Sample records for lamina propria invasion

  1. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  2. Proteolytic degradation of intestinal mucosal extracellular matrix after lamina propria T cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Pender, S L; Lionetti, P; Murch, S H; Wathan, N; MacDonald, T T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteoglycans, consisting of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains covalently linked to a protein core, are a major component of the extracellular matrix of the intestinal lamina propria. AIMS: This study investigated the effects of lamina propria T cell activation on the proteoglycan component of the matrix. METHODS: The high degree of sulphation of GAGs means that they are polyanionic and thus can be visualised in tissue sections by means of colloidal-gold labelled cationic probes. RESULTS: In human fetal small intestine there is a dense meshwork of anionic residues in the lamina propria and basement membrane. When explants of human fetal small intestine are cultured ex vivo, and resident lamina propria T cells are activated with pokeweed mitogen, mucosal destruction occurs within three days. This is associated with the rapid loss of anionic sites from the lamina propria. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycan is lost from the tissue and is present at increased concentrations in the organ culture supernatants, indicating that T cell activation has led to solubilisation of lamina propria proteoglycans. Tissue destruction and loss of anionic residues are inhibited in a dose dependent fashion by dexamethasone, and by the protease inhibitor, alpha 2 macroglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: Proteolytic degradation of the lamina propria may therefore be a mechanism by which T cell hypersensitivity injures the intestinal mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8977345

  3. Lamina propria T cells in Crohn's disease and other gastrointestinal inflammation show defective CD2 pathway-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Boirivant; Marco Marini; Gabriella Di Felice; Anna Maria Pronio; Chiara Montesani; Roberto Tersigni; Warren Strober

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Normal human lamina propria lymphocytes manifest increased unstimulated apoptosis compared with peripheral lymphocytes, which are enhanced after stimulation via the CD2 activation pathway. This activation-induced apoptosis down-regulates cell expansion and cytokine production. In previous studies, it was shown that lamina propria T cells from patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis manifest abnormal proliferation and cytokine production.

  4. Immune responses of TLR5 + lamina propria dendritic cells in enterobacterial infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Uematsu; Shizuo Akira

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 has been shown\\u000a to recognize bacterial flagellin. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 is not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages.\\u000a By contrast, TLR5 is mainly expressed on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells (LPCs), which do not express TLR4. These cells detect pathogenic bacteria and secreted proinflammatory\\u000a cytokines,

  5. Identification of telocytes in the lamina propria of rat duodenum: transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, I Cantarero; Bartolomé, M J Luesma; Escribano, C Junquera

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently the new term ‘telocytes’ has been proposed for cells formerly known as interstitial Cajal-like cells. In fact, telocytes are not really Cajal-like cells, they being different from all other interstitial cells by the presence of telopodes, which are cell-body prolongations, very thin, extremely long with a moniliform aspect. The identification of these cells is based on ultrastructural criteria. The presence of telocytes in others organs was previously documented. We reported for the first time, an ultrastructural study of telocytes in the lamina propria of rat duodenum. Our findings show that typical telocytes are present in the rat duodenum. Telocytes are located in the lamina propria, immediately below mucosal crypts. Telopodes frequently establish close spatial relationships with immune cells, blood vessels and nerve endings. On the basis of their distribution and morphology, we suggest that these cells may be involved in immune response and in our opinion, it may be possible that different locations of telocytes could be associated with different roles. PMID:21054782

  6. Microbiota Controls the Homeostasis of Glial Cells in the Gut Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

  7. Microbiota controls the homeostasis of glial cells in the gut lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Kabouridis, Panagiotis S; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

  8. Human cytomegalovirus enhances chemokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lamina propria macrophages.

    PubMed

    Redman, Tamara K; Britt, William J; Wilcox, C Mel; Graham, Martin F; Smith, Phillip D

    2002-03-01

    To elucidate the role of mucosal macrophages in intestinal human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease, primary lamina propria macrophages (LPM) were isolated from normal human jejunum, infected with HCMV, and studied for their cytokine responses. HCMV infection of LPM was confirmed by the presence of HCMV IE72 (UL123), pp65 (UL83), and glycoprotein B (UL55) proteins, which were detected by immunofluorescence, beginning at postinfection (pi) day 3, and were sustained through pi day 12 in 0.1%-0.5% of LPM. The late protein pp28 (UL99) was also detected up to pi day 12, consistent with productive infection. HCMV infection in LPM was characterized by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction, with maximum levels of HCMV DNA detected at pi day 7. HCMV infection of the LPM augmented lipopolysaccharide-inducible chemokine (interleukin [IL]-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) and cytokine (IL-6) production. These findings suggest that mucosal macrophages, via enhanced mediator production, play an important role in intestinal inflammation associated with HCMV infection. PMID:11865414

  9. Characterization of lamina propria and vocal muscle in human vocal fold tissue by ultrasound Nakagami imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Sun, Lei; Dailey, Seth H.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A number of ultrasound techniques have been applied to identify the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. These conventional ultrasound methods, however, are not capable of visually mapping the concentration of collagen and elastic fibers in the vocal folds in the form of a parametric image. This study proposes to use a statistical parameter, the Nakagami factor estimated from the statistical distribution of the ultrasonic signals backscattered from tissues, as a means for parametric imaging of the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. Methods: The ultrasonic backscattered signals were acquired from four larynges (eight vocal folds) obtained from individuals without vocal fold pathology for constructing the Nakagami images. The textures of the Nakagami image in the lamina propria (LP) and the vocal muscle (VM) were observed and compared. The average and standard deviation of the Nakagami parameter for the LP and the VM were also calculated. Results: The results showed that the Nakagami parameter of the LP is larger than that of the VM. Moreover, the LP and the VM have different shading features in the Nakagami images. It was found that the Nakagami parameter may depend on the concentration of collagen and elastic fibers, demonstrating that the Nakagami imaging may allow visual differentiation between the LP and the VM in the vocal folds. Conclusions: Current preliminary results suggested that the high-frequency Nakagami imaging may allow real-time visual characterization of the vocal fold tissues in clinical routine examinations. PMID:21626934

  10. CD2 activation of human lamina propria lymphocytes reduces CD3 responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Ellen C

    2006-01-01

    Lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) are thought to be antigen-activated memory T cells. Yet, they respond better to ligation of the CD2 receptor than the CD3 receptor by mitogenic antibodies. This study defines their constitutive state of activation and relates it to their CD3 hyporesponsiveness. The activated state of LPLs was demonstrated by their heightened display of the activated CD2 epitope, T113. Constitutive CD2 activation was shown by the reduction in spontaneous proliferation when the CD2–CD58 interaction was blocked. LPLs preferentially recognized CD58 rather than the major histocompatibility complex molecules on monocytes, triggering proliferation and interferon-? (IFN-?) secretion that was inhibited by blocking the CD2–CD58 interaction. To determine whether CD2 activation of LPLs contributes to their CD3 hyporesponsiveness, they were first stimulated with mitogenic CD2 antibodies and then tested for CD3-induced proliferation. The responses were greatly reduced by prior CD2 stimulation compared with LPLs cultured in medium alone. This effect was not caused by apoptosis or by changes in CD3 expression induced by CD2 triggering. This study shows that LPLs are constitutively activated through CD2, that they preferentially recognize CD58 on monocytes and that CD2 stimulation leads to CD3 hyporesponsiveness. PMID:16423042

  11. Identification of telocytes in the upper lamina propria of the human urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Thomas; Vos, Rita; Aa, Frank; Joniau, Steven; Oord, Joost; Roskams, Tania; Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The upper lamina propria (ULP) area of interstitial cells (IC) has been studied extensively in bladder, but is rather unexplored in the rest of the urinary tract. This cell layer is intriguing because of the localization directly underneath the urothelium, the intercellular contacts and the close relationship with nerve endings and capillaries. In this study, we examine the ULP layer of IC in human renal pelvis, ureter and urethra, and we make a comparison with ULP IC in bladder. Tissue was obtained from normal areas in nephrectomy, cystectomy and prostatectomy specimens, and processed for morphology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype for the ULP IC was assessed and region-dependent differences were looked for. The ULP IC in renal pelvis, ureter and urethra had a similar ultrastructural phenotype, which differed somehow from that of bladder IC, that is, thinner and longer cytoplasmic processes, no peripheral actin filaments and presence of dense core granules and microtubules. Together with their immunohistochemical profile, these features are most compatible with the phenotype of telocytes, a recently discovered group of stromal cells. Based on their global ultrastructural and immunohistochemical phenotype, ULP IC in human bladder should also be classified as telocytes. The most striking immunohistochemical finding was the variable expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). The functional relevance of ULP telocytes in the urinary tract remains to be elucidated, and ER and PR might therefore be promising pharmacological research targets. PMID:22151349

  12. Regulation of humoral and cellular gut immunity by lamina propria dendritic cells expressing Toll-like receptor 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Uematsu; Kosuke Fujimoto; Myoung Ho Jang; Bo-Gie Yang; Yun-Jae Jung; Mika Nishiyama; Shintaro Sato; Tohru Tsujimura; Masafumi Yamamoto; Yoshifumi Yokota; Hiroshi Kiyono; Masayuki Miyasaka; Ken J Ishii; Shizuo Akira

    2008-01-01

    The intestinal cell types responsible for defense against pathogenic organisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we identify a subset of CD11chiCD11bhi lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) that expressed Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the small intestine. When stimulated by the TLR5 ligand flagellin, TLR5+ LPDCs induced the differentiation of naive B cells into immunoglobulin A–producing plasma cells by a mechanism independent

  13. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

  14. Initiation of an Inflammatory Response in Resident Intestinal Lamina Propria Cells -Use of a Human Organ Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

  15. Helicobacter spp. in cats: association between infecting species and epithelial proliferation within the gastric lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Takemura, L S; Camargo, P L; Alfieri, A A; Bracarense, A P F R L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between Helicobacter spp. infection of the feline stomach and the presence of gastric lesions and epithelial proliferation within the mucosa of this tissue. The study included 23 pet cats of both sexes and of varied age and breed. Eighteen of these animals were clinically normal and five had a history of chronic vomiting. Samples of the mucosa of the pyloric antrum, corpus and fundus were collected by gastroscopy. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and the species of Helicobacter was determined by PCR. Mucosal lesions were evaluated by examination of sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and epithelial proliferation was determined by enumerating nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). In 20 (87%) cats the presence of Helicobacter spp. was confirmed by both PCR and WS. There was no significant difference in colonization density between the different gastric regions. H. heilmannii was the most frequently identified species (17 of 20 cats), and H. felis was only identified in co-infection (two of 17 cats). One sample that was PCR positive to the genus level for Helicobacter spp. was negative for the four individual species reactions. Histological changes in the lamina propria included mild mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, the presence of lymphoid follicles, fibrosis and glandular degeneration. These changes were most severe in the pyloric antrum. There was significant association between infection with gastric Helicobacter spp. and the presence of lymphoid follicles (P=0.03), and between infection and epithelial proliferation in the antrum (P<0.01), corpus (P<0.001) and fundus (P<0.001). PMID:19446836

  16. LITAF mediation of increased TNF-? secretion from inflamed colonic lamina propria macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bushell, Kristen N; Leeman, Susan E; Gillespie, Earl; Gower, Adam C; Reed, Karen L; Stucchi, Arthur F; Becker, James M; Amar, Salomon

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of TNF-? in lamina propria macrophages (LPM) is a feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). LPS-Induced-TNF-Alpha-Factor (LITAF) is a transcription factor that mediates TNF-? expression. To determine whether LITAF participates in the mediation of TNF-? expression in acutely inflamed colonic tissues, we first established the TNBS-induced colonic inflammation model in C57BL/6 mice. LPM were harvested from non-inflamed and inflamed colonic tissue and inflammatory parameters TNF-? and LITAF mRNA and protein levels were measured ex-vivo. LPM from TNBS-treated mice secreted significantly more TNF-? at basal state and in response to LPS than LPM from untreated mice (p<0.05). LITAF mRNA and protein levels were elevated in LPM from TNBS compared with untreated animals and LPS further increased LITAF protein levels in LPM from inflamed tissue (P<0.05). To further confirm the role of LITAF in acutely inflamed colonic tissues, TNBS-induced colonic inflammation was produced in LITAF macrophage specific knockout mice (LITAF mac -/- mice) and compared to wild type (WT) C57BL/6. Twenty four hours following TNBS administration, colonic tissue from LITAF mac -/- mice had less MPO activity and reduced colonic TNF-? mRNA then WT C57BL/6 mice (p<0.05). LPM harvested from LITAF mac -/- secreted significantly less TNF-? in response to LPS than wild type (WT) C57BL/6 (p<0.05). This study provides evidence that LITAF contributes to the regulation of TNF-? in LPM harvested following acute inflammation or LPS treatment paving the way for future work focusing on LITAF inhibitors in the treatment of TNF-?-mediated inflammatory conditions. PMID:21984950

  17. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, Duane R; Portuguese, Andrew J; Meyers, Robin M; Gallagher, Michael P; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M; Panchakshari, Rohit A; Rodig, Scott J; Kepler, Thomas B; Alt, Frederick W

    2013-09-01

    The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease (RAG) initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH ? and IgL (Ig? or Ig?) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B-cell antigen-binding receptor (BCR). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells, allowing continued Ig? V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial V?J? exon with one that generates a new specificity. This 'receptor editing' process, which can also lead to Ig? V(D)J recombination and expression, provides a mechanism whereby antigen encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B-cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of postnatal B-cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification in mice. Here we report that early B-cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP immunoglobulin repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B-lineage cells that harbour intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different V? repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing bone marrow counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Ig?-expressing versus Ig?-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B-cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extracellular signals from commensal microbes that influence gut immunoglobulin repertoires. PMID:23965619

  18. Total parenteral nutrition-associated lamina propria inflammation in mice is mediated by a MyD88 dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Feng, Yongjia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Erb-Downward, John; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Mason, Katie L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteral nutrient-deprivation, via total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration leads to local mucosal inflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods Wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- mice underwent jugular vein cannulation. One group received TPN without chow and controls received standard chow. After 7days, we harvested intestinal mucosally-associated bacteria, and isolated small-bowel lamina propria (LP) cells. Bacterial populations were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. LP cells were analyzed using quantitative PCR and multi-color flow cytometry. Results WT, control mucosally-associated microbiota were Firmicutes-dominant while WT TPN mice were Proteobacteria-domiant. Similar changes were observed in MyD88-/- mice with TPN administration. Unifrac analysis showed divergent small bowel and colonic bacterial communities in controls, merging towards similar microbiota (but distinct from controls) with TPN. The percentage of LP T-regulatory cells significantly decreased with TPN in WT mice. F4/80+CD11b+CD11cdull-neg macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased with TPN. These pro-inflammatory immunologic changes were significantly abrogated in MyD88-/- TPN mice. Conclusions TPN administration is associated with significant expansion of Proteobacteria within the intestinal microbiota and increased pro-inflammatory LP cytokines. MyD88 signaling blockade abrogated this pro-inflammatory response. PMID:23667106

  19. Characterization of upper lamina propria interstitial cells in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity and bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Thomas; De Vos, Rita; Everaerts, Wouter; Libbrecht, Louis; Van Der Aa, Frank; van den Oord, Joost; Roskams, Tania; De Ridder, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The upper lamina propria (ULP) area of interstitial cells (IC) in bladder has been studied for more than a decade in several species including human beings. Nevertheless there is still lack of uniformity in terminology of this cell layer. The aim of the present study was to add new data to the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of these cells and to find out whether this phenotype is changed in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS). Bladder tissue was obtained from a control group and from patients with NDO and BPS. Samples were processed for morphology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. A morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype for the ULP IC was assessed and changes in this phenotype were looked for in samples from patients with NDO and BPS. The ULP IC were characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of actin filaments with densifications, many caveolae and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER); on immunohistochemistry ULP IC were immunoreactive for ?-sma, vimentin, CD10 and podoplanin and categorized as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). In NDO and BPS bladders we found a phenotypical shift towards a fibroblastic phenotype which was even more pronounced in the NDO group. In both groups there was also an increased presence in ULP lymphocytes. The ULP area in the human bladder contains a population of ICLC with distinct ultrastructural morphology and immunohistochemical phenotype. Their unique ?-sma+/desmin–/CD34– phenotype allows studying this population in various bladder disorders. In bladders form patients with BPS and NDO, we observed these ULP ICLC to shift towards a fibroblast phenotype. PMID:21251216

  20. Focused Examination of the Intestinal lamina Propria Yields Greater Molecular Insight into Mechanisms Underlying SIV Induced Immune Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahesh; Kaushal, Deepak; Aye, Pyone P.; Alvarez, Xavier; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is critical to AIDS pathogenesis as it is the primary site for viral transmission and a major site of viral replication and CD4+ T cell destruction. Consequently GI disease, a major complication of HIV/SIV infection can facilitate translocation of lumenal bacterial products causing localized/systemic immune activation leading to AIDS progression. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying GI disease we analyzed global gene expression profiles sequentially in the intestine of the same animals prior to and at 21 and 90d post SIV infection (PI). More importantly we maximized information gathering by examining distinct mucosal components (intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes [LPL], epithelium and fibrovascular stroma) separately. The use of sequential intestinal resections combined with focused examination of distinct mucosal compartments represents novel approaches not previously attempted. Here we report data pertaining to the LPL. A significant increase (±1.7-fold) in immune defense/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, cell signaling, transcription and cell division/differentiation genes were observed at 21 and 90d PI. Genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway (IL21, IL12R, STAT5A, IL10, SOCS1) and T-cell activation (NFATc1, CDK6, Gelsolin, Moesin) were notably upregulated at 21d PI. Markedly downregulated genes at 21d PI included IL17D/IL27 and IL28B/IFN?3 (anti-HIV/viral), activation induced cytidine deaminase (B-cell function) and approximately 57 genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation, a critical metabolic shift associated with T-cell activation. The 90d transcriptome revealed further augmentation of inflammation (CXCL11, chitinase-1, JNK3), immune activation (CD38, semaphorin7A, CD109), B-cell dysfunction (CD70), intestinal microbial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide binding protein) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (NLRX1) genes. Reduced expression of CD28, CD4, CD86, CD93, NFATc1 (T-cells), TLR8, IL8, CCL18, DECTIN1 (macrophages), HLA-DOA and GPR183 (B-cells) at 90d PI suggests further deterioration of overall immune function. Conclusions/Significance The reported transcriptional signatures provide significant new details on the molecular pathology of HIV/SIV induced GI disease and provide new opportunity for future investigation. PMID:22511950

  1. CX3CR1? cells facilitate the activation of CD4 T cells in the colonic lamina propria during antigen-driven colitis.

    PubMed

    Rossini, V; Zhurina, D; Radulovic, K; Manta, C; Walther, P; Riedel, C U; Niess, J H

    2014-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages populate the intestinal lamina propria to initiate immune responses required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. To investigate whether CX3CR1(+) phagocytes communicate with CD4 T cells during the development of transfer colitis, we established an antigen-driven colitis model induced by the adoptive transfer of DsRed OT-II cells in CX3CR1(GFP/+) × RAG(-/-) recipients challenged with Escherichia coli expressing ovalbumin (OVA) fused to a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). After colonization of CX3CR1(GFP/+) × RAG(-/-) animals with red fluorescent E. coli pCherry-OVA, colonic CX3CR1(+) cells but not CD103(+) DCs phagocytosed E. coli pCherry-OVA. Degraded bacterial-derived antigens are transported by CD103(+) DCs to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), where CD103(+) DCs prime naive T cells. In RAG(-/-) recipients reconstituted with OT II cells and gavaged with OVA-expressing E. coli, colonic CX3CR1(+) phagocytes are in close contact with CD4 T cells and presented bacterial-derived antigens to CD4 T cells to activate and expand effector T cells. PMID:24129164

  2. Non-equilibrium and differential function between intraepithelial and lamina propria virus-specific TCR??+ CD8?? + T cells in the small intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, D; Dzutsev, A; Belyakov, IM; Berzofsky, JA

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa regularly encounters commensal and pathogenic microbiota. Gut mucosal lymphocytes consist of two phenotypically different populations residing in the intestinal intraepithelial (IEL) compartment and lamina propria (LP). Little is known about compositional and functional differences of antigen-specific T cells from these mucosal compartments after mucosal infection, or the degree of trafficking between them. We here studied the B8R20 – 27-specific CD8 T-cell response in LP and IEL compartments after intrarectal immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). CD8+ T cells in the IEL compartment had much lower avidity than in the LP or spleen during acute and memory phases. Surprisingly, the TCR V?-chain distribution of antigen-specific T cells and the length of the CDR3 region of the dominant V? genes showed substantial dissimilarities between IEL and LP antigen-specific CD8?? T cells in individual mice, increasing with time. We show functional and compositional differences between these mucosal compartments during the effector and memory phases of the immune response, indicating limited crosstalk and microenvironmental differences between the IEL, LP, and spleen. The restricted migration of cells from each of these mucosal compartments could partly account for a founder effect we observed in the IEL TCR?? CD8?? epitope-specific repertoire that might impact protective efficacy. PMID:19571797

  3. Redundant role of chemokines CCL25/TECK and CCL28/MEC in IgA+ plasmablast recruitment to the intestinal lamina propria after rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ningguo; Jaimes, María C; Lazarus, Nicole H; Monak, Denise; Zhang, Caiqui; Butcher, Eugene C; Greenberg, Harry B

    2006-05-15

    Rotaviruses (RV) are the most important cause of severe childhood diarrheal disease. In suckling mice, infection with RV results in an increase in total and virus-specific IgA(+) plasmablasts in the small intestinal lamina propria (LP) soon after infection, providing a unique opportunity to study the mechanism of IgA(+) cell recruitment into the small intestine. In this study, we show that the increase in total and RV-specific IgA(+) plasmablasts in the LP after RV infection can be blocked by the combined administration of Abs against chemokines CCL25 and CCL28, but not by the administration of either Ab alone. RV infection in CCR9 knockout mice still induced a significant accumulation of IgA(+) plasmablasts in the LP, which was blocked by the addition of anti-CCL28 Ab, confirming the synergistic role of CCL25 and CCL28. The absence of IgA(+) plasmablast accumulation in LP following combined anti-chemokine treatment was not due to changes in proliferation or apoptosis in these cells. We also found that coadministration of anti-CCL25 and anti-CCL28 Abs with the addition of anti-alpha(4) Ab did not further inhibit IgA(+) cell accumulation in the LP and that the CCL25 receptor, CCR9, was coexpressed with the intestinal homing receptor alpha(4)beta(7) on IgA(+) plasmablasts. Finally, we showed that RV infection was associated with an increase in both CCL25 and CCL28 in the small intestine. Hence, our findings indicate that alpha(4)beta(7) along with either CCR9 or CCR10 are sufficient for mediating the intestinal migration of IgA(+) plasmablasts during RV infection. PMID:16670280

  4. Characterization of the vocal fold lamina propria towards voice restoration

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Mariah S

    2004-01-01

    During normal speech, human vocal folds sustain greater than 100 high impact collisions each second. When the pliability of this complex biomechanical system is reduced by scarring, voice quality may be compromised. ...

  5. Chicken cecum immune response to Salmonella enterica serovars of different levels of invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Angela; Wilhelm, Anne; Jugert, Christiane; Pieper, Jana; Sachse, Konrad; Methner, Ulrich

    2007-12-01

    Day-old chicks are very susceptible to infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies. The gut mucosa is the initial site of host invasion and provides the first line of defense against the bacteria. To study the potential of different S. enterica serovars to invade the gut mucosa and trigger an immune response, day-old chicks were infected orally with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Hadar, or S. enterica serovar Infantis, respectively. The localization of Salmonella organisms in gut mucosa and the number of immune cells in cecum were determined by immunohistochemistry in the period between 4 h and 9 days after infection. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, mRNA expression of various cytokines, chemokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined in cecum. As a result, all S. enterica serovars were able to infect epithelial cells and the lamina propria. Notably, serovar Enteritidis showed the highest invasiveness of lamina propria tissue, whereas serovars Typhimurium and Hadar displayed moderate invasiveness and serovar Infantis hardly any invasion capabilities. Only a limited number of bacteria of all serovars were found within intestinal macrophages. Elevated numbers of granulocytes, CD8+ cells, and TCR1+ cells and mRNA expression rates for interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha factor, and iNOS in cecum correlated well with the invasiveness of serovars in the lamina propria. In contrast, changes in numbers of TCR2+ and CD4+ cells and IL-2 mRNA expression seemed to be more dependent on infection of epithelial cells. The data indicate that the capability of Salmonella serovars to enter the cecal mucosa and invade lower regions affects both the level and character of the immune response in tissue. PMID:17709416

  6. Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Varol; Ehud Zigmond; Steffen Jung

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal landscape comprises the host's own tissue and immune cells, as well as a diverse intestinal microbiota. Intricate regulatory mechanisms have evolved to maintain peaceful coexistence at this site, the breakdown of which can result in devastating inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Mononuclear phagocytes promote both innate and adaptive immune responses in the gut and, as such, are essential for

  7. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

  8. The intriguing plant nuclear lamina

    PubMed Central

    Ciska, Malgorzata; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a complex protein mesh attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which is also associated with nuclear pore complexes. It provides mechanical support to the nucleus and nuclear envelope, and as well as facilitating the connection of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton, it is also involved in chromatin organization, gene regulation, and signaling. In metazoans, the nuclear lamina consists of a polymeric layer of lamins and other interacting proteins responsible for its association with the INM and chromatin. In plants, field emission scanning electron microscopy of nuclei, and thin section transmission electron microscopy of isolated nucleoskeletons, reveals the lamina to have a similar structure to that of metazoans. Moreover, although plants lack lamin genes and the genes encoding most lamin-binding proteins, the main functions of the lamina are fulfilled in plants. Hence, it would appear that the plant lamina is not based on lamins and that other proteins substitute for lamins in plant cells. The nuclear matrix constituent proteins are the best characterized structural proteins in the plant lamina. Although these proteins do not display strong sequence similarity to lamins, their predicted secondary structure and sub-nuclear distribution, as well as their influence on nuclear size and shape, and on heterochromatin organization, suggest they could be functional lamin analogs. In this review we shall summarize what is currently known about the organization and composition of the plant nuclear lamina and its interacting complexes, and we will discuss the activity of this structure in the plant cell and its nucleus. PMID:24808902

  9. Infliximab but not etanercept induces apoptosis in lamina propria T-lymphocytes from patients with Crohn’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. H Van den Brande; Henri Braat; Gijs R van den Brink; Henri H Versteeg; Christiaan A Bauer; Inge Hoedemaeker; Catherine van Montfrans; Daan W Hommes; Maikel P Peppelenbosch; Sander J. H van Deventer

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims:Steroid-refractory Crohn’s disease responds to therapy with the chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? antibody infliximab. Etanercept, a recombinant TNF receptor\\/immunoglobulin G fusion protein, is highly effective in rheumatoid arthritis but not in Crohn’s disease. Because both infliximab and etanercept are TNF-?-neutralizing drugs, we investigated the differences in TNF-?-neutralizing capacity and human lymphocyte binding and apoptosis-inducing capacity of both

  10. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the small intestinal lamina propria show an effector\\/memory phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zijin Guo; Myoung Ho Jang; Kazuhiro Otani; Zhongbin Bai; Eiji Umemoto; Masanori Matsumoto; Mika Nishiyama; Mikako Yamasaki; Satoshi Ueha; Kouji Matsushima; Takako Hirata; Masayuki Miyasaka

    2008-01-01

    CD41CD251 regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in the suppression of pathogenic responses to both self- and non-self-antigens in the intestine. However, their precise properties and functions in the gut, as well as the molecular basis of their recruitment to the gut, are poorly understood. Here, we found that most of the CD41CD251 T cells in the small intestinal

  11. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?) regulates the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestinal lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Charlotte L; TFP, Zangerle Murray; Beckham, Katherine S H; Douce, Gillian; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?/CD172a) is a conserved transmembrane protein thought to play an inhibitory role in immune function by binding the ubiquitous ligand CD47. SIRP? expression has been used to identify dendritic cell subsets across species and here we examined its expression and function on intestinal DCs in mice. Normal mucosa contains four subsets of DCs based on their expression of CD103 and CD11b and three of these express SIRP?. However, loss of SIRP? signaling in mice leads to a selective reduction in the CD103+CD11b+ subset of DCs in the small intestine, colon, and among migratory DCs in the mesenteric lymph node. In parallel, these mice have reduced numbers of TH17 cells in steady-state intestinal mucosa, and a defective TH17 response to Citrobacter infection. Identical results were obtained in CD47KO mice. DC precursors from SIRP? mutant mice had an enhanced ability to generate CD103+CD11b+ DCs in vivo, but CD103+CD11b+ DCs from mutant mice were more prone to die by apoptosis. These data show a previously unappreciated and crucial role for SIRP? in the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestine, as well as providing further evidence that this subset of DCs is critical for the development of mucosal TH17 responses. PMID:25236797

  12. Intraepithelial and lamina propria leucocyte subsets in inflammatory bowel disease: an immunohistochemical study of colon and rectal biopsy specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, T; Nogueras, F; Medina, M T; Caracuel, M D; de Sola, C; Martínez-Salmerón, F J; Rodrigo, M; García del Moral, R

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To gain new insights into the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease. METHODS--Immunohistochemistry for different leucocyte subsets was performed in biopsy specimens of the sigmoid colon and rectum from 55 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 11 healthy controls. RESULTS--Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis had significantly higher numbers of CD45+ and CD3+ leucocytes compared with those from patients with inactive disease, and higher numbers of total leucocytes and macrophages than those from patients with Crohn's disease. Rectal biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease had greater numbers of intraepithelial leucocytes (CD45, CD3 and CD8 cells) than specimens from patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis, or from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS--Because of the phenotypic differences in the inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa from the sigmoid colon and the rectum, the segment of the intestine to be biopsied should be specified. Assessment of the leucocytic component of the intraepithelial infiltrate in rectal biopsy specimens was more useful than examination of colonic biopsy specimens in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Images PMID:7560202

  13. Anatomically motivated modeling of cortical laminae.

    PubMed

    Waehnert, M D; Dinse, J; Weiss, M; Streicher, M N; Waehnert, P; Geyer, S; Turner, R; Bazin, P-L

    2014-06-01

    Improvements in the spatial resolution of structural and functional MRI are beginning to enable analysis of intracortical structures such as heavily myelinated layers in 3D, a prerequisite for in-vivo parcellation of individual human brains. This parcellation can only be performed precisely if the profiles used in cortical analysis are anatomically meaningful. Profiles are often constructed as traverses that are perpendicular to computed laminae. In this case they are fully determined by these laminae. The aim of this study is to evaluate models for cortical laminae used so far and to establish a new model. Methods to model the laminae used so far include constructing laminae that keep a constant distance to the cortical boundaries, so-called equidistant laminae. Another way is to compute equipotentials between the cortical boundary surfaces with the Laplace equation. The Laplace profiles resulting from the gradients to the equipotentials were often-used because of their nice mathematical properties. However, the equipotentials these Laplacian profiles are constructed from and the equidistant laminae do not follow the anatomical layers observed using high resolution MRI of cadaver brain. To remedy this problem, we introduce a novel equi-volume model that derives from work by Bok (1929). He argued that cortical segments preserve their volume, while layer thickness changes to compensate cortical folding. We incorporate this preservation of volume in our new equi-volume model to generate a three-dimensional well-adapted undistorted coordinate system of the cortex. When defined by this well-adapted coordinate system, cortical depth is anatomically meaningful. We compare isocontours from these cortical depth values to locations of myelinated bands on high-resolution ex-vivo and in-vivo three-dimensional MR images. A similar comparison was performed with equipotentials computed with the Laplace equation and with equidistant isocontours. A quantitative evaluation of the equi-volume model using measured image intensities confirms that it provides a much better fit to observed cortical layering. PMID:23603284

  14. The pattern of invasion of early carcinomas in Barrett's esophagus is dependent on the depth of infiltration.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Manfred; Kirtil, Tülin; Oellig, Frank; Vogel, Corinna; Mueller, Heiko; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian; Wittenberg, Reinhard

    2010-05-15

    The differential diagnosis "high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia" or "well-differentiated Barrett's adenocarcinoma limited to the mucosa" is controversial. We investigated 277 endoscopically resected specimens of early Barrett's carcinoma. Depth of infiltration was classified as follows: m 1=carcinoma limited to Barrett's mucosa; m 2=carcinoma infiltrating the neo-muscularis mucosae; m 3=infiltration of the original lamina propria of the esophageal mucosa; m 4=infiltration of the original muscularis mucosae; sm 1, sm 2, and sm 3=infiltration into the upper third, middle third, and lower third of the submucosa. The pattern of invasion was classified and graded as follows: tubular (D 0)=only neoplastic tubuli showing cytologic criteria of malignancy - no tumor cell dissociation; dissociation grade 1 (D 1)=few dissociated tumor cells; D 2=moderate amount of dissociated tumor cells; D 3=pronounced tumor cell dissociation. 74-96% of m 1-m 4 Barrett's carcinomas limited to the mucosa have a D 0-pattern. Tubular invasion decreases only when the submucosa has been infiltrated (sm 1: 70.4%, sm 2: 30.0%, sm 3: 24.0%). Our study shows that the pattern of invasion in early cancer in Barrett's esophagus statistically significantly depends on depth of infiltration. PMID:20188488

  15. The transverse placement laminoplasty using titanium miniplates for the reconstruction of the laminae in thoracic and lumbar lesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Hida; Masatoshi Naito; Jun Arimizu; Yuichiro Morishita; Atsuhiko Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Laminoplasty for thoracic and lumbar spine surgery enables surgeons to preserve the posterior arch of the spine while preventing invasion of hematoma and scar tissue, postoperative instability, subluxation, and kyphotic deformities. The authors have developed a new surgical technique: namely, transverse placement laminoplasty (TPL) using titanium miniplates. Eight patients and 18 laminae underwent TPL using a titanium mini-plate. The preoperative

  16. 20. Resident colonic lamina propria T cells did not re-spond to CD3 stimulation in vitro nor did they re-

    E-print Network

    Murray, Andrew W.

    of random peptide libraries that bind to known protein targets displayed on the outside of viruses (phage. L.M.H and N.S.G. are supported by the Crohn's in Childhood Research Association. We thank S. Daniell display) (1) or within cells (2). An alternative strategy is to select peptides whose binding to unknown

  17. The influence of elastin-like recombinant polymer on the self-renewing potential of a 3D tissue equivalent derived from human lamina propria fibroblasts and oral

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    into the genetic content of a host organism such as microorganisms, plants or other eukaryotic organisms. This way the presence of a pluristratified epithelium and an ultrastructurally well-organized basement membrane X represents any natural or modified amino acid, except proline [2]. The first ELR products were

  18. Studies of immunity and bacterial invasiveness in mice given a recombinant salmonella vector encoding murine interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, S J; Ramsay, A J; Strugnell, R A

    1996-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was expressed in Salmonella typhimurium in an attempt to increase the mucosal immune response against the bacterium. Murine IL-6 was PCR amplified from cDNA, cloned, sequenced, and found to be functionally active when expressed in S. typhimurium BRD509, the (delta)aroA (delta)aroD vaccine strain. Expression of murine IL-6 did not appear to adversely affect the growth of salmonellae, as the construct was retained in the absence of antibiotic selection and the growth rate was unaffected compared with that of the parent strain in vitro. However, IL-6 expression led to a significant reduction in bacterial invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes and small intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes were isolated from mice orally immunized with BRD509 expressing IL-6 (pKK233-2/IL-6), and the number of antibody-secreting cells was determined by the ELISPOT technique. No differences were observed between mice immunized with BRD509(pKK.233-2/IL-6) and those immunized with BRD509(pKK233-2) with respect to the antibody subclass-specific responses elicited despite the markedly reduced invasiveness of the former. Serum antibody responses were also examined by a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and equivalent levels of antibody response were detected in mice given BRD509(pKK233-2/IL-6) and those given BRD509(pKK233-2). The humoral immune response against bacterial lipopolysaccharides was also examined in transgenic IL-6-deficient mice given oral inocula of BRD509. Equivalent numbers of antibody-secreting cells (ELISPOTs) were observed in the spleens and laminae propriae of both IL-6-deficient (-/-) mice and control (+/+) mice harboring an intact IL-6 gene, whereas small, yet significant differences in the serum immunoglobulin A ELISA titers were observed. These data suggest that the immunoglobulin A response against Salmonella lipopolysaccharides is largely IL-6 independent. PMID:8698502

  19. Initiation of teeth from the dental lamina in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Maria; Crespo Yanez, Xenia; Thesleff, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is characterized by formation of primary teeth that belong to different tooth classes and are later replaced by a single set of permanent teeth. The first primary teeth are initiated from the primary dental lamina, and the replacement teeth from the successional dental lamina at the lingual side of the primary teeth. An interdental lamina connects the primary tooth germs together. Most mammalian tooth development research is done on mouse, which does not have teeth in all tooth classes, does not replace its teeth, and does not develop an interdental lamina. We have used the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) as a model animal to elucidate the morphological changes and gene expression during the development of the interdental lamina and the initiation of primary teeth. In addition we have analyzed cell-cell signaling taking place in the interdental lamina as well as in the successional lamina during tooth replacement. By 3D reconstructions of serial histological sections we observed that the morphogenesis of the interdental lamina and the primary teeth are intimately linked. Expression of Pitx2 and Foxi3 in the interdental lamina indicates that it has odontogenic identity, and there is active signaling taking place in the interdental lamina. Bmp4 is coexpressed with the stem cell factor Sox2 at its lingual aspect suggesting that the interdental lamina may retain competence for tooth initiation. We show that when tooth replacement is initiated there is Wnt pathway activity in the budding successional lamina and adjacent mesenchyme but no active Fgf or Eda signaling. Genes associated with human tooth replacement phenotypes, including Runx2 and Il11r?, are mostly expressed in the mesenchyme around the successional lamina in the ferret. Our results highlight the importance of the dental lamina in the mammalian tooth development during the initiation of both primary and replacement teeth. PMID:24393477

  20. Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma invading the muscularis propria with multiphoton microscopy Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, J. X.; Chen, G.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Jiang, X. S.

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the muscularis propria (mp) of human colorectum tissue with carcinoma invasion and help to advance the development for the diagnosis and therapy of early colorectal cancer. Multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the second harmonic generation (SHG) images of samples respectively through the two-channel model. This work demonstrates the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in obtaining clear images from thick layers of label-free tissues. Combined with endoscopy and miniaturization probes will be helpful for representing new methods to assess the functional behaviors of tissue and diagnose the early colorectal cancer in vivo.

  1. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG

    PubMed Central

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2 mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. PMID:25038441

  2. Nuclear lamina at the crossroads of the cytoplasm and nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork that lines the nuclear envelope in metazoan cells. It is composed largely of a polymeric assembly of lamins, which comprise a distinct sequence homology class of the intermediate filament protein family. On the basis of its structural properties, the lamina originally was proposed to provide scaffolding for the nuclear envelope and to promote anchoring of chromatin and nuclear pore complexes at the nuclear surface. This viewpoint has expanded greatly during the past 25 years, with a host of surprising new insights on lamina structure, molecular composition and functional attributes. It has been established that the self-assembly properties of lamins are very similar to those of cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins, and that the lamin polymer is physically associated with components of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton and with a multitude of chromatin and inner nuclear membrane proteins. Cumulative evidence points to an important role for the lamina in regulating signaling and gene activity, and in mechanically coupling the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton to the nucleus. The significance of the lamina has been vaulted to the forefront by the discovery that mutations in lamins and lamina-associated polypeptides lead to an array of human diseases. A key future challenge is to understand how the lamina integrates pathways for mechanics and signaling at the molecular level. Understanding the structure of the lamina from the atomic to supramolecular levels will be essential for achieving this goal. PMID:22126840

  3. T1G3 high-risk NMIBC (non-muscle invasive bladder cancer): conservative treatment versus immediate cystectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Berardinis; G. M. Busetto; G. Antonini; R. Giovannone; V. Gentile

    Background  The management of stage T1 poorly differentiated G3 bladder cancer invading the lamina propria continues to be debated. These\\u000a tumours are associated with a high risk of recurrence and progression; concomitant carcinoma in situ and\\/or multifocality\\u000a are negative prognostic factors. Choosing between a preserving approach such as trans-urethral resection of the bladder (TURB)\\u000a followed by maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and

  4. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  5. How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Jessica

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined ...

  6. Human Lamina Cribrosa Insertion and Age

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Ian A.; Flanagan, John G.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Tertinegg, Inka; Bilonick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To test the hypothesis that in healthy human eyes the lamina cribrosa (LC) insertion into the pia mater increases with age. Methods. The optic nerve heads (ONHs) of donor eyes fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under bright- and dark-field conditions. A 3-dimensional (3D) model of each ONH was reconstructed. From the 3D models we measured the area of LC insertion into the peripapillary scleral flange and into the pia, and computed the total area of insertion and fraction of LC inserting into the pia. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the measurements were associated with age or IOP. Results. We analyzed 21 eyes from 11 individuals between 47 and 91 years old. The LC inserted into the pia in all eyes. The fraction of LC inserting into the pia (2.2%–29.6%) had a significant decrease with age (P = 0.049), which resulted from a nonsignificant increase in the total area of LC insertion (P = 0.41) and a nonsignificant decrease in the area of LC insertion into the pia (P = 0.55). None of the measures was associated with fixation IOP (P values 0.44–0.81). Differences between fellow eyes were smaller than differences between unrelated eyes. Conclusions. The LC insertion into the pia mater is common in middle-aged and older eyes, and does not increase with age. The biomechanical and vascular implications of the LC insertion into the pia mater are not well understood and should be investigated further. PMID:22956611

  7. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  8. Ozone laminae near the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, S. J.; Vaughan, Geraint

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of ozonesonde data collected at high northern latitudes in winter and spring shows that laminae of enhanced and depleted ozone are associated with the polar vortex. In January and February, they are most common at all latitudes in the potential temperature range 370-430 K, but are abundant up to 500 K between 60 and 70 deg N. In March and April they occur most frequently northward of 75 deg N, and are abundant up to 520 K, whereas they are largely confined to the range 320-440 K at lower latitudes. Analysis of ozone lidar data obtained during AASE-1 depicts clearly the extrusion of laminae of enhanced ozone concentration from the polar regions in the altitude range 13-15 km. These extrusions form a class of laminae which transport ozone equatorward in the lowest levels of the stratosphere.

  9. Fine structure of the lamina basilaris of guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Katori, Y; Hozawa, K; Kikuchi, T; Tonosaki, A; Takasaka, T

    1993-11-01

    The lamina basilaris of guinea pig cochlea was studied with SEM after trypsin treatment, and with TEM of resin sections and deep-etching replicas. The lamina consists of radial, evenly compacted filaments in the zona arcuata, and radial, discretely bundled filaments in the zona pectinata. In both zones, elementary filaments measured about 12 nm in thickness on the replica. The filaments formed more or less irregular passing bridges with each other and, eventually, a three-dimensional network which was continuous with the basement membrane under the supporting cells. PMID:8291428

  10. Giant Ethmoid Osteoma Originated from the Lamina Papyracea

    PubMed Central

    Torun, Mümtaz Taner; Turan, Fatih; Tuncel, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Osteomas are slow- growing, benign tumors. They are the most common neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. They are usually originates from the frontal and ethmoid sinus and much less frequently seen in the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. Although the lamina papyracea is a part of ethmoid bone, a giant osteoma originated from the lamina papyracea is very uncommon. An osteoma of the paranasal sinus is usually asymptomatic. Headache, proptosis, epiphora, diplopia, dizziness, facial deformity, face pain and cerebral complications are possible symptoms. The treatment of the paranasal osteomas are controversial. Case report: A 65 year old patient that applied with stuffiness and headache to our clinic. She has had a smooth mass in the right nasal cavity. Paranasal sinus tomography showed an osseous lesion, the size of 4x 3 cm, arising from the right lamina papyracea. The mass excised endoscopically and reported as osteoma histopathologically. There was no complication. After 9 months, there was no recurrence. Conclusion: Giant osteomas of paranasal sinuses, especially originated from the lamina papyracea are rare. They can be treated successfully by endoscopic approaches without any recurrence and complication despite its size. PMID:25568536

  11. Vasopressin secretion: osmotic and hormonal regulation by the lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    McKinley, M J; Mathai, M L; McAllen, R M; McClear, R C; Miselis, R R; Pennington, G L; Vivas, L; Wade, J D; Oldfield, B J

    2004-04-01

    The lamina terminalis, located in the anterior wall of the third ventricle, is comprised of the subfornical organ, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). The subfornical organ and OVLT are two of the brain's circumventricular organs that lack the blood-brain barrier, and are therefore exposed to the ionic and hormonal environment of the systemic circulation. Previous investigations in sheep and rats show that this region of the brain has a crucial role in osmoregulatory vasopressin secretion and thirst. The effects of lesions of the lamina terminalis, studies of immediate-early gene expression and electrophysiological data show that all three regions of the lamina terminalis are involved in osmoregulation. There is considerable evidence that physiological osmoreceptors subserving vasopressin release are located in the dorsal cap region of the OVLT and possibly also around the periphery of the subfornical organ and in the MnPO. The circulating peptide hormones angiotensin II and relaxin also have access to peptide specific receptors (AT(1) and LGR7 receptors, respectively) in the subfornical organ and OVLT, and both angiotensin II and relaxin act on the subfornical organ to stimulate water drinking in the rat. Studies that combined neuroanatomical tracing and detection of c-fos expression in response to angiotensin II or relaxin suggest that both of these circulating peptides act on neurones within the dorsal cap of the OVLT and the periphery of the subfornical organ to stimulate vasopressin release. PMID:15089972

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of the lamina cribrosa after radial optic neurotomy.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, H; Thale, A; Bunse, A; Paulsen, F; Roider, J

    2009-06-01

    Radial optic neurotomy (RON) has been proposed for alleviation of the "scleral outlet compartment syndrome" at the level of the lamina cribrosa, which is thought to play a pathoetiologic role in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The aim of this study has been to analyze the ultrastructural alterations of the lamina cribrosa after RON to gain new insights in the underlying pathomechanical factors. Fifteen donor eyes underwent a standardized open-sky-vitrectomy and RON after removal of the anterior eye segment for keratoplasty. Using a microvitreoretinal blade, a radial incision was performed on the nasal hemisphere of the optic nerve head radial to the optic disc and parallel to the nerve fibre layer. The lamina cribrosa and the surrounding scleral ring were then prepared for light microscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that in 60% (n=9) of the evaluated cases the scleral ring was dissected completely and in 40% (n=6) only partially. The adjacent neuronal tissue to the dissection area showed only minimal injury. The central retinal vessels were not injured in all cases. Only complete incision of the circular ring of collagen fibrils surrounding the lamina cribrosa via RON resulted in effective relaxation of the scleral outlet and was achieved in 60% of all eyes under standardized conditions. In all cases the adjacent tissue showed only minimal injury. The high rate of incomplete dissection of the scleral outlet may be an explanation for the variable outcome seen in different studies on RON. PMID:19450956

  13. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erf069 The hydraulic conductance of the angiosperm leaf lamina

    E-print Network

    Melcher, Peter

    rate at a given water potential difference depends on the lamina hydraulic conductance (KlaminaDOI: 10.1093/jxb/erf069 The hydraulic conductance of the angiosperm leaf lamina: a comparison the leaf lamina hydraulic conductance (Klamina) for detached mature leaves of six woody temperate

  14. The functional organization of the crayfish lamina ganglionaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lolin T. Wang-Bennett; Raymon M. Glantz

    1987-01-01

    The light responses of the second order lamina monopolar neurons were examined in the crayfish compound eye.1.Single cartridge monopolar neurons (M1–M4) (Fig. 2) exhibited nonspiking hyperpolarizing light responses; for M1; M3 and M4 the transient ‘on’ response operated over the same intensity range as the receptor, 3.5 log units (Fig. 3). M2 operated in a much narrower intensity range (1.5

  15. Statistical characterization of the fatigue behavior of composite lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict statistically the effects of constant and variable amplitude fatigue loadings on the residual strength and fatigue life of composite lamina. The parameters in the model were established from the results of a series of static tensile tests and a fatigue scan and a number of verification tests were performed. Abstracts for two other papers on the effect of load sequence on the statistical fatigue of composites are also presented.

  16. Co-ordinated development of the leaf midrib xylem with the lamina in Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The water-transport capacity of leaf venation is positively related to the leaf-lamina area, because the number and diameter of vein-xylem conduits are controlled to match the lamina area. This study aimed to investigate how this co-ordinated relationship between the leaf-lamina area and vein-xylem characteristics is achieved by examining the midrib xylem of tobacco leaves. Methods The changes in the midrib-xylem characteristics over time were quantified using leaves with four different final lamina areas. The measured data were fitted to sigmoidal functions. From the constants of the fitted curves, the final values in mature leaves, maximal developmental rates (VDev) and developmental duration (TDev) were estimated for each of the xylem characteristics. Whether it is the lamina or the midrib xylem that drives the co-ordinated development was examined by lamina removal from unfolding leaves. The effects of the application of 0·1 % IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) to leaves with the laminas removed were also analysed. Key Results For both the leaf lamina and the midrib-xylem characteristics, the differences in final values among leaves with different lamina areas were more strongly associated with those in VDev. Notably, the VDev values of the midrib-xylem characteristics were related to those of the leaf-lamina area. By lamina removal, the conduit diameter was reduced but the number of conduits did not significantly change. By IAA application, the decrease in the conduit diameter was halted, and the number of conduits in the midrib xylem increased. Conclusions According to the results, the VDev values of the lamina area and the midrib-xylem characteristics changed in a co-ordinated manner, so that the water-transport capacity of the midrib xylem was positively related to the leaf-lamina area. The results also suggest that IAA derived from the leaf lamina plays a crucial role in the development of the leaf venation. PMID:22589329

  17. [Thomas Ionescu versus Wildhem von Waldeyer. Rectum sheath or fascia propria recti? The story of a wandering idea].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical knowledge of rectum and its fascial relationship is crucial in modem surgery and it represents the basis of total mesorectal excision. Most of the contemporary authors make reference to Waldeyer's description and use the name fascia propria recti. However, there are evidence regarding Thomas Jonnesco's priority in describing this fascial structure 5 years before Waldeyer. Thomas Jonnesco's description was published in a famous anatomy textbook: Traité d'Anatomie Humaine, Paris, Bataille, 1894, editor P. Poirier, where Thomas Jonnesco was the author of volume 4, fascicule 1, containing the anatomy of the digestive system. His description of the rectum sheath precedes Waldeyer's publication (Das Becken, Cohen, Bonn, 1899). The description of the rectum sheath is included also into the second edition of Traité d'Anatomie Humaine (editors P. Poirier and A. Charpy) published again in 1901 at Masson Publishing House. This second version, better known by contemporary authors (Chapuis et al. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:1), probably revised by Charpy, is no more so simple and so clear as the first one. In our paper Thomas Jonnesco's original description of rectal fascia (rectum sheath), published in 1894, is facsimiled, the two succesive editions of the book are compared and a comparison with Waldeyer's description of fascia propria recti is done. The priority of Thomas Jonnesco seems to be well proved. In this respect our own research is in line with the observations of Chapuis and Bell si colab. PMID:20726295

  18. A monoclonal antibody against nuclear lamina proteins reveals cell type-specificity in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Krohne, G; Debus, E; Osborn, M; Weber, K; Franke, W W

    1984-01-01

    Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that the monoclonal murine antibody PKB8 stains the nuclear lamina of various somatic cells from vertebrates as diverse as mammals, birds and amphibia. It also decorates the nuclear periphery of oocytes from rat and chicken but does not react with spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Immunoblotting experiments demonstrate reaction with lamina polypeptides A, B and C of rat, with lamina polypeptide A of chicken, and with lamina polypeptides LI and LII of erythrocytes of the frog, Xenopus laevis. Antibody PKB8 does, however, not bind, on blotted polypeptides and on sections through ovaries, to the pore complex-lamina polypeptide of Mr 68000 present in Xenopus oocytes. These results reveal the existence of a common antigenic determinant in all three lamina polypeptides of mammals, in one lamina polypeptide of chicken and in two amphibian lamina polypeptides. The immunological data also indicate that, in Xenopus laevis, pore complex-lamina polypeptides of somatic cells and oocytes are distinct. The Mr 68000 protein of Xenopus oocytes is also different from polypeptides LI and LII of somatic Xenopus cells by tryptic peptide mapping. The results suggest that nuclear pore complex-lamina polypeptides represent a family of related polypeptides containing regions highly conserved during evolution and that these polypeptides can be differentially expressed in cells of at least one species, Xenopus laevis. PMID:6198191

  19. Type 1 fimbriae are important factors limiting the dissemination and colonization of mice by Salmonella Enteritidis and contribute to the induction of intestinal inflammation during Salmonella invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ku?mi?ska-Bajor, Marta; Grzymaj?o, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that Salmonella Gallinarum type 1 fimbriae with endogenous mannose-resistant (MR) variant of the FimH protein increase systemic dissemination of S. Gallinarum and colonization of internal organs in comparison to the S. Gallinarum fimH knockout strain or the mutant expressing mannose-sensitive (MS) FimH variant from S. Enteritidis. Elaborating from these studies, we proposed that MS variants of FimH are advantageous in gastrointestinal infections, in contrast to MR FimH variants which decrease intestinal colonization and promote their systemic spreading. To support our hypothesis, we carried out in vivo studies using mice infected with wild-type S. Enteritidis and its fimH knockout strain (S. Enteritidis), which was characterized by significantly lower adhesion and invasiveness of murine ICE-1 intestinal cells. Using bioluminescence imaging, we observed that the loss of MS FimH adhesin correlates well with the highly increased colonization of mice by these bacteria. The appearance of the mutant strain was observed much earlier than wild-type Salmonella, and mice infected with 104–107 S. Enteritidis fimH::kan CFUs had significantly (P < 0.05) shorter infection-free time than animals inoculated with wild-type S. Enteritidis. Infections caused by non-typhoid Salmonella, such as S. Enteritidis, are associated with massive inflammation of the lamina propria and lymph nodes in the intestinal tract. Therefore, we evaluated the role of MS type 1 fimbriae in the induction of cytokine expression and secretion, using murine ICE-1 intestinal cells. We showed that the expression, as well as secretion, of Il-1b, Il-6, Il-10, and Il-12b was significantly higher in cells infected with wild-type S. Enteritidis compared to cells infected with the mutant strain. Based on our results, we propose that type 1 fimbriae may play an important role in the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis and may contribute to an intestinal inflammatory response.

  20. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are ?_E?_4 (also called ?_6?_4) and ?_2?_1/?_3?_1. The ?_E?_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas ?_2?_1/ ?_3?_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-?_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-?_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-?_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that ?_E?_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the ?_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  1. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cotrufo, M; De Santo, L; Della Corte, A; Di Meglio, F; Guerra, G; Quarto, C; Vitale, S; Castaldo, C; Montagnani, S

    2005-01-01

    Basal lamina (BL) is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation. We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens. We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study. We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin alpha2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type IV is more evident in the concavity and Tenascin in the convexity. PMID:16377578

  2. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  3. A nomenclature for vertebral laminae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The vertebrae of sauropods are characterized by numerous bony struts that connect the costovertebral and intervertebral articulations, centrum, and neural spine of the presacral, sacral, and anterior caudal vertebrae. A nomenclature for sauropod vertebral laminae is proposed that: 1) utilizes the morphological landmarks connected by the laminae (rather than their spatial orientation); and 2) provides the same name for serial

  4. Dynamic Failure of a Lamina Meshwork in Cell Nuclei under Extreme Mechanical Deformation

    E-print Network

    Buehler, Markus J.

    Dynamic Failure of a Lamina Meshwork in Cell Nuclei under Extreme Mechanical Deformation Zhao Qin protein meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. It confers mechanical strength to the cell's nucleus and also sustains the overall structural integrity of the cell. The rupture of nuclear lamina is involved

  5. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  6. A putative relay circuit providing low-threshold mechanoreceptive input to lamina I projection neurons via vertical cells in lamina II of the rat dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lamina I projection neurons respond to painful stimuli, and some are also activated by touch or hair movement. Neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve damage is often associated with tactile allodynia (touch-evoked pain), and this may result from increased responsiveness of lamina I projection neurons to non-noxious mechanical stimuli. It is thought that polysynaptic pathways involving excitatory interneurons can transmit tactile inputs to lamina I projection neurons, but that these are normally suppressed by inhibitory interneurons. Vertical cells in lamina II provide a potential route through which tactile stimuli can activate lamina I projection neurons, since their dendrites extend into the region where tactile afferents terminate, while their axons can innervate the projection cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether vertical cell dendrites were contacted by the central terminals of low-threshold mechanoreceptive primary afferents. Results We initially demonstrated contacts between dendritic spines of vertical cells that had been recorded in spinal cord slices and axonal boutons containing the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), which is expressed by myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. To confirm that the VGLUT1 boutons included primary afferents, we then examined vertical cells recorded in rats that had received injections of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the sciatic nerve. We found that over half of the VGLUT1 boutons contacting the vertical cells were CTb-immunoreactive, indicating that they were of primary afferent origin. Conclusions These results show that vertical cell dendritic spines are frequently contacted by the central terminals of myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. Since dendritic spines are associated with excitatory synapses, it is likely that most of these contacts were synaptic. Vertical cells in lamina II are therefore a potential route through which tactile afferents can activate lamina I projection neurons, and this pathway could play a role in tactile allodynia. PMID:24433581

  7. A poroelastic model for the perfusion of the lamina cribrosa in the optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Causin, Paola; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Prada, Daniele; Sacco, Riccardo; Terragni, Samuele

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present a mathematical model for the coupling between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the lamina cribrosa, a thin porous tissue at the base of the optic nerve head which is thought to be the site of injury in ocular neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. In this exploratory two-dimensional investigation, the lamina cribrosa is modeled as a poroelastic material where blood vessels are viewed as pores in a solid elastic matrix. The model is used to investigate the influence on the distributions of stress, blood volume fraction (or vascular porosity) and blood velocity within the lamina cribrosa due to the application of different levels of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the enforcement of different mechanical constraints at the lamina's boundary. The model simulations suggest that the degree of fixity of the boundary constraint strongly influences the lamina's response to IOP elevation. Specifically, when the boundary is mechanically clamped, IOP elevation leads to an increase in stress close to the lamina's boundary, making it more susceptible to tissue damage. On the other hand, when rotations are allowed at the boundary, the most vulnerable region appears to be located at the lamina's central axis, in proximity of the eye globe, where increased stress and reduced vascular porosity and blood velocity are predicted for increased levels of IOP. PMID:25149561

  8. Axon Diversity of Lamina I Local-Circuit Neurons in the Lumbar Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena YX; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III–IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal “processing units” in the dorsal horn. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2719–2741, 2013. PMID:23386329

  9. Recent advances in OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Ian A; Wang, Bo; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Akagi, Tadamichi; Girard, Michael J A

    2014-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and modelling, a number of recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have dramatically improved the ability to visualise the LC, such that it is now possible to image the LC in vivo in humans and animals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in OCT imaging of the LC, in the technology, processing and analysis, and discuss the impact that these will have on the ability to diagnose and monitor glaucoma, as well as to expand our understanding of its pathophysiology. With this manuscript, we aspire to share our excitement on the achievements and potential of recent developments as well as advise caution regarding the challenges that remain before imaging of the LC and optic nerve can be used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:24934221

  10. Ubiquitous presence of laminae in altered layers of glass artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentaz, L.; Lombardo, T.; Verney-Carron, A.; Chabas, A.; Loisel, C.; Neff, D.; Gin, S.; Leroy, E.

    Whatever the chemical composition and the origin (natural or man-made) or the surrounding environment is, glass materials undergo alteration processes leading to the modification of their structure and chemical composition. Similar alteration patterns can be observed in different historical glass types, especially alteration layers characterized by a laminated structure. The study of medieval stained glass windows (14th century AD, from Northern France) and Roman glass blocks (2nd century AD, from a shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea) with several centuries of exposure in atmospheric and marine conditions, respectively, show that laminated features, commonly described at micro-scale (e.g. lamination), can also be found at the nano-scale (laminae) using TEM analysis on FIB ultra-thin section. These features develop on different alteration layers - in the gel layer for medieval glass and in crystalline secondary phases (smectites) for Roman glass - showing that the formation mechanisms vary according to the exposure environment and the chemical composition of the glass.

  11. How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Brian A; Demircioglu, F Esra; Chen, James Z; Ingram, Jessica; Ploegh, Hidde L; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2014-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined the crystal structure of the perinuclear domain of human LAP1. LAP1 possesses an atypical AAA+ fold. While LAP1 lacks canonical nucleotide binding motifs, its strictly conserved arginine 563 is positioned exactly where the arginine finger of canonical AAA+ ATPases is found. Based on modeling and electron microscopic analysis, we propose that LAP1 targets Torsin to the nuclear envelope by forming an alternating, heterohexameric (LAP1-Torsin)3 ring, in which LAP1 acts as the Torsin activator. The experimental data show that mutation of arginine 563 in LAP1 reduces its ability to stimulate TorsinA ATPase hydrolysis. This knowledge may help scientists understand the etiology of DYT1 primary dystonia, a movement disorder caused by a single glutamate deletion in TorsinA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03239.001 PMID:25149450

  12. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.C.; Carlson, B.M. (University of North Dakota, Grand Forks (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined.

  13. Occurrence of ozone laminae near the boundary of the stratospheric polar vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, S.J.; Vaughan, G. (Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth (Finland)); Kyro, E. (FMI, Sodankyla (Finland))

    1993-05-20

    The authors report on observations of laminae in ozone distributions observed at high northern latitudes near the polar vortex. Regions of enhanced and depleted ozone density are observed. Data from ozonesonde collections and lidar measurements during the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Expedition (AASE) are analyzed, and compared with earlier work. The ozonesonde archives of the World Meteorological Organization are also examined in this analysis. The laminae are observed to distribute differently as a function of season, and with the potential temperature. Transport of ozone equatorward is also found with a class of these laminae.

  14. Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abuelfoutouh, Nader Mohamed; Verrilli, M. J.; Halford, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms. The effect of the fiber orientation on loading direction is accounted for while predicting composite life. The application is currently limited to isothermal cases where the internal thermal stresses that might arise from thermal strain mismatch between fibers and matrix are negligible. The theory is formulated to predict the fatigue life of a composite lamina under either load or strain control. It is applied currently to predict the life of tungsten-copper composite lamina at 260 C under tension-tension load control. The calculated life of the lamina is in good agreement with available composite low cycle fatigue data.

  15. Arterial internal elastic lamina holes: relationship to function?

    PubMed Central

    Sandow, Shaun L; Gzik, Danusia J; Lee, Robert M K W

    2009-01-01

    Internal elastic lamina (IEL) hole (fenestration) characteristics and myoendothelial gap junction (MEGJ) density were examined in selected resistance and conduit arteries of normal and diseased rat and mouse models, using conventional, ultrastructural and confocal microscopy methods. Selected vessels were those commonly used in functional studies: thoracic aorta, proximal and distal mesenteric, caudal, saphenous, middle-cerebral and caudal cerebellar artery. Rat and mouse strains and treatment groups examined were Dahl, Sprague Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, Wistar, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), deoxycorticosterone (DOC) treated rat; and apolipoprotein E knockout, C57/BL6 and BALB/c mice. Vessel size (as IEL circumference), IEL hole and MEGJ density were quantified. In mesenteric arteries, the width of IEL holes and the percent of IEL occupied by holes were also determined. IEL hole density varied significantly within and between mesenteric artery beds, even among normotensive rat strains. Among the hypertensive rats (SHR and DOC), hole density in some vessels was higher in the normotensives than in the hypertensives within each strain, whereas in Dahl rats, hole density was similar between hypertensives and normotensives. Hole density was not correlated with the formation of intimal lesions in superior mesenteric artery. There was no positive general correlation between IEL hole and MEGJ density in resistance and conduit vessels. However, there was a positive correlation between the size of some resistance arteries and MEGJ density, although such a relationship did not hold for conduit vessels or during development, and there was no such relationship between vessel size and IEL hole density. Whilst IEL holes are obviously required for MEGJ communication, their presence is not an indication of contact-mediated communication, but rather may be related to the presence of sites for the low resistance passage of diffusion-mediated release of vasoactive endothelial and smooth muscle substances. PMID:19207987

  16. Synaptic reorganization in the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral nerve neuroma formation: aberrant innervation of lamina II neurons by Abeta afferents.

    PubMed

    Kohama, I; Ishikawa, K; Kocsis, J D

    2000-02-15

    Intracellular recording and extracellular field potential (FP) recordings were obtained from spinal cord dorsal horn neurons (laminae I-IV) in a rat transverse slice preparation with attached dorsal roots. To study changes in synaptic inputs after neuroma formation, the sciatic nerve was sectioned and ligated 3 weeks before in vitro electrophysiological analysis. Horseradish peroxidase labeling of dorsal root axons indicated that Abeta fibers sprouted into laminae I-II from deeper laminae after sciatic nerve section. FP recordings from dorsal horns of normal spinal cord slices revealed long-latency synaptic responses in lamina II and short-latency responses in lamina III. The latencies of synaptic FPs recorded in lamina II of the dorsal horn after sciatic nerve section were reduced. The majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded with intracellular microelectrodes from lamina II neurons in control slices were elicited by high-threshold nerve stimulation, whereas the majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded in lamina III were elicited by low-threshold nerve stimulation. After sciatic nerve section, 31 of 57 (54%) EPSPs recorded in lamina II were elicited by low-threshold stimulation. The majority of low-threshold EPSPs in lamina II neurons after axotomy displayed properties similar to low-threshold EPSPs in lamina III of control slices. These results indicate that reoccupation of lamina II synapses by sprouting Abeta fibers normally terminating in lamina III occurs after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. Furthermore, these observations indicate that the lamina II neurons receive inappropriate sensory information from low-threshold mechanoreceptor after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. PMID:10662843

  17. Roller micrometer analysis of grain size and shape sorting within sand laminae from lacustrine barrier islands

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, J.A.; Braun, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    The dynamics of sand lamination deposition were investigated for two barrier islands in Lake Erie: Cedar Point Spit, Ohio, and Presque Isle, Pennsylvania. A new measurement technique, roller micrometer analysis, was used to describe the grain size and shape distributions of samples. This technique mechanically sizes grains by both the intermediate (I) and smallest (S) principal dimensions and thus divides a sample into fractions containing grains with common I and S dimensions and tabularity (S/I) ratio. Portions of the two barrier islands are subject to overwashing by wind-driven lake waters. During such events foreshore laminae are eroded and the sand is redeposited in washover fan topset and foreset laminae. At other times, normal wave activity reworks the washover fan deposits into foreshore laminae. In the transport of sand across the barrier islands from the lake margin (foreshore laminae) through the interior (fan topset laminae) and to the lagoon margin (fan foreset laminae), the following trends are observed: mean grain size increases, grain size sorting become poorer, grain size skewness becomes coarser, and, for grains of the same size, the proportion of more tabular grains decreases. These trends indicate, in a lagoonward direction, progressive winnowing from the bed load of the finer and more tabular grains and increased intermixing of the remaining coarser bed load grains. Roller micrometer analysis is an important new tool for sedimentologists. It provides traditional grain-size distribution data along with the distribution of grain tabularity. Together the two distributions are sensitive indicators of winnowing and selective deposition.

  18. Investigating Invasives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Lightbody

    2008-11-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive nonnative species can provide the focus for projects that engage students in authentic science investigations. Here the author describes how she launched her students into a study of invasives while supporting their local environment using the 5E Learning Cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate).

  19. Distribution and Processing of ADAMTS-4, Aggrecan, Versican and Hyaluronan in the Equine Digital Laminae

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Erica; Wang, Le; Johnson, Philip J.; Nuovo, Gerard; Taye, Almaz; Belknap, James K.; Alfandari, Dominique; Black, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine the expression and distribution of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), its substrates aggrecan and versican, and their binding partner hyaluronan in laminae of healthy horses as a step towards determining the role of ADAMTS-4 in laminar pathology. Sample population Front hoof laminae from 8 healthy horses. Procedures Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for gene expression analysis. Hyaluronidase, chondroitinase and keratanase digestion of lamina extracts together with sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting were used for protein and proteoglycan analysis. Immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections were used for protein and hyaluronan localization. Results Genes encoding ADAMTS-4, aggrecan, versican and hyaluronan synthase II are expressed in laminae. ADAMTS-4 is predominantly present as a 51 kDa protein bearing a catalytic site neoepitope indicative of active enzyme and in situ activity is inferred from the presence of aggrecan and versican fragments bearing ADAMTS-4 cleavage neoepitopes in laminar protein extracts. Aggrecan, versican and hyaluronan localize to basal epithelial cells within the secondary dermal laminae. ADAMTS-4 also localizes to these cells, but in addition, is present in some cells in the dermal laminae. Conclusions and clinical relevance Within the digital laminae, versican exclusively and aggrecan primarily localizes within basal epithelial cells and both are constitutively cleaved by ADAMTS-4 which therefore contributes to their turnover. Based on known properties of these proteoglycans, it is possible that they protect the basal epithelial cells from biomechanical and concussive stress. PMID:22738056

  20. Nuclear Envelope Lamin-A Couples Actin Dynamics with Immunological Synapse Architecture and T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    González-Granado, José María; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando Garcia; Freije, José María Pérez; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins have been implicated in structural and functional activities, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction. However, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we showed that the abundance of A-type lamins is almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but that it is substantially increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR), and is an early event that accelerates formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. We found that lamin-A enhanced the polymerization of F-actin in T cells, a critical step for immunological synapse formation, by physically connecting the nucleus to the plasma membrane through the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. We also showed that lamin-A played a key role in other membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear events related to TCR activation, including receptor-clustering, downstream signaling, and target gene expression. Notably, the presence of lamin-A was associated with enhanced extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 signaling, and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway reduced the extent of lamin-A–dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice deficient in lamin-A exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation, and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response. PMID:24757177

  1. Nuclear envelope lamin-A couples actin dynamics with immunological synapse architecture and T cell activation.

    PubMed

    González-Granado, José M; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando G; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-04-22

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins regulate multiple cellular functions, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction; however, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. We showed that the abundance of A-type lamins was almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but was increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). The increase in lamin-A was an early event that accelerated formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Polymerization of F-actin in T cells is a critical step for immunological synapse formation, and lamin-A interacted with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex to promote F-actin polymerization. We also showed that lamin-A expression accelerated TCR clustering and led to enhanced downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling, as well as increased target gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced lamin-A-dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice lacking lamin-A in immune cells exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response. PMID:24757177

  2. Cortical activation and lamina terminalis functional connectivity during thirst and drinking in humans.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M J; Bowala, T K; Gavrilescu, M; Phillips, P A; McKinley, M J; McAllen, R M; Denton, D A; Egan, G F

    2011-09-01

    The pattern of regional brain activation in humans during thirst associated with dehydration, increased blood osmolality, and decreased blood volume is not known. Furthermore, there is little information available about associations between activation in osmoreceptive brain regions such as the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the brain regions implicated in thirst and its satiation in humans. With the objective of investigating the neuroanatomical correlates of dehydration and activation in the ventral lamina terminalis, this study involved exercise-induced sweating in 15 people and measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a functional magnetic resonance imaging technique called pulsed arterial spin labeling. Regional brain activations during dehydration, thirst, and postdrinking were consistent with the network previously identified during systemic hypertonic infusions, thus providing further evidence that the network is involved in monitoring body fluid and the experience of thirst. rCBF measurements in the ventral lamina terminalis were correlated with whole brain rCBF measures to identify regions that correlated with the osmoreceptive region. Regions implicated in the experience of thirst were identified including cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, parahippocampus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, the correlation of rCBF between the ventral lamina terminalis and the cingulate cortex and insula was different for the states of thirst and recent drinking, suggesting that functional connectivity of the ventral lamina terminalis is a dynamic process influenced by hydration status and ingestive behavior. PMID:21677275

  3. The meiotic nuclear lamina regulates chromosome dynamics and promotes efficient homologous recombination in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Link, Jana; Jahn, Daniel; Schmitt, Johannes; Göb, Eva; Baar, Johannes; Ortega, Sagrario; Benavente, Ricardo; Alsheimer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope and is well known for its central role in nuclear organization and maintaining nuclear stability and shape. In the past, a number of severe human disorders have been identified to be associated with mutations in lamins. Extensive research on this topic has provided novel important clues about nuclear lamina function. These studies have contributed to the knowledge that the lamina constitutes a complex multifunctional platform combining both structural and regulatory functions. Here, we report that, in addition to the previously demonstrated significance for somatic cell differentiation and maintenance, the nuclear lamina is also an essential determinant for germ cell development. Both male and female mice lacking the short meiosis-specific A-type lamin C2 have a severely defective meiosis, which at least in the male results in infertility. Detailed analysis revealed that lamin C2 is required for telomere-driven dynamic repositioning of meiotic chromosomes. Loss of lamin C2 affects precise synapsis of the homologs and interferes with meiotic double-strand break repair. Taken together, our data explain how the nuclear lamina contributes to meiotic chromosome behaviour and accurate genome haploidization on a mechanistic level. PMID:23382700

  4. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-12-01

    Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

  5. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Whittaker, R. J.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Araujo, A. M.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; López-González, G.; Baker, T. R.; Butt, N.; Anderson, L. O.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva, N.; Vásquez-M., R.; Laurance, W. F.; Alexiades, M. N.; Ramírez A., H.

    2009-02-01

    Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1) describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2) identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60-70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf). Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc.) and mean annual temperature once again supporting the well documented association that provides a basis for reconstructing past temperature regimes.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in laminae of black walnut extract treated horses correlates with neutrophil abundance.

    PubMed

    Loftus, John P; Belknap, James K; Black, Samuel J

    2006-10-15

    We sought to determine whether a correlation exists between neutrophil infiltration and tissue matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) content in digital laminae collected during the prodromal and acute phases of laminitis in horses treated with an aqueous black walnut heartwood extract (BWE). Hoof laminar tissue was obtained at the onset of leukopenia and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness from BWE-treated horses and at equivalent times from control horses. Thin sections of laminae were screened for neutrophils by immunohistochemistry with an anti-CD13 monoclonal antibody and extracts of the same tissues were screened for SDS-renaturable and native MMP-9 activities by denaturing and non-denaturing gelatin zymography. Samples were also screened for MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression by RT-qPCR. Control laminae were devoid of both MMP-9 and neutrophils, whereas neutrophils and SDS-renaturable MMP-9 activity were detected in laminae from BWE-treated horses and were strongly correlated at the acute stage of the disease at which time laminar MMP-9 gene expression was significantly (15-fold) elevated. In contrast, BWE-treatment did not significantly elevate MMP-2 gene or protein expression in the laminae. Interestingly, MMP-9 that was present in extracts of laminae from BWE-treated horses at both the prodromal and acute stages of the disease was mainly in the zymogen form, suggesting that the accumulation of the MMP did not contribute to pathology during these stages. However, elevated presence of the MMP-9 zymogen in the tissue would predispose it to catastrophic damage should conditions arise that cleave the regulatory propeptide domain. PMID:16822550

  7. Helminthotoxic responses of intestinal eosinophils to Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae.

    PubMed

    Lee, T D

    1991-12-01

    Because the gastrointestinal lamina propria is the first line of defense against invasion with Trichinella spiralis newborn larvae, we investigated the helminthotoxic characteristics of isolated lamina propria eosinophils. Eosinophils were isolated from the intestinal lamina propria of rats and purified to nearly 90% purity by a combination of velocity sedimentation through Percoll and unit gravity sedimentation through a continuous gradient of bovine serum albumin. Isolated eosinophils were of high viability and responded to surface receptor stimulation. Freshly isolated intestinal eosinophils lacked cytotoxic capacity when incubated with newborn larvae in the presence of specific antiserum. Peritoneal eosinophils from the same rats exhibited 100% helminthotoxicity after 24 h. Cytotoxicity could be stimulated in the intestinal eosinophils by the addition of recombinant murine interleukin-5. PMID:1937799

  8. Zur Morphologie und Histochemie von Subfornicalorgan, Organum Vasculosum Laminae Terminalis und Area Postrema bei Kaninchen und Ratte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Weindl

    1965-01-01

    Subfornical organ, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, and area postrema are examined both histologically and histochemically in adult rabbits and rats of both sexes. The results are as follows:1)The three organs in question are present in both species. Although the subfornical organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis show in rabbits specific differentiations, the three organs — if compared

  9. Arthroscopic Lamina-Specific Double-Row Fixation for Large Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Funakoshi, Noboru; Yamashita, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    Delamination is a commonly observed finding at the time of rotator cuff repair, but few studies have described the surgical techniques used for delaminated rotator cuff tears (RCTs) or their clinical outcomes. We developed a technique using a combination of a double row and an additional row, which we call lamina-specific double-row fixation, for large delaminated RCTs. The lamina-specific double-row technique is performed using an additional row (lamina-specific lateral row) of suture anchors placed between the typical medial and lateral rows of suture anchors. The technique is performed as follows: (1) medial-row sutures are passed through the inferior (articular-side) and superior (bursal-side) layers in a mattress fashion; (2) lamina-specific lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the inferior layer; and (3) lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the superior layer. We believe that this technique offers the following advantages: (1) creation of a larger area of contact between the inferior layer and the footprint, (2) higher initial fixation strength of the articular-side components of the repaired rotator cuff tendon, and (3) an adaptation between the superficial and inferior layers. This technique represents an alternative option in the operative treatment of large delaminated RCTs. PMID:25685671

  10. Lamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    agent, monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) and a high-magnetic-field (11.7 T) scannerLamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli Yen-Yu I. Shih (MRI) of retinal and choroidal responses to visual stimulation of graded luminance, wavelength, and fre

  11. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  12. The role of endolithic cyanobacteria in the formation of lithified laminae in Bahamian stromatolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian G. Macintyre; Leslie Prufert-Bebout; R. Pamela Reid

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of the dominant lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine-grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp.. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria Solentia sp. during hiatuses in stromatolite growth

  13. Alteration of Fibroblast Architecture and Loss of Basal Lamina Apertures in Human Emphysematous Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faye E. Sirianni; Alireza Milaninezhad; Fanny S. F. Chu; David C. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: In normal human lung, single alveolar fibroblasts link capil- lary endothelium to type 2 pneumocytes through apertures in the endothelial and epithelial basal laminae. These fibroblasts are hy- pothesized to play a role in cellular communication between the endotheliumandepitheliumandarepositionedtoprovideleukocytes a surface on which they may migrate through the interstitium. Objectives: To determine whether fibroblasts link the endothelium to the

  14. Lamina replacement with titanium plate fixation improves spinal stability after total lumbar laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Nong, Luming; Zhou, Dong; Xu, Nanwei; Du, Rui; Jiang, Xijia

    2015-12-01

    Biomechanical experiments and strain analyses were performed to investigate the effects of lamina replacement surgery for intraspinal lesions on postoperative spinal stability. Eight specimens of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T12-L4) were collected from adult cadavers. Stepwise lumbar total laminectomy, and laminoplasty with lamina reduction and replacement was undertaken in combination with titanium-plate fixation to simulate the surgical setting. The effects of thoracic and lumbar vertebral strain, displacement, and rigidity on spinal stability were measured following both single and multiple segment laminectomy. Significant differences in mechanical indices of stability were seen between stepwise laminectomy of lumbar vertebrae and normal specimens (p < 0.05), between lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and laminectomy (p < 0.05), and between single- and multiple-segment laminectomy (p < 0.05). Differences between laminoplasty with lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and normal specimens need to be examined for further study. Lumbar laminectomy followed by reduction and replacement, in combination with titanium-plate fixation, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preserving spinal stability and maintaining biomechanical function and spinal loading capability. PMID:25169703

  15. Course of the optic nerve fibers through the lamina cibrosa in human eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Dichtl; Jost B. Jonas; Gottfried O. H. Naumann

    1996-01-01

    • Background: This study investigated whether regional variations in the course of the optic nerve fibers through the lamina cribrosa may be one of the reasons why the local susceptibility for glaucomatous optic nerve fiber loss differs among the various regions of the optic disc. • Methods: The study included 34 human eyes enucleated because of a malignant melanoma of

  16. Occurrence of ozone laminae near the boundary of the stratospheric polar vortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Reid; G. Vaughan; E. Kyro

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of ozonesonde data collected at high northern latitudes in winter and spring shows that laminae of enhanced and depleted ozone are associated with the polar vortex. In January and February, they are most common at all latitudes in the potential temperature range 370-430 K, but are abundant up to 500 K between 60 and 70 deg N. In March

  17. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia; Zhang, Yu Zhi; Minamidate, Ai; Caley, Matthew P; McCarthy, Afshan; Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T; Gaughan, Luke; Darby, Steven; Robson, Craig; Mauri, Francesco; Waxman, Jonathan; Sturge, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major components, collagen IV and laminin. We used this model to demonstrate that antibody targeted blockade of CTLD2, the second of eight C-type lectin-like domains in Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) that can recognize glycosylated collagens, reversed actinomyosin-based contractility [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180(?) (Ex2-6/) (?) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer and other pathologies in which increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25408555

  18. A Quantitative Study of Inhibitory Interneurons in Laminae I-III of the Mouse Spinal Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, Erika; Durrieux, Camille; Hughes, David I.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Laminae I-III of the spinal dorsal horn contain many inhibitory interneurons that use GABA and/or glycine as a neurotransmitter. Distinct neurochemical populations can be recognised among these cells, and these populations are likely to have differing roles in inhibiting pain or itch. Quantitative studies in rat have shown that inhibitory interneurons account for 25-40% of all neurons in this region. The sst2A receptor is expressed by around half the inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-II, and is associated with particular neurochemically-defined populations. Although much of the work on spinal pain mechanisms has been performed on rat, the mouse is now increasingly used as a model, due to the availability of genetically altered lines. However, quantitative information on the arrangement of interneurons is lacking in the mouse, and it is possible that there are significant species differences in neuronal organisation. In this study, we show that as in the rat, nearly all neurons in laminae I-III that are enriched with glycine also contain GABA, which suggests that GABA-immunoreactivity can be used to identify inhibitory interneurons in this region. These cells account for 26% of the neurons in laminae I-II and 38% of those in lamina III. As in the rat, the sst2A receptor is only expressed by inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-II, and is present on just over half (54%) of these cells. Antibody against the neurokinin 1 receptor was used to define lamina I, and we found that although the receptor was concentrated in this lamina, it was expressed by many fewer cells than in the rat. By estimating the total numbers of neurons in each of these laminae in the L4 segment of the mouse, we show that there are around half as many neurons in each lamina as are present in the corresponding segment of the rat. PMID:24205193

  19. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Whittaker, R. J.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Butt, N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Murakami-Araujo, A.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; López-González, G.; Baker, T. R.; Anderson, L. O.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Vásquez-M., R.; Laurance, W. F.; Ramírez A., H.

    2009-08-01

    Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1) describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2) identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60-70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf). Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc.) and mean annual temperature once again supporting the well documented association that provides a basis for reconstructing past temperature regimes.

  20. Globular and asymmetric acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic basal lamina of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) associated with the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction. The observations were made on the neuromuscular junctions of cutaneous pectoris muscles of frog, Rana pipiens, which are similar to junctions of most other vertebrates including mammals, but are especially convenient for experimentation. By measuring relative AChE activity in junctional and extrajunctional regions of muscles after selective inactivation of extracellular AChE with echothiophate, or of intracellular AChE with DFP and 2-PAM, we found that > 66% of the total AChE activity in the muscle was junction- specific, and that > 50% of the junction-specific AChE was on the cell surface. More than 80% of the cell surface AChE was solubilized in high ionic strength detergent-free buffer, indicating that most, if not all, was a component of the synaptic basal lamina. Sedimentation analysis of that fraction indicated that while asymmetric forms (A12, A8) were abundant, globular forms sedimenting at 4-6 S (G1 and G2), composed > 50% of the AChE. It was also found that when muscles were damaged in various ways that caused degeneration of axons and muscle fibers but left intact the basal lamina sheaths, the small globular forms persisted at the synaptic site for weeks after phagocytosis of cellular components; under certain damage conditions, the proportion of globular to asymmetric forms in the vacated basal lamina sheaths was as in normal junctions. While the asymmetric forms required high ionic strength for solubilization, the extracellular globular AChE could be extracted from the junctional regions of normal and damaged muscles by isotonic buffer. Some of the globular AChE appeared to be amphiphilic when examined in detergents, suggesting that it may form hydrophobic interactions, but most was non-amphiphilic consistent with the possibility that it forms weak electrostatic interactions. We conclude that the major form of AChE in frog synaptic basal lamina is globular and that its mode of association with the basal lamina differs from that of the asymmetric forms. PMID:8138570

  1. Active Outer Hair Cells Affect the Sound-Evoked Vibration of the Reticular Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Stefan; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that the organ of Corti uses active mechanisms to enhance its sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Two possible mechanisms have been identified, both capable of producing mechanical forces, which can alter the sound-evoked vibration of the hearing organ. However, little is known about the effect of these forces on the sound-evoked vibration pattern of the reticular lamina. Current injections into scala media were used to alter the amplitude of the active mechanisms in the apex of the guinea pig temporal bone. We used time-resolved confocal imaging to access the vibration pattern of individual outer hair cells. During positive current injection the the sound-evoked vibration of outer hair cell row three increased while row one showed a small decrease. Negative currents reversed the observed effect. We conclude that the outer hair cell mediated modification of reticular lamina vibration patterns could contribute to the inner hair cell stimulation.

  2. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth, Age, and Visual Field Sensitivity in the Portland Progression Project

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ruojin; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Fortune, Brad; Hardin, Christy; Demirel, Shaban; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effect of age on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)-detected lamina cribrosa depth while controlling for visual field (VF) status and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in 221 high-risk ocular hypertension and glaucoma patients enrolled in the Portland Progression Project. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, each participant underwent 870-nm SDOCT to obtain high-resolution radial B-scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH) and a standardized ophthalmologic examination, including automated perimetry, on the same day. For each ONH, an anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) parameter was generated as the average perpendicular distance from each anterior lamina cribrosa surface point relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) reference plane within all 24 delineated B-scans. The relative effects of age, age-corrected VF status (mean deviation [MD]), and RNFLT on ALCSD were analyzed. Results. The mean age ± SD of participants was 64 ± 11 years (range, 33–90 years). The relationship between ALCSD and MD was age-dependent. ALCSD = 407.68 ? 67.13 × MD ? 0.08 × Age + 0.89 × MD × Age (MD, P = 0.001; MD × Age, P = 0.004). The relationship between ALCSD and RNFLT may also be age-dependent but did not achieve significance (interaction term, P = 0.067). ALCSD increased with worse VF status in younger eyes but not in older eyes. In older eyes, the anterior lamina was shallower than in younger eyes for the same VF status and RNFLT. Conclusions. These data are consistent with the concept that structure/structure and structure/function relationships change with age. PMID:24474264

  3. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o?clock and 11.5 o?clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

  4. Flaw tolerance of nuclear intermediate filament lamina under extreme mechanical deformation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-04-26

    The nuclear lamina, composed of intermediate filaments, is a structural protein meshwork at the nuclear membrane that protects genetic material and regulates gene expression. Here we uncover the physical basis of the material design of nuclear lamina that enables it to withstand extreme mechanical deformation of >100% strain despite the presence of structural defects. Through a simple in silico model we demonstrate that this is due to nanoscale mechanisms including protein unfolding, alpha-to-beta transition, and sliding, resulting in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve. At the larger microscale this leads to an extreme delocalization of mechanical energy dissipation, preventing catastrophic crack propagation. Yet, when catastrophic failure occurs under extreme loading, individual protein filaments are sacrificed rather than the entire meshwork. This mechanism is theoretically explained by a characteristic change of the tangent stress-strain hardening exponent under increasing strain. Our results elucidate the large extensibility of the nuclear lamina within muscle or skin tissue and potentially many other protein materials that are exposed to extreme mechanical conditions, and provide a new paradigm toward the de novo design of protein materials by engineering the nonlinear stress-strain response to facilitate flaw-tolerant behavior. PMID:21384869

  5. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Natalie R. [Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2010-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  6. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  7. Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans.

    PubMed

    Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of proteoglycan protein cores. In summary, our results provide novel evidence that (1) PTD lacks collagen fibrils, (2) PTD contains an organic scaffold embedded with mineral and (3) the PTD organic matrix is manly composed of glycosaminoglycans, whereas the lamina limitans is primarily made of proteoglycans protein cores. PMID:21890367

  8. Production of 5 Reduced Neurosteroids Is Developmentally Regulated and Shapes GABAA Miniature IPSCs in Lamina II of the Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Florence Keller; Jean-Didier Breton; Remy Schlichter; Pierrick Poisbeau

    2004-01-01

    In lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, synaptic inhibition mediated by ionotropic GABAA and glycine receptors contributes to the integration of peripheral nociceptive messages. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed from lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices to study the properties of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) mediated by activation of GABAA and glycine receptors in immature (30 d) and adult

  9. Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

  10. The expression of p73 in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and choroid plexus of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Calero, E M; Castañeyra-Ruiz, L; González-Toledo, J M; de Paz-Carmona, H; Brage, C; Castañeyra-Ruiz, A; Rancel-Torres, M N; González-Marrero, I; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A

    2013-07-01

    The p73 proteins are present in different kinds of cells of the central nervous system, such as the choroid plexus, circumventricular structures and neuroepithelium. It has been reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats show ventricular dilation, changes in cerebrospinal fluid proteins and variations in the circumventricular structures such as the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus, which are altered in ventricular dilation. The aim of the present work is to study p73 expression in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus and its variations in high blood pressure. Brains from control Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were used. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the choroid plexus were processed by immunohistochemistry and western blot with anti-TAp73. We found weaker markings in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and stronger markings in the choroid plexus of the hypertensive than the control rats. Therefore, hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rats produces alterations in choroid plexus protein p73 expression that is similar to that described for other circumventricular organs, but it is different in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. We can conclude that the functional balance between p73, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and choroid plexus, which is probably necessary to maintain the normal functioning of these structures, is altered by the hypertension found in these rats. PMID:23354845

  11. Alien Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ann Maben

    In this activity students will work in teams to investigate the impact of an invasive species on native species, using the six classic steps for solving environmental problems. Teams will research a local invasive species problem, complete an experimental design plan, write clear procedures for experimentation, state expected results and conclusions, and work together to determine the course of action to be taken and future monitoring needs. Teams will present their action plan to a simulated board of review through a formal presentation. While completing this activity students will learn to create a workable experimental design, create clear experimental procedures, and practice peer review.

  12. Invasive Bluegills

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2008-02-13

    Broadcast Transcript: Those pesky invasive species! How to deal with them? You can shoot them. You can spray them. Or you can call them haute cuisine and eat them which is what is being done here in Japan to combat the out-of-control bluegill...

  13. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  14. Estrogen receptor-alpha expression in osmosensitive elements of the lamina terminalis: regulation by hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Somponpun, Suwit J; Johnson, Alan Kim; Beltz, Terry; Sladek, Celia D

    2004-09-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), which are associated with the lamina terminalis, are important in the control of body fluid balance. Neurons in these regions express estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, but whether the ER-alpha neurons are activated by hypertonicity and whether hypertonicity regulates ER-alpha expression are not known. Using fluorescent, double-label immunocytochemistry, we examined the expression of ER-alpha-immunoreactivity (ir) and Fos-ir in control and water-deprived male rats. In control animals, numerous ER-alpha-positive neurons were expressed in the periphery of the SFO, in both the dorsal and ventral MnPO, and in the dorsal cap of the OVLT. Fos-positive neurons were sparse in euhydrated rats but were numerous in the SFO, MnPO, and the dorsal cap of the OVLT after 48-h water deprivation. Most ER-alpha-ir neurons in these areas were positive for Fos, indicating a significant degree of colocalization. To examine the effect of dehydration on ER-alpha expression, animals with and without lesions surrounding the anterior and ventral portion of the 3rd ventricle (AV3V) were water deprived for 48 h. Water deprivation resulted in a moderate increase in ER-alpha-ir in the SFO of sham-lesioned rats (P = 0.03) and a dramatic elevation in AV3V-lesioned animals (P < 0.05). This was probably induced by the significant increase in plasma osmolality in both dehydrated groups (P < 0.001) rather than a decrease in blood volume, because hematocrit was significantly increased only in the dehydrated sham-lesioned animals. Thus these studies implicate the osmosensitive regions of the lamina terminalis as possible targets for sex steroid effects on body fluid homeostasis. PMID:15142833

  15. Projection neurons in lamina III of the rat spinal cord are selectively innervated by local dynorphin-containing excitatory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Najma; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi; Todd, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Large projection neurons in lamina III of the rat spinal cord that express the neurokinin 1 receptor are densely innervated by peptidergic primary afferent nociceptors and more sparsely by low-threshold myelinated afferents. However, we know little about their input from other glutamatergic neurons. Here we show that these cells receive numerous contacts from non-primary boutons that express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), and form asymmetrical synapses on their dendrites and cell bodies. These synapses are significantly smaller than those formed by peptidergic afferents, but provide a substantial proportion of the glutamatergic synapses that the cells receive (over a third of those in laminae I-II and half of those in deeper laminae). Surprisingly, although the dynorphin precursor preprodynorphin (PPD) was only present in 4-7% of VGLUT2 boutons in laminae I-IV, it was found in 58% of the VGLUT2 boutons that contacted these cells. This indicates a highly selective targeting of the lamina III projection cells by glutamatergic neurons that express PPD, and these are likely to correspond to local neurons (interneurons and possibly projection cells). Since many PPD-expressing dorsal horn neurons respond to noxious stimulation, this suggests that the lamina III projection cells receive powerful mono- and polysynaptic nociceptive input. Excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn have been shown to possess IA currents, which limit their excitability and can underlie a form of activity-dependent intrinsic plasticity. It is therefore likely that polysynaptic inputs to the lamina III projection neurons are recruited during the development of chronic pain states. PMID:22915126

  16. The retina-lamina projection in the visual system of the bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Sommer, E W; Wehner, R

    1975-11-17

    Single Golgi impregnated visual cells and their axons were treated from the retina to the first synaptic layer (lamina) in serial electron microscopic sections. This analysis of the retina-lamina projection was undertaken in the upper dorso-median eye region which is known to be involved in the perception of polarized light. For identification of individual visual cells and their fibres a numbering system was used which relates the number of each of the nine visual cells within one retinula to the transverse axis of the rhabdom (TRA) (Fig. 1). Because of the twist of the retinula along its course to the basement membrane (Fig. 6), individual visual cells change their position relative to any eye-constant co-ordinate system. Each axon bundle originating from one 9-celled retinula performs a 180 degrees-rotation before entering the lamina (Fig. 2). The direction of rotation (clockwise or counter-clockwise), which may differ even between adjacent bundles, is related to the two mirror-image types of rhabdoms in the corresponding retinulae and is opposite to the direction of rhabdom twist. Thus, even in small groups of the in total 5500 ommatidia in the eye of the bee, two types of retinulae exist which can be characterized by the geometry of the rhabdoms as well as by the direction of rotation of the retinulae and the axon bundles (Fig. 1). Visual cell numbers 1, 2, and 9, the microvilli of which are oriented in the direction of TRA, form three long visual fibres terminating in the second synaptic layer (medulla). In cross sections of laminar pseudocartridges they appear as the smallest fibre profiles arranged in a symmetrical line of the pseudocartridge bundle (=the transverse axis of the pseudocartridge; TPA) (Fig. 4). The remaining six fibres (cell numbers 3-8) only project to the lamina (short visual fibres; svf's). Two of them (cell numbers 5 and 6), which are the largest cells in the proximal retinula and have their microvilli perpendicularly arranged to TRA (Fig. 1), give rise to the two thickest axons of the underlaying pseudocartridge. In cross sections, t he connecting line of these two axons is orthogonally oriented to TPA (Fig. 5). A model was developed, in which all long visual fibres originate from ultraviolet receptors and in which the polarization sensitivity of the basal ninth cell is enhanced by the twist of the rhabdom. Finally, this model is discussed in light of behavioral experiments revealing the ultraviolet receptors as the only cells involved in the detection of polarized light. PMID:1182780

  17. The rotational transformation of elastic moduli for fiber-reinforced laminae

    E-print Network

    Ellis, David Edward

    1969-01-01

    for the principal shear modulus and E, u, and n as measured x xy x by tensile tests of thin fiber-reinforced lamina, the applica- bility of the transformation can be tested. Boron reinforced epoxy specimens were fabricated and tensile tested measuring E , u... Possible Combinations 34 G~2 Predictions Based on SI2 Pairings 38 vii LIST OP FIGURES Figure Page Triangular Element Sub)ect to Plane Stress Line Element (a) Deformed and (b) Normal Elastic Moduli for Boron-Epoxy from Transformation Equations...

  18. The contralateral lamina: a reliable guide in subaxial, cervical pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Hacker, A G; Molloy, S; Bernard, J

    2008-11-01

    We have assessed the clinical observation that the angle of the contralateral lamina matches the angle required from the sagital plane for the placement of pedicle screws in the subaxial cervical spine. Fifty-four randomly chosen axial CT scans taken between December 2003 and December 2004 were examined. Subjects were excluded if the scan showed signs of fracture, tumour or gross abnormality. The digitised images were analysed on the Philips PACS system using SECTRA software. One hundred and sixty-eight individual vertebrae were assessed between C3 and C7. The following were measured; the angle of the pedicle relative to the sagital plane, the smallest internal and external diameter of the pedicles and the angle of the lamina. Angular measures had a CV% of 3.9%. The re-measurement error for distance was 0.5 mm. Three hundred and thirty-six pedicles were assessed in 25 females and 29 males. Average age was 48.2 years (range 17-85). Our morphologic data from live subjects was comparable to previous cadaveric data. Mean pedicle external diameter was 4.9 mm at C3 and 6.6 mm at C7. Females were marginally smaller than males. Left and right did not significantly differ. In no case was the pedicle narrower than 3.2 mm. Mean pedicle angle was 130 degrees at C3 and 140 degrees at C7. The contralateral laminar angle correlated well at C3, 4, 5 (R (2) = 0.9, C3 P = 0.002, C4 P = 0.06, C5 P = 0.0004) and was within 1 degrees of pedicle angle. At C6, 7 it was within 11 degrees . In all cases a line parallel to the lamina provided a safe corridor of 3 mm for a pedicle implant. The contralateral lamina provides a reliable intraoperative guide to the angle from the sagital plane for subaxial cervical pedicle instrumentation in adults. PMID:18795348

  19. Invasive Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive plant species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  20. Invasive Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents this group of documents on invasive species. The materials include a webquest, an informational flyer, service standards, National Science Education Standards, and a guide for creating public service announcements. The materials are supplied in PDF format and would be useful for biology or ecology teachers. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  1. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins.

    PubMed

    Harr, Jennifer C; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J; Reddy, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to the nuclear periphery. We identify YY1 (Ying-Yang1) binding sites as enriched in relocating sequences. Knockdown of YY1 or lamin A/C, but not lamin A, led to a loss of lamina association. In addition, targeted recruitment of YY1 proteins facilitated ectopic LAD formation dependent on histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and histone H3 lysine di- and trimethylation. Our results also reveal that endogenous loci appear to be dependent on lamin A/C, YY1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2/3 for maintenance of lamina-proximal positioning. PMID:25559185

  2. Characterization of the nuclear envelope, pore complexes, and dense lamina of mouse liver nuclei by high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    We have used high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the nuclear envelope components of isolated mouse liver nuclei. The surfaces of intact nuclei are covered by closely packed ribosomes which are distinguishable by SEM from nuclear pore complexes. After removal of nuclear membranes with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100, the pore complexes remain attached to an underlying, peripheral nuclear lamina, as described by others. The surface of this dense lamina is composed of particulate granules, 75-150 A in diameter, which are contiguous over the entire periphery. We did not observe the pore-to- pore fibril network suggested by other investigators, but such a structure might be the framework upon which the dense lamina is formed. Morphometric analysis of pores and pore complexes shows their size, structure, and density to be similar to that of other mammalian cells. In addition, several types of pore complex-associated structures, not previously reported by other electron microscope (EM) techniques, are observed by SEM. Our studies suggest that the major role of the dense lamina is associated with the distribution, stability, and perhaps, biogenesis of nuclear pore complexes. Treatment of isolated nuclei with a combination of Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate removes membranes, dense lamina, and nuclear pore complexes. The resulting "chromatin nuclei" retain their integrity despite the absence of any limiting peripheral structures. PMID:556616

  3. A particle image velocimetry study of the flow physics generated by a thin lamina oscillating in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalisendi, Mohammad; Panciroli, Riccardo; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the flow physics produced by a thin rigid lamina oscillating in an otherwise quiescent viscous fluid. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract the flow kinematics, which is, in turn, utilized to reconstruct the pressure distribution around the lamina through the integration of Navier-Stokes equations. The hydrodynamic loading experienced by the lamina is ultimately estimated from PIV data to investigate added mass and fluid damping phenomena. Experiments are conducted for varying Reynolds and Keulegan-Carpenter numbers to elucidate the relative weight of inertial, convective, and viscous phenomena on the resulting flow physics. In agreement with prior numerical studies, experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Reynolds and the Keulegan-Carpenter numbers results into the formation of coherent structures that are shed at the edges of the lamina and advected by the flow. This phenomenon is associated with nonlinearities in the hydrodynamic loading, whereby fluid damping is found to increase nonlinearly with the oscillation of the lamina.

  4. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Winter Lower Stratosphere and the Relationship to Lamina and Irreversible Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    We use the high-resolution dynamic limb sounder (HIRDLS) high-vertical resolution ozone profiles in the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere to examine the meridional transport out of the tropics. We focus on February 2005.2007 when there are differences in the dynamical background in the lower stratosphere due to the states of the quasibiennial oscillation and polar vortex. HIRDLS data reveal a large number of low ozone laminae that have the characteristics of tropical air at midlatitudes. More laminae are observed in February in 2006 than in 2005 or 2007. Because laminae can form, move out of the tropics, and return to the tropics without mixing into the midlatitude ozone field, the number of laminae is not directly related to the net transport. We use equivalent latitude coordinates to discriminate between reversible and irreversible laminar transport. The equivalent latitude analysis shows greater irreversible transport between the tropics and lower midlatitudes in both 2005 and 2007 compared to 2006 despite the higher number of laminae observed in 2006. Our conclusion that there was more irreversible transport of tropical air into the lower midlatitudes in 2005 and 2007 is supported by equivalent length analysis of mixing using microwave limb sounder N2O measurements. This study shows that reversibility must be considered in order to infer the importance of lamination to net transport.

  5. Distribution of stanniocalcin binding sites in the lamina terminalis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ratkovic, Srdjana; Wagner, Graham F; Ciriello, John

    2008-07-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC-1), a 50 kDa glycoprotein hormone that regulates calcium/phosphate homeostasis in bony fish and mammals, has been shown to be expressed in central neurons and choroid plexus, and to exert a protective effect against hypercalcemic and hypoxic damage to neurons. Circumventricular organs are known to function in the regulation of ion and body fluid balance. Therefore, the possibility exists that STC-1 may be involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphate and fluid homeostasis through its actions on these central sites. In the present study, the distribution of STC-1 binding sites in forebrain circumventricular organs of the rat were investigated by in situ ligand binding using a stanniocalcin-alkaline phosphatase (STC-AP) fusion protein. Cells exhibiting STC-1 binding sites were found throughout the lamina terminalis. Dense cytoplasmic staining was observed predominantly within ependymal cells lining the anterior third ventricle region (AV3V), as well as cells of the choroid plexus. Additionally, neurons of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the dorsal and ventral components of the median preoptic nucleus and the rostral aspects of the subfornical organ exhibited dense STC-1 cytoplasmic staining. STC-1 binding sites were also found in cells of the supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and anteroventral preoptic nucleus. These data suggest that STC-1 binding sites localized on the ependymal cells of the AV3V region and neurons of circumventricular organs may be associated with neuronal pathways involved in calcium/phosphate and fluid homeostasis. PMID:18534560

  6. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-06-15

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  7. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  8. Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center The Challenge Aquatic invasive species (AIS ecosystems and our state's natural heritage. The Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center with research and control of key aquatic species. · Implementingnewmoleculartoolstomeasurethepresenceof

  9. The Biophysical Properties of Basal Lamina Gels Depend on the Biochemical Composition of the Gel

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  10. The biophysical properties of Basal lamina gels depend on the biochemical composition of the gel.

    PubMed

    Arends, Fabienna; Nowald, Constantin; Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  11. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, ?, without the need for caustic staining.

  12. Ventral lamina terminalis mediates enhanced cardiovascular responses of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons during increased dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julye M; Bardgett, Megan E; Stocker, Sean D

    2009-08-01

    Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurons of the forebrain lamina terminalis (LT) mediated these changes in the RVLM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without LT lesions were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl for 14 to 15 days. Unilateral injection of l-glutamate into the RVLM produced significantly larger increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure of sham rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, these differences were not observed between ventral LT-lesioned rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. Similar findings were observed when angiotensin II or gamma-aminobutyric acid was injected into the RVLM. Interestingly, a subset of animals drinking 0.9% but with damage restricted to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis did not show enhanced responses to l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid. In marked contrast, RVLM injection of l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid produced exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses in animals drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water after an acute ventral LT lesion or chronic lesion of the subfornical organ. Additional experiments demonstrated that plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were increased at night in rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl. These findings suggest that neurons of the ventral LT mediate the ability of increased dietary salt to enhance the responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic neurons. PMID:19506102

  13. British Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This month marks the 35th anniversary of the Beatles' arrival in America, an event that sparked the "second British Invasion" of 1964-67. Soon after their historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, a string of British bands sought their fortune on the US pop charts, as American youths clamored for singles, clothes, and anything else hip and new from the old country. This new site from the Encyclopedia Brittanica offers brief histories of the influences, careers, and members of some of the principal British invaders, including the Beatles, the Who, the Rolling Stones, the Kinks, and the Hollies. Other resources include RealPlayer music clips, a section on London fashion with a movie of a 1966 Carnaby Street fashion show, band trading cards, and sections exploring the roots of British rock.

  14. A catecholaminergic neuron connecting the first two optic neuropiles (Lamina ganglionaris and Medulla externa) of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Elofsson; Dick Nässel; Harry Myhrberg

    1977-01-01

    The crustacean optic neuropiles, the lamina ganglionaris and especially the medulla externa, show a specific pattern of green fluorescence with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck-Hillarp. Normally, only the terminals and the cell bodies fluoresce, but in reserpine-treated animals exogenous catecholamines are taken up by the whole adrenergic neuron and are thus visualized as a whole. Incubating crayfish optic neuropiles

  15. Collagen VI Ablation Retards Brain Tumor Progression Due to Deficits in Assembly of the Vascular Basal Lamina

    PubMed Central

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Bonaldo, Paolo; Stallcup, William B.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the vascular basal lamina in tumor blood vessel morphogenesis and function, we compared vessel development, vessel function, and progression of B16F10 melanoma tumors in the brains of wild-type and collagen VI-null mice. In 7-day tumors in the absence of collagen VI, the width of the vascular basal lamina was reduced twofold. Although the ablation of collagen VI did not alter the abundance of blood vessels, a detailed analysis of the number of either pericytes or endothelial cells (or pericyte coverage of endothelial cells) showed that collagen VI-dependent defects during the assembly of the basal lamina have negative effects on both pericyte maturation and the sprouting and survival of endothelial cells. As a result of these deficits, vessel patency was reduced by 25%, and vessel leakiness was increased threefold, resulting in a 10-fold increase in tumor hypoxia along with a fourfold increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression. In 12-day collagen VI-null tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased throughout the tumor stroma, in contrast to the predominantly vascular pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wild-type tumors. Vessel size was correspondingly reduced in 12-day collagen VI-null tumors. Overall, these vascular deficits produced a twofold decrease in tumor volume in collagen VI-null mice, confirming that collagen VI-dependent basal lamina assembly is a critical aspect of vessel development. PMID:22200614

  16. Differential contribution of TRPV1 to thermal responses and tissue injury-induced sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in laminae I and V in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W A; Julius, D; Basbaum, A I

    2006-12-15

    Our previous recordings from dorsal root ganglion and spinal lamina V neurons from TRPV1-mutant mice showed dramatic decreases in responses to temperatures near the activation threshold of this channel (43-49 degrees C). Somewhat unexpectedly, we only observed behavioral deficits in these mice at higher temperatures (50-58 degrees C). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the noxious heat-evoked pain behavior that persists in TRPV1-mutant mice reflects residual responsiveness of neurons in the superficial, but not deep, dorsal horn. To this end, we performed in vivo extracellular recordings of spinal nociresponsive neurons in laminae I and V in wild type (WT) and TRPV1 mutant mice. Neurons in WT and mutant mice from both laminae did not differ in their spontaneous activity or evoked responses to mechanical or cold stimuli. By contrast, most lamina I neurons from mutant mice responded to noxious heat with significantly higher thresholds than in WT mice. In contrast, lamina V neurons from mutant mice were virtually unresponsive to noxious heat before and after topical mustard oil-induced tissue injury. Interestingly, lamina I neurons in mutant mice displayed thermal sensitization following tissue injury, comparable in magnitude, but of shorter duration, than in WT mice. We conclude that TRPV1 is necessary for noxious heat-evoked responses of lamina V neurons, both before and after tissue injury. It is also an essential contributor to the normal activation threshold of lamina I neurons to noxious heat and for the full duration of thermal sensitization of lamina I neurons following injury. Finally, our results suggest that the processing of noxious thermal messages by neurons in lamina I involves convergent inputs from a heterogeneous population of primary afferent thermal nociceptors. PMID:16945484

  17. Stromatolitic knobs in Storr's Lake (San Salvador, Bahamas): a model system for formation and alteration of laminae.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, C; Fowler, A; Tobias, C; Visscher, P T

    2013-11-01

    The initial lamination in young, metabolically active Scytonema knobs developing in Storr's Lake (Bahamas) results from the iterative succession of two different stages of microbial growth at the top of this microbialite. Stage 1 is dominated by vertically oriented cyanobacterial filaments and is characterized by a high porosity of the fabric. Stage 2 shows a higher microbial density with the filaments oriented horizontally and with higher carbonate content. The more developed, dense microbial community associated with Stage 2 of the Scytonema knobs rapidly degrades extracellular organic matter (EOM) and coupled to this, precipitates carbonate. The initial nucleation forms high-Mg calcite nanospheroids that progressively replace the EOM. No precipitation is observed within the thick sheath of the Scytonema filaments, possibly because of strong cross-linking of calcium and EOM (forming EOM-Ca-EOM complexes), which renders Ca unavailable for carbonate nucleation (inhibition process). Eventually, organominerals precipitate and form an initial lamina through physicochemical and microbial processes, including high rates of photosynthetic activity that lead to (13) C-enriched DIC available for initial nucleation. As this lamina moves downward by the iterative production of new laminae at the top of the microbialite, increased heterotrophic activity further alters the initial mineral product at depth. Although some rare relic preservation of 'Stage 1-Stage 2' laminae in subfossil knobs exists, the very fine primary lamination is considerably altered and almost completely lost when the knobs develop into larger and more complex morphologies due to the increased accommodation space and related physicochemical and/or biological alteration. Despite considerable differences in microstructure, the emerging ecological model of community succession leading to laminae formation described here for the Scytonema knobs can be applied to the formation of coarse-grained, open marine stromatolites. Therefore, both fine- and coarse-grained extant stromatolites can be used as model systems to understand the formation of microbialites in the fossil record. PMID:24118887

  18. Expression and Activity of Collagenases in the Digital Laminae of Horses with Carbohydrate Overload-Induced Acute Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Pawlak, EA; Johnson, PJ; Belknap, JK; Alfandari, D; Black, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are hypothesized to degrade structurally important components of the laminar extracellular matrix (ECM) in horses with laminitis. Objective To compare levels of expression of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), collagenases (MMP-1, -13), and membrane type-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16), and the distribution of their ECM substrates, in laminae of healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload laminitis. Animals Twenty-five adult horses. Methods Gene and protein expression were determined in extracts of laminae using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Distribution of MMP-13 and ECM components was determined using indirect immunofluorescent microscopy of nonfixed frozen sections. ECM morphology was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Of the genes studied, only those encoding MMP-1 and -13 were upregulated in CHO-induced laminitis; MMP-1 at Obel grade (OG)1 lameness and MMP-13 at OG3 lameness. Laminar MMP-1 was present as 52 kDa proenzyme only. MMP-13 was present as pro- (61 kDa) and processed (48 kDa) enzyme. MMP-13 localized to the basal epithelium of the secondary epidermal laminae and its increased expression were accompanied by the appearance in secondary dermal laminae (SDL) of multiple foci that were devoid of collagen I, fibronectin, chondroitin and keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, and eosin-staining material. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance MMP-13 is upregulated in laminae of horses with CHO-induced OG3 lameness and, by degrading components of the ECM, may contribute to the formation of ECM-free lesions (gaps or tears) that appear in the SDL with OG3 lameness. PMID:24479657

  19. Invasive Species Conservation Biology

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    Invasive Species Conservation Biology Dr. Philpott Thanks to Dr. Mayer for many images and text #12 ­ Habitat modification Biological impacts Other impacts Economics Public Health #12;Invasive Species · Bluegrass in Kentucky · Zebra mussels in Lake Erie #12;Invasive Species · Terminology · Routes of Invasion

  20. Cortical lamina-dependent blood volume changes in human brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Huber, Laurentius; Goense, Jozien; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Trampel, Robert; Guidi, Maria; Reimer, Enrico; Ivanov, Dimo; Neef, Nicole; Gauthier, Claudine J; Turner, Robert; Möller, Harald E

    2015-02-15

    Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to large draining veins reduces its local specificity and can render the interpretation of the underlying laminar neural activity impossible. The application of the more spatially specific cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based fMRI in humans has been hindered by the low sensitivity of the noninvasive modalities available. Here, a vascular space occupancy (VASO) variant, adapted for use at high field, is further optimized to capture layer-dependent activity changes in human motor cortex at sub-millimeter resolution. Acquired activation maps and cortical profiles show that the VASO signal peaks in gray matter at 0.8-1.6mm depth, and deeper compared to the superficial and vein-dominated GE-BOLD responses. Validation of the VASO signal change versus well-established iron-oxide contrast agent based fMRI methods in animals showed the same cortical profiles of CBV change, after normalization for lamina-dependent baseline CBV. In order to evaluate its potential of revealing small lamina-dependent signal differences due to modulations of the input-output characteristics, layer-dependent VASO responses were investigated in the ipsilateral hemisphere during unilateral finger tapping. Positive activation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex and negative activation in ipsilateral primary sensory cortex were observed. This feature is only visible in high-resolution fMRI where opposing sides of a sulcus can be investigated independently because of a lack of partial volume effects. Based on the results presented here, we conclude that VASO offers good reproducibility, high sensitivity and lower sensitivity than GE-BOLD to changes in larger vessels, making it a valuable tool for layer-dependent fMRI studies in humans. PMID:25479018

  1. Osmotic regulation of estrogen receptor-beta expression in magnocellular vasopressin neurons requires lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Somponpun, Suwit J; Johnson, Alan Kim; Beltz, Terry; Sladek, Celia D

    2004-03-01

    Estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) expression in rat magnocellular vasopressin (VP) neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN, respectively) becomes undetectable after 72 h of 2% NaCl consumption. To test the hypothesis that osmosensitive mechanisms that originate in the region of the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) control ER-beta expression in the SON and PVN, animals were water deprived after electrolytic lesions were performed on the area anterior to the ventral third ventricle (AV3V). Such lesions prevent osmotic stimulation of VP release. Four weeks after surgery, male rats [lesioned (n = 16) or sham (n = 14)] were water deprived for 48 h or allowed water ad libitum. Water deprivation eliminated ER-beta-immunoreactivity (-ir) in SON and magnocellular PVN of sham-lesioned animals. Fos-ir was evident in these neurons, and plasma osmolality (Posm) and hematocrit (Ht) were significantly elevated compared with the sham-hydrated rats (Posm, 304 +/- 1 vs. 318 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH2O; P < 0.001; Ht, 49.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 55.0 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.001). ER-beta expression was comparable in sham-hydrated, AV3V-hydrated, and 6 of 8 AV3V-dehydrated rats despite significant increases in Posm in both groups (AV3V hydrated, 312 +/- 2; AV3V dehydrated, 380 +/- 10 mosmol/kgH2O; P < 0.001). OVLT was not ablated in the AV3V-dehydrated rats in which ER-beta was depleted. Fos-ir was low or undetectable in SON in the AV3V-hydrated animals despite elevated Posm values. In AV3V-dehydrated rats, Fos-ir was significantly less than in sham-dehydrated animals but was significantly increased compared with the sham-hydrated group. This could reflect activation by nonosmotic parameters that do not inhibit ER-beta expression. These data support the hypothesis that inhibition of ER-beta expression in the SON by osmotic stimulation is mediated by osmoreceptive neurons in the lamina terminalis. PMID:14604844

  2. Estrogen status and psychophysical stress modify temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons in a lamina-specific manner in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Katagiri, Ayano; Bereiter, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen status and psychological stress contribute to the expression of several chronic pain conditions including temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD). Sensory neurons that supply the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region terminate in laminae I and V of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc/C1-2 region); however, little is known about lamina specificity and environmental influences on the encoding properties of TMJ brainstem neurons. To test the hypothesis that Vc/C1-2 neurons integrate both interoceptive and exteroceptive signals relevant for TMJ nociception, we recorded TMJ-evoked activity in superficial and deep laminae of ovariectomized rats under high and low estradiol (E2) and stress conditions. Rats received daily injections of low (LE) or high (HE) dose E2 and were subjected to forced swim (FS) or sham swim conditioning for 3 days. The results revealed marked lamina specificity in that HE rats displayed enhanced TMJ-evoked activity in superficial, but not deep, laminae independent of stress conditioning. By contrast, FS conditioned rats displayed increased background firing and TMJ-evoked activity of neurons in deep, but not superficial, laminae independent of E2 status. FS also enhanced TMJ-evoked masseter muscle activity and suggested the importance of deep dorsal horn neurons in mediating evoked jaw muscle activity. In conclusion, E2 status and psychophysical stress play a significant role in modifying the encoding properties of TMJ-responsive medullary dorsal horn neurons with a marked lamina specificity. PMID:23607965

  3. The nuclear lamina regulates germline stem cell niche organization via modulation of EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiyang; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yixian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Stem cell-niche interactions have been studied extensively with regard to cell polarity and extracellular signaling. Less is known about the way in which signals and polarity cues integrate with intracellular structures to ensure appropriate niche organization and function. Here we report that nuclear lamins function in the cyst stem cells (CySCs) of Drosophila testis to control the interaction of CySCs with the hub. This interaction is important for regulation of CySC differentiation and organization of the niche that supports the germline stem cells (GSCs). Lamin promotes nuclear retention of phosphorylated ERK in the CySC lineage by regulating the distribution of specific nucleoporins within the nuclear pores. Lamin-regulated nuclear EGFR signaling in the CySC lineage is essential for proliferation and differentiation of the GSCs and the transient amplifying germ cells. Thus, we have uncovered a role for the nuclear lamina in integration of EGF signaling to regulate stem cell niche function. PMID:23827710

  4. Aberrant synaptic integration in adult lamina I projection neurons following neonatal tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E; Baccei, Mark L

    2015-02-11

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  5. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  6. Computer simulation of wound closure in epithelial tissues: Cell-basal-lamina adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of wound closure in epithelial tissues, i.e., cell monolayer sheets, is investigated through computer simulations. A wound means an area in which some cells have been removed from the normal tissue. The vertex dynamics cell model [T. Nagai and H. Honda, Philos. Mag. B 81, 699 (2001)], which describes morphogenesis of epithelial tissues using the concepts of statistical physics, is modified and applied to the closure of small wounds without mitosis. It is shown that cell-basal-lamina adhesion governs the wound closure competing with cell-cell adhesion and cell elasticity. The simulation results reproduce the actual wound closure process qualitatively and partly quantitatively. The closing proceeds with the translation of the edges of wound polygons toward the wound center and the intermittent reduction in the number of polygon edges. Over time, the process leads to an exponential decrease in the wound area. A shape factor is introduced to describe the wound shape quantitatively and is used to examine the time variation thereof. A method for determining model parameters by comparison with the experiments is given.

  7. Degradation of the Internal Elastic Laminae in Vein Grafts of Rats with Aortocaval Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Jen; Chen, Chih-Chun; Hsu, Lung-An; Chang, Gow-Jyh; Ko, Yu-Hsein; Chen, Chin-Fen; Chen, Min-Yi; Yang, Su-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

    2009-01-01

    The internal elastic lamina (IEL) of vein grafts may be modified when exposed to arterialized hemodynamics. We investigated changes of the IEL in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of rats with aortocaval fistulae (ACF). In the IVC of ACF rats, both a markedly increased flow velocity and a mildly increased pressure were demonstrated. In the lower segment where hemodynamic changes were prominent, neointimal hyperplasia was prominently found. The IEL of the IVC in sham-operated rats, observed by confocal microscopy, was composed of parallel elastic fibers. In ACF rats, the IEL degenerated progressively after surgery. The elastic fibers were stretched and gradually became sparse, a change that was more prominent in the lower segment. Eight weeks after surgery, the IEL hardly existed in some areas of the lower segment. Electron microscopy revealed decreased densities and diameters of elastic fibers. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed an up-regulation of potent elastases, cathepsins K and S, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the IVC of ACF rats. Results of immunohistochemical studies localized cathepsin expression predominantly to the luminal endothelium lining the IEL, suggesting involvement of elastinolysis in the degradation of the IEL. We demonstrated the degradation of the IEL in the vein graft of ACF rats, especially in the segment exposed to prominent hemodynamic changes. IEL degradation may contribute to the development of neointimal hyperplasia in vein grafts. PMID:19349360

  8. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII. PMID:17214984

  9. Lamina-specific alterations in cortical GABA(A) receptor subunit expression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beneyto, Monica; Abbott, Andrew; Hashimoto, Takanori; Lewis, David A

    2011-05-01

    Dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia is associated with lamina-specific alterations in particular subpopulations of interneurons. In pyramidal cells, postsynaptic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors containing different ? subunits are inserted preferentially in distinct subcellular locations targeted by inputs from specific interneuron subpopulations. We used in situ hybridization to quantify the laminar expression of ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?5 subunit, and of ?1-3 subunit, mRNAs in the DLFPC of schizophrenia, and matched normal comparison subjects. In subjects with schizophrenia, mean GABA(A) ?1 mRNA expression was 17% lower in layers 3 and 4, ?2 expression was 14% higher in layer 2, ?5 expression was 15% lower in layer 4, and ?3 expression did not differ relative to comparison subjects. The mRNA expression of ?2, which preferentially assembles with ?1 subunits, was also 20% lower in layers 3 and 4, whereas ?1 and ?3 mRNA levels were not altered in schizophrenia. These expression differences were not attributable to medication effects or other potential confounds. These findings suggest that GABA neurotransmission in the DLPFC is altered at the postsynaptic level in a receptor subunit- and layer-specific manner in subjects with schizophrenia and support the hypothesis that GABA neurotransmission in this illness is predominantly impaired in certain cortical microcircuits. PMID:20843900

  10. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Necessary for Retinal Capillary Basal Lamina Thickening in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J.F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize that CTGF is causally involved in diabetes-induced BL thickening of retinal capillaries. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes on retinal capillary BL thickness between wild-type mice (CTGF+/+) and mice lacking one functional CTGF allele (CTGF+/?). Differences in BL thickness were calculated by quantitative analysis of electron microscopic images of transversally sectioned capillaries in and around the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We show that BL thickening was significant in diabetic CTGF+/+ mice compared with control CTGF+/+ mice, whereas diabetes did not significantly induce BL thickening in CTGF+/? mice. We conclude that CTGF expression is necessary for diabetes-induced BL thickening and suggest that reduction of CTGF levels may be protective against the development of diabetic retinopathy. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:785–792, 2008) PMID:18474939

  11. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Esther J; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2008-08-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize that CTGF is causally involved in diabetes-induced BL thickening of retinal capillaries. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes on retinal capillary BL thickness between wild-type mice (CTGF+/+) and mice lacking one functional CTGF allele (CTGF+/-). Differences in BL thickness were calculated by quantitative analysis of electron microscopic images of transversally sectioned capillaries in and around the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We show that BL thickening was significant in diabetic CTGF+/+ mice compared with control CTGF+/+ mice, whereas diabetes did not significantly induce BL thickening in CTGF+/- mice. We conclude that CTGF expression is necessary for diabetes-induced BL thickening and suggest that reduction of CTGF levels may be protective against the development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:18474939

  12. Failure by shear of transversely isotropic laminae off-axis loaded according to the EPFS-criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocaris, Pericles S.; Philippidis, T. P.

    1992-05-01

    Failure prediction of off-axis loaded fiber composite laminae are given, according to a failure criterion for generally anisotropic solids introduced by the authors. The failure condition used assumes that for any anisotropic solid a safe triaxial loading path exists, namely the hydrostatic compression, and thus the failure surface must be open-ended. By appropriately formulating the failure criterion, it is shown that the geometric representation of the failure surface in the principal stress space is an elliptic paraboloid (EPFS). In this paper the predictions of the above criterion for plane stress failure loadings of off-axis laminae, especially for shear induced failure, are compared with existing experimental data and are shown to be in satisfactory agreement.

  13. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  14. Degradation products of the process of thermal recovery of copper from lamina scraps in lab-scale fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, P; Flitris, Y; Flamant, G; Hellio, H; Gauthier, D; Granier, B

    2004-05-20

    This paper presents experimental results dealing with a process for recovering copper in the scrap composite materials issued from electronic laminas industry. This environment-friendly process consists in the thermal treatment of scrap in a fluidized bed whose particles fix the harmful gases emitted by the organic glue gasification. A series of experiments was carried out in a thermobalance coupled to FTIR spectrometer and GC/MS with small lamina samples. These experiments demonstrated the thermal behavior of scrap composite materials, and identified the major degradation reaction gases. A series of experiments was performed with bigger scrap samples hung in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed coupled to FTIR and MS, at 350 degrees C; the results confirmed those obtained in thermobalance. Experiments showed that a residence time lasting less than 5 min is sufficient to recover the metallic copper, and exhaust gases are not harmful. PMID:15120873

  15. Intrahaemocoelic infection of Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus does not induce tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling.

    PubMed

    Means, John C; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2014-03-01

    Infection of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) by the oral route stimulates activation of host matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and effector caspases, a process dependent on expression of the viral fibroblast growth factor (vFGF). This pathway leads to tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling, enabling virus escape from the primary site of infection, the midgut epithelium, and establishment of efficient systemic infection. In this study, we asked whether the MMP-caspase pathway was also activated following infection by intrahaemocoelic injection. We found that intrahaemocoelic infection did not lead to any observable tracheal cell or midgut epithelium basal lamina remodelling. MMP and caspase activities were not significantly stimulated. We conclude that the main role of the AcMNPV vFGF is in facilitating virus midgut escape. PMID:24300553

  16. Intrahaemocoelic infection of Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus does not induce tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Means, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Infection of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) by the oral route stimulates activation of host matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and effector caspases, a process dependent on expression of the viral fibroblast growth factor (vFGF). This pathway leads to tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling, enabling virus escape from the primary site of infection, the midgut epithelium, and establishment of efficient systemic infection. In this study, we asked whether the MMP–caspase pathway was also activated following infection by intrahaemocoelic injection. We found that intrahaemocoelic infection did not lead to any observable tracheal cell or midgut epithelium basal lamina remodelling. MMP and caspase activities were not significantly stimulated. We conclude that the main role of the AcMNPV vFGF is in facilitating virus midgut escape. PMID:24300553

  17. Nuclear lamina heterogeneity in mammalian cells. Differential expression of the major lamins and variations in lamin B phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Worman, H J; Lazaridis, I; Georgatos, S D

    1988-08-25

    We have studied the molecular composition of the nuclear lamina in rat tissues of distinct embryological origin and the occurrence of the nuclear lamins during in vitro differentiation of the mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cell line. Immunochemical analysis demonstrated that all rat tissues contained the three major lamin forms (lamins A, B, and C) previously recognized in rat liver nuclei; however, other minor cross-reactive components were also identified in some tissues. The amount of the 67-kDa lamin B complexed with lamins A and C in the laminae of different tissues ranged from a stoichiometry of much less than 1 to approximately 1. Furthermore, it was found that F9 stem cells and their differentiated progeny express only lamin B, and Northern blotting analysis indicated that these cells fail to accumulate lamin A and C mRNA. Chemical cleavages and peptide mapping suggested that the 67-kDa lamin B form was of similar primary structure in all differentiated tissues and F9 cells. Employing antibodies with different affinities for phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated lamin B, we showed that the apparent invariance in the expression of this polypeptide is overriden by a heterogeneity produced via tissue-specific phosphorylation. Because similar differences in antibody recognition could be reproduced in vitro by phosphorylating lamin B with protein kinase A, we have concluded that the tissue-specific modifications of this protein may occur at consensus sites recognized by this enzyme. These data support the hypotheses that the lamins can form functional laminae by associating at various combinations, and that processes including differential lamin synthesis and post-translational modification can produce a steady state lamina heterogeneity. PMID:3403563

  18. Novel Mode of Phosphorylation-triggered Reorganization of the Nuclear Lamina during Nuclear Egress of Human Cytomegalovirus*

    PubMed Central

    Milbradt, Jens; Webel, Rike; Auerochs, Sabrina; Sticht, Heinrich; Marschall, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic egress of viral capsids is a rate-limiting step in the replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). As reported recently, an HCMV-specific nuclear egress complex is composed of viral and cellular proteins, in particular protein kinases with the capacity to induce destabilization of the nuclear lamina. Viral protein kinase pUL97 and cellular protein kinase C (PKC) play important roles by phosphorylating several types of nuclear lamins. Using pUL97 mutants, we show that the lamin-phosphorylating activity of pUL97 is associated with a reorganization of nuclear lamin A/C. Either pUL97 or PKC has the potential to induce distinct punctate lamina-depleted areas at the periphery of the nuclear envelope, which were detectable in transiently transfected and HCMV-infected cells. Using recombinant HCMV, which produces green fluorescent protein-labeled viral capsids, the direct transition of viral capsids through these areas could be visualized. This process was sensitive to an inhibitor of pUL97/PKC activity. The pUL97-mediated phosphorylation of lamin A/C at Ser22 generated a novel binding motif for the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase Pin1. In HCMV-infected fibroblasts, the physiological localization of Pin1 was altered, leading to recruitment of Pin1 to viral replication centers and to the nuclear lamina. The local increase in Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase activity may promote conformational modulation of lamins. Thus, we postulate a novel phosphorylation-triggered mechanism for the reorganization of the nuclear lamina in HCMV-infected cells. PMID:20202933

  19. Selective innervation of NK1 receptor–lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Najma; Al-Baloushi, Abdullah S.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shehab, Safa A.S.; Todd, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine myelinated (A?) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to A? nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r+ and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by A? nociceptive afferents. PMID:25168670

  20. Fine-scale study of a thick stratospheric ozone lamina at the edge of the southern subtropical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, Thierry; Morel, BéAtrice; Bencherif, Hassan; Baldy, Serge; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2003-03-01

    A large-scale transport event resulting in a thick ozone lamina originating from midlatitudes is observed in the tropical stratosphere over Reunion island (55°E, 21°S). This isentropic transport was detected from stratospheric balloon-borne ozone measurements that showed the occurrence of the lamina and was investigated using different tools based on Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv) analyses. An original software (DYBAL) using surface coordinate and the equivalent length of Epv contours as diagnostic tools in conjunction with high-resolution outputs from an Epv advection model MIMOSA allows us to specify the origin of the lamina. The results indicate that a broad layer of stratospheric air was isentropically advected from midlatitudes across the southern edge of tropical reservoir and reached Reunion island on 12 July 2000. In addition, Eliassen-Palm's flux vectors, calculated from ECMWF analysis, show that planetary wave activity was quite large during that time period, with wave-breaking occurring around 30 km, and could have driven that exchange. In contrast with analyses of filamentation events based on model and satellite data, the present study focuses on a fine-scale vertical survey from in situ measurements. The filament reported in this paper is characterized by a large vertical extension and is located around the maximum of ozone concentration in the tropical stratosphere (600 K). The analysis of such events, poorly documented in the tropics, could complement satellite studies and contribute to a better determination of the transport between the tropics and the midlatitudes.

  1. What is relationship between the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and Kallmann syndrome?

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Agustín; González-Toledo, Juan M; de Paz-Carmona, Héctor; Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Carmona-Calero, Emilia M

    2013-08-01

    The medial preoptic area is a structure located in the hypothalamic anteroventral third ventricle region, and is closely related to the olfactory brain development and sexual differentiation of the brain. The medial preoptic area surrounds the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and both structures are the main areas where synthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone occurs in the brain. Neurons synthesizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone migrate from the medial nasal epithelium to the rostral brain and reach the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the medial preoptic area. Kallmann syndrome is a genetic disorder which combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is characterized by the absence or reduced levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and anosmia due to olfactory bulb aplasia. This paper speculates on the connection between the development of the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and olfactory bulbs with Kallmann syndrome, since the anteroventral third ventricle region is crucial for the normal development of these structures and its connection with the olfactory nerves and sexual maturation. PMID:23702295

  2. Presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors in median preoptic nucleus modulate inhibitory neurotransmission from subfornical organ and organum vasculosum lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Renaud, Leo P

    2007-05-01

    The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in the lamina terminalis receives a prominent catecholaminergic innervation from the dorsomedial and ventrolateral medulla. The present investigation used whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slice preparations to evaluate the hypothesis that presynaptic adrenoceptors could modulate GABAergic inputs to MnPO neurons. Bath applications of norepinephrine (NE; 20-50 microM) induced a prolonged and reversible suppression of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and reduced paired-pulse depression evoked by stimulation in the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum lamina terminalis. These events were not correlated with any observed changes in membrane conductance arising from NE activity at postsynaptic alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Consistent with a role for presynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, responses were selectively mimicked by an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (UK-14304) and blockable with an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist (idazoxan). Although the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist cirazoline and the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin were without effect on these evoked IPSCs, NE was noted to increase (via alpha(1)-adrenoceptors) or decrease (via alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) the frequency of spontaneous and tetrodotoxin-resistant miniature IPSCs. Collectively, these observations imply that both presynaptic and postsynaptic alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in MnPO are capable of selective modulation of rapid GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission along the lamina terminalis and therefore likely to exert a prominent influence in regulating cell excitability within the MnPO. PMID:17218440

  3. Tissue concentrations of 4-HNE in the black walnut extract model of laminitis: indication of oxidant stress in affected laminae.

    PubMed

    Yin, C; Pettigrew, A; Loftus, J P; Black, S J; Belknap, J K

    2009-06-15

    In the septic horse prone to laminitis, a similar activation of the innate immune system appears to occur as reported in the septic human prone to organ failure. Because oxidant injury plays a central role in organ failure occurring due to an overzealous innate immune response in human sepsis, this study was performed to determine whether there was evidence of oxidant stress in the laminar tissue in the early stages of laminitis. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a lipid aldehyde that forms due to lipid peroxidation occurring during episodes of oxidant stress, readily forms adducts with cellular proteins; these adducts can be assessed as a marker of oxidant stress in the form of lipid peroxidation. In this study, a slot blot technique was used to assess 4-HNE adduct concentrations in the laminae, lung, liver, and intestinal tract in the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis. Significant increases in laminar 4-HNE adduct concentrations were identified at two early stages in the BWE model, in the absence of such changes in the other tissues. These data indicate that oxidant stress may play an important role in the laminar failure in laminitis, and further support the concept that a poor antioxidant response in the laminae relative to other equine tissues may be responsible for failure of the laminae in the septic horse. In contrast, tissues such as the lung and liver that undergo oxidant injury in human sepsis appear to be relatively protected in horses. PMID:19118907

  4. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22?/? fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus BGLF4 Kinase Induces Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina To Facilitate Virion Production?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Pei; Huang, Yu-Hao; Lin, Su-Fang; Chang, Yao; Chang, Yu-Hsin; Takada, Kenzo; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2008-01-01

    DNA viruses adopt various strategies to modulate the cellular environment for efficient genome replication and virion production. Previously, we demonstrated that the BGLF4 kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces premature chromosome condensation through the activation of condensin and topoisomerase II? (C. P. Lee, J. Y. Chen, J. T. Wang, K. Kimura, A. Takemoto, C. C. Lu, and M. R. Chen, J. Virol. 81:5166-5180, 2007). In this study, we show that BGLF4 interacts with lamin A/C and phosphorylates lamin A protein in vitro. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-lamin A system, we found that Ser-22, Ser-390, and Ser-392 of lamin A are important for the BGLF4-induced disassembly of the nuclear lamina and the EBV reactivation-mediated redistribution of nuclear lamin. Virion production and protein levels of two EBV primary envelope proteins, BFRF1 and BFLF2, were reduced significantly by the expression of GFP-lamin A(5A), which has five Ser residues replaced by Ala at amino acids 22, 390, 392, 652, and 657 of lamin A. Our data indicate that BGLF4 kinase phosphorylates lamin A/C to promote the reorganization of the nuclear lamina, which then may facilitate the interaction of BFRF1 and BFLF2s and subsequent virion maturation. UL kinases of alpha- and betaherpesviruses also induce the disassembly of the nuclear lamina through similar sites on lamin A/C, suggesting a conserved mechanism for the nuclear egress of herpesviruses. PMID:18815303

  6. Muscle invasive bladder cancer: closing the gap between practice and evidence.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C K; Liaw, B C; Oh, W K; Galsky, M D

    2015-03-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the United States, and will lead to an estimated 15,580 deaths in 2014. Prompted by physical symptoms and signs, most patients will initially present with clinically localized disease. Once bladder cancer invades beyond the muscularis propria, the likelihood of development of metastatic disease increases substantially. Radical cystectomy is potentially curative for muscle-invasive bladder cancer though approximately 50% of patients will develop metastatic recurrence. Two large randomized studies have demonstrated that the use of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy prior to cystectomy improves survival. However, despite the existing level 1 evidence, this approach has been largely underutilized in practice. In this review, we will focus on this disconnect between efficacy and effectiveness and explore possible solutions in an effort to bridge this existing gap. PMID:25424386

  7. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In September 2009, divers carefully capture an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found near the coast of North Carolina. Invasive lionfish are now established in the hard bottom habitats of North Carolina's coast, where they are abundant....

  8. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  9. Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure ?-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P?=?0.01) and control eyes (P?=?0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P?=?0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P?=?0.01), and transverse diameter (P?=?0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

  10. Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity induced by central hyperosmolality.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Stocker, Sean D; Toney, Glenn M

    2007-12-01

    The contribution of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in mediating central hyperosmolality-induced increases of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) was assessed in anesthetized rats. Solutions of graded NaCl concentration (150, 375, and 750 mM) were injected (150 mul) into the forebrain vascular supply via an internal carotid artery (ICA). Time-control experiments (n = 6) established that ICA NaCl injections produced short-latency, transient increases of renal SNA (RSNA) and mean ABP (MAP) (P < 0.05-0.001). Responses were graded, highly reproducible, and unaltered by systemic blockade of vasopressin V1 receptors (n = 4). In subsequent studies, stimulus-triggered averaging of RSNA was used to accurately locate the OVLT. Involvement of OVLT in responses to ICA NaCl was assessed by recording RSNA and MAP responses before and 15 min after electrolytic lesion of the OVLT (n = 6). Before lesion, NaCl injections increased RSNA and MAP (P < 0.05-0.001), similar to time control experiments. After lesion, RSNA responses were significantly reduced (P < 0.05-0.001), but MAP responses were unaltered. To exclude a role for fibers of passage, the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol was microinjected into the OVLT (50 pmol in 50 nl) (n = 6). Before muscimol, hypertonic NaCl increased RSNA, lumbar SNA (LSNA), and MAP (P < 0.05-0.001). After muscimol, both RSNA and LSNA were significantly reduced in response to 375 and 750 mM NaCl (P < 0.05). MAP responses were again unaffected. Injections of vehicle (saline) into OVLT (n = 6) and muscimol lateral to OVLT (n = 5) each failed to alter responses to ICA NaCl. We conclude that OVLT neurons contribute to sympathoexcitation by central hyperosmolality. PMID:17898124

  11. Whole cell recordings from visualized neurons in the inner laminae of the functionally intact spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Jason; Gosgnach, Simon

    2009-07-01

    The in vitro whole spinal cord preparation has been an invaluable tool for the study of the neural network that underlies walking because it provides a means of recording fictive locomotor activity following surgical and/or pharmacological manipulation. The recent use of molecular genetic techniques to identify discrete neuronal populations in the spinal cord and subsequent studies showing some of these populations to be involved in locomotor activity have been exciting developments that may lead to a better understanding of the structure and mechanism of function of this neural network. It would be of great benefit if the in vitro whole spinal cord preparation could be updated to allow for the direct targeting of genetically defined neuronal populations, allowing each to be characterized physiologically and anatomically. This report describes a new technique that enables the visualization of, and targeted whole cell patch-clamp recordings from, genetically defined populations of neurons while leaving connectivity largely intact. The key feature of this technique is a small notch cut in the lumbar spinal cord that reveals cells located in the intermediate laminae while leaving the ventral portion of the spinal cord-the region containing the locomotor neural network-untouched. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that these neurons are healthy and display large rhythmic depolarizations that are related to electroneurogram bursts recorded from ventral roots during fictive locomotion. Intracellular labeling demonstrates that this technique can also be used to map axonal projection patterns of neurons. We expect that this procedure will greatly facilitate electrophysiological and anatomical study of important neuronal populations that constitute neural networks throughout the CNS. PMID:19386756

  12. Cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning in mouse neocortex is lamina specific.

    PubMed

    Gniel, Helen M; Martin, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is able to confer neuroprotection when delivered at least 1 day in advance of an ischemic event. However, its ability to confer neuroprotection in a more immediate time frame has not previously been investigated. Here we have used mouse neocortical brain slices to study the effects of repeated episodes of CSD in layer V and layer II/III pyramidal neurons. In layer V, CSD evoked at 15-min intervals caused successively smaller membrane depolarizations and increases in intracellular calcium compared with the response to the first CSD. With an inter-CSD interval of 30 min this preconditioning effect was much less marked, indicating that preconditioning lasts between 15 and 30 min. A single episode of CSD also provided a degree of protection in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by significantly lengthening the time a cell could withstand OGD before anoxic depolarization occurred. In layer II/III pyramidal neurons no preconditioning by CSD on subsequent episodes of CSD was observed, demonstrating that the response of pyramidal neurons to repeated CSD is lamina specific. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl theophylline (8-CPT) reduced the layer V preconditioning in a concentration-related manner. Inhibition of extracellular formation of adenosine by blocking ecto-5'-nucleotidase with ?,?-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate prevented preconditioning in most but not all cells. Block of equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 with dipyramidole alone or in combination with 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-?-d-ribofuranosylpurine also prevented preconditioning in some but not all cells. These data provide evidence that rapid preconditioning of one CSD by another is primarily mediated by adenosine. PMID:23515796

  13. Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the LT (OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions, including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and, following a 1-week recovery period, they were subjected to either hypertonic saline administration (0.5 M NaCl, 1 mL/100 g i.p.), 24-h water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating angiotensin II; 50 microg/kg s.c.), heat exposure (39 degrees C for 60 min) or permitted 180 min spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the vlPAG and double-labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration, and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG-projecting neurons, and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

  14. Sensitization of sodium appetite: evidence for sustained molecular changes in the lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Seth W; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2014-12-15

    Animals with a history of sodium depletions exhibit increases in salt intake, a phenomenon described as the sensitization of sodium appetite. Using a novel experimental design, the present experiments investigated whether putative molecular markers of neural plasticity and changes in the message for components of the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) accompany the sensitization of sodium appetite. An initial set of experiments examined whether the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 would attenuate sodium appetite sensitization and prevent changes in mRNA expression associated with sensitization. Rats with repeated sodium depletions exhibited enhanced sodium appetite and mRNA expression for components of the RAAS in areas along the lamina terminalis (LT), a region of the brain that is important for the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, and these effects were significantly attenuated by MK-801 pretreatment. A second set of experiments investigated whether successive sodium depletions would elevate sodium intake and induce a pattern of fos-B staining consistent with the ?fos-B isoform in areas along the LT. The pattern of fos-B staining in the subfornical organ was consistent with the characteristics of ?fos-B expression. Specifically, fos-B/?fos-B expression was increased 4 days after the last of a series of sodium depletions, fos-B/?fos-B expression was nearly absent in control rats, and the quantity of fos-B/?fos-B staining was directly associated with a history of sodium depletions. These findings demonstrate that the sensitization of sodium appetite is associated with sustained molecular alterations in the LT that are indicative of neural plasticity and upregulation of the central RAAS. PMID:25354727

  15. SFRSF: Invasive Exotic Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) site discusses the problem of invasive exotic species in southern Florida. Topics covered include what invasive species are, where they come from, where they exist at this time, what controls them, their effect on restoration, the use of natural enemies to tame some invasive plants, and what can be done about other invasive animals and plants. There are links provided for additional information.

  16. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  17. NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

  18. Cell recognition during synaptogenesis is revealed after temperature-shock-induced perturbations in the developing fly's optic lamina.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, A; Meinertzhagen, I A

    1993-12-01

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) were exposed to pulses of heat (1 h) or cold (several hours) during early pupal life, and the effects were investigated on the development of the first optic neuropile, or lamina, of the visual system. The treatments were designed to perturb the cellular organization of the cartridges, the unit synaptic structures of the lamina, so as to provide novel synaptic opportunities among the normally fixed composition of these modules, thereby testing the preferences of their component cells during synaptogenesis. Various abnormalities were identified, but these were not always consistent between flies: retinal abnormalities included the loss and fusion of rhabdomeres, especially of the central cells of the ommatidium, whereas in the lamina low frequencies of abnormal cartridges were found. These included seven that were studied with serial sections, which instead of the normal pair of L1 and L2 monopolar interneurons had supernumerary cells of this type. The normal pairing of L1 and L2 at postsynaptic sites of receptor terminal tetrad synapses was preserved in these cases, the cells eschewing pairings of homologous L1/L2 or L2/L2 partners. This meant that more than one L1 could pair with a single L2 and vice versa, even at the same terminal, and appeared to do so opportunistically on the basis of proximity, with cells closer to each other pairing more frequently. Thus the cells behave during synaptogenesis as if they recognize other cells only as cell types (receptor, L1 or L2) and not as individual cells. PMID:8301271

  19. Impact of Laminitis on the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway in Basal Epithelial Cells of the Equine Digital Laminae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Pawlak, Erica A.; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Eades, Susan; Stack, Sharon; Cousin, Helene; Black, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change in laminitic horses, and lose versican gene expression. Versican gene expression is purportedly under control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a trigger for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; thus, its repression in laminar epithelial cells of laminitic horses may be associated with suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and loss of the epithelial cell phenotype. In support of the former contention, we show, using laminae from healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescent tissue staining, that positive and negative regulatory components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of healthy horses. Furthermore, expression of positive regulators is suppressed and negative regulators elevated in laminae of laminitic compared to healthy horses. We also show that versican gene expression in the epithelial cells correlates positively with that of ?-catenin and T-cell Factor 4, consistent with regulation by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, gene and protein expression of ?-catenin correlates positively with that of integrin ?4 and both are strongly suppressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of laminitic horses, which remain E-cadherin+/vimentin?, excluding mesenchymal transition as contributing to loss of the adherens junction and hemidesmosome components. We propose that suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and accompanying reduced expression of ? catenin and integrin ?4 in laminar basal epithelial cells reduces cell:cell and cell:basement membrane attachment, thus, destabilizing the laminar epidermal:dermal junction. PMID:23405249

  20. Impact of laminitis on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in basal epithelial cells of the equine digital laminae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Pawlak, Erica A; Johnson, Philip J; Belknap, James K; Eades, Susan; Stack, Sharon; Cousin, Helene; Black, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change in laminitic horses, and lose versican gene expression. Versican gene expression is purportedly under control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a trigger for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; thus, its repression in laminar epithelial cells of laminitic horses may be associated with suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and loss of the epithelial cell phenotype. In support of the former contention, we show, using laminae from healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescent tissue staining, that positive and negative regulatory components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of healthy horses. Furthermore, expression of positive regulators is suppressed and negative regulators elevated in laminae of laminitic compared to healthy horses. We also show that versican gene expression in the epithelial cells correlates positively with that of ?-catenin and T-cell Factor 4, consistent with regulation by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, gene and protein expression of ?-catenin correlates positively with that of integrin ?4 and both are strongly suppressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of laminitic horses, which remain E-cadherin(+)/vimentin(-), excluding mesenchymal transition as contributing to loss of the adherens junction and hemidesmosome components. We propose that suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and accompanying reduced expression of ? catenin and integrin ?4 in laminar basal epithelial cells reduces cell:cell and cell:basement membrane attachment, thus, destabilizing the laminar epidermal:dermal junction. PMID:23405249

  1. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  2. What is an Invasive Species? Invasion Ecology's terminology problem

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    #12;How do we stop Invasive Species? · Control existing invasions (eradication if possible) · PreventWhat is an Invasive Species? #12;Invasion Ecology's terminology problem Lockwood text #12;What is an Invasive Species? · Non-native · Capable of surviving without direct help from people (naturalized

  3. Invasive Species Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website contains information about Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) projects concerning invasive species in the Pacific Southwest. Native ecosystems in this region are being threatened by invasion of non-native plant and animal species. This project is to detect, monitor, and predict the effect and threat of invasive species on the region. Case studies of particular ecosystems include the Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, Sierra Nevada Mountains, and San Joaquin Valley.

  4. A silent invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Pia Miglietta; Harilaos A. Lessios

    2009-01-01

    Invasions mediated by humans have been reported from around the world, and ships’ ballast water has been recognized as the\\u000a main source of marine invaders worldwide. Some invasions have dramatic economic and ecological consequences. On the other\\u000a hand, many invasions especially in the marine realm, can go unnoticed. Here we identify a human mediated, worldwide introduction\\u000a of the hydrozoan species

  5. Environmental enrichment causes a global potentiation of neuronal responses across stimulus complexity and lamina of sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Enriched social and physical housing produces many molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavior benefits even in adult animals. Much less is known of its effects on cortical electrophysiology, especially in how sensory cortex encodes the altered environment, and extant studies have generally been restricted to neurons in input laminae in sensory cortex. To extend the understanding of how an enriched environment alters the way in which cortex views the world, we investigated enrichment-induced changes in neuronal encoding of sensory stimuli across all laminae of the rat barrel cortex receiving input from the face whisker tactile system. Animals were housed in Enriched (n = 13) or Isolated housing (n = 13) conditions for 8 weeks before extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex in response to simple whisker deflections and whisker motions modeling movements seen in awake animals undertaking a variety of different tasks. Enrichment resulted in increases in neuronal responses to all stimuli, ranging from those modeling exploratory behavior through to discrimination behaviors. These increases were seen throughout the cortex from supragranular layers through to input Layer 4 and for some stimuli, in infragranular Layer 5. The observed enrichment-induced effect is consistent with the postulate that enrichment causes shift in cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance, and we demonstrate this is greatest in supragranular layers. However, we also report that the effects are non-selective for stimulus parameters across a range of stimuli except for one modeling the likely use of whiskers by the rats in the enriched housing. PMID:23964199

  6. Nuclear lamina defects cause ATM-dependent NF-?B activation and link accelerated aging to a systemic inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Fernando G.; Bárcena, Clea; Soria-Valles, Clara; Ramsay, Andrew J.; de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Fueyo, Antonio; Freije, José M.P.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in the architecture and dynamics of the nuclear lamina have a causal role in normal and accelerated aging through both cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the molecular cues involved in this process remains incompletely defined. Here we report that the accumulation of prelamin A isoforms at the nuclear lamina triggers an ATM- and NEMO-dependent signaling pathway that leads to NF-?B activation and secretion of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in two different mouse models of accelerated aging (Zmpste24?/? and LmnaG609G/G609G mice). Causal involvement of NF-?B in accelerated aging was demonstrated by the fact that both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B signaling prevents age-associated features in these animal models, significantly extending their longevity. Our findings provide in vivo proof of principle for the feasibility of pharmacological modulation of the NF-?B pathway to slow down the progression of physiological and pathological aging. PMID:23019125

  7. Differential accumulation of glycinebetaine and choline monooxygenase in bladder hairs and lamina leaves of Atriplex gmelini under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Koichi; Yamada, Nana; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-03-15

    Atriplex gmelini is a halophyte and possesses bladder hairs on the leaf surface. It is also known to accumulate the osmoprotectant glycinebetaine (GB). However, it remains unclear whether GB and its biosynthetic enzyme choline monooxygenase (CMO) accumulate in the bladder hairs. Microscopic observation of young leaves showed many bladder hairs on their surfaces, but their total number decreased along with leaf maturity. Sodium Green fluorescent approach revealed Na(+) accumulation in bladder cells of young leaves when A. gmelini was grown at high salinity (250mM NaCl). Due to fewer bladder hairs in mature leaves, Na(+) accumulation was mostly found in mesophyll cells of mature leaves under high salinity. GB accumulation was found at significant level in both bladder- and laminae-cells without any addition of NaCl and its content increased at high salinity. CMO was not found in bladder hairs or young leaf laminae. Instead, the CMO protein expression was observed in mature leaves and that showed increased accumulation with increasing concentration of NaCl. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments revealed the expression of a transporter gene for GB, AgBetT, in the bladder hairs. Based on these results, the synthesis and translocation of GB in A. gmelini were discussed. PMID:25588694

  8. Elec 331 -Minimally Invasive Surgery Minimally Invasive Surgery

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 1 Minimally Invasive Surgery · Small incision ­ Low risk surgery ­ Laparoscopic surgery ­ Arthroscopic surgery Instruments Laparoscope / Arthroscope Trocar Forceps / Scissors Elevator / Retractor Stapler #12;Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 2 Instrument Types · Trocar

  9. 2014 Research Project Abstracts by MLS students at the University of Alberta

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Time on Bacteria Survival GERRIE, Kyle Five Year Trend of Antibiotic Utilization and Resistance stimulation in the lamina propria of oral tolerized animals DHALLA, Fatema Characterization of Norovirus

  10. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor invaded blood or lymphatic vessels. These factors help pathologists determine the likelihood of the cancer remaining in or returning to the affected area. (continued on next page) Breast Cancer Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Definitions Invasive, Infiltrating: Capable of spreading to other ...

  11. Invasion of the Whiteflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As invasive alien species spread, they often displace indigenous species, thus altering ecological communities and adversely affecting agricultural pest management, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. Despite the importance of invasive species, the processes enabling them to become estab...

  12. INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    Biological invasion Á Blood parasites Á Malaria Á Haemoproteus Á Plasmodium Á South America Introduction Many by biological invasions of parasites that have ``jumped ship'' to novel host species (Hatcher et al. 2012INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru

  13. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors attenuate augmented glutamate release in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and fever induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Tein; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2004-02-01

    Both the hyperthermia and augmented glutamate release in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) after an intravenous dose (30 ng/kg) of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were significantly reduced by pretreatment with intravenous administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as aspirin (1 - 10 mg/kg), sodium salicylate (1 - 10 mg/kg), or diclofenac (10 mg/kg). Intra-OVLT administration of 50 - 200 microg in 1.0 microl of either aspirin or sodium salicylate 60 min before or 120 min after an intra-OVLT dose (50 microg in 1.0 microl) of glutamate also significantly suppressed the glutamate-induced hyperthermia. These findings suggest that inhibition of cyclooxygenase receptor mechanisms suppresses SEA fever by inhibition of glutamate release in the OVLT of rabbit brain. PMID:14978358

  14. Development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for glaucoma through understanding and modification of scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Harry A.; Cone, Frances E.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the state of ocular connective tissues and their response in glaucomatous disease affects the degree of glaucoma damage. Both experimental and clinical data suggest that improved diagnostic and prognostic information could be derived from assessment of the mechanical responsiveness of the sclera and lamina cribrosa to intraocular pressure (IOP). Controlled mutagenesis of the sclera has produced a mouse strain that is relatively resistant to increased IOP. Alteration of the baseline scleral state could be accomplished through either increased cross-linking of fibrillar components or their reduction. The sclera is a dynamic structure, altering its structure and behavior in response to IOP change. The biochemical pathways that control these responses are fertile areas for new glaucoma treatments. PMID:23535950

  15. Single-shot lamina technique of paravertebral block as an adjunct to general anesthesia for modified radical mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Rukewe, A; Fatiregun, A; Ademola, A F; Ugheoke, A

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block can be employed as an alternative or an adjunct to general anesthesia (GA) for breast cancer surgery. There is no report of this new lamina technique for catheter placement in our environment. In low-resource settings, potent opioids are lacking and the extended postoperative analgesia it provides makes this regional block an invaluable addition to an anesthetist's armamentarium. We describe this single-shot, but titratable technique used as an adjunct to GA for modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. The total intraoperative opioid analgesic 50 mg pethidine was received at induction. The patient's vital signs remained stable throughout surgery that lasted 115 min. Pain score charted every 10 min in the postanesthesia care unit using the verbal rating scale was 0. The time to the first request for rescue analgesic was 18 h after surgery for which paracetamol 1 g was adequate. PMID:25772932

  16. Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies. PMID:23430352

  17. Patch-clamp characterization of nicotinic receptors in a subpopulation of lamina X neurones in rat spinal cord slices.

    PubMed Central

    Bordey, A; Feltz, P; Trouslard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on lamina X neurones in neonate (P1-P12) rat transverse thoracolumbar spinal cord slices were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. These visually selected neurones are located dorsal to the central canal, mainly in the ventral half of the dorsal commissure. 2. Pressure application of the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP) (1 mM) induced a rapid depolarization on which action potentials are superimposed. 3. At -50 mV, DMPP (1 mM), pressure ejected for 100 ms, induced a fast inward current with a mean amplitude of -280 pA (n = 28) in 90% of the neurones recorded. Superfusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a solution containing 0 Ca(2+)-high Mg2+, CdCl2 or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) did not abolish the DMPP-induced current, which confirmed a direct postsynaptic effect of DMPP on recorded neurones. 3. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship for DMPP-induced current exhibited a reversal potential of 0 mV (NaCl outside, potassium gluconate inside) and a strong inward rectification. 4. The DMPP-induced responses were blocked by mecamylamine, hexamethonium and d-tubocurarine (dTC) but were insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. We conclude that lamina X neurones located dorsally to the central canal possess nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Activation of these nicotinic receptors results in depolarization and generation of action potentials. These receptors may be involved in the modulation of the somato- and viscerosensory transmission. PMID:8683466

  18. The Lionfish Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This case study addresses the invasion of lionfish, a native to coral reefs in the tropical waters of the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, to the Alantic Ocean off the southeastern United States. The study explains how scientists are using newly collected data and technology to learn how an invasive species like the lionfish affects an ecosystem. Students can learn about the environmental and economic consequences of invasive species using the recent invasion of the lionfish as a case study. Supporting resources include student and teacher guides, interactive quizzes, exercises with real data, and interviews with National Ocean Service scientists that explore how scientists think. In addition, an instructor section provides materials and resources for use in the classroom.

  19. Invasive Group B Streptococcal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of in- fectious illness among newborns. Invasive infections in neonates can result in pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis

  20. Invasion Ecology (Student Edition)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a guide to learning skills for investigating the behaviors on non-native and native species. Studying invaders such as zebra mussels, chestnut blight, purple loosestrife, and Phragmites, you will explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. This Student Edition has three sections: (1) Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species (2) Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies (3) A series of helpful worksheets to guide you through your own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show you how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

  1. Invasive and Exotic Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Information needed to help identify and control invasive species. Specifically, each species listed has an accompanying photo, information concerning identification, biology, control and management resources. This is an outstanding resource.

  2. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the surgical wound, lungs ( pneumonia ), bladder, or kidney Reactions to medications Other risks for this surgery are: ... R, Sadri H, Lepor H. Durability and retreatment rates of minimally invasive treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia: ...

  3. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A scientist from the North Carolina Aquarium removes an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found in coastal North Carolina's hard bottom habitat, to prevent ecological impacts due to its predation and competition with native fishes....

  4. Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mark A.

    Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis 2 biology 2 MarkA.DavisInvasionBiology2 1 With the exception of climate change, biological invasions have probably received more attention during the past ten years than on the subject, Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological

  5. The economics of biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Perrings

    2001-01-01

    Biological invasions are an economic problem. Invasions are typically the intended or unintended consequence of economic activity. They impose real costs on society, and the risk of invasion depends on human behaviour. Effective control of invasions depends on using the right economic instruments and developing the right institutions. The problem has two special features. The first is that the risks

  6. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim H van der Putten; John N Klironomos; David A Wardle; WH van der Putten

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have considered the effects of invasive microbes, or interactions of invasive plant and animal species

  7. The functional and structural border between the CSF-and blood-milieu in the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, subfornical organ, area postrema) of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Krisch; H. Leonhardt; W. Buchheim

    1978-01-01

    The present study continues a previous investigation on the median eminence (EM) (Krisch et al., 1978). In rats with high levels of neurohormones (LHRH, vasopressin) a limited immunohistochemical labeling of perivascular tanycyte processes can be observed surrounding capillaries in the marginal region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and in the inner part of the subfornical organ (SFO). This

  8. Predicting Biological Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Heger; Ludwig Trepl

    2003-01-01

    There are various approaches to explain the mechanisms of biological invasions. It is possible (1) to focus on the characteristics\\u000a of invading species and (2) on those of the ecosystems invaded, (3) to investigate the relationship between these two factors\\u000a (key–lock approach), or (4) to differentiate the invasion process in time. Each of these approaches may serve to improve the

  9. Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

    1998-03-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

  10. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction. PMID:25721888

  11. The chemerin receptor 23 agonist, chemerin, attenuates monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing rat spinal cord neurons in inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has shown that the chemerin receptor 23 (ChemR23) represents a novel inflammatory pain target, whereby the ChemR23 agonists, resolvin E1 and chemerin, can inhibit inflammatory pain hypersensitivity, by a mechanism that involves normalisation of potentiated spinal cord responses. This study has examined the ability of the ChemR23 agonist, chemerin, to modulate synaptic input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing (NK1R+) dorsal horn neurons, which are known to be crucial for the manifestation of inflammatory pain. Results Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pre-identified lamina I NK1R+ neurons, in rat spinal cord slices, revealed that chemerin significantly attenuates capsaicin potentiation of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency, but is without effect in non-potentiated conditions. In tissue isolated from complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) treated rats, chemerin significantly reduced the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons, termed chemerin responders. However, chemerin did not alter the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre eEPSCs in control tissue. Furthermore, paired-pulse recordings in CFA tissue demonstrated that chemerin significantly reduced paired-pulse depression in the subset of neurons classified as chemerin responders, but was without effect in non-responders, indicating that chemerin acts presynaptically to attenuate monosynaptic C-fibre input to a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons. Conclusions These results suggest that the reported ability of ChemR23 agonists to attenuate inflammatory pain hypersensitivity may in part be due to a presynaptic inhibition of monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I NK1R+ neurons and provides further evidence that ChemR23 represents a promising inflammatory pain target. PMID:24716552

  12. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  13. Minimally invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small "ports" from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry-meaning only one small incision, like the "uniport" video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional "open" surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery.

  15. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control. PMID:25230477

  16. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  17. BIODIVERSITY The global invasion success of Central

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    introductions of alien plants to new regions. Keywords Biological invasions, native distribution, phylogenetic invasion biology is BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH The global invasion success of Central European plants is related

  18. Coastal Ecosystem Science: Alien Invasion!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson introduces students to the broad concept of invasive species. Students prepare a written case study on an invasive aquatic species, followed by an oral presentation. They will define, compare, and contrast invasive species, alien species, and native species, describe at least three problems that may be associated with invasive species, and describe at least three invasive species, explain how they came to be invasive, and discuss what can be done about them. The lesson plan provides a list of possible species to choose from, and information about their introduction, impact, and control. Suggestions for extensions are also provided.

  19. Virus-Induced Tubule: a Vehicle for Rapid Spread of Virions through Basal Lamina from Midgut Epithelium in the Insect Vector

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Aiming; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Lianhui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant reoviruses, plant rhabdoviruses, tospoviruses, and tenuiviruses are transmitted by insect vectors in a persistent propagative manner. These viruses induce the formation of viral inclusions to facilitate viral propagation in insect vectors. The intestines of insect vectors are formed by epithelial cells that lie on the noncellular basal lamina surrounded by visceral muscle tissue. Here, we demonstrate that a recently identified plant reovirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of virus-encoded nonstructural protein P7-1 to directly cross the basal lamina from the initially infected epithelium toward visceral muscle tissues in the intestine of its vector, the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Furthermore, such tubules spread along visceral muscle tissues through a direct interaction of P7-1 and actin. The destruction of tubule assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the P7-1 gene inhibited viral spread in the insect vector in vitro and in vivo. All these results show for the first time that a virus employs virus-induced tubule as a vehicle for viral spread from the initially infected midgut epithelium through the basal lamina, facilitating the rapid dissemination of virus from the intestine of the insect vector. IMPORTANCE Numerous plant viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by sap-sucking insects, including thrips, aphids, planthoppers, and leafhoppers. These viruses, ingested by the insects, establish their primary infection in the intestinal epithelium of the insect vector. Subsequently, the invading virus manages to transverse the basal lamina, a noncellular layer lining the intestine, a barrier that may theoretically hinder viral spread. The mechanism by which plant viruses cross the basal lamina is unknown. Here, we report that a plant virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced tubules to pass through the basal lamina from the initially infected midgut epithelium of the insect vector, thus revealing the previously undescribed pathway adapted by the virus for rapid dissemination of virions from the intestine of the insect vector. PMID:24965461

  20. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  1. The nuclear envelope lamina network has elasticity and a compressibility limit suggestive of a molecular shock absorber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kris Noel; Kahn, Samuel M; Wilson, Katherine L; Discher, Dennis E

    2004-09-15

    Mechanical properties of the nuclear envelope have implications for cell and nuclear architecture as well as gene regulation. Using isolated Xenopus oocyte nuclei, we have established swelling conditions that separate the intact nuclear envelope (membranes, pore complexes and underlying lamin filament network) from nucleoplasm and the majority of chromatin. Swelling proves reversible with addition of high molecular mass dextrans. Micropipette aspiration of swollen and unswollen nuclear envelopes is also reversible and yields a network elastic modulus, unaffected by nucleoplasm, that averages 25 mN/m. Compared to plasma membranes of cells, the nuclear envelope is much stiffer and more resilient. Our results suggest that the nuclear lamina forms a compressed network shell of interconnected rods that is extensible but limited in compressibility from the native state, thus acting as a 'molecular shock absorber'. In light of the conservation of B-type lamins in metazoan evolution, the mechanical properties determined in this investigation suggest physical mechanisms by which mutated lamins can either destabilize nuclear architecture or influence nuclear responses to mechanical signals in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, progeria syndromes (premature 'aging') and other laminopathies. PMID:15331638

  2. A candidate of organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis with neuronal connections to neurosecretory preoptic nucleus in eels.

    PubMed

    Mukuda, Takao; Hamasaki, Sawako; Koyama, Yuka; Takei, Yoshio; Kaidoh, Toshiyuki; Inoué, Takao

    2013-09-01

    Systemic angiotensin II (Ang II) is a dipsogen in terrestrial vertebrates and seawater teleosts. In eels, Ang II acts on the area postrema, a sensory circumventricular organ (CVO) and elicits water intake but other sensory CVOs have not yet been found in the eel forebrain. To identify sensory CVOs in the forebrain, eels were peripherally injected with Evans blue, which immediately binds to albumin, or a rabbit IgG protein. Extravasation of these proteins, which cannot cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), was observed in the brain parenchyma of the anteroventral preoptic recess (PR) walls. Fenestrated capillaries were observed in the parenchymal margin of the ventral wall of the PR, confirming a deficit of the BBB in the eel forebrain. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) detected neurons in the lateral region of the anterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa), which were strongly stained by BBB-impermeable N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide. In the periventricular region of the PPa, many neurons incorporated biotinylated dextran amine conjugated to fluorescein, a retrograde axonal tracer, injected into the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM), indicating neuronal connections from the PPa to the PM. The mammalian paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, homologous to the teleost PM, receive principal neuronal projections from the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). These results strongly suggest that the periventricular subpopulation of the PPa, which is most likely to be a component of the OVLT, serves as a functional window of access for systemic signal molecules such as Ang II. PMID:23797335

  3. Hypertonicity sensing in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons: a mechanical process involving TRPV1 but not TRPV4.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Sorana; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

    2011-10-12

    Primary osmosensory neurons in the mouse organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) transduce hypertonicity via the activation of nonselective cation channels that cause membrane depolarization and increased action potential discharge, and this effect is absent in mice lacking expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) gene (Ciura and Bourque, 2006). However other experiments have indicated that channels encoded by Trpv4 also contribute to central osmosensation in mice (Liedtke and Friedman, 2003; Mizuno et al., 2003). At present, the mechanism by which hypertonicity modulates cation channels in OVLT neurons is unknown, and it remains unclear whether Trpv1 and Trpv4 both contribute to this process. Here, we show that physical shrinking is necessary and sufficient to mediate hypertonicity sensing in OVLT neurons isolated from adult mice. Steps coupling progressive decreases in cell volume to increased neuronal activity were quantitatively equivalent whether shrinking was evoked by osmotic pressure or mechanical aspiration. Finally, modulation of OVLT neurons by tonicity or mechanical stimulation was unaffected by deletion of trpv4 but was abolished in cells lacking Trpv1 or wild-type neurons treated with the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Thus, hypertonicity sensing is a mechanical process requiring Trpv1, but not Trpv4. PMID:21994383

  4. A rat brain slice preserving synaptic connections between neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis and supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Eric; Bourque, Charles W

    2003-09-30

    The organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) are three hypothalamic structures involved in the osmotic and circadian control of neurohypophysial secretion. Recent experiments have suggested that interactions between osmotic and circadian factors may be important for homeostasis. The existence of an in vitro slice preparation retaining these nuclei and their interconnections would therefore be useful for the analysis of synaptic interactions. In the rat, the OVLT, SCN and SON are found at increasingly ventral and lateral positions along the rostro-caudal axis, such that conventional 400 microm slices taken in the pure coronal or horizontal planes do not retain all three nuclei. Here we show that horizontal slices cut at angles of 38-42 degrees relative to the dorsal surface of the cortex retain large fractions of the three nuclei. Intracellular recordings revealed membrane properties consistent with those previously published for OVLT, SCN and SON neurons. Moreover, antidromic and synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation revealed that extensive axonal projections are retained between these nuclei. Finally, chemical and osmotic stimulation of the OVLT exerted powerful influences on the rate of spontaneous synaptic events in SON neurons. We therefore conclude that angled horizontal hypothalamic slices represent a useful preparation for the analysis of physiological interactions between the OVLT, SCN and SON. PMID:12948549

  5. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M; Queener, Hope M; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-07-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (-0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

  6. center for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE)

    E-print Network

    that focus on developing systems for controlling and managing invasive species while working to preventcenter for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE invasive species threats to Texas' aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Invasive species are affecting aquatic

  7. Mechanisms regulating glioma invasion.

    PubMed

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-06-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  8. Invasive Spiny Water Flea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An invasive species, the spiny water flea, is likely a primary driver of changes in Lake Huron's food web over the past decade. Recent USGS research suggests that consumption of prey by invertebrates is outweighing consumption by fish in Lake Huron, and one invertebrate in particular – the in...

  9. Invasive Species: Lightning Round!

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Stewardship #12;Emerald Ash Borer Dan Gullickson #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;J F M A M J J A S O N D out of quaranCne without risk of spreading pest #12;Emerald Ash Borer;#12;#12;Metro Ash Tree Inventory Research Project #12;#12;AquaCc Invasive Species Peter

  10. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine P. Villano

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

  11. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  12. Global Invasive Species Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Global Invasive Species Database was developed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), an international group of 100+ scientific and policy experts with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The entry page of the Website offers background information on invasive species and instructions on how to use the database. A section entitled 100 of the worst (ranging from Rat to Purple Loosestrife) gives viewers an idea of the type of information that will be included in the database, both in terms of expected detail and organizational structure of the database. Types of information provided for each species include Ecology, Distribution, Habitat Matches, References, and Contacts. In addition, a Predictive feature allows viewers to predict the expansion of invasive species, and the Early Warning System matches habitats that the species has already invaded with "other similar habitats around the world." Although still under construction, this database should be a powerful tool for researchers and educators, once completed.

  13. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  14. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Ciara A.; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma.

  15. Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: ? Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species ? Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies ? A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

  16. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Research divers rest at 20 feet as they ascend with a dive bag containing invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans). The bag is clipped to a line to prevent them being stung by the lionfish as its bladder fills with air during the ascent. These lionfish were removed from hard bottom habitat, about 10...

  17. National Invasive Species Management Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.

  18. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  19. Uncorrected Modeling Marine Invasions: Current

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    been and could be useful in understanding marine biological invasions. Mathematical models have long into biological processes in general, and invasion dynamics in particular. The mathematical tools associated of small populations, and have G. Rilov, J.A. Crooks (eds.) Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. 71

  20. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  1. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U L34 and U S3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Bjerke; Richard J. Roller

    2006-01-01

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A\\/C and lamin B rearrangement, while UL34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that UL34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, US3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a US3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. US3 regulation

  2. Expression of basal lamina components by Schwann cells cultured on poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pierucci; E. A. R. Duek; A. L. R. de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The present in vitro study investigated the expression of basal lamina components by Schwann cells (SCs) cultivated on PCL\\u000a and PLLA membranes prepared by solvent evaporation. Cultures of SCs were obtained from sciatic nerves from neonatal Sprague\\u000a Dawley rats and seeded on 24 well culture plates containing the polymer membranes. The purity of the cultures was evaluated\\u000a with a Schwann cell

  3. Differentiating Anti-Lamina Lucida and Anti-Sublamina Densa Anti-BMZ Antibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence on 1.0 M Sodium Chloride-Separated Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ray Gammon; Robert A. Briggaman; Alfred O. Inman III; Laurinda L. Queen; Clayton E. Wheeler

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-one bullous disease sera containing IgG anti-BMZ antibodies were examined by indirect immunofluorescence on intact skin and skin separated through the lamina lucida by incubation in 1.0 M NaCl. All sera produced an indistinguishable pattern of linear immunofluorescence on intact skin at dilutions of 1:10 or higher. On separated skin, antibodies bound to either the epidermal (epidermal pattern), dermal (dermal

  4. Calbindin D-28k is expressed in the microvascular basal lamina in the ventral horn at early time after transient spinal cord ischemia in the rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Chul Lee; In Koo Hwang; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Ju-Young Jung; Jun Hwi Cho; Seung Myung Moon; Tae-Cheon Kang; Won-Ki Kim; Yong-Sun Kim; Moo Ho Won

    2005-01-01

    Much evidence has been accumulated that the increased expression of calbindin D-28k (CB) is involved in the blockade of calcium-evoked excitotoxicity in cerebral ischemia. We investigated the expression of CB in the basal lamina of microvessels in the ventral horn of the rabbit spinal cord after transient spinal cord ischemia. Spinal cord sections at the level of L7 were immunostained

  5. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle. PMID:25042128

  6. Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    , invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model for invasion success and underlies modern attempts at biological control. However, the potential role invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects

  7. Robust Adaptive 3-D Segmentation of Vessel Laminae From Fluorescence Confocal Microscope Images and Parallel GPU Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Dwarakapuram, Saritha; Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Cutler, Barbara M.; Shain, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents robust 3-D algorithms to segment vasculature that is imaged by labeling laminae, rather than the lumenal volume. The signal is weak, sparse, noisy, nonuniform, low-contrast, and exhibits gaps and spectral artifacts, so adaptive thresholding and Hessian filtering based methods are not effective. The structure deviates from a tubular geometry, so tracing algorithms are not effective. We propose a four step approach. The first step detects candidate voxels using a robust hypothesis test based on a model that assumes Poisson noise and locally planar geometry. The second step performs an adaptive region growth to extract weakly labeled and fine vessels while rejecting spectral artifacts. To enable interactive visualization and estimation of features such as statistical confidence, local curvature, local thickness, and local normal, we perform the third step. In the third step, we construct an accurate mesh representation using marching tetrahedra, volume-preserving smoothing, and adaptive decimation algorithms. To enable topological analysis and efficient validation, we describe a method to estimate vessel centerlines using a ray casting and vote accumulation algorithm which forms the final step of our algorithm. Our algorithm lends itself to parallel processing, and yielded an 8× speedup on a graphics processor (GPU). On synthetic data, our meshes had average error per face (EPF) values of (0.1–1.6) voxels per mesh face for peak signal-to-noise ratios from (110–28 dB). Separately, the error from decimating the mesh to less than 1% of its original size, the EPF was less than 1 voxel/face. When validated on real datasets, the average recall and precision values were found to be 94.66% and 94.84%, respectively. PMID:20199906

  8. Neurons and glial cells of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis directly respond to lipopolysaccharide and pyrogenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniela; Murgott, Jolanta; Rafalzik, Sandra; Wuchert, Florian; Schmalenbeck, Babette; Roth, Joachim; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2010-12-01

    During systemic immune challenge, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) with its dense vascularization by fenestrated capillaries lacking blood-brain barrier function allows direct access of circulating pyrogens to brain tissue located in close vicinity to the preoptic area. We aimed to analyze direct responses of OVLT cells to exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1) or the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6. A primary microculture of the OVLT was established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, pyrogen-induced calcium signaling in single OVLT cells could be characterized. LPS--as opposed to FSL-1--stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium concentration in 17% of neurons, 9% of astrocytes, and <5% of microglial cells investigated. LPS additionally led to enhanced expression of TNF-? and IL-1? exclusively in microglial cells, as well as a time-dependent release of TNF-? and IL-6 from OVLT microcultures. TNF-? evoked calcium signals in 11% of neurons, 22% of astrocytes, and 5% of microglial cells tested. A considerable population of neurons (11%) but only few astrocytes and microglial cells responded to IL-6, whereas 8% of microglial cells and 3% of astrocytes or neurons were activated by IL-1?. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT-intrinsic cells to stimulations with LPS or cytokines reinforces the suggested role of this brain structure as a responsive brain site to circulating pyrogens. PMID:20883673

  9. The organum vasculosum laminae terminalis in immune-to-brain febrigenic signaling: a reappraisal of lesion experiments.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Simons, Christopher T; Hunter, William S

    2003-08-01

    The organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) has been proposed to serve as the interface for blood-to-brain febrigenic signaling, because ablation of this structure affects the febrile response. However, lesioning the OVLT causes many "side effects" not fully accounted for in the fever literature. By placing OVLT-lesioned rats on intensive rehydration therapy, we attempted to prevent these side effects and to evaluate the febrile response in their absence. After the OVLT of Sprague-Dawley rats was lesioned electrolytically, the rats were given access to 5% sucrose for 1 wk to stimulate drinking. Sucrose consumption and body mass were monitored. The animals were examined twice a day for signs of dehydration and treated with isotonic saline (50 ml/kg sc) when indicated. This protocol eliminated mortality but not several acute and chronic side effects stemming from the lesion. The acute effects included adipsia and gross (14% of body weight) emaciation; chronic effects included hypernatremia, hyperosmolality, a suppressed drinking response to hypertonic saline, and previously unrecognized marked (by approximately 2 degrees C) and long-lasting (>3 wk) hyperthermia. Because the hyperthermia was not accompanied by tail skin vasoconstriction, it likely reflected increased thermogenesis. After the rats recovered from the acute (but not chronic) side effects, their febrile response to IL-1beta (500 ng/kg iv) was tested. The sham-operated rats developed typical monophasic fevers ( approximately 0.5 degrees C), the lesioned rats did not. However, the absence of the febrile response in the OVLT-lesioned rats likely resulted from the untreatable side effects. For example, hyperthermia at the time of pyrogen injection was high enough (39-40 degrees C) to solely prevent fever from developing. Hence, the changed febrile responsiveness of OVLT-lesioned animals is given an alternative interpretation, unrelated to febrigenic signaling to the brain. PMID:12714358

  10. Evaluation of lamina cribrosa tolerance to the increase of intraocular pressure in healthy people and primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, Yury S.; Akopov, Evgeny L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) stability in measured short-term increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy group and initial primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. METHODS: 147 healthy people were divided in two groups according to the age. The first one (59 people) was comprised of those who were from 16 to 35 years old. The second group included 88 healthy adults from 35 to 78. 64 patients (39 - 80 years old) with initial POAG were included in the third group. The mean cup depth (MCD) of the optic disc was determined with the Heidelberg retina tomographer (HRT II). After baseline examination a suction cup was used to increase IOP for 10 mm Hg above baseline and MCD was determined again. IOP level was controlled by Perkins" tonometer before and during suction. RESULTS: IOP increase always resulted in MCD increase. In group 1 mean increase was 18,3+/-1,96 ?m. In the second group the value was 22,4+/-2,63 ?m. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD mean increase values in groups 1 and 2 (t=1,46, p>0,05). In POAG group mean MCD increase was 49,2+/-8,41 ?m. The difference of this value was statistically significant when compared with that in group 2 (t=5,38, p<0,05). CONCLUSIONS: 1. There was no correlation between age and MCD mean increase in healthy people. 2. Results of the investigation permit us to establish criteria of normal and decreased stability of ONH to the induced elevation of IOP: we consider the MCD increase less than 25 ?m as normal, 25 - 40 ?m as borderline and more than 40 ?m as lack of lamina cribrosa stability.

  11. Correlation between Lamina Cribrosa Tilt Angles, Myopia and Glaucoma Using OCT with a Wide Bandwidth Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kuroda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Masayuki; Baba, Motoyoshi; Hangai, Masanori; Araie, Makoto; Yoneya, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure horizontal and vertical lamina cribrosa (LC) tilt angles and investigate associated factors using prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a broad wavelength laser light source. Design Cross sectional study. Methods Twenty-eight no glaucoma eyes (from 15 subjects) and 25 glaucoma eyes (from 14 patients) were enrolled. A total of 300 optic nerve head B-scans were obtained in 10 µm steps and the inner edge of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) was identified as the reference plane. The vertical and horizontal angles between BMO line and approximate the best-fitting line for the surface of the LC were measured and potential associated factors were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The median (interquartile range) horizontal and vertical tilt angles were 7.10 (2.43–11.45) degrees and 4.15 (2.60–6.85) degrees in eyes without glaucoma and 8.50 (4.40–14.10) degrees and 9.30 (6.90–14.15) degrees in glaucoma eyes, respectively. The refractive errors had a statistically significant association with horizontal LC tilt angles (coefficients, ?1.53 per diopter) and glaucoma had a significant correlation with vertical tilt angles (coefficients, 6.56) using multiple logistic regression analysis (p<0.001). Conclusions OCT allowed evaluation of the internal tilting of the LC compared with the BMO. The horizontal internal LC tilt angle was correlated with refractive errors, corresponding to myopic physiological changes, and vertical internal LC tilt was correlated with glaucoma, corresponding to glaucomatous pathological changes. These parameters have important implications for investigation of the correlation between myopia, glaucoma and LC morphological features. PMID:25551632

  12. Understanding Invasion Ecology: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    How can a single species of insect pose a threat to millions of acres of forests, orchards, and street trees? What can we do about the Asian longhorned beetle and other plants and animals that invade our farms, cities, and forests? The study of ecology helps us to find answers to these questions. Through applying ecological principles and conducting research, scientists are learning to manage invasive species. Students can learn alongside the scientists and, in some cases, help them. This chapter defines the term invasive species using a variety of examples--such as the Asian longhorned beetle and Chestnut Blight--and discusses their ecological implications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

  13. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  14. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  15. 3D Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal Tension Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Horii, Takaaki; Takahashi, Seri; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although the lamina cribrosa (LC) is the primary site of axonal damage in glaucoma, adequate methods to image and measure it are currently lacking. Here, we describe a noninvasive, in vivo method of evaluating the LC, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and determine this method’s ability to quantify LC thickness. Methods This study comprised 54 eyes, including normal (n = 18), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG; n = 18), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG; n = 18) eyes. We used SS-OCT to obtain 3 x 3 mm cube scans of an area centered on the optic disc, and then synchronized reconstructed B- and en-face images from this data. We identified the LC in these B-scan images by marking the visible borders of the LC pores. We marked points on the anterior and posterior borders of the LC in 12 B-scan images in order to create a skeleton model of the LC. Finally, we used B-spline interpolation to form a 3D model of the LC, including only reliably measured scan areas. We calculated the average LC thickness (avgLCT) in this model and used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to compare it with circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT). Results We found that the correlation coefficient of avgLCT and cpRNFLT was 0.64 (p < 0.01). The coefficient of variation for avgLCT was 5.1%. AvgLCT differed significantly in the groups (normal: 282.6 ± 20.6 ?m, PPG: 261.4 ± 15.8 ?m, NTG: 232.6 ± 33.3 ?m). The normal, PPG and NTG groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, refractive error or intraocular pressure (IOP), although the normal and NTG groups differed significantly in cpRNFLT and Humphrey field analyzer measurements of mean deviation. Conclusion Thus, our results indicate that the parameters of our newly developed method of measuring LC thickness with SS-OCT may provide useful and important data for glaucoma diagnosis and research. PMID:25875096

  16. Temporal Management of Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Jarnevich; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    Successful management of invasive species requires using spatial models of current distributions and forecasts of spread with\\u000a explicit consideration of the effects of time on the invasion. Forecasts must also include components contributing to the\\u000a spread rate such as invasion stage and Allee effects. There are several different analysis techniques available for spatial\\u000a models and forecasting, and the appropriate technique

  17. Invasive Species and Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenifer Huang McBeath; Jerry McBeath

    \\u000a This chapter defines invasive species, noting that they may arrive in new areas either intentionally or unintentionally, and\\u000a it discusses their economic and non-economic effects. It provides examples of plant, insect, fish, and other invasive species,\\u000a which have impacts on food production. Immediate environmental stressors, such as socio-economic change, cause the unintentional\\u000a transmission of invasive species. In recent years, improved

  18. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have demonstrated better cosmetic results, shorter recovery times, and an earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. PMID:21765684

  19. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  20. In this issue: Florida Invasive Species Partnership

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    and prevent biological invasions. Cogongrass, photo by Dr. Richard Williams Invasive exotic plantsIn this issue: · Florida Invasive Species Partnership · Mulching: A New Forest Management Tool, No. 1 Spring-Summer 2009 The Florida Invasive Species Partnership (FISP): Invasive Species Know

  1. Aquatic Invasive Species Vector Risk Assessment Project

    E-print Network

    Zavaleta, Erika

    Aquatic Invasive Species Vector Risk Assessment Project Invasive Species In today's global society by invasive species. San Francisco Bay itself is widely considered to be an invasive species hot spot. Aquatic ecological and economic damage - it is these potentially harmful exotic species that we call "invasive." Many

  2. Subfornical organ disconnection alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, and area postrema after intragastric hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed

    Freece, Julia A; Van Bebber, Julie E; Zierath, Dannielle K; Fitts, Douglas A

    2005-04-01

    The lamina terminalis was severed by a horizontal knife cut through the anterior commissure to determine the effects of a disconnection of the subfornical organ (SFO) on drinking and Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the rat brain in response to an intragastric load of hypertonic saline (5 ml/kg of 1.5 M NaCl by gavage). After an initial load, knife-cut rats drank significantly less water than sham-cut rats, thus confirming a role for the SFO in osmotic drinking. After a second load at least 1 wk later, the rats were not allowed to drink after the gavage and were perfused for analysis of Fos-ir at 90 min. Compared with sham-cut rats, the knife-cut rats displayed significantly elevated Fos-ir in the main body of the SFO, in the dorsal cap of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, and in the ventral median preoptic nucleus after the hypertonic load. The knife cut significantly decreased Fos-ir in the supraoptic nucleus. Fos-ir was expressed mainly in the midcoronal and caudal parts of the area postrema of sham-cut rats, and this expression was greatly reduced in knife-cut rats. These findings strengthen the case for the presence of independently functioning osmoreceptors within the SFO and suggest that the structures of the lamina terminalis provide mutual inhibition during hypernatremia. They also demonstrate that the Fos-ir in the area postrema after intragastric osmotic loading is heavily dependent on the intact connectivity of the SFO. PMID:15576664

  3. Effects of cleavage by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 on gene expression and protein content of versican and aggrecan in the digital laminae of horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Pawlak, Erica; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Alfandari, Dominique; Black, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increased gene expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4) in laminae of horses with starch gruel– induced laminitis is accompanied by increased enzyme activity and substrate degradation. Sample Laminae from the forelimb hooves of 8 healthy horses and 17 horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis (6 at onset of fever, 6 at onset of Obel grade 1 lameness, and 5 at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness). Procedures Gene expression was determined by use of cDNA and real-time quantitative PCR assay. Protein expression and processing were determined via SDS-PAGE and quantitative western blotting. Protein distribution and abundance were determined via quantitative immunofluorescent staining. Results ADAMTS-4 gene expression was increased and that of versican decreased in laminitic laminae, compared with expression in healthy laminae. Catalytically active ADAMTS-4 also was increased in the tissue, as were ADAMTS-4–cleavage fragments of versican. Immunofluorescent analyses indicated that versican was depleted from the basal epithelia of laminae of horses at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness, compared with that in healthy laminae, and this was accompanied by regional separation of basal epithelial cells from the basement membrane. Aggrecan gene and protein expression were not significantly affected. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Changes in gene and protein expression of ADAMTS-4 and versican in the basal epithelium of laminitic laminae indicated a fundamental change in the physiology of basal epithelial cells. This was accompanied by and may have caused detachment of these cells from the basement membrane. PMID:22738057

  4. Reproductive effort in invasive and non-invasive Rubus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. McDowell; David P. Turner

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the physiological costs and the total amount of resources allocated to reproduction in two closely related species of Rubus, one of which is invasive. These two species share several morphological and life-history characteristics and grow together in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Reproductive effort was manipulated in canes of both species by removing flower buds. The non-invasive species,

  5. Invasibility and Wildlife Conservation: Invasive Species on Nature Reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Usher

    1986-01-01

    Nature reserves are often considered to be assemblages of species in natural or semi-natural communities. However, in many parts of the world they also contain exotic species that interact with the native flora and fauna. An International Working Group has been endeavouring to understand the management of invasive species in natural landscapes. Data for four invasive species within the British

  6. Mechanisms of local invasion in enteroendocrine tumors: identification of novel candidate cytoskeleton-associated proteins in an experimental mouse model by a proteomic approach and validation in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Christophe; Bollard, Julien; Couté, Yohann; Massoma, Patrick; Poncet, Gilles; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Gadot, Nicolas; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are defined as locally invasive only after extension to the muscularis propria. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms, we applied a proteomic approach to an orthotopic xenograft model to identify candidate proteins evaluable in human SI-NETs. After grafting STC-1 neuroendocrine tumor cells on the caecum of nude mice, comparative proteomic studies were performed between the pre-invasive and the invasive stages, respectively 2 and 8 weeks after grafting. We identified 24 proteins displaying at least a 1.5-fold differential expression between 2 and 8 week-stages. Most were cytoskeleton-associated proteins, among which five showed decreasing expression levels (CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2, vimentin, desmin) and two increasing expression levels (14-3-3?, CK8). Changes for CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2 and 14-3-3? were confirmed in experimental tumors and in a series of 28 human SI-NETs. In conclusion, our results underline the relevance of proteomics to identify novel biomarkers of tissue invasion. PMID:25224486

  7. Integrated assessment of biological invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the main annalists of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists should be able to provide information that can guide management practices. Managers often want to know about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in the sites under their ...

  8. Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions

    E-print Network

    Pringle, Anne

    Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions Anne Pringle,1 James D. Bever,2 Monique Gardes,3 Jeri L mycorrhizal, conservation biology, ectomycorrhizal, fungi Abstract The factors that influence a plant of dif- ferent mechanisms depends on the specific invasion. Here we consider one factor--mycorrhizal

  9. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not mea...

  10. Invasive Species and Endogenous Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Finnoff; Chris McIntosh; Jason F. Shogren; Charles Sims; Travis Warziniack

    Invasive species policy is an economic issue. People affect the spread of invasive species, and these invaders affect people. This review discusses bioeconomic modeling using endogenous risk theory to capture the idea of jointly determined ecological and economic systems. This perspective adds precision to risk assessment and cost-benefit estimation. Bioeconomic modeling can help increase the chance of developing policies that

  11. Invasive Species and Endogenous Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Finnoff; Chris McIntosh; Jason F. Shogren; Charles Sims; Travis Warziniack

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species policy is an economic issue. People affect the spread of invasive species, and these invaders affect people. This review discusses bioeconomic modeling using endogenous risk theory to capture the idea of jointly determined ecological and economic systems. This perspective adds precision to risk assessment and cost-benefit estimation. Bioeconomic modeling can help increase the chance of developing policies that

  12. MEDUSAHEAD INVASION, IMPLICATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead invasion of western rangelands is at a cross-road, either an aggressive effort to prevent its invasion of new areas is initiated, or millions of acres will be lost. Medusahead is an aggressive, exotic, annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. The rapid spread of me...

  13. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized...preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing the economic...human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is...

  14. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing...health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council...1) Pertain to invasive species issues at the community...eradication, control and...

  15. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing the economic...human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is...harvest incentives to control invasive species. Members of the...

  16. [Invasive gastroenteritis, anything new?].

    PubMed

    Echeita Sarrionandia, M Aurora; León, Silvia Herrera; Baamonde, Cristina Simón

    2011-03-01

    Invasive gastroenteritis is characterized by fever and inflammatory diarrhea and can be caused by nontyphoideal Salmonella serotypes and Shigella spp.-enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), among other pathogens. This review describes emerging monophasic variants of Salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- and provides an evolutionary consideration of Shigella spp.-EIEC as a single pathotype. In 1997, a monophasic variant of S. enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-, phage-type U302, multidrug resistant (ACGSSuTSxT), lacking the fljBA operon, appeared in Spain constituting a "Spanish" clonal line. Subsequently, strains of S. 4[5],12:i:-, of different phage types with a new resistance genomic island (ASSuT) were detected in Italy, forming part of a European clonal line. Finally, an "American" clonal line with a deletion of fljBA different from the Spanish clonal line appeared. Therefore, probably by convergent evolution, different clonal lines of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which can carry resistance genes on chromosomes or plasmids, with Salmonella Typhimurium as ancestor, have emerged in the world. Although Shigella belongs to the E. coli species and despite the biological inconsistency involved, this genus has traditionally been considered to cause bacillary dysentery. The EIEC group shares virulence mechanisms and clinical manifestations with Shigella. Both lack some metabolic genes and harbor similar plasmids of invasion. Shigella spp. and EIEC evolved from independent clonal lines of E. coli, by horizontal acquisition of virulence factors, forming a single pathotype. IpaH gene detection is an alternative to attribute the corresponding pathogenic role to non-agglutinable strains that are biochemically compatible with Shigella spp. PMID:21458713

  17. The Defective Nuclear Lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Disrupts the Nucleocytoplasmic Ran Gradient and Inhibits Nuclear Localization of Ubc9?

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joshua B.; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J.; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J.; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2011-01-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways. PMID:21670151

  18. Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology.

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Pergl, Jan; Jarosík, Vojtech; Sixtová, Zuzana; Weber, Ewald

    2008-05-01

    Invasive alien species come from most taxonomic groups, and invasion biology is searching for robust cross-taxon generalizations and principles. An analysis of 2,670 papers dealing with 892 invasive species showed that all major groups of invaders are well studied, but that most information on the mechanisms of invasion has emerged from work on a limited number of the most harmful invaders. A strong geographical bias, with Africa and Asia understudied, inhibits a balanced understanding of invasion, because we might be lacking knowledge of specific invasion mechanisms from poorly studied, regionally specific habitats. International cooperation is required to achieve a more geographically balanced picture of biological invasions. Invasive species with the greatest impact are best studied, but more studies of species that are naturalized but not (yet) invasive are needed to improve understanding of the mechanisms acting during the naturalization phase of invasions and leading to successful invasion. PMID:18367291

  19. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Castón-Osorio, J J; Rivero, A; Torre-Cisneros, J

    2008-11-01

    Invasive fungal infection is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Furthermore, the use of azole prophylaxis against Candida species has coincided with an increase in the incidence of invasive aspergillosis and infections by other filamentous fungi such as Mucorales. New risk factors and different timescales for onset have been identified. Knowledge of changes in the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, invasive fungal infection is particularly important when developing therapeutic strategies and effective prophylaxis to improve the prognosis of immunosuppressed patients. PMID:19013332

  20. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

  1. Minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Vierra, M

    1995-01-01

    With the widespread introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in late 1989, the practice and expectations of general surgery were changed forever. The techniques of laparoscopy were not new--they had been adopted by gynecologists and orthopedic surgeons at least a decade before--but it was laparoscopic cholecystectomy that captured the attention of the surgical profession and the public and spawned the tremendous growth in what has come to be called minimally invasive surgery. Although this surgery has tremendous appeal, offering quicker recovery, less pain, and possibly greater safety, it presents new challenges in the areas of training, credentialing, and quality assessment and raises serious questions about the real benefits of new technology at a time when the political and economic sensitivity of these issues is greater than ever. In this chapter I limit myself to a discussion of laparoscopy in general surgery, with a focus on what we have learned from laparoscopic cholecystectomy and on what this knowledge suggests for the future of other laparoscopic general surgical procedures. PMID:7598451

  2. Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, F; Iacobone, M; Favia, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last years, with the aim of reducing operative time and having better cosmetic results, minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has become to be extensively performed. Several techniques are available, including video-endoscopic techniques, and radioguided parathyroidectomy. In patients undergoing radio-guided parathyroidectomy receive an intravenous injection of 99mTc-sestamibi 60-90 minutes before the operation was scheduled to start. Four early images are obtained 5 minutes after radiopharmaeutical administration, with the aim of confirming the side and site of the enlarged PT gland. Intraoperative nuclear mapping using a hand-held gamma probe and quantitative gamma camera counting in the four quadrants is obtained. A 2-3 cm incision is made, and the enlarged PT gland excision is guided by the probe, resulting in a decline in radioactivity in the corresponding quadrant. Intraoperative quick PTH is routinely assayed. When the PTH levels at 10 min fail to fall to less than 50% of the preoperative levels, a multiglandular disease should be suspected and a bilateral neck exploration is usually required. MIP is a safe, cost-effective alternative to bilateral exploration, and should be considered the procedure of choice in patients with primary HPT, when preoperative imaging tests have suggested the presence of a PT adenoma. Radioguided MIP may improve the success rate of surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:14971284

  3. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  4. Invasion of the zebra mussel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-08

    Zebra mussels were brought to North America in the ballast water of ships. Since 1988, the zebra mussels have pushed native freshwater mussels to near-extinction. The zebra mussel invasion is a great example of time delays.

  5. Invasion of Nile Perch in

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    Invasion of Nile Perch in Lake Victoria #12;Lake Victoria Haplochromine cichlids !800 species !Lake Victoria !Lake Malawi !Fast radiation... #12;Nile perch (Lates niloticus) #12;Nile perch (introduced

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  7. The evolutionary consequences of biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW V. S UAREZ; NEIL D. T SUTSUI

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge of invasion biology is the development of a predictive framework that prevents new invasions. This is inherently difficult because different biological character- istics are important at the different stages of invasion: opportunity\\/transport, establish- ment and spread. Here, we draw from recent research on a variety of taxa to examine the evolutionary causes and consequences of biological invasions.

  8. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    Martone, Patrick T.

    1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Volume 14 Number 8 Biol Invasions (2012) 14:1651-1663 DOI 10.1007/s10530-012-0178-0 Adapted for invasion? Comparing attachment, drag and dislodgment of native 12 months after publication. #12;ORIGINAL PAPER Adapted for invasion? Comparing attachment, drag

  9. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-012-0345-3 The rise, and community structure (Juliano 1998, 2009; Ellis et al. 2006). From an invasion biology perspective, con of the invasives and decline of the natives: insights revealed from adult populations of container-inhabiting Aedes

  10. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Volume 15 Number 5 Biol Invasions (2013) 15:991-1003 DOI, and community structure (Juliano 1998, 2009; Ellis et al. 2006). From an invasion biology perspective, con 10.1007/s10530-012-0345-3 The rise of the invasives and decline of the natives: insights revealed

  11. Biological Invasion: Observations, Theory, Models, Simulations

    E-print Network

    Biological Invasion: Observations, Theory, Models, Simulations Sergei Petrovskii Department;Introduction: What it is all about The term biological invasion is a common name for a variety of phenomena invasionStages of biological invasion. (a) Introduction of an alien species: (b) Establishment

  12. Alex Lester Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance?

    E-print Network

    Young, Terence

    species can have on a landscape or ecosystem. There are two distinct levels at which invasive species canAlex Lester 3/18/2013 Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance? Invasive plant species have moved with invasive plant species in some form causing damage or impacting a landscape, and often times the only real

  13. Plant invasions and extinction debts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Levine, Jonathan M

    2013-01-29

    Whether introduced species invasions pose a major threat to biodiversity is hotly debated. Much of this debate is fueled by recent findings that competition from introduced organisms has driven remarkably few plant species to extinction. Instead, native plant species in invaded ecosystems are often found in refugia: patchy, marginal habitats unsuitable to their nonnative competitors. However, whether the colonization and extinction dynamics of these refugia allow long-term native persistence is uncertain. Of particular concern is the possibility that invasive plants may induce an extinction debt in the native flora, where persistence over the short term masks deterministic extinction trajectories. We examined how invader impacts on landscape structure influence native plant persistence by combining recently developed quantitative techniques for evaluating metapopulation persistence with field measurements of an invaded plant community. We found that European grass invasion of an edaphically heterogeneous California landscape has greatly decreased the likelihood of the persistence of native metapopulations. It does so via two main pathways: (i) decreasing the size of native refugia, which reduces seed production and increases local extinction, and (ii) eroding the dispersal permeability of the matrix between refugia, which reduces their connectivity. Even when native plant extinction is the deterministic outcome of invasion, the time to extinction can be on the order of hundreds of years. We conclude that the relatively short time since invasion in many parts of the world is insufficient to observe the full impact of plant invasions on native biodiversity. PMID:23297239

  14. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    establishment, terminal velocity Introduction Biological invasions are among the most dynamically developing invasive is an important part of research in biological invasions and still repre- sents an ultimate goalReproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive

  15. 1 Invasion Ecology syllabus, spring 2012 Description: Mechanisms and hypotheses to explain biological invasions. Impacts of

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    biological invasions. Impacts of invasions on communities and ecosystems, management approaches, design and analysis of experiments. Offered spring term in even-numbered years. Biological invasions are second only) Davis, M.A. (2009). Invasion Biology. Oxford, UK: Oxford. ISBN: 0199218757 Fifty Years of Invasion

  16. Anomalous maxillary lateral incisor--the only product of dental lamina, difficult classifiable in the time. Symptom of hypodontia syndrome non-described until present time.

    PubMed

    Rozkovcová, E; Marková, M; Vásková, J

    2003-01-01

    The authors described anomalous development of maxillary lateral incisor non-yet published in stomatologic literature. Diagnostics and clinical findings of the anomaly and the prognosis of the affected tooth they based on the description of six longitudinal observed patients. The principal symptom of the anomaly is the disturbance of time-plan of the tooth development. Terms of the tooth mineralization, the time of eruption and root completion cannot be included either in deciduous or in permanent dentition. The tooth is the only product of the dental lamina; it has no predecessor or successor. Frequent disturbances of the eruption pathway result often in anomalous position of the tooth. Taking into consideration the fact that the anomaly appeared always in connection with hypodontia syndrome, it is possible to consider it to be the symptom of hypodontia syndrome. This fact is more significant as it enables to establish the diagnosis of hypodontia syndrome already in early deciduous dentition. PMID:14577137

  17. Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chapman, E Emily V; Hedrei Helmer, Stephanie; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils. PMID:22444727

  18. The trajectory of sensory pathways from the lamina terminalis to the insular and cingulate cortex: a neuroanatomical framework for the generation of thirst.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Jacob H; McKinley, Michael J; D'Souza, Moyra; Kampe, Juliane; Oldfield, Brian J

    2008-04-01

    The pathways involved in the emotional aspects of thirst, the arousal and affect associated with the generation of thirst and the motivation to obtain satiation, have been studied but remain poorly understood. Rats were therefore injected with the neurotropic virus pseudorabies in either the insular or cingulate cortex. After 2 days of infection, pseudorabies-positive neurons were identified within the thalamus and lamina terminalis. In a separate group of rats, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was used in combination with either isotonic (0.15 M NaCl) or hypertonic (0.8 M NaCl) saline (1 ml/100 g body wt ip). Rats injected with CTb in the insular cortex and stimulated with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the paraventricular, rhomboid, and reuniens thalamic nuclei, whereas those rats injected with CTb in the cingulate cortex and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the medial part of the mediodorsal, interanteromedial, anteromedial, and ventrolateral part of the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei. Rats injected with CTb in the dorsal midline of the thalamus and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus, and insular cortex but not the subfornical organ. A small proportion of the CTb-positive neurons in the OVLT were immunopositive for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a putative osmoresponsive membrane protein. These results identify functional thalamocortical pathways involved in relaying osmotic signals to the insular and cingulate cortex and may provide a neuroanatomical framework for the emotional aspects of thirst. PMID:18234743

  19. Cells in Laminae III and IV of the Rat Spinal Cord that Possess the Neurokinin1 Receptor and Have Dorsally Directed Dendrites Receive a Major Synaptic Input from Tachykinin-Containing Primary Afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Naim; Rosemary C. Spike; Christine Watt; Safa A. S. Shehab; Andrew J. Todd

    Many neurons with cell bodies in laminae III or IV of the spinal dorsal horn possess the neurokinin 1 receptor and have dorsal dendrites that arborize in the superficial dorsal horn. We have performed a confocal microscopic study to determine whether these cells receive inputs from substance P-containing primary afferents. All neurons of this type received contacts from substance P-immunoreactive

  20. Minimally Invasive Orthopedic Surgery: Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Treuting, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Arthroscopy, a minimally invasive alternative to standard open surgical techniques and now the most commonly performed orthopedic surgical procedure, was one of the greatest advances in orthopedic surgery of the 20th century. Minimally invasive surgeries result in less postoperative swelling than open techniques and reduce pain, risk of complications, and recovery times. Arthroscopy has evolved from a diagnostic tool to a therapeutic tool capable of treating a wide range of injuries and disorders. Many injuries, particularly those that at one time would have been career ending for athletes, can now be addressed with arthroscopy allowing a quicker return to full function. While arthroscopy has resulted in an overall decrease in morbidity compared with open techniques, it is still an invasive procedure and inherently involves risks. Almost all arthroscopic procedures can be performed in an outpatient setting. In 1999, 211 arthroscopic procedures were performed at Ochsner. PMID:21765685

  1. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  2. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-02-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on type of study and on biogeographical or biological factors. Overall, invasive species had significantly higher values than non-invasive species for all six trait categories. More trait differences were significant for invasive vs. native comparisons than for invasive vs. non-invasive alien comparisons. Moreover, for comparisons between invasive species and native species that themselves are invasive elsewhere, no trait differences were significant. Differences in physiology and growth rate were larger in tropical regions than in temperate regions. Trait differences did not depend on whether the invasive alien species originates from Europe, nor did they depend on the test environment. We conclude that invasive alien species had higher values for those traits related to performance than non-invasive species. This suggests that it might become possible to predict future plant invasions from species traits. PMID:20002494

  3. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...between climate change and invasive species, opportunities for green jobs creation within invasive species efforts, ballast water...tour on Wednesday, June 23, 2010. ADDRESSES: The Argonaut Hotel, 495 Jefferson Street at Hyde, San Francisco,...

  4. LOUISIANA EXOTIC INVASIVE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM MX964256

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Louisiana Exotic Invasive Species Symposium will provide a multi-state collaboration among agency representatives, scientists, and the affected public to address the problem of exotic invasive species and to improve coastal environmental conditions in Louisiana....

  5. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...species. The full ISAC will also consider a white paper entitled, Invasive Species and Climate Change, as drafted by the ISAC Task Team on Climate Change. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee: Tuesday, December 7,...

  6. Invasion percolation between two sites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Vasconcelos, T F; Moreira, A A; Lucena, L S; Andrade, J S

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the process of invasion percolation between two sites (injection and extraction sites) separated by a distance r in two-dimensional lattices of size L. Our results for the nontrapping invasion percolation model indicate that the statistics of the mass of invaded clusters is significantly dependent on the local occupation probability (pressure) Pe at the extraction site. For Pe = 0, we show that the mass distribution of invaded clusters P(M) follows a power-law P(M) approximately M(-alpha) for intermediate values of the mass M, with an exponent alpha = 1.39+/-0.03. When the local pressure is set to Pe = Pc, where Pc corresponds to the site percolation threshold of the lattice topology, the distribution P(M) still displays a scaling region, but with an exponent alpha = 1.02+/-0.03. This last behavior is consistent with previous results for the cluster statistics in standard percolation. In spite of these differences, the results of our simulations indicate that the fractal dimension of the invaded cluster does not depend significantly on the local pressure Pe and it is consistent with the fractal dimension values reported for standard invasion percolation. Finally, we perform extensive numerical simulations to determine the effect of the lattice borders on the statistics of the invaded clusters and also to characterize the self-organized critical behavior of the invasion percolation process. PMID:16383378

  7. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  8. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  9. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.?sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.?× bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F.?sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F.?sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F.?japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  10. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, P.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

  11. Aquatic Invasives Public Service Announcement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents a public service announcement on invasive aquatic species. Running time for the clip is 59 seconds. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  12. Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Gelembiuk, Gregory William

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. PMID:25567726

  13. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  14. Non-invasive Wet Electrocochleography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serena Migliorini

    2009-01-01

    To detect electrocochleographic (ECochG) potentials generated by the cochlea in response to auditory stimuli, either transtympanic or tympanic\\/extratympanic electrodes are currently used. The first are invasive, while the second are arranged in contact or very close to the tympanic membrane (TM). To avoid the discomfort and the risks inherent to the application of such conventional electrodes, this Letter presents an

  15. Ambler Flatwoods: Invasive Species Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Olson

    2012-01-01

    The poster will cover topics of our daily work at Shirley Heinze Land Trust, mainly invasive species control in the area and the techniques used to control the number of these plants. I would also like to cover the topic of herbicides because we use them on a daily basis. In addition I would like to present some of our

  16. Water use by invasive eastern

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Water use by invasive eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the Nebraska Sandhills David Wedin semi-arid regions (GLACE et al. 2004). #12;Research by Awada/Wedin group on physiology and water use and season of water uptake by trees and grasses (stable isotopes) 3. Tree and stand-level transpiration

  17. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that sustained activation of the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA by fasting may contribute to the high arousal state associated with food deprivation. In agreement with this, ORX cells also remain active after expected nursing, which is consistent with reports in other species. PMID:24112031

  18. INVASION NOTE Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Revell, Liam

    INVASION NOTE Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake R 2012 Abstract The tropical island Puerto Rico is poten- tially vulnerable to invasion by some species and genetically characterize the nascent invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake of the family

  19. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Leung; Nicholas E. Mandrak

    2007-01-01

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a

  20. Community Invasibility Spatial Heterogeneity, Spatial Scale,

    E-print Network

    Davies, Kendi

    . Davies, University of Colorado, Boulder IntroDuCtIon: Why Are Some CommunItIeS more InvASIble thAn otherS? Invasive species are one of the most significant threats to native species diversity, and identifying invasion by making resources less available to newly arriving species. This idea has been supported by many

  1. INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH USING GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Holcombe; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Catherine Jarnevich

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in

  2. THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann K. Sakai; Fred W. Allendorf; Jodie S. Holt; David M. Lodge; Jane Molofsky; Syndallas Baughman; Robert J. Cabin; Joel E. Cohen; Norman C. Ellstrand; David E. McCauley; Pamela O'Neil; Ingrid M. Parker; John N. Thompson; Stephen G. Weller

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract Contributions from the field of population biology hold promise for understanding and managing invasiveness; invasive species also offer excellent oppor- tunities to study basic processes in population biology. Life history studies and demo- graphic models may be valuable for examining the introduction of invasive species and identifying life history stages where management will be most effective. Evolution- ary

  3. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    A proposed unified framework for biological invasions Tim M. Blackburn1,2 , Petr Pysek3,4 , Sven for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 propose a unified framework for biologi- cal invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features

  4. Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN D. BAKKER; SCOTT D. WILSON

    Summary 1. Biological invasion can permanently alter ecosystem structure and function. In- vasive species are difficult to eradicate, so methods for constraining invasions would be ecologically valuable. We examined the potential of ecological restoration to constrain invasion of an old field by Agropyron cristatum , an introduced C 3 grass. 2. A field experiment was conducted in the northern Great

  5. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Alex Rodriguez; William E. Holben

    2004-01-01

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote `exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare

  6. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities

    E-print Network

    .....................................................43 The Role of the Forest Service in Aquatic Invasive Species ResearchA Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 #12;A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 United States Department

  7. LAKE TAHOE AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES INCIDENT REPORT

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    LAKE TAHOE AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES INCIDENT REPORT Notes on Visual Observations of Clams in Lake the shell samples were the invasive species Corbicula fluminea. Sudeep Chandra (UNR) has also recently and subsequent identification at UC Santa Barbara (Tom Dudley, Riparian Invasives Research Laboratory) confirmed

  8. Restoration Encyclopedia: Invasive Species in Ecological Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Polster

    Invasive species represent the second largest threat to ecosystem integrity following habitat conversion associated with urban, agricultural and industrial development (Baskin 2002). Invasive species can significantly disrupt restoration programs by modifying natural ecological functions, stand structure, fire return intervals and by displacing native species (Myers and Bazely 2003). Invasive species in some ecosystems can modify successional trajectories so that successionally

  9. Induced-Innovation and Invasive Species Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Kim; Glenn D. Schaible; Jan Lewandrowski

    2010-01-01

    Public policy for managing invasive species has largely focused on preventive measures prior to detection (stage 1) and on the use of chemical\\/mechanical or biological control measures after the establishment and dispersion of the invasive species (stage 2). Optimal management policy depends both on the initial stock of the invasive species and on the costs associated with conventional control measures.

  10. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  11. Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery Maria Vatshaug Ottermo Department-- A preliminary design of a remote palpation in- strument for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is given. The lack mm * 18 mm * 45 mm. I. INTRODUCTION Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is one of the meth- ods

  12. Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Dispatches Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc that can become economically and ecologically threatening. Recent studies of biological invasions, however

  13. The Effects of Probiotic and Eimeria on Gut Morphology and Humoral Immunity in Broilers

    E-print Network

    Horrocks, Sadie Lyn

    2012-02-14

    crypt depth in vaccinated birds decreased in the duodenum after the challenge. On day 43, the ionophore treated birds had less villus height and surface area compared to control and vaccinated birds, while lamina propria thickness increased...

  14. Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Model Using Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Vocal Fold Augmentation

    E-print Network

    Park, Hyoungshin

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may provide a clinical option for rebuilding damaged superficial lamina propria of the vocal fold. We investigated the effects of five hydrogels (hyaluronic acid [HA], collagen, fibrin, ...

  15. Ultrastructure of early stages of infections in mice fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.

    PubMed

    Speer, C A; Dubey, J P

    1998-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study Toxoplasma gondii infections in the small intestines of Swiss-Webster mice at 2-48 h post-feeding of oocysts (p.f.). Sporozoites passed through intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes and goblet cells) and infected all cells except red blood cells in the lamina propria. Parasites in intestinal epithelial cells or in cells in the lamina propria were located within a single type of parasitophorous vacuole, which contained exocytosed electron-dense material and well-developed tubulovesicular membranous networks. Sporozoites did not infect intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), but at 48 h p.f. IELs had become infected with tachyzoites arising from those that had developed in the lamina propria. At 48 h p.f., the lamina propria contained numerous tachyzoites, much cellular debris, and few intact cells. The intestinal epithelium exhibited limited cytopathological changes except for villar fusion, slight vacuolation, and cell separation at the bases of enterocytes. PMID:9481772

  16. Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    ., 2006 #12;Invasive Species as Competitors #12;Invasive species impacts on ecosystem function Vila et al interactions with Invasive Species? · Invasive species may colonize new ecosystems, putting more speciesGlobal Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions #12;Invasive Species as Predators Towns et al

  17. Comparison of the Thickness of the Lamina Cribrosa and Vascular Factors in Early Normal-tension Glaucoma with Low and High Intraocular Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyoo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the thickness of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and vascular factors of early normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with high and low intraocular pressure (IOP) that are expected to be associated with the development of glaucoma. Methods Seventy-one Korean NTG patients with low IOP (the highest IOP <15 mmHg, 40 patients) and high IOP (the lowest IOP >15 mmHg, 31 patients) were included in this study. The thickness of LC and vascular factors were compared. The thickness of the LC was measured using the enhanced depth imaging method with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Spectralis). Results The mean thickness of the central LC was 190.0 ± 19.2 µm in the low IOP group and 197.8 ± 23.6 µm in the high IOP group, but there was no statistical significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). The prevalence of self-reported Raynaud phenomenon was significantly higher in the low IOP group (33.0%) than the high IOP group (10.3%, p = 0.04). Conclusions The laminar thickness did not significantly differ between the high and low IOP groups. However, the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon was higher in the low IOP groups. These results suggest that the development of glaucoma with low IOP patients may be more influenced by peripheral vasospasm, such as Raynaud phenomenon, rather than laminar thickness in NTG. PMID:25435750

  18. A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

    1991-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

  19. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 is required for intrinsic osmoreception in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons and for normal thirst responses to systemic hyperosmolality.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Sorana; Bourque, Charles W

    2006-08-30

    Recent studies have indicated that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family of cation channels are required for the generation of normal osmoregulatory responses, yet the mechanism of osmosensory transduction in primary osmoreceptor neurons of the CNS remains to be defined. Indeed, despite ample evidence suggesting that the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) serves as the primary locus of the brain for the detection of osmotic stimuli, evidence that neurons in the OVLT are intrinsically osmosensitive has remained elusive. Here we show that murine OVLT neurons are intrinsically sensitive to increases in the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. Hypertonic conditions provoked increases in membrane cation conductance that resulted in the generation of an inward current, depolarizing osmoreceptor potentials, and enhanced action potential discharge. Moreover, we found that this osmosensory signal transduction cascade was absent in OVLT neurons from TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1-/-) mice and that responses of wild type (WT) OVLT neurons could be blocked by ruthenium red, an inhibitor of TRPV channels. Finally, TRPV1-/- mice showed significantly attenuated water intake in response to systemic hypertonicity compared with WT controls. These findings indicate that OVLT neurons act as primary osmoreceptors and that a product of the trpv1 gene is required for osmosensory transduction. PMID:16943565

  20. Prostaglandin E(2) fever mediated by inhibition of the GABAergic transmission in the region immediately adjacent to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2008-08-01

    Unilateral microinjection of prostaglandin (PG)E(2) into a region immediately adjacent to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (peri-OVLT) in the preoptic area elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, cutaneous vasoconstrictive, and hyperthermic responses simultaneously in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats. The magnitude of these responses increased dose-dependently over the range of 57 fmol-2.8 pmol, except for the vasoconstrictive response. Microinjection of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide or gabazine (5-20 pmol), into the PGE(2)-sensitive site in the peri-OVLT region also elicited responses similar to those induced by PGE(2). Although administration of a GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol (10 pmol), microinjected into the same site alone usually had no effect on the rate of whole-body O(2) consumption, heart rate or colon and skin temperatures, all PGE(2)-induced responses were blocked 10 min after the muscimol pretreatment and recovered at 50-90 min. Pretreatment with the vehicle, saline, had no effect on the PGE(2)-induced responses. These results suggest that spontaneous release of GABA and tonic activation of GABA(A) receptors in the peri-OVLT region prevent the elevation in the body core temperature under normal circumstances and that PGE(2)-induced febrile responses are mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of the GABAergic transmission in this area. PMID:18188586

  1. Modulation of noradrenaline release in the median preoptic area by GABAergic inputs from the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ushigome, Akihiko; Nomura, Masahiko; Tanaka, Junichi

    2004-02-01

    Previous observations have shown that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor mechanisms modulate the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the median peptic nucleus (MnPO). The present study was carried out to investigate whether neural inputs from the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) to the MnPO are involved in the GABAergic modulation of NA release in the MnPO area using in vivo microdialysis techniques. In urethane-anesthetized rats, electrical stimulation (5 and 10 microA, 10Hz) of the OVLT region, but not its surrounding region, significantly enhanced dialysate NA concentration in the MnPO area. The enhancement in the NA level caused by the OVLT region stimulation was significantly increased by perfusion with either bicuculline (10 microM), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, or phaclofen (10 microM), a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, through a microdialysis probe. The amount of the antagonist-induced increase was much greater in the phaclofen-treated group than in the bicuculline-treated group. These results show that the OVLT region may exert both excitatory and inhibitory influences on the release of NA in the MnPO area, and imply that the inhibitory influence may be mediated through GABA(B) receptors rather than GABA(A) receptors. PMID:14568556

  2. Influence of Lamina Terminalis Fenestration on the Occurrence of the Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:16479076

  3. Cholinergic Partition Cells and Lamina X Neurons Induce a Muscarinic-Dependent Short-Term Potentiation of Commissural Glutamatergic Inputs in Lumbar Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sandrine S.; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the activation of muscarinic receptors influence the activity of neural networks generating locomotor behavior in the mammalian spinal cord. Using electrical stimulations of the ventral commissure, we show that commissural muscarinic (CM) depolarizations could be induced in lumbar motoneurons. We provide a detailed electrophysiological characterization of the muscarinic receptors and the membrane conductance involved in these responses. Activation of the CM terminals, originating from lamina X neurons and partition cells, induced a pathway-specific short-term potentiation (STP) of commissural glutamatergic inputs in motoneurons. This STP is occluded in the presence of the muscarinic antagonist atropine. During fictive locomotion, the activation of the commissural pathways transiently enhanced the motor output in a muscarinic-dependent manner. This study describes for the first time a novel regulatory mechanism of synaptic strength in spinal locomotor networks. Such cellular mechanisms would endow the locomotor central pattern generators with adaptive processes needed to generate appropriate synaptic inputs to motoneurons during different motor tasks. PMID:22069380

  4. FAK is required for Schwann cell spreading on immature basal lamina to coordinate the radial sorting of peripheral axons with myelination.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matthew; Brophy, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  5. Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted versus Minimally Invasive Nonendoscopic Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fík, Zden?k; Astl, Jaromír; Zábrodský, Michal; Lukeš, Petr; Merunka, Ilja; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET) represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient's comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques. PMID:24800227

  6. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  7. [Invasive emergency techniques--cricothyroidotomy].

    PubMed

    Hess, Thorsten; Stuhr, Markus; Knacke, Peer-Gunnar; Reifferscheid, Florian; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-04-01

    On-scene invasive emergency procedures, such as cricothyroidotomy, chest drain, intraosseous puncture or even on-field-amputation, are often unavoidable, when indicated, and present a major challenge for the emergency physician. Personal, temporal or local conditions are often unsuitable. Even with regular intervention by the emergency medical service, "last resort" measures occur very infrequently, particularly in relation to paediatric emergencies. As well as theoretical training, practice-oriented course concepts are essential in order to achieve high quality in these procedures. This article presents the use of cricothyroidotomy on adults and children, with reference to indication, implementation, problems and risks. It is part of a series of four articles on the subject of invasive emergency techniques. PMID:24792594

  8. National Invasive Species Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's an invasive species? It's a great question and one that is much more complex than one might think. The United States Department of Agriculture has created the online National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC) to bring together key resources on these types of species in the United States as well as other corners of the world. On the site, visitors can Browse by Subject to find Aquatic Species, Plants, Animals, and Microbes. In each of these areas, visitors can read the legal definitions of these species and also use the search feature to look for additional resources. The Spotlights area also contains a useful interactive learning module, a calendar of related conferences, government bills, and funding resources.

  9. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible. PMID:25568799

  10. Why Ecology of Invasive Species?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2003-01-01

    Your students may think of ecologists as people who pick up trash and protest for a cleaner environment. In this manual, the term ecologist is used to refer to scientists who study ecology--that is, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment. Through the readings, exercises, protocols, and research projects in Invasion Ecology, students will learn not only abut important ecological concepts, but also about how ecologists conduct research. Furthermore, they will learn how ecological science and research can be applied to solving a real-life environmental problem--the control of invasive species. This free selection also includes a bonus section--Inquiry and Ecology, the Table of Contents, and Introduction.

  11. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Bjerke; Richard J.. Roller

    2006-01-01

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A\\/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the

  12. Invasion percolation on regular trees

    E-print Network

    Omer Angel; Jesse Goodman; Frank den Hollander; Gordon Slade

    2008-04-21

    We consider invasion percolation on a rooted regular tree. For the infinite cluster invaded from the root, we identify the scaling behavior of its $r$-point function for any $r\\geq2$ and of its volume both at a given height and below a given height. We find that while the power laws of the scaling are the same as for the incipient infinite cluster for ordinary percolation, the scaling functions differ. Thus, somewhat surprisingly, the two clusters behave differently; in fact, we prove that their laws are mutually singular. In addition, we derive scaling estimates for simple random walk on the cluster starting from the root. We show that the invasion percolation cluster is stochastically dominated by the incipient infinite cluster. Far above the root, the two clusters have the same law locally, but not globally. A key ingredient in the proofs is an analysis of the forward maximal weights along the backbone of the invasion percolation cluster. These weights decay toward the critical value for ordinary percolation, but only slowly, and this slow decay causes the scaling behavior to differ from that of the incipient infinite cluster.

  13. Cardiotoxicity during Invasive Pneumococcal Disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Armand O; Millett, Elizabeth R C; Quint, Jennifer K; Orihuela, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, with adult hospitalization linked to approximately 19% incidence of an adverse cardiac event (e.g., heart failure, arrhythmia, infarction). Herein, we review the specific host-pathogen interactions that contribute to cardiac dysfunction during invasive pneumococcal disease: (1) cell wall-mediated inhibition of cardiomyocyte contractility; (2) the new observation that S. pneumoniae is capable of translocation into the myocardium and within the heart, forming discrete, nonpurulent, microscopic lesions that are filled with pneumococci; and (3) the bacterial virulence determinants, pneumolysin and hydrogen peroxide, that are most likely responsible for cardiomyocyte cell death. Pneumococcal invasion of heart tissue is dependent on the bacterial adhesin choline-binding protein A that binds to laminin receptor on vascular endothelial cells and binding of phosphorylcholine residues on pneumococcal cell wall to platelet-activating factor receptor. These are the same interactions responsible for pneumococcal translocation across the blood-brain barrier during the development of meningitis. We discuss these interactions and how their neutralization, either with antibody or therapeutic agents that modulate platelet-activating factor receptor expression, may confer protection against cardiac damage and meningitis. Considerable collagen deposition was observed in hearts of mice that had recovered from invasive pneumococcal disease. We discuss the possibility that cardiac scar formation after severe pneumococcal infection may explain why individuals who are hospitalized for pneumonia are at greater risk for sudden death up to 1 year after infection. PMID:25629643

  14. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'. PMID:24189403

  15. Serine protease-mediated host invasion by the parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Veríssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V; Simões, Nelson

    2010-10-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 × 10(4) s(-1) m(-1) against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  16. Alien Invasion: Invasive Species (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using the example of the Eastern United States continental shelf, this lesson helps students understand how alien species enter non-native habitats, what problems are associated with these species, and what can be done about them. Students will be able to compare and contrast "alien species" and "invasive species," explain positive and negative impacts associated with the introduction of non-native species, and give a specific example of species that produces these impacts. They will also describe at least three ways in which species may be introduced into non-native environments and discuss actions that can be taken to mitigate negative impacts caused by non-native species.

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate promote morphogenesis and block invasion of prostate cancer cells in three-dimensional organotypic models

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, V; Knuuttila, M; Virtanen, J; Mirtti, T; Kohonen, P; Kovanen, P; Happonen, A; Kaewphan, S; Ahonen, I; Kallioniemi, O; Grafström, R; Lötjönen, J; Nees, M

    2012-01-01

    Normal prostate and some malignant prostate cancer (PrCa) cell lines undergo acinar differentiation and form spheroids in three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. Acini formed by PC-3 and PC-3M, less pronounced also in other PrCa cell lines, spontaneously undergo an invasive switch, leading to the disintegration of epithelial structures and the basal lamina, and formation of invadopodia. This demonstrates the highly dynamic nature of epithelial plasticity, balancing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition against metastable acinar differentiation. This study assessed the role of lipid metabolites on epithelial maturation. PC-3 cells completely failed to form acinar structures in delipidated serum. Adding back lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) rescued acinar morphogenesis and repressed invasion effectively. Blocking LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) functions by siRNA (small interference RNA) or the specific LPAR1 inhibitor Ki16425 promoted invasion, while silencing of other G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to LPA or S1P mainly caused growth arrest or had no effects. The G-proteins G?12/13 and G?i were identified as key mediators of LPA signalling via stimulation of RhoA and Rho kinases ROCK1 and 2, activating Rac1, while inhibition of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of cAMP may be secondary. Interfering with these pathways specifically impeded epithelial polarization in transformed cells. In contrast, blocking the same pathways in non-transformed, normal cells promoted differentiation. We conclude that LPA and LPAR1 effectively promote epithelial maturation and block invasion of PrCa cells in 3-D culture. The analysis of clinical transcriptome data confirmed reduced expression of LPAR1 in a subset of PrCa's. Our study demonstrates a metastasis-suppressor function for LPAR1 and G?12/13 signalling, regulating cell motility and invasion versus epithelial maturation. PMID:21996742

  18. Absence of integrin ?1?1 results in transducin translocation defects, matrix accumulation in the basal lamina of the RPE, and photoreceptor cell degeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, You-Wei; Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Chang, Bo; Hawes, Norman; Wang, Weimin; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The role of integrin/cell matrix interactions between the RPE and the basement membrane in retinal maintenance and function is not well characterized.In this study the functional importance of ?1?1 integrin for RPE cell homeostasis and retinal health was assessed by comparing ?1 integrin knockout mice with strain/age matched wild type mice. Methods Immunolocalization and western blot analysis of retinas and ARPE19 cells was performed to examine expression of ?1?1 integrin in the RPE. Retinal pathology was assessed by funduscopy, histology, and transmission electron microscopy. Progressive retinal damage was quantified by direct counting of rod photoreceptors. Light-induced translocation of arrestin and ?-transducin was documented by immunohistochemical analysis of retinal cryosections. Results Integrin ?1?1 localizes to the basal aspect of retinal pigment epithelial cells co-localizing with the basal lamina of the RPE. Integrin ?1 null mice have delayed onset progressive retinal degeneration associated with thickening of the basement membrane, dysmorphology of basal processes, synaptic malformations and funduscopic abnormalities. Integrin ?1-null mice display marked delay in transducin translocation compared to wild type mice following exposure to light in dark-adapted animals. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest an essential role for ?1?1 integrin/basement membrane interactions in the RPE in basement membrane metabolism and translocation of transducin in photoreceptors. This is the first report describing evidence supporting an essential role for integrin/basement membrane interaction in the RPE. Further, this report demonstrates a direct link between integrin ?1?1 function in RPE and molecular defects in photoreceptor cell function before retinal pathology is apparent. PMID:18614805

  19. Human colonic intraepithelial and lamina proprial lymphocytes: cytotoxicity in vitro and the potential effects of the isolation method on their functional properties.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M; Bartnik, W; ReMine, S G; Thayer, W R; Shorter, R G

    1981-01-01

    Colonic mucosal lymphoid cells, selectively enriched for intraepithelial (IEL) or lamina proprial lymphocytes (LPL), were isolated by sequential EDTA-collagenase treatment of resected human colons. Cytotoxic activities of colonic and peripheral blood lymphoid cells (PBL) were tested in three different assays, using chicken erythrocytes (CRBC) and Chang cells as targets. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and PHA-induced cytotoxicity (MICC) for both targets were shown by all the isolates of PBL, as was spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC) for Chang cells. However, no SCMC or ADCC for Chang cells was found with LPL, and IEL showed minimal or no activity in either assay. PBL, LPL and IEL demonstrated MICC for Chang cells but, contrasting with PBL and LPL, IEL showed no MCC for CRBC. No significant differences were found between the cytotoxic capabilities of colonic lymphoid cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and those from patients with other colonic diseases. Importantly, control studies with PBL showed that SCMC for Chang cells and ADCC for CRBC and Chang cells were reduced by collagenase treatment used in the isolation, of LPL. Also, SCMC for Chang cells was reduced by the treatment of PBL with EDTA. In contrast, neither EDTA nor collagenase reduced MICC for CRBC or Chang cells. Both forms of treatment induced variable degrees of cell losses in the PBL. By analogy, it can be implied that the isolation of intestinal mononuclear cells using EDTA and collagenase may influence some of their cytotoxic activities in vitro. This raises an important caveat in the interpretation of such studies. PMID:6262195

  20. Fine-scale study of a thick stratospheric ozone lamina at the edge of the southern subtropical barrier: 2. Numerical simulations with coupled dynamics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, BéAtrice; Bencherif, Hassan; Keckhut, Philippe; Portafaix, Thierry; Hauchecorne, Alain; Baldy, Serge

    2005-09-01

    The modeling of an event such as an ozone lamina requires reproducing both the global and the small scales. In this study we report on a specific model capable of resolving such scale issues: the COMMID model, which has been developed by coupling a mechanistic model, MSDOL, with a high-resolution advection model, MIMOSA. MSDOL, which is forced toward National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses below 100 hPa, provides a consistent picture of the stratospheric large-scale circulation from which MIMOSA simulates the fine-scale filaments generated by breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere. To evaluate the performances of the model, we present results for a particular event of tropical-air intrusion at midlatitudes across the southern subtropical barrier observed in July 2000 and described in part 1 (Portafaix et al., 2003). The model is used to examine the contribution of each wave to the structure and the development of that event. The methodology consists in filtering the NCEP tropospheric forcing by zonal wave number and by phase speed. Our results show that mixing is significantly reduced precisely at the locations where the phase speeds of the filtered waves are close to the speed of the mean zonal wind, thus confirming the findings of previous studies. However, what is important here is that they validate the use of an approach based on the coupling of two models. The next step will consist in using the COMMID model in a more general way for further investigations of the impact of the tropospheric circulation on the isentropic transport in the stratosphere for climate sensitivity purposes.

  1. Effects of water deprivation and rehydration on c-Fos and FosB staining in the rat supraoptic nucleus and lamina terminalis region.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lisa L; Fleming, Tiffany; Penny, Maurice L; Toney, Glenn M; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We studied cFos and FosB staining in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in adult male rats after water deprivation (24 h, n = 11; 48 h, n = 12) and water deprivation with rehydration (22 h + water, n = 11; 46 h + water, n = 10). Control rats (n = 15) had water available ad libitum. Separate sets of serial sections from each brain were processed for immunocytochemistry using primary antibodies against either c-Fos or FosB protein. Plasma osmolality, vasopressin, hematocrit, and plasma proteins were measured in separate groups (n = 6-7). The number of c-Fos-positive cells in the SON was significantly increased after 24 and 48 h of water deprivation. In contrast, rehydrated groups were not different from control. Water deprivation significantly increased c-Fos staining in both the OVLT and the MnPO, but c-Fos staining was not altered by rehydration. FosB staining in the SON was significantly increased only by 48-h water deprivation, and this effect was significantly decreased by rehydration. In the MnPO and OVLT, FosB staining was significantly increased by water deprivation, and, like c-Fos staining, these increases were not affected by rehydration. Water deprivation significantly increased osmolality and hematocrit, as well as plasma protein and vasopressin concentrations. Plasma measurements from rehydrated rats were not different from control. We conclude that water deprivation and rehydration differentially affect c-Fos and FosB staining in a region-dependent manner. PMID:15458969

  2. Circulating angiotensin II activates neurones in circumventricular organs of the lamina terminalis that project to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Sunn, N; McKinley, M J; Oldfield, B J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in conscious rats, whether elevated concentrations of circulating angiotensin II activate neurones in both the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) that project to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The strategy employed was to colocalize retrogradely transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) from the BNST, with elevated levels of Fos protein in response to angiotensin II. Circulating angiotensin II concentrations were increased by either intravenous infusion of angiotensin II or subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol. Neurones exhibiting Fos in response to angiotensin II were present in the subfornical organ, predominantly in its central core but with some also seen in its peripheral aspect, the dorsal and lateral margins of the OVLT, the supraoptic nucleus and the parvo- and magnocellular divisions of the paraventricular nucleus. Fos-labelling was not apparent in control rats infused with isotonic saline intravenously or injected with either CTB or CTB conjugated to gold particles (CTB-gold) only. Of the neurones in the subfornical organ that were shown by retrograde labelling to project to BNST, approximately 50% expressed Fos in response to isoproterenol. This stimulus also increased Fos in 33% of neurones in the OVLT that project to BNST. Double-labelled neurones were concentrated in the central core of the subfornical organ and lateral margins of the OVLT in response to increased circulating angiotensin II resulting from isoproterenol treatment. These data support a role for circulating angiotensin II acting either directly or indirectly on neurones in subfornical organ and OVLT that project to the BNST and provide further evidence of functional regionalization within the subfornical organ and the OVLT. The function of these pathways is yet to be determined; however, a role in body fluid homeostasis is possible. PMID:12834432

  3. Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla depends on spatial position within the leaf lamina

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Tatiana; Ebner, Martin; Traiser, Christopher; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large distance between peripheral leaf regions and the petiole in large leaves is expected to cause stronger negative water potentials at the leaf apex and marginal zones compared with more central or basal leaf regions. Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves. Methods The diurnal course of stomatal conductance, gs, was monitored at defined lamina zones during two consecutive vegetation periods in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla that has large leaves. Local climate and stem water potential were also monitored to include parameters involved in stomatal response. Additionally, leaf zonal vein densities were measured to assess possible trends in local hydraulic supply. Key Results It was found that the diurnal pattern of gs depends on the position within a leaf in A. macrophylla. The highest values during the early morning were shown by the apical region, with subsequent decline later in the morning and a further gradual decline towards the evening. The diurnal pattern of gs at the marginal regions was similar to that of the leaf tip but showed a time lag of about 1 h. At the leaf base, the diurnal pattern of gs was similar to that of the margins but with lower maximum gs. At the the leaf centre regions, gs tended to show quite constant moderate values during most of the day. Densities of minor veins were lower at the margin and tip compared with the centre and base. Conclusions Gas exchange regulation appears to be zone specific in A. macrophylla leaves. It is suggested that the spatial–diurnal pattern of gs expressed by A. macrophylla leaves represents a strategy to prevent leaf zonal water stress and subsequent vein embolism. PMID:23606681

  4. Root-selective expression of AtCAX4 and AtCAX2 results in reduced lamina cadmium in field-grown Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Korenkov, Victor; King, Brian; Hirschi, Kendal; Wagner, George J

    2009-04-01

    To assess the impact of enhanced root vacuole cadmium (Cd) sequestration on leaf Cd accumulation under a low Cd dose, as generally occurs in agriculture, leaf Cd accumulation was examined in field-grown tobacco plants expressing genes encoding the high-capacity-Cd, tonoplast-localized, divalent cation/H antiporters AtCAX4 and AtCAX2 (AtCAX, Arabidopsis cation exchanger). It has been shown previously that root tonoplast vesicles isolated from plants expressing these genes, directed by root-selective promoters, show enhanced Cd transport activity, and young plants show enhanced root Cd accumulation when grown in solution culture containing 0.02 microM Cd, a moderate Cd dose. In this article, we present results which show that the lower leaves of mature plants expressing AtCAX2 or AtCAX4, under the control of two different root-selective promoters, accumulate 15%-25% less lamina Cd than control plants when grown in the field (3 years, three different collection methods). Reciprocal grafting experiments of AtCAX2 shoots onto control roots (and vice versa), grown in solution culture with 0.005 microM Cd, indicated that the root controls Cd translocation and accumulation in the shoot in control and AtCAX2 and AtCAX4 tobacco plants exposed to low Cd concentration. The results are consistent with a model in which supplementation of Cd/H antiporter activity in root cell tonoplasts enhances root Cd sequestration, resulting in decreased translocation of Cd to the shoot of field-grown plants. These results suggest that human Cd intake from food and tobacco use could be reduced via the enhancement of root vacuolar sequestration of this pollutant. PMID:19175521

  5. Coupled molecular and 14C studies of microbial carbonate laminae formation and growth rates in dolomite stromatolites from Lagoa Salgada, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Montluçon, D.; Eglinton, T. I.; Matsuda, N.; França, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the application of radiocarbon (14C) measurements for age determination of the growth rate of modern dolomite stromalites from Lagoa Salgada, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Improved estimation of growth rates related with microbial processes during stromatolite formation may provide insights into ancient microbial carbonate sedimentation processes. Radiocarbon dating is frequently used to determine the age of carbonate materials, however, lagoonal carbonates often contain significant 14C content anomalies due to the "hard water effect." Lagoonal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) may sometimes achieve isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, and, in such cases, a coherent 14C chronology for paleo-carbonate precipitates may be established. However, more frequently, DIC does not show complete equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 due to major inputs of groundwater carbon. As a consequence, paleo-lagoonal carbonates often yield 14C ages which, after isotopic normalization, are older than those obtained, for instance, for time-equivalent terrestrial organic matter. Located on the Rio de Janeiro coastline, Lagoa Salgada is a unique environment, which has been studied for its particular carbonate sedimentation and development of dolomite stromatolites. This milieu provides an opportunity to test how Earth surface processes can change from normal carbonate sedimentation to the formation of microbialite structures (e.g., stromatolites, oncolites). In Lagoa Salgada, the formation of laminated structures involves diverse groups of microorganisms, which leads to the trapping of distinctive biomarkers or organic molecules as intracrystalline organic matter within the stromatolite laminae. We report on our research into the characterization of this trapped organic matter and the potential to utilize it to radiometrically determine the growth rate of these modern stromatolites. We also report 14C measurements of DIC from Lagoa Salgada.

  6. Role of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis for the chronic cardiovascular effects produced by endogenous and exogenous ANG II in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre A; Nahey, David B; Collister, John P

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous circulating ANG II acts at one of the central circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO), to modulate chronic blood pressure regulation. However, at the forebrain, another important CVO is the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the OVLT mediates the hypertension or the hypotension produced by chronic infusion of ANG II or losartan (AT1 antagonist), respectively. Six days after sham or OVLT electrolytic lesion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (280-320 g, n = 6 per group) were instrumented with intravenous catheters and radiotelemetric blood pressure transducers. Following another week of recovery, rats were given 3 days of saline control infusion (7 ml/day) and were then infused with ANG II (10 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or losartan (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 days, followed by 3 recovery days. Twenty-four hour average measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were made during this protocol. Hydromineral balance (HB) responses were measured during the experimental protocol. By day 9 of ANG II treatment, MAP had increased 16 ± 4 mmHg in sham rats but only 4 ± 1 mmHg in OVLT lesioned rats without changes in HR or HB. However, the hypotension produced by 10 days of losartan infusion was not modified in OVLT lesioned rats. These results suggest that the OVLT might play an important role during elevation of plasma ANG II, facilitating increases of blood pressure but is not involved with baseline effects of endogenous ANG II. PMID:20861280

  7. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  8. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) provides research and technical assistance relating to invasive species management concerns, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, FORT scientists are developing the Invasive Species Information Node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a comprehensive, Web-accessible database of invasive plant and animal species and disease agents. From these data, and in partnership with Colorado State University, the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), and others, FORT scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species behavior for more effective management. FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  9. Low invasion corehead reduces mud invasion while improving performances

    SciTech Connect

    Clydesdale, G.M. (DB Stratabit Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Leseultre, A.; Lamine, E. (Security DBS, Brussels (Belgium))

    1994-12-01

    A corehead was designed, manufactured and tested to reduce fluid invasion of the core. This is obtained by minimizing the exposure time of the core to the drilling fluid in increasing the rate of penetration (ROP). The design incorporates a medium heavyset polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutting structure developed in accordance with cutting models and balancing methods used for drill bits. The highest ROP is achieved by a particular hydraulic design: flow ports shape and positioning to clean the cutting structure enhance the drilled cuttings removal while preventing drilling fluid in the throat of the corehead. Moreover, an internal lip works with a special inner barrel shoe to effectively seal off mud flow from the throat. All the design features have been subjected to laboratory tests, including measurement of pressure drop across the corehead and flow visualization studies. Flow visualization tests include high-speed filming of the flow and paint tracing to indicate the special flow pattern. In conjunction with lab tests, a numerical simulation was performed using fluid dynamics software to optimize hydraulic parameters. The low invasion core bit has been used in numerous applications. The performance achieved was significantly better than the average achieved over a period of years using various PDC coreheads. The rate of penetration was increased by a factor of 4.8 and bit life by 2.3 (often with reusable condition).

  10. Low invasion corehead reduces mud invasion while improving performances

    SciTech Connect

    Clydesdale, G. [DBS, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Leseultre, A.; Lamine, E. [DBS, Brussels (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    A corehead was designed, manufactured and tested to reduce fluid invasion of the core. This is obtained by minimizing the exposure time of the core to the drilling fluid in increasing the rate of penetration. The design includes a medium heavy set Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) cutting structure developed in accordance with cutting models and balancing methods used for the drill bits. The highest R.O.P. is also achieved by a particular hydraulic design: flow ports shape and positioning to clean the cutting structure enhance the drilled cuttings removal while preventing drilling fluid in the throat of the corehead. Moreover, an internal lip works with a special inner barrel shoe to effectively seal off mud flow from the throat. All the design features have been subjected to several tests: measurement of pressure drop across the corehead, flow visualization studies. Flow visualization tests include high speed filming of the flow and paint tracing to ensure the special flow pattern. In conjunction with lab tests, a numerical simulation was performed on a C.F.D. code to optimize hydraulic parameters. The low invasion core bit has been used in numerous applications. The performance achieved was significantly better than the average achieved over a period of years using various PDC coreheads. The rate of penetration was increased by a factor of 4.8 and bit life by 2.3 (often with re-usable condition).

  11. Economic Analysis of Invasive Species Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Touza; Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz; Glyn Jones

    The economic aspects of invasive alien species (IAS) are increasingly being recognised as highly significant (Perrings et\\u000a al. 2000; McNeely 2001). Even though the economics of invasive species is often associated solely with economic consequences\\u000a of species, economics is equally important for the analysis of reasons for invasions. That IAS impose costs upon society is\\u000a unchallenged. Pimentel et al. (2000,

  12. Cabergoline treatment in invasive giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  13. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  14. Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

  15. Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Charles; Jeffrey S. Dukes

    The impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services have attracted worldwide attention. Despite the overwhelming evidence\\u000a of these impacts and a growing appreciation for ecosystem services, however, researchers and policymakers rarely directly\\u000a address the connection between invasions and ecosystem services.Various attempts have been made to address the ecosystem processes\\u000a that are affected by invasive species (e.g., Levine et al. 2003;

  16. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

  17. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these features enable a degree of decentralization and distributed ownership that have helped other types of scientific information services succeed in recent years.

  18. ORD INVASIVE SPECIES INITIATIVE: POTENTIAL AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research and presentation represents one aspect of ORD's efforts through the ORD Invasive Species Initiative in the Great Lakes. Of prominent concern is the potential introduction and spread of additional invasive species....

  19. Clear and Present Danger: Invasive Species Threats toInvasive Species Threats to

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    disease Chesnut Blight Invasive/ Exotic Species Dutch elm disease, Chesnut Blight ­ Hemlock woolly adelgidEcosystem Function altering: · Nutrient cycling · Fire regimes · Hydrology #12;11/10/2010 4 Invasive Species Impacts

  20. Invasive thymoma (a case report).

    PubMed

    Suseelan, A V; Ikerionwu, S E; Ojukwu, J O

    1979-01-01

    A 10-year old Nigerian boy was admitted to hospital with a history of swelling in the neck, change of voice, dysphagia and dyspnoea of 2 weeks duration. He died on the 2nd day of admission. Autopsy revealed a thymoma infiltrating the thyroid, trachea and neck muscles and transforming the tracheal lumen into a slit like space. The condition is considered worthy of record on account of its rarity and of the short clinical course terminating in death. The authors feel that the most important factor in determining the prognosis of thymoma is the presence or absence of gross invasion. PMID:522920

  1. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K Rungmei S K; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

  2. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

  3. Experience with minimally invasive esophagectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Collins; E. Johnson; T. Kroshus; R. Ganz; K. Batts; J. Seng; O. Nwaneri; D. Dunn

    2006-01-01

    Background  Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is an evolving surgical alternative to traditional open esophagectomy. Despite considerable\\u000a technical challenges, it was hypothesized that MIE could be performed effectively by surgeons experienced in open esophageal\\u000a resection and advanced laparoscopic surgery. The authors report their experience with 25 patients who underwent MIE for esophageal\\u000a disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A multidisciplinary esophageal cancer team evaluated all the patients

  4. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success. PMID:24989502

  5. National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species communitya?|

  6. Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

  7. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Steven I.; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success. PMID:24989502

  8. Soil modification by invasive plants: effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas R. Jordan; Diane L. Larson; Sheri C. Huerd

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive\\u000a species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America:\\u000a leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group

  9. Master d'Ocanographie UE 357 `Invasions et transferts biologiques'

    E-print Network

    Boudouresque, Charles F.

    Master d'Océanographie UE 357 `Invasions et transferts biologiques' Biological invasions and host #12;Master d'Océanographie UE 357 `Invasions et transferts biologiques' Biological invasions and host. Biological invasions and host shifts, with a special attention to the marine realm. 5. Prevention, control

  10. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Blumenthal; R. A. Chimner; J. M. Welker; J. A. Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Summary • Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion.  Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive

  11. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 43 Terrestrial Animals as Invasive

    E-print Network

    Animals as Invasive Species and as Species at Risk From Invasions Deborah M. Finch1 , Dean Pearson2 , Joseph Wunderle3 , and Wayne Arendt3 Abstract Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species can have detrimental effects on animal species by reducing habitat quality through changes

  12. Coevolution between Native and Invasive Plant Competitors: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely...

  13. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Differences in invasibility of two contrasting habitats and invasiveness of two mugwort Artemisia vulgaris populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACOB N. BARNEY; ANTONIO DI TOMMASO; LESLIE A. WESTON

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1. Establishment success of non-native invasive species is often attributable either to habitat invasibility or inherent species traits. In this study we explored the interplay between these two factors in the establishment, expansion and plasticity in growth of the clonally reproducing invasive weed mugwort Artemisia vulgaris in two contrasting habitats, as well as the potential management practice of monthly

  15. Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakley, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    There are two little words, when taken together have great implications: ``What IF'' In the US alone, there are millions who are burdened with diabetes and who must maintain their glucose levels by taking blood samples and having it analyzed. Even though this procedure has improved over time, still it is very intrusive and is a burden to many that must live with it. What if it were not necessary? Although it is current practice to measure glucose levels invasively (using blood samples), it may be possible to measure glucose non-invasively. Although several companies around the world have invested millions of dollars to address this problem, none have been successful thus far. However, there are many methods that hold a potential and many approaches that have not yet been explored. We are working on a review of what has been approached thus far and are entertaining proposals for a combined interdisciplinary approach which combines expertise from bioengineering, physics, and biology. We hope to learn from the unsuccessful attempts of others whilst employing innovative new approaches to this problem.

  16. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. PMID:23684655

  17. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  18. Tumor evolution and progression in multifocal and paired non-invasive/invasive urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Hovelson, Daniel H; Amin, Anmol; Liu, Chia-Jen; Cani, Andi K; McDaniel, Andrew S; Yadati, Venkata; Quist, Michael J; Weizer, Alon Z; Brenner, J Chad; Feng, Felix Y; Mehra, Rohit; Grasso, Catherine S; Tomlins, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Although multifocal tumors and non-invasive/invasive components are commonly encountered in surgical pathology, their genetic relationship is often poorly characterized. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize somatic alterations in a patient with five spatially distinct, high-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (UCs), with one tumor harboring an underlying invasive component. NGS of 409 cancer-related genes was performed on DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks representing each papillary tumor (n?=?5), the invasive component of one tumor, and matched normal tissue. We identified nine unique non-synonymous somatic mutations across the six UC samples, including five present in each carcinoma sample, consistent with clonal origin and limited intertumoral heterogeneity. Copy number and loss of heterogeneity (LOH) profiles were similar in all six carcinomas; however, the invasive carcinoma component uniquely showed focal CDKN2A loss and chromosome 9 LOH and did not harbor gains of chromosomes 5p or X that were present in the other tumor samples. Phylogenetic analysis supported the invasive component arising from a shared progenitor prior to the outgrowth of cells in the non-invasive tumors. Results were extended to three additional cases of upper tract UC with paired non-invasive/invasive components, which identified driving alterations exclusive to both non-invasive and invasive components. Lastly, we performed targeted RNA sequencing (RNAseq) using a custom bladder cancer panel, which confirmed gene expression signature differences between paired non-invasive/invasive components. The results and approaches presented here may be useful in understanding the clonal relationships in multifocal cancers or paired non-invasive/invasive components from routine FFPE specimens. PMID:25502898

  19. Intra-carotid hyperosmotic stimulation increases Fos staining in forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis neurones that project to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Martinez, Michelle A; Calderon, Alfredo S; Chen, Qinghui; Cunningham, J Thomas; Toney, Glenn M

    2008-11-01

    Body fluid hyperosmolality has long been known to elicit homeostatic responses that range from drinking to inhibition of salt appetite to release of neurohypohyseal hormones (i.e. vasopressin and oxytocin). More recently, it has been recognized that hyperosmolality is capable of also provoking a significant increase of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). It has been reported that neurones in the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) each contribute significantly to this response. Here we sought to determine if sympathoexcitatory levels of hyperosmolality activate specifically those OVLT neurones that form a monosynaptic pathway to the PVN. First, we established in anaesthetized rats that graded concentrations of hypertonic NaCl (1.5 and 3.0 osmol kg(-1)) elicit graded increases of renal SNA (RSNA) when infused at a rate of 0.1 ml min(-1) through an internal carotid artery (ICA) - the major vascular supply of the forebrain. Next, infusions were performed in conscious rats in which OVLT neurones projecting to the PVN (OVLT-PVN) were retrogradely labelled with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Immunostaining of the immediate early gene product Fos and CTB was performed to quantify osmotic activation of OVLT-PVN neurones. ICA infusions of hypertonic NaCl and mannitol each significantly (P < 0.01-0.001) increased the number of Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neuronal nuclei in the dorsal cap (DC) and lateral margins (LM) of OVLT. In the LM, infusions of 1.5 and 3.0 osmol kg(-1) NaCl produced similar increases in the number of Fos-ir neurones. In the DC, these infusions produced graded increases in Fos expression. Among OVLT neurones with axons projecting directly to the PVN (i.e. CTB-ir), graded hypertonic NaCl infusions again produced graded increases in Fos expression and this was observed in both the DC and LM. Although the DC and LM contained a similar number of OVLT-PVN neurones, the proportion of such neurones that expressed Fos-ir in responses to ICA hypertonic NaCl infusions was greater in the DC (P < 0.001). These findings support the conclusion that PVN-projecting neurones in the DC and LM of OVLT could participate in behavioural, neuroendocrine, and sympathetic nervous system responses to body fluid hyperosmolality. PMID:18755745

  20. Lack of belowground mutualisms hinders Pinaceae invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin A. Nuñez; Thomas R. Horton; Daniel Simberloff

    2009-01-01

    Why particular invasions succeed and others fail is not well understood. The role of soil biota has been proposed as important. However, the role of mutualists has received much less attention than that of pathogens. Here we report that lack of adequate ectomycorrhizal fungi hinders invasion by exotic Pinaceae on Isla Victoria, Argentina, by reducing both the probability of establishment

  1. Indirect effects of parasites in invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

  2. Plant invasions in China - challenges and chances.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause serious environmental and economic harm and threaten global biodiversity. We set out to investigate how quickly invasive plant species are currently spreading in China and how their resulting distribution patterns are linked to socio-economic and environmental conditions. A comparison of the invasive plant species density (log species/log area) reported in 2008 with current data shows that invasive species were originally highly concentrated in the wealthy, southeastern coastal provinces of China, but they are currently rapidly spreading inland. Linear regression models based on the species density and turnover of invasive plants as dependent parameters and principal components representing key socio-economic and environmental parameters as predictors indicate strong positive links between invasive plant density and the overall phytodiversity and associated climatic parameters. Principal components representing socio-economic factors and endemic plant density also show significant positive links with invasive plant density. Urgent control and eradication measures are needed in China's coastal provinces to counteract the rapid inland spread of invasive plants. Strict controls of imports through seaports need to be accompanied by similarly strict controls of the developing horticultural trade and underpinned by awareness campaigns for China's increasingly affluent population to limit the arrival of new invaders. Furthermore, China needs to fully utilize its substantial native phytodiversity, rather than relying on exotics, in current large-scale afforestation projects and in the creation of urban green spaces. PMID:23691164

  3. The spatial dynamics of invasive species spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDora; Sara S. Metcalf

    2006-01-01

    The problem of invasive species spread requires timely analysis of the biological dynamics that lead to spatial dispersion. Here, a spatial dynamic model captures the invasive behavior of the recently introduced emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) and its impacts on host ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Parasite-host system dynamics are extended spatially using the Spatial Modeling Environment. The resulting model

  4. Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade tree, typically 40' to 60' tall, but can reach furrows. #12;Invasive nature: Acer platanoides has invaded understory forest areas. Its dense canopy

  5. Gender distribution in asymptomatic and invasive amebiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Acuna-Soto; J. H. Maguire; D. F. Wirth

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The majority of individuals infected by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica experience subclinical infections. However, a small proportion of parasitized individuals develop severe invasive disease such as amebic dysentery or amebic liver abscess. Invasive amebiasis affects predominantly men; the usual explanation for this has been that men have a higher rate of asymptomatic infections and therefore experience a higher rate

  6. Plant Invasions in China – Challenges and Chances

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause serious environmental and economic harm and threaten global biodiversity. We set out to investigate how quickly invasive plant species are currently spreading in China and how their resulting distribution patterns are linked to socio-economic and environmental conditions. A comparison of the invasive plant species density (log species/log area) reported in 2008 with current data shows that invasive species were originally highly concentrated in the wealthy, southeastern coastal provinces of China, but they are currently rapidly spreading inland. Linear regression models based on the species density and turnover of invasive plants as dependent parameters and principal components representing key socio-economic and environmental parameters as predictors indicate strong positive links between invasive plant density and the overall phytodiversity and associated climatic parameters. Principal components representing socio-economic factors and endemic plant density also show significant positive links with invasive plant density. Urgent control and eradication measures are needed in China's coastal provinces to counteract the rapid inland spread of invasive plants. Strict controls of imports through seaports need to be accompanied by similarly strict controls of the developing horticultural trade and underpinned by awareness campaigns for China's increasingly affluent population to limit the arrival of new invaders. Furthermore, China needs to fully utilize its substantial native phytodiversity, rather than relying on exotics, in current large-scale afforestation projects and in the creation of urban green spaces. PMID:23691164

  7. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  8. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  9. Applying Ecologically-Based Invasive Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a guideline to assist land managers in making better decisions when they are faced with invasive annual grasses is critical to gaining greater adoption of ecologically-based invasive plant management. This manual guides users through the EBIPM decision process to assist in restoration of...

  10. Bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) invasion in Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Laufer; Andrés Canavero; Diego Núñez; Raúl Maneyro

    2008-01-01

    This is the first report of North American bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana), invasion in Uruguay. This Anura was introduced for farming proposes in 1987, but at present most of the farms are closed.\\u000a At one of these closed farms, located at Rincón de Pando, Canelones, we report the occurrence of a feral population of L. catesbeianus. This invasion point

  11. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean D'Angelo

    2010-04-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS

  12. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land managers long have identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework to guide the implementation of successful restoration, especially where invasive plants dominate the ecosystem. A holistic, ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosy...

  13. BIOECONOMICS OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Cacho

    2006-01-01

    When a biological invader is identified in an aquatic ecosystem, rapid response is critical, particularly if the invasive organism has the ability to spread rapidly. The first response should be to attempt to contain the invasion while further information is gathered to evaluate whether eradication is feasible. The eradication versus containment decision is studied by developing and using a stochastic

  14. Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Dukes

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Charles Elton proposed that more diverse communities should be less susceptible to invasion by exotic species, empirical studies have both supported and refuted Elton's hypothesis. Here, I use grassland community microcosms to test the effect of functional diversity on the success of an invasive annual weed (Centaurea solstitialis L.). I found that high functional diversity reduced

  15. Plant Invasions on an Oceanic Archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Greimler; Tod F. Stuessy; Ulf Swenson; Carlos M. Baeza; Oscar Matthei

    2002-01-01

    Plant invasions are particularly noticeable on oceanic islands. For many ecological or evolutionary phenomena, oceanic islands offer advantages in comparison to continental regions, because they are often simpler systems. The Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) Islands, located 667 km west of continental Chile, provide an especially favorable case study of plant invasions on an oceanic archipelago. They have little flora, no

  16. Landscape Determinants of Nonindigenous Fish Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Ross; William A. Lellis; Randy M. Bennett; Connie S. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    Much has been written about the influence of exotic or nonindigenous species on natural habitats and communities of organisms, but little is known of the physical or biological conditions that lead to successful invasion of native habitats and communities by exotics. We studied invasivity factors in headwater streams of the Susquehanna River West Branch, which drains portions of the northern

  17. ECOLOGICALLY BASED INVASIVE PLANT MANAGEMENT NEWSLETTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript describes the characteristics that make a plant invasive, and some of the existing theories of "invasions". It compares non-relational approaches (identifying characteristics that make something a weed) to relational approaches (drawing on relationships between a species and an ecos...

  18. Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    this invasive species from the native, Celastrus scandens whose flowers and fruit are more terminally locatedInvasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus Common Name: Oriental bittersweet Physical Description: Growth Type: Celastrus orbiculatus grows as a rapid and aggressive, thicket forming vine

  19. How trade politics affect invasive species control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Margolis; Jason F. Shogren; Carolyn Fischer

    2005-01-01

    Trade has become the main mode of transport for many invasive species, including diseases and agricultural pests. Most species are brought to their new homes unintentionally, which constitutes a market failure rooted in international trade. Unless it is practical to drive invasion risk to zero, the external costs may justify a tariff. In this paper, we analyze the political process

  20. Integrating Invasive Species Prevention and Control Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Livingston; Craig D. Osteen

    2008-01-01

    Programs and policies to minimize the threat of, or mitigate the damages from, invasive species work best if designed in concert with each other. Whether program emphasis should be on prevention or control depends on the biological characteristics and size of the invasive species population, ecological characteristics of invaded ecosystems, the cost and efficacy of prevention measures relative to control

  1. How Trade Politics Affect Invasive Species Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Margolis; Jason F. Shogren

    2004-01-01

    Trade has become the main mode of transport for many invasive species including diseases and agricultural pests. Most species are brought to their new homes unintentionally, which constitute a market failure rooted in international trade. Unless it is practical to drive invasion risk to zero, the external costs may justify a tariff. In this paper we analyze the political process

  2. Feral Hogs: invasive Species or nature's Bounty?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Packard

    Invasive species have been identified as an international conservation crisis. Federal land managers have been mandated to control invasive species on their lands and to restore native species. Such action can have consequences for local communities that have incorporated the non-native species into their culture and economy. Previously managed by local stockmen as free- ranging livestock, feral hogs are now

  3. Plant invasions – the role of mutualisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. RICHARDSON; NICKY ALLSOPP; CARLA M. D'ANTONIO; SUZANNE J. MILTON; MARCEL REJMÁNEK

    2000-01-01

    Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal- mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are

  4. ARTICLE / ARTICLE Effects of invasive American signal crayfish

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

    ARTICLE / ARTICLE Effects of invasive American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. The invasive American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852)) has recently been implicated by invasive species. Key words: Gasterosteus aculeatus, threespine stickleback, Pacifastacus leniusculus

  5. Spatial Interactions among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project title

    E-print Network

    Spatial Interactions among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project title: Spatial Interactions Among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project location: Colorado State University, Western Forest, wildfire severity, exotic plant invasions, and post-fire fuel flammability in grasslands, shrub lands

  6. Biological invasions: deriving the regions at risk from partial measurements

    E-print Network

    Christofol, Michel

    Biological invasions: deriving the regions at risk from partial measurements Michel Cristofol: reaction-diffusion, biological invasions, inverse problem, habitat configuration, Carleman estimates of trade globalization, a substantial increase in biological invasions has been observed over the last

  7. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  8. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense Alessia thistle (Cirsium arvense ­ Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants world-wide. Native modelling, Cirsium arvense, colonization history, Compositae, genetic bottleneck, invasive plant, multiple

  9. Determinants of vertebrate invasion success in Europe and North America

    E-print Network

    Jeschke, Jonathan

    Introduction Much effort is being devoted to controlling invasive species, because they cause enormous species became invasive but also which species were introduced. Of the 20 factors tested, propagule, exotics, introduction, invasion, naturalized species, nonindigenous species, nonnative species, sexual

  10. Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species

    E-print Network

    Zavaleta, Erika

    - nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape

  11. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized...preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing the economic...human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is...

  12. 77 FR 23494 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...introduction of invasive species, providing for their control, and minimizing...health impacts that invasive species cause. NISC is...management plans; invasive species prevention, early...rapid response, control,...

  13. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity. PMID:20545732

  14. Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Mallawaaratchy, Duthika M; Buckland, Michael E; McDonald, Kerrie L; Li, Cheryl C Y; Ly, Linda; Sykes, Erin K; Christopherson, Richard I; Kaufman, Kimberley L

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin ?5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin ?5?1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM. PMID:25853691

  15. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  16. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  17. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as sti

  18. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  19. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  20. 76 FR 75860 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...effectiveness when planning and implementing invasive species management activities; using...effectiveness when planning and implementing invasive species management activities; using...through land management planning and...

  1. 76 FR 32135 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ...effectiveness when planning and implementing invasive species management activities; using...effectiveness when planning and implementing invasive species management activities; using...through land management planning and...

  2. Contributed Paper Effects of Climate Change, Invasive Species, and

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    boundaries, and the spread of invasive crayfishes, which transmit the crayfish plague, a lethal disease inaccessible relative to native and current distributions. Overlap with invasive crayfish plague

  3. Eating the competition speeds up invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels. PMID:20961884

  4. INTRAUTERINE FATE OF INVASIVE TROPHOBLAST CELLS1

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Gracy X.; Ain, Rupasri; Konno, Toshihiro; Soares, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Invasion of trophoblast cells into the uterine spiral arteries and the uterine wall is characteristic of hemochorial placentation. In the rat, trophoblast cells penetrate through the uterine decidua and well into the metrial gland. In this report, we examined the fate of these invasive trophoblast cells following parturition. Invasive trophoblast endocrine cells were retained in the postpartum mesometrial uterus in the rat. The demise of invasive trophoblast cells was followed by the appearance of differentiated smooth muscle cells surrounding blood vessels previously lined by invasive trophoblast cells and an infiltration of macrophages. Regulation of intrauterine trophoblast cell fate was investigated following premature removal of the fetus or removal of the fetus and chorioallantoic placenta. The presence of the fetus affected the distribution of invasive trophoblast cells within the uterus but did not negatively impact their survival. Premature removal of all chorioallantoic placentas and associated fetuses from a uterus resulted in extensive removal of intrauterine trophoblast cells. In summary, the postpartum demise of intrauterine invasive trophoblast cells is a dynamic developmental event regulated in part by the removal of trophic signals emanating from the chorioallantoic placenta. PMID:19344949

  5. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures.

  6. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  7. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

    2012-04-01

    Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs. PMID:22443133

  8. Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Ali A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured density dependent responses of A. albopictus larvae to two invasive and one native leaf species in laboratory experiments. We found increased diversity of leaf species, particularly invasive species, in areas further from the urbanized coast, and a significant positive association between the presence of Schinus terebinthifolious (Brazilian pepper) and the abundance of A. albopictus. In laboratory experiments, we determined that larval growth and survivorship were significantly affected by both larval density and leaf species which, in turn, resulted in higher population performance on the most abundant invasive species (Brazilian pepper) relative to the most abundant native species, Quercus virginiana (live oak). These results suggest invasive leaf species can alleviate density dependent reductions in population performance in A. albopictus, and may contribute to its invasion success and potential to spread infectious disease. PMID:22523473

  9. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  10. Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

  11. Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

  12. The United States National Arboretum: Invasive Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The US National Arboretum offers this straightforward guide to invasive plants that gardeners and property owners in general should watch for. The Web site begins with an explanation of what the term "invasive" really means, followed by photos and descriptions of species to avoid planting altogether (such as purple loosestrife), and those that are less problematic if managed wisely (like English ivy). The site also describes the origin and current distribution of some of the most commonly encountered invasive plants, and provides Web links for further information.

  13. National Institute of Invasive Species Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS) supports a database with extensive information on invasive species around the United States. The data on individual species can be searched by scientific name, common name or National Resource Convervation Service (NRCS) Code. There is also a geographic search that allows users to locate invasives by state, county, National Park Service unit, Fish and Wildlife Service refuge, or by state parks. A query/search/browse function permits browsing by organization, location, species, project, or map. The front page features links to news articles and information on new products.

  14. SYNTHESIS Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

    E-print Network

    REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic, invasive species, invasiveness, microbial biogeography, protists, symbiotic, traits. Ecology Letters (2010 on invasive plants and animals has risen exponentially, little is known about invasive microbes, especially

  15. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, Susan L. [Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, 3115 Medical Laboratories, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Roller, Richard J. [Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, 3115 Medical Laboratories, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu

    2006-04-10

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. U{sub S}3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either U{sub L}34 or U{sub S}3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection.

  16. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Multiple-well invasion percolation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

  18. Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Mojon, D S

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility. PMID:25431106

  19. Multiple-well invasion percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, A. D.; Romeu, M. C.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration.

  20. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  1. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  2. Part 7: Key Invasive Nonnative Plants _________________________

    E-print Network

    Geneva Chong; Tom Stohlgren; Catherine Crosier; Sara Simonson; Greg Newman; Eric Petterson

    Invasive, nonnative plant species pose one of the greatest potential threats to long-term ecosystem integrity in the area burned by the 2002 Hayman Fire. In other ecosystems, nonnative invaders have been

  3. Contents________________________________________________ Chapter 1: Fire and Nonnative Invasive

    E-print Network

    Contents________________________________________________ Page Chapter 1: Fire and Nonnative...........................................................2 Fire Behavior and Fire Regimes ..................................3 Organization and Use of This Volume..........................5 Chapter 2: Effects of Fire on Nonnative Invasive Plants

  4. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Aziz O, Rao C, Panesar SS, Jones C, Morris S, Darzi A, et al. Meta-analysis of minimally invasive internal thoracic artery bypass versus percutaneous revascularisation for isolated lesions of the left anterior ...

  5. EBIPM 2013 planner for preventing weed invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....

  6. Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547

    E-print Network

    Cronin, James T.

    detection of this new non-native haplotype, invasion of North America by this reed grass was thought. Meyerson (&) Department of Natural Resources Science, University of Rhode Island, 1 Greenhouse Road

  7. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  8. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957337

  9. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547

  10. Invasiveness in plant communities with feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Eppstein, Margaret J; Molofsky, Jane

    2007-04-01

    The detrimental effects of invasive plant species on ecosystems are well documented. While much research has focused on discovering ecological influences associated with invasiveness, it remains unclear how these influences interact, causing some introduced exotic species to become invasive threats. Here we develop a framework that incorporates the influences of propagule pressure, frequency independent growth rates, feedback relationships, resource competition and spatial scale of interactions. Our results show that these ecological influences interact in complex ways, resulting in expected outcomes ranging from inability to establish, to naturalization, to conditional invasion dependent on quantity and spatial distribution of propagules, to unconditional takeover. We propose a way to predict the likelihood of these four possible outcomes, for a species recently introduced into a given target community. Such information could enable conservation biologists to craft strategies and target remediation efforts more efficiently and effectively in order to help maintain biodiversity in ecological communities. PMID:17355564

  11. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  12. Animal behavior: an essential component of invasion biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Holway; Andrew V Suarez

    1999-01-01

    A major challenge of invasion biology lies in the development of a predictive understanding of invasion processes. Attempts to identify the proximate causes of invasion success or to predict rates of spread seldom emphasize behavioral characteristics. Recent experimental work, however, illustrates that insight into the proximate causes of animal invasions often hinges on a careful assessment of behavioral mechanisms. For

  13. THE INTRODUCTION OF POTENTIALLY INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES FOR HORTICULTURAL

    E-print Network

    preferences; North America Subject Terms: Invasive plants -- Social aspects. Biological invasions -- SocialTHE INTRODUCTION OF POTENTIALLY INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES FOR HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES IN NORTH: The Introduction of Potentially Invasive Alien Plant Species for Horticultural Purposes in North America: Assessing

  14. Biological Invasions 4: 457459, 2002. Contents Volume 4 2002

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Diego

    Biological Invasions 4: 457­459, 2002. Contents Volume 4 2002 Volume 4 Numbers 1­2 2002 Special Issue: Biological Invasions in Southern South America: a First Step towards a Synthesis Guest Editors.P. V´azquez 175­191 Species invasiveness in biological invasions: a modelling approach D.E. Marco, S

  15. An Invasions Special Issue Michael E. Hochberg1

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    , France 2 Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0086, USA `Invasion' evokes by Conrad Labandeira), when discussing `invasion', most biologists think of contemporary biological, most introductions have not developed into full-scale biological invasions. A major push in invasion

  16. Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Research Station

    E-print Network

    ). The areas covered by RMRS host a number of invasive species. In general, exotic plants and aquatic organismsInvasive Species Working GroupRocky Mountain Research Station Contents RMRS Invasive Species Research Program.......................................2 Common themes of RMRS invasive species research

  17. A Model of Inspection, Detection and Control for Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    A Model of Inspection, Detection and Control for Invasive Species Steve Polasky University ­ Benefits: lower damages from invasive species · Similarly, optimal control strategy may not be eradication #12;An aside: invasive control vs. conservation · Invasive species are the opposite of my typical

  18. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF INVASIVE SPECIES TO WILDLIFE SERVICES' COOPERATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. BERGMAN; MONTE D. CHANDLER; ADRIENNE LOCKLEAR

    On February 3, 1999, the president of the United States signed an Executive Order 13112 on invasive species. Each federal agency was directed to detect and respond rapidly to control populations of invasive species, monitor invasive species populations, provide for restoration of native species and habitat conditions, conduct research on invasive species and develop technologies to prevent their introduction, and

  19. Invasive Plant Control Travel Team Technician OPENINGS AVAILABLE!

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Invasive Plant Control Travel Team Technician OPENINGS AVAILABLE! Positions are available 2014 with an emphasis on invasive plant management. Invasive Plant Control, Inc. will provide you with the opportunity situations. · Employee will be required to treat all invasive plant species with minimal to no damage

  20. Integration-Valuation Nexus in Invasive Species Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason F. Shogren; David C. Finnoff; Christopher R. McIntosh; Chad Settle

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work examining two topics of economic research vital for invasive species policy-integration and valuation. Integration requires bioeconomic models that blend invasive biology with economic circumstances and the feedback loops between the two systems. Valuation requires nonmarket valuation associated with human and environmental damages posed by invasive species. We argue for a second-level of integration in invasive

  1. EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE INVASIVE NON-NATIVE PLANT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Invasive Non-Native Plant Control Program Invasive Non-Native Plant Species: · Second only to developmentEGLIN AIR FORCE BASE INVASIVE NON-NATIVE PLANT CONTROL PROGRAM WAR ON EXOTICS (WOE) Dennis Teague Endangered Species Biologist Invasive Non-Native Species Program Manager #12;MILITARY TEST AND TRAINING Air

  2. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of detection. By increasing resources to detect invasive species, managers may increase

  3. Nonnative Invasive Species Impacts and Control in Southern

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    1 Nonnative Invasive Species Impacts and Control in Southern Wetland Ecosystems Sonja N. Oswalt · Morphology · Common Invasive Species in Southern Wetlands · Control of Wetland Invasive Species · Case. one that grows profusely where it is not wanted ­Invasive Species: those which spread from human

  4. Screening for characteristic microRNAs between pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Lu; Wen, Shang-Yun; Ai, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan-Li; Teng, Yin-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during the pre?invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer. A gene expression profile (GSE7803) containing 21 invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma samples, 10 normal squamous cervical epithelium samples and seven high?grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using significance analysis of microarray software, and a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The miRNAs that interacted with the identified DEGs were selected, based on the TarBase v5.0 database. Regulatory networks were constructed from these selected miRNAs along with their corresponding target genes among the DEGs. The regulatory networks were visualized using Cytoscape. A total of 1,160 and 756 DEGs were identified in the pre?invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. The results of the GO enrichment demonstrated that the DEGs were predominantly involved in the immune response and the cell cycle, in the pre?invasive and invasive stages, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 18 and 26 characteristic miRNAs were screened in the pre?invasive and invasive stages, respectively. These miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of cervical cancer. PMID:25695263

  5. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability. PMID:25567917

  6. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  7. Prevention of Invasiveness in Floricultural Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil O. Anderson

    The greatest quantity of invasive crops arises from the floriculture sector of the horticulture industry. While some floriculture\\u000a invasives are ‘old’ crops, e.g. purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a higher frequency are ‘new’ crops. This is due to the sheer number of new crops, as well as the vast quantities of cultivars\\u000a and product series distributed to the floriculture global economy.

  8. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  9. Will Climate Change Promote Alien Plant Invasions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Thuiller; David M. Richardson; Guy F. Midgley

    Invasive alien plant species pose significant challenges to managing and maintaining indigenous biