; JOHN B. SACCI; SUZANA RADULOVIC; MAGDA S. BEIER; ABDU F. AZAD

    To understand further the molecular basis of rickettsial host cell invasion, Rickettsia prowazekii invasion gene homolog (invA) has been characterized. Our previous experiments have shown that InvA is an Ap5A pyrophos- phatase, a member of the Nudix hydrolase family, which is up-regulated during the internalization, early growth phase, and exit steps during rickettsial mammalian cell infection. In addition to the

  20. Minnesota horticultural industry survey on invasive plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Peters; Mary Hockenberry Meyer; Neil O. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Horticultural commerce of ornamental plants has been the source of many of our most troublesome plant invaders worldwide.\\u000a The purpose of this research was to document the knowledge gap of industry perspectives and knowledge of invasive ornamental\\u000a crops by surveying industry professionals in the Midwest region of the U.S. (primarily in the state of Minnesota). An invasive\\u000a plant survey was

  1. Molecular determinants of invasion in endometrial cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Abal; M. Llauradó; A. Dolla; M. Monge; E. Colas; M. González; M. Rigau; H. Alazzouzi; S. Demajo; J. Castellví; A. García; S. Ramón y Cajal; J. Xercavins; M. H. Vázquez-Levin; F. Alameda; A. Gil-Moreno; J. Reventos

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecological malignancy in the western world and the most frequent among infiltrating\\u000a tumours of the female genital tract. Despite the characterisation of molecular events associated with the development of endometrial\\u000a carcinoma, those associated with the early steps of infiltration and invasion in endometrial cancer are less known. Deep myometrial\\u000a invasion correlates with more undifferentiated

  2. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, W?odzimierz; S?odkowski, Maciej; Krasnod?bski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  3. Genetics of Invasive Species in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gleeson; H. Harman; T. Armstrong

    Genetic effects following the colonization and invasion of New Zealand have been studied in relatively few cases for a variety\\u000a of reasons. The outcomes of these studies have shown that there are ranges of genetic effects that do occur after colonization,\\u000a although it is often difficult to attribute genetics as a factor in the success or failure of invasive species.

  4. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Hett; M. M. Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Outcomes in the management of critically ill patients may be improved using goal directed peri-operative haemodynamic monitoring. A conservative approach may no longer be acceptable but in view of the significant morbidity associated with balloon tipped flow directed pulmonary artery catheters a non-invasive approach would be preferable. In this review we consider the different non-invasive techniques available and discuss the

  5. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Hett; M. M. Jonas

    2004-01-01

    Outcomes in the management of critically ill patients may be improved using goal-directed peri-operative haemodynamic monitoring. A conservative approach may no longer be acceptable but in view of the significant morbidity associated with balloon tipped flow directed pulmonary artery catheters a non-invasive approach would be preferable. In this review we consider the different non-invasive techniques available and discuss the advantages

  6. Invasive Ventilation and Acute Heart Failure Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Damien Ricard; Damien Roux

    Because utilization of noninvasive ventilatory techniques considerably reduces the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive\\u000a mechanical ventilation during acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) (1, 2), the recent guidelines issued by the European Society of Cardiology (3) recommend that invasive mechanical ventilation in the setting of acute heart failure (AHF) should be considered only after\\u000a failure of noninvasive methods, such as

  7. Prevention of Invasiveness in Floricultural Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil O. Anderson

    The greatest quantity of invasive crops arises from the floriculture sector of the horticulture industry. While some floriculture\\u000a invasives are ‘old’ crops, e.g. purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a higher frequency are ‘new’ crops. This is due to the sheer number of new crops, as well as the vast quantities of cultivars\\u000a and product series distributed to the floriculture global economy.

  8. Integrated Prevention and Control of Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basharat A. K. Pitafi; James A. Roumasset

    2006-01-01

    An emerging problem for environmental policy is how to design efficient strategies for the prevention and control of invasive species. However, the literature has mostly focused either on pre-introduction prevention or post-introduction control of an invasive. The benefits of prevention cannot be understood or estimated without knowing the costs of post-introduction control. This paper provides an integrated framework where optimal

  9. Invasive aphids attack native Hawaiian plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell H. Messing; Michelle N. Tremblay; Edward B. Mondor; Robert G. Foottit; Keith S. Pike

    2007-01-01

    Invasive species have had devastating impacts on the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian Islands. While the negative effects of\\u000a some invasive species are obvious, other species are less visible, though no less important. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae)\\u000a are not native to Hawai’i but have thoroughly invaded the Island chain, largely as a result of anthropogenic influences. As\\u000a aphids cause both

  10. Some Resource Economics of Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basharat A. Pitafi; James A. Roumasset

    An emerging problem for environmental policy is how to design efficient strategies for the prevention and control of invasive species. However, the literature has mostly focused either on pre-introduction prevention or post-introduction control of an invasive. The benefits of prevention cannot be understood or estimated without knowing the costs of post-introduction control. This paper provides an integrated framework where optimal

  11. SOX2 contributes to melanoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Girouard, Sasha D; Laga, Alvaro C; Mihm, Martin C; Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Zhan, Qian; Widlund, Hans R; Lee, Chung-Wei; Murphy, George F

    2012-03-01

    The mechanisms of melanoma invasion are poorly understood despite extensive inquiry. SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is an embryonic stem cell transcription factor that has recently been discovered to be expressed in human melanoma where it is associated with dermal invasion and primary tumor thickness. To assess the potential role of SOX2 expression in melanoma invasion, we examined patient melanomas and humanized melanoma xenografts, and noted preferential SOX2 expression in cells that interfaced and infiltrated dermal stroma. Experimental knockdown (KD) of SOX2 mRNA and protein in A2058 melanoma cells with high constitutive SOX2 expression resulted in 4.5-fold decreased invasiveness in vitro compared with controls (P<0.0001). Conversely, when G361 cells that normally express low SOX2 were transduced to overexpress SOX2 mRNA and protein, a 3.8-fold increase in invasiveness was observed (P=0.0004). Among 84 invasion-related genes, RT-PCR screening revealed that SOX2 KD resulted in striking decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), an endopeptidase associated with cleavage of the extracellular matrix. Quantitatively, SOX2 KD diminished MMP-3 mRNA by 87.8%. MMP-3 KD in SOX2-expressing A2058 cells served to inhibit invasion, although to a lesser degree than SOX2 KD. Finally, immunostaining of patient and xenograft melanomas revealed coordinate SOX2 and MMP-3 expression in regions of stromal infiltration. These data implicate SOX2 expression in melanoma invasion, and suggest a role for MMP-3 as one potential mediator of this process. PMID:22184093

  12. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  13. Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Perry, Laura G; Blumenthal, Dana M; Monaco, Thomas A; Paschke, Mark W; Redente, Edward F

    2010-05-01

    Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil removal, and biomass removal, as well as a less frequently proposed management approach for lowering N availability, establishment of plant species adapted to low N availability. We conclude that many of these approaches may be promising for lowering N availability by stimulating N immobilization, even though most are generally ineffective for removing N from ecosystems (excepting topsoil removal). C addition and topsoil removal are the most reliable approaches for lowering N availability, and often favor desired species over invasive species, but are too expensive or destructive, respectively, for most management applications. Less intensive approaches, such as establishing low-N plant species, burning, grazing and biomass removal, are less expensive than C addition and may lower N availability if they favor plant species that are adapted to low N availability, produce high C:N tissue, and thus stimulate N immobilization. Regardless of the method used, lowering N availability sufficiently to reduce invasion will be difficult, particularly in sites with high atmospheric N deposition or agricultural runoff. Therefore, where feasible, the disturbances that result in high N availability should be limited in order to reduce invasions by nitrophilic weeds. PMID:20387033

  14. Understanding the genetic basis of invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Invasive species provide excellent study systems to evaluate the ecological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the colonization of novel environments. While the ecological processes that contribute to the successful establishment of invasive plants have been studied in detail, investigation of the evolutionary processes involved in successful invasions has only recently received attention. In particular, studies investigating the genomic and gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of invasive species are just beginning and are required if we are to understand how plants become invasive. In the current issue of Molecular Ecology, Hodgins et al. (2013) tackle this unresolved question, by examining gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of annual ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The study identifies a number of potential candidate genes based on gene expression differences that may be responsible for the success of annual ragweed in its introduced range. Furthermore, genes involved in stress response are over-represented in the differentially expressed gene set. Future experiments could use functional studies to test whether changes in gene expression at these candidate genes do in fact underlie changes in growth characteristics and reproductive output observed in this and other invasive species. PMID:23738371

  15. Cervids with different vocal behavior demonstrate different viscoelastic properties of their vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

    2010-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (epithelium, lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle). The vocal fold epithelium and the lamina propria were investigated in two sets of tensile tests. First, creep rupture tests demonstrated that ultimate stress in mule deer lamina propria is of the same magnitude as in elk. Second, cyclic loading tests revealed similar elastic moduli for the vocal fold epithelium in mule deer and elk. The elastic modulus of the lamina propria is also similar between the two species in the low-strain region, but differs at strains larger than 0.3. Sex differences in the stress-strain response, which have been reported for elk and human vocal folds, were not found for mule deer vocal folds. The laminae propriae in mule deer and elk vocal folds are comparatively large. In general, a thick and uniformly stiff lamina propria does not self-oscillate well, even when high subglottic pressure is applied. If the less stiff vocal fold seen in elk is associated with a differentiated lamina propria it would allow the vocal fold to vibrate at high tension and high subglottic pressure. The results of this study support the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of vocal folds varies with function and vocal behavior. PMID:19603411

  16. Foraging behaviour and invasiveness: do invasive Gambusia exhibit higher feeding rates and

    E-print Network

    affinis and Gambusia holbrooki, has been implicated in the extir- pation of native fishes, amphibiansForaging behaviour and invasiveness: do invasive Gambusia exhibit higher feeding rates and broader from smaller omnivorous fishes (Moyle & Light 1996b). Predation by introduced mosquitofish, Gambusia

  17. Expression of MMP14 in invasive pituitary adenomas: relationship to invasion and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Pinjing; Xu, Xu; Xu, Lan; Hui, Guozhen; Wu, Shiliang; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are noncancerous tumors, and about 35% of those reported to be invasive have been classified as “invasive pituitary adenomas (IPAs)”. In clinical, operative complications, total resection failures, and high relapse rates result from invasive features during the therapeutic process. Invasive mechanism is a complex process, including metalloproteases, inhibitors and tumor microenvironment factors etc. Thus, studying invasive mechanism of PAs might contribute to understanding its biological behavior. In our research, three type tissue samples of human, pituitaries, PAs, IPAs, their mRNA expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, MMP14 and MMP15 were measured using real-time PCR. MMP2 and MMP14 protein levels also were measured with immunohistochemistry in same samples. We confirmed that elevated matrix metalloproteinase-14 expression correlates with invasive characteristics of IPAs. To investigate molecular mechanism of how MMP14 contributes to invasiveness, an ATT20 cell was used in this study. After transient-transfection of the MMP14-shRNA expression vector into ATT20 cells, we observed that mRNA expression of PTTG, VEGF, and TGF? was significantly suppressed in interference groups. Meanwhile, ATT20 cells in high concentration TIMP-1 environment exhibit reduced PTTG, VEGF, and TGF? expression accompanied with the down-regulation of MMP14. Thus, we propose that MMP14 plays an important role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis and that a novel regulatory pathway for MMP14 may exist through VEGF and PTTG. In brief, MMP14 may be a target for therapeutic treatment.

  18. General guidelines for invasive plant management based on comparative demography of invasive and native plant populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Ramula; Tiffany M. Knight; Jean H. Burns; Yvonne M. Buckley

    2008-01-01

    Summary 1. General guidelines for invasive plant management are currently lacking. Population declines may be achieved by focusing control on demographic processes (survival, growth, fecundity) with the greatest impact on population growth rate. However, we often have little demographic information on populations in the early stages of an invasion when control can be most effective. Here we determine whether synthesis

  19. Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners alien to Europe: Jack of all trades, master of invasion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vojtech Jaros

    The genus Oenothera includes a number of species alien to central Europe, which differ in their invasion success. The present study was designed to investigate how fecundity, growth rate of seedlings and competitive ability contribute to the invasion potential within this genus. The relative growth rate and response to interspecific competition from neighbouring vegetation were determined for 15 species. Relations

  20. Low-Power Wireless Medical Systems and Circuits for Invasive and Non-Invasive Applications

    E-print Network

    Gaxiola-Sosa, Jesus Efrain

    2014-04-23

    consumption vs. lifetime analysis to estimate the monitoring unit lifetime for each application is included. For the invasive/non-invasive WMS, in-vitro test benches are used to verify their functionality showing successful communication up to 2.1 m/35 m...

  1. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  2. Cell signaling during Trypanosoma cruzi invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Fernando Y.; Cortez, Cristian; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling is an essential requirement for mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Depending on the parasite strain and the parasite developmental form, distinct signaling pathways may be induced. In this short review, we focus on the data coming from studies with metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), used as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites, respectively. During invasion of host cells by MT or TCT, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and host cell lysosomal exocytosis are triggered. Invasion mediated by MT surface molecule gp82 requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase C (PKC) in the host cell, associated with Ca2+-dependent disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In MT, protein tyrosine kinase, PI3K, phospholipase C, and PKC appear to be activated. TCT invasion, on the other hand, does not rely on mTOR activation, rather on target cell PI3K, and may involve the host cell autophagy for parasite internalization. Enzymes, such as oligopeptidase B and the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase cruzipain, have been shown to generate molecules that induce target cell Ca2+ signal. In addition, TCT may trigger host cell responses mediated by transforming growth factor ? receptor or integrin family member. Further investigations are needed for a more complete and detailed picture of T. cruzi invasion. PMID:23230440

  3. Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Ortensi, Barbara; Setti, Matteo; Osti, Daniela; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

  4. Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

  5. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species' geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  6. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Wikle, Christopher K; Dorazio, Robert M; Royle, J Andrew

    2007-06-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. PMID:17688508

  7. Remote sensing of species invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Nicholas Etienne

    The invasion of the Western United States of America by Bromus tectorum, also known as "cheatgrass" is mapped using techniques of remote sensing. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance using the MODTRAN4 atmospheric simulation model. The results of the radiometric processing were checked against ground reflectances with a portable ASD spectrometer. Landsat TM imagery covering portions of Utah State, USA were obtained at two times for each scene, one in the spring and one in the summer. The imagery was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance. Field data on cheatgrass abundance were collected at the same time period of the Landsat imagery. A variety of regression models were tested for predicting cheatgrass abundance. Prediction variables included the extracted ground reflectance from the multi-temporal imagery and ancillary topographic data. A meta-prediction framework was devised for compositing the results of an ensemble of regression models. Using cross-validation, the method was found to predict cheatgrass abundance (as percent) with approximately 15% Root Mean Square Error. The Landsat based prediction maps were used to scale reference data to 250 meter resolution, for prediction over larger spatial areas using the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps, at 250 meter spatial resolution and bi-monthly data frequency, were assembled over a five year time period spanning 2001-2005. PRISM monthly total precipitation data, a spatially interpolated (4 kilometer) resolution data product, were compiled over the same time period and the same spatial coverage as the MODIS data. Thin plate (Duchon) splines were fit to the time series of precipitation data and MODIS NDVI in order to generate time series of precipitation and NDVI (with an arbitrary number of data points) over the study area. Metrics designed to quantify ecosystem response to precipitation were developed and tested on the time series. The metrics were tested to efficacy in prediction of cheatgrass abundance, at a 250 meter resolution. Multiple data mining algorithms (classifiers) were tested, using cross validation to compare accuracy and aid in model selection. In a presence/absence context, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to have approximately 90% overall accuracy on the training data. In a four class context (none, low, moderate, high levels of infestation), a different SVM was found to have approximately 71% accuracy. Throughout the analysis, open source and/or free software written in Java was used when possible.

  8. Minimally Invasive Surgical Therapies for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant risks of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and death. There have been major advances in the management of atrial fibrillation including pharmacologic therapies, antithrombotic therapies, and ablation techniques. Surgery for atrial fibrillation, including both concomitant and stand-alone interventions, is an effective therapy to restore sinus rhythm. Minimally invasive surgical ablation is an emerging field that aims for the superior results of the traditional Cox-Maze procedure through a less invasive operation with lower morbidity, quicker recovery, and improved patient satisfaction. These novel techniques utilize endoscopic or minithoracotomy approaches with various energy sources to achieve electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins in addition to other ablation lines. We review advancements in minimally invasive techniques for atrial fibrillation surgery, including management of the left atrial appendage. PMID:22666609

  9. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many persons have grown increasingly concerned about various invasive species, and despite the scientific debates about what constitutes such a species, ecologists and others will find this site quite helpful. Drawing on support from the USDA, this project was developed by the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department of the University of Connecticut, the New England Wildflower Society, and several other participating organizations. This site includes a Web-accessible atlas that contains images and descriptive information for the invasive and potentially invasive plants in New England. Visitors can create their customized maps that document these species by utilizing the online records database, and also just search the species by geographic species. As a way of introduction, visitors can also browse a current list of species for which data has been collected thus far. Persons interested in volunteering for the project may also want to take a look at the volunteers section which lists the times of upcoming training sessions.

  10. Hippo - hungry, hungry for melanoma invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ileine M.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The acquisition of invasive properties in melanoma is associated with a high proclivity for metastasis, but the underlying pathways are poorly characterized. The Hippo pathway plays an important role in organ size control and is dysregulated in some types of tumors. The present study, “Pro-invasive activity of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ in cutaneous melanoma” by Nallet-Staub et al., provides the first in-depth analysis of expression of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ (Tafazzin) in human melanocytic lesions. Importantly, results from this study demonstrate a causal relationship between YAP/TAZ levels and melanoma cell tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PMID:24352079

  11. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

  12. Invasive and non-invasive measurement in medicine and biology: calibration issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Jinwei; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.; Yamakoshi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yamakoshi, T.; Yamakoshi, Y.; Ogawa, M.

    2010-08-01

    Invasive and non-invasive measurement sensors and systems perform vital roles in medical care. Devices are based on various principles, including optics, photonics, and plasmonics, electro-analysis, magnetics, acoustics, bio-recognition, etc. Sensors are used for the direct insertion into the human body, for example to be in contact with blood, which constitutes Invasive Measurement. This approach is very challenging technically, as sensor performance (sensitivity, response time, linearity) can deteriorate due to interactions between the sensor materials and the biological environment, such as blood or interstitial fluid. Invasive techniques may also be potentially hazardous. Alternatively, sensors or devices may be positioned external to the body surface, for example to analyse respired breath, thereby allowing safer Non-Invasive Measurement. However, such methods, which are inherently less direct, often requiring more complex calibration algorithms, perhaps using chemometric principles. This paper considers and reviews the issue of calibration in both invasive and non-invasive biomedical measurement systems. Systems in current use usually rely upon periodic calibration checks being performed by clinical staff against a variety of laboratory instruments and QC samples. These procedures require careful planning and overall management if reliable data are to be assured.

  13. Minimally invasive treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Robert C; Signorelli, Jason W; Abraham, Peter; Pannell, Jeffrey S; Khalessi, Alexander A

    2015-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) cause high levels of morbidity and mortality. Secondary neuronal injury from perihematomal edema is thought to contribute to poor outcomes. Surgical evacuation of ICH is a theoretically promising approach, yet clinical data on the efficacy of standard craniotomy approaches is limited. Recent exploration of minimally invasive techniques for ICH removal includes stereotactic surgery combined with intra-clot thrombolysis, as well as endoscopic hematoma evacuation. Ongoing trials have demonstrated the safety of such minimally invasive approaches, and pending efficacy data from these studies is likely to change the standard management of ICH. PMID:26200128

  14. Current and future therapies for invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Pecori, Davide; Della Siega, Paola; Corcione, Silvia; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Invasive fungal infections have increase worldwide and represent a threat for immunocompromised patients including HIV-infected, recipients of solid organ and stem cell transplants, and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies. High mortality rates and difficulties in early diagnosis characterize pulmonary fungal infections. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has been reviewed focussing on therapeutic management. Although new compounds have become available in the past years (i.e., amphotericin B lipid formulations, last-generation azoles, and echinocandines), new diagnostic tools and careful therapeutic management are mandatory to assure an early appropriate targeted treatment that represents the key factor for a successful conservative approach in respiratory fungal infections. PMID:24994691

  15. Measurement of invasive blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy

    2012-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the vital parameters used to assess the cardiovascular functions of a mammal. BP is commonly recorded using invasive, noninvasive, and radio telemetry methods, but invasive blood pressure (IBP) recording is considered the gold standard. IBP provides a direct indication of the effect of the investigational products on the circulatory system. Recording the IBP in rodents is an essential part of the preliminary screening of any product to determine its effect on the cardiovascular system. The present article describes the measurement of the IBP in Wistar rats/Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:22629093

  16. A comprehensive panel of three-dimensional models for studies of prostate cancer growth, invasion and drug responses.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Mäkelä, Rami; Happonen, Antti; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Knuuttila, Matias; Kohonen, Pekka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Kallioniemi, Olli; Nees, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Prostate epithelial cells from both normal and cancer tissues, grown in three-dimensional (3D) culture as spheroids, represent promising in vitro models for the study of normal and cancer-relevant patterns of epithelial differentiation. We have developed the most comprehensive panel of miniaturized prostate cell culture models in 3D to date (n = 29), including many non-transformed and most currently available classic prostate cancer (PrCa) cell lines. The purpose of this study was to analyze morphogenetic properties of PrCa models in 3D, to compare phenotypes, gene expression and metabolism between 2D and 3D cultures, and to evaluate their relevance for pre-clinical drug discovery, disease modeling and basic research. Primary and non-transformed prostate epithelial cells, but also several PrCa lines, formed well-differentiated round spheroids. These showed strong cell-cell contacts, epithelial polarization, a hollow lumen and were covered by a complete basal lamina (BL). Most PrCa lines, however, formed large, poorly differentiated spheroids, or aggressively invading structures. In PC-3 and PC-3M cells, well-differentiated spheroids formed, which were then spontaneously transformed into highly invasive cells. These cell lines may have previously undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is temporarily suppressed in favor of epithelial maturation by signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM). The induction of lipid and steroid metabolism, epigenetic reprogramming, and ECM remodeling represents a general adaptation to 3D culture, regardless of transformation and phenotype. In contrast, PI3-Kinase, AKT, STAT/interferon and integrin signaling pathways were particularly activated in invasive cells. Specific small molecule inhibitors targeted against PI3-Kinase blocked invasive cell growth more effectively in 3D than in 2D monolayer culture, or the growth of normal cells. Our panel of cell models, spanning a wide spectrum of phenotypic plasticity, supports the investigation of different modes of cell migration and tumor morphologies, and will be useful for predictive testing of anti-cancer and anti-metastatic compounds. PMID:20454659

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Investigating the dispersal routes used by an invasive

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is a globally distributed invasive amphibian that has been Lithobates catesbeianus Á Landscape ecology Á Dispersal Á Habitat alteration Introduction AnthropogenicORIGINAL PAPER Investigating the dispersal routes used by an invasive amphibian, Lithobates

  18. Invasive Predator, Bythotrephes, has Varied Effects on Ecosystem Function

    E-print Network

    Strecker, Angela L.

    Invasive Predator, Bythotrephes, has Varied Effects on Ecosystem Function in Freshwater Lakes; Bythotrephes; freshwater lakes; secondary production; zooplankton grazing. INTRODUCTION The introduction of non lakes (Sala and others 2000). Although there is evidence that invasive species can alter ecosystem

  19. Invasion Ecology and School Biology--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that invasion biology can supply subject matter for teaching evolution, genetics, ecological relationships, and conservation. Describes flowering and non-flowering plant invaders, vertebrates and invertebrates, and two ecological invasions on the southern coast of England. (JN)

  20. Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and

    E-print Network

    Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

  1. INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

  2. AARES Annual Symposium Invasive Species and Bio-security

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    AARES Annual Symposium Invasive Species and Bio-security 10 -- 11 September 2009 University House in Invasive Species Control Programs Speaker: Oscar Cacho, UNE 2:30pm-3:00pm Topic--Counting the Costs

  3. A modified duodenal neuroendocrine tumor staging schema better defines the risk of lymph node metastasis and disease-free survival.

    PubMed

    Kachare, Swapnil D; Liner, Kendall R; Vohra, Nasreen A; Zervos, Emmanuel E; Fitzgerald, Timothy L

    2014-08-01

    Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare but increasing in incidence and optimal management is hindered by lack of duodenum-specific staging. Duodenal carcinoids were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results tumor registry. Depth of invasion was defined as limited to lamina propria (LP), invading muscularis propria (MP), through muscularis propria (TMP), and through serosa (S). Nine hundred forty-nine patients were identified with majorities being male (57%), white (70%), and node-negative (87%). Tumor size (cm) was less than 1, 47 per cent; 1 to 2, 35 per cent; and greater than 2, 8 per cent with 76 per cent LP. Lymph node (LN) involvement was associated with age, depth of invasion (LP 4%, MP 28%, TMP 54%, and S 57%) and size (less than 1 cm, 3%; 1 to 2 cm, 13%; and greater than 2 cm, 40%). Using the current T staging, LN involvement was: T1 (LP) 2 per cent, T2 (MP or greater than 1 cm) 13 per cent, T3 (TMP) 54 per cent, and T4 (S) 57 per cent. We reclassified current T1 to T1a and current T2 stage to T1b (1 to 2 cm and LP) and T2 (MP or greater than 2 cm). LN metastasis for T1b tumors was 4.7 per cent compared with 20.8 per cent for T2. The resulting TNM classification better defines 5-year disease-specific survival. Our modified staging schema identifies a low-risk group (T1a and T1b) that may be considered for local therapy. PMID:25105406

  4. Propagule Pressure: A Null Model for Biological Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert I. Colautti; Igor A. Grigorovich; Hugh J. MacIsaac

    2006-01-01

    Invasion ecology has been criticised for its lack of general principles. To explore this criticism, we conducted a meta-analysis\\u000a that examined characteristics of invasiveness (i.e. the ability of species to establish in, spread to, or become abundant\\u000a in novel communities) and invasibility (i.e. the susceptibility of habitats to the establishment or proliferation of invaders).\\u000a There were few consistencies among invasiveness

  5. Diagnosing Aspergillosis: The Role of Invasive Diagnostic Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Lass-Flörl; Martin C. Freund

    \\u000a The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains challenging and current conventional methods are limited for the diagnosis\\u000a of invasive fungal infections. The gold-standard for the definite diagnosis of proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains\\u000a either histopathologic, cytopathologic or direct tissue examination, based on the documentation of typical hyphae and a positive\\u000a culture of Aspergillus spp. This chapter reviews the yield of invasive

  6. The Technological Development of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Laura A.; O'Toole, John; Eichholz, Kurt M.; Perez-Cruet, Mick J.; Fessler, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery has its roots in the mid-twentieth century with a few surgeons and a few techniques, but it has now developed into a large field of progressive spinal surgery. A wide range of techniques are now called “minimally invasive,” and case reports are submitted constantly with new “minimally invasive” approaches to spinal pathology. As minimally invasive spine surgery has become more mainstream over the past ten years, in this paper we discuss its history and development. PMID:24967347

  7. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus

    E-print Network

    japonicus, invasive mosquitoes, disease vectors, container habitats, mosquito larvae interactions Abstract as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia or Asian bush mosquito, is part of a species group consisting of four subspecies and one very closely

  8. Minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla; Holubar, Stefan D

    2015-06-01

    Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic "incisionless," single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  9. In this issue: Florida Invasive Species Partnership

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    NO Boundaries - Do We? By Kristina Serbesoff-King, The Nature Conservancy and Chris Demers, UF-IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation This article is a condensed version of the original publication in Wildland Weeds, Winter 2008. Chances are good that if you work with invasive non-native species issues

  10. News on Aquatic Invasions Great Lakes Commission

    E-print Network

    News on Aquatic Invasions from the Great Lakes Commission Spring/Summer 2008 Volume 14, No. 1 The ANS Update is a quarterly publication of Great Lakes Commission to address ANS issues in the Great Lakes basin. Please contact Katherine Glassner-Shwayder at the Great Lakes Commission, Eisenhower

  11. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  12. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen; Charles Chimera; Patti Clifford; Dennis Marinus Hansen

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThere is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely

  13. Raves & rants about invasive crazy ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crazy ants” is a name that refers to various species of ants that are characterized by erratic, scurrying, or running, behavior when disturbed. Two of these species, the yellow crazy ant and the Caribbean or Rasberry [sic] crazy ant, are invasive with extremely large populations that inundate lands...

  14. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    PubMed

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533

  15. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  16. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    or reduced competition from native plants. Attempts to mimic pre-dam floods for ecosystem restoration through and floodplains are highly susceptible to invasion by non-native plants due to changes in disturbance regimes (i many water- ways in the American Southwest, including the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We

  17. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Rodriguez, Alex; Holben, William E

    2004-02-19

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote 'exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare species native to North America consistently demonstrate negative feedbacks with soil microbes that promote biological diversity, whereas abundant exotic and native species demonstrate positive feedbacks that reduce biological diversity. Here we report that soil microbes from the home range of the invasive exotic plant Centaurea maculosa L. have stronger inhibitory effects on its growth than soil microbes from where the weed has invaded in North America. Centaurea and soil microbes participate in different plant-soil feedback processes at home compared with outside Centaurea's home range. In native European soils, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly negative effects on the weed's growth, possibly leading to its control. But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America. PMID:14973484

  18. Non invasive methods for egg quality evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. BAMELIS; B. DE KETELAERE; B. J. KEMPS; K. MERTENS

    During the last century, egg production, transport and handling became a specialized industry. Egg quality was for a long time based on visual inspection. Today, the total number of the handled eggs and the rate of grading (up to 180 000 eggs\\/hour) is such that this visual inspection becomes impossible. This leads to a search for new non invasive devices

  19. Modelling Biological Invasions: Chance, Explanation, Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mollison; R. M. Anderson; M. S. Bartlett; R. Southwood

    1986-01-01

    Biological invasions have their epidemic and endemic aspects: the former include ability to invade, competitive ability to succeed initially, and (if successful) rate and manner of spread; the latter, competitiveness to persist, and (if successful) level and pattern of persistence. There have been successes, at least in qualitative explanatory terms, in modelling all these aspects. For some, the stochastic element,

  20. Antifungal stewardship in invasive Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, M

    2014-06-01

    Bloodstream and other invasive infections due to Candida species (invasive fungal diseases = IFD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized adults and children in many countries worldwide. The high infection-related morbidity and mortality associated with invasive Candida infection/candidaemia (IC/C), combined with suboptimal diagnostic tools, have driven the overuse of antifungal drugs. Antifungal stewardship (AFS) may be regarded as subentity of the more general term Anti-infective or Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (AIS/AMS). The high costs and high contribution of antifungal agents to the management of IFDs along with their recognized toxicities have been addressed as the principal justification for antifungal stewardship. AFS programmes should be organized by an interdisciplinary team of clinicians, pharmacists, microbiologists and infection control experts with the lead of an infectious disease specialist preferably in each large hospital/institution dealing with high-risk patients for invasive fungal infections. These programmes should consider various aspects of IC/C including (i) the local fungal epidemiology, (ii) information on antifungal resistance rates, (iii) establishing and application of therapeutic guidelines, (iv) implementation of treatment strategies for empirical, pre-emptive therapy including PK/PD data for antifungal drugs, de-escalation and 'switch and step-down strategies' (from intravenous to oral medication) in defined patient populations, (v) catheter management together with the application of routine diagnostic procedures such as ophthalmological and cardiac evaluations and (vi) the best available diagnostic tests for diagnosing IC and candidaemia. PMID:24661820

  1. Libel and Invasion of Privacy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Press Managing Editors.

    Intended to provide practical suggestions for reporters and editors, this manual presents the basic law of libel and invasion of privacy in the United States. Following an introduction noting that these are general principles of law and do not fully represent the laws of each state, the guide discusses various aspects of libel law: (1) definitions…

  2. Invasive Weed Outreach in Earl Creech

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    1 Invasive Weed Outreach in Nevada Earl Creech Extension Weed Specialist Cache Valley, Utah at Purdue What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds Enforce weed control laws What does the Extension Weed Specialist do

  3. Community Invasibility Spatial Heterogeneity, Spatial Scale,

    E-print Network

    Davies, Kendi

    . Davies, University of Colorado, Boulder IntroDuCtIon: Why Are Some CommunItIeS more InvASIble thAn other, serpentine systems are very spatially heterogeneous in soil chemistry, texture, rockiness, and toxicity empirical studies that detected negative relation- ships between native and exotic diversity at small

  4. Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Methods Towards Invasive Human Brain Computer Interfaces Thomas Navin Lal1 , Thilo Hinterberger2 there has been growing interest in the develop- ment of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The field has mainly been driven by the needs of completely paralyzed patients to communicate. With a few exceptions

  5. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martino; M. Subirà

    2002-01-01

    . Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are among the most feared complications of patients being treated for a hematological malignancy. Currently, most serious IFI occur in patients with acute leukemia and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. continue to be the main pathogens, the proportion of patients infected by non-albicans species of Candida and other

  6. Epidemiology of Invasive Mycoses in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Pfaller; Daniel J. Diekema

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Aspergillus spp. (although the list of potential patho- gens is ever expanding); while

  7. Kinetic modeling of Toxoplasma gondii invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kafsack, Björn F.C.; Carruthers, Vern B.; Pineda, Fernando J.

    2009-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites responsible for global scourges such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and toxoplasmosis. Parasites in this phylum reproduce inside the cells of their hosts, making invasion of host cells an essential step of their life cycle. Characterizing the stages of host-cell invasion, has traditionally involved tedious microscopic observations of individual parasites over time. As an alternative, we introduce the use of compartment models for interpreting data collected from snapshots of synchronized populations of invading parasites. Parameters of the model are estimated via a maximum negative log-likelihood principle. Estimated parameter values and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), are consistent with reported observations of individual parasites. For RH-strain parasites, our model yields that: 1) penetration of the host cell plasma membrane takes 26 sec (95% CI: 22-30 sec), 2) parasites that ultimately invade, remained attached 3 times longer than parasites that eventually detach from the host cells, and 3) 25% (95% CI: 19-33%) of parasites invade while 75% (95% CI: 67-81%) eventually detach from their host cells without progressing to invasion. A key feature of the model is the incorporation of invastion stages that cannot be directly observed. This allows us to characterize the phenomenon, of parasite detachment from host cells. The properties of this phenomenon would be difficult to quantify without a mathematical model. We conclude that mathematical modeling provides a powerful new tool for characterizing the stages of host-cell invasion by intracellular parasites. PMID:17942124

  8. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE HERBACEOUS RANGE WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource managers are often discouraged when it comes to the identification of herbaceous rangeland weeds, terminology associated with these weeds, control of these weeds, and the succession of these weeds. The terminology often used in describing herbaceous rangeland weeds (i. e. invasive) often m...

  9. Non-invasive human breath sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Roopa; K. Rajanna; M. M. Nayak

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the design and development of a novel low-cost, non-invasive type sensor suitable for human breath sensing is reported. It can be used to detect respiratory disorders like bronchial asthma by analyzing the recorded breathing pattern. Though there are devices like spirometer to diagnose asthma, they are very inconvenient for patient's use because patients are made to exhale

  10. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  11. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Colony social structure in native and invasive populations

    E-print Network

    Goodisman, Michael

    the most inva- sive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workersORIGINAL PAPER Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp

  13. INVASIVE PREY IMPACTS THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE PREDATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Barber; Robert J. Marquis; Wendy P. Tori

    2008-01-01

    While an extensive literature exists on the negative effects of invasive species, little is known about their facilitative effects on native species, particularly the role of invasives as trophic subsidies to native predators. The invasive gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) undergoes periodic outbreaks during which it represents a super-abundant food source for predators capable of consuming it, particularly native cuckoos (Coccyzus

  14. Do Invasive Trees have a Hydraulic Advantage over Native Trees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R B Pratt; R A Black

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that invasive trees have hydraulic traits that contribute to their invasive nature. Five pairs of co-occurring invasive and native trees, in mesic habitats, were selected: (1) Tamarix ramosissima and Salix amygdaloides; (2) Robinia pseudoacacia and Alnus rhombifolia (3) Schinus terebinthifolius and Myrica cerifera; (4) Ligustrum sinense and Acer negundo; and (5) Sapium sebiferum and Diospyros virginiana,

  15. Continuous Non-Invasive Blood-Pressure Measurements

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Sarah J.

    Continuous Non-Invasive Blood-Pressure Measurements Tony Birch Chris Breward Sarah Campbell Igor, September 2007 Tony Birch et. al. Continuous Non-Invasive Blood-Pressure Measurements #12;Overview: Finapres. al. Continuous Non-Invasive Blood-Pressure Measurements #12;The Problem Under normal resting

  16. ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACT Bionic Hand Using Non Invasive Interface

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    the control unit using magnetic Hall Effect sensors which then act as a 2-bit binary positional system and feedback from pressure sensors on the bionic hand. This presentation will cover the theory and design either invasively or non-invasively. Key words: Bionic, non-invasive human-computer interface, Hall

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive Argentine ants reduce fitness of red maple

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive Argentine ants reduce fitness of red maple via a mutualism with an endemic / Published online: 16 October 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Many invasive ant the natural enemies of the Hemiptera. Invasive ant species like the Argentine ant have often been associated

  18. Notes on invasive and expansive trees and shrubs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MÖLLEROVÁ

    2005-01-01

    Expansion and invasion of plants indicate successful colonization and competitive abilities of species. There are fewer invasive and expansive woody plants than herbs. Main expansive (native species) trees and shrubs are Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Clematis vitalba, Crataegus sp. div., Fraxinus excelsior, Prunus spinosa, Rubus sp. div., Sambucus nigra. Main invasive (alien species) are Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Amorpha fruticosa,

  19. Impacts of biological invasions: what's what and the way forward

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Impacts of biological invasions: what's what and the way forward Daniel Simberloff1 , Jean of the impacts of biological invasions, a pervasive component of global change, has generated remarkable of biological invasions, elucidation of their consequences, and knowledge about mitigation are growing rapidly

  20. Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms Anna Traveset1 and David M, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain 2 Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany & Zoology, University Biological invasions threaten global biodiversity by altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems [1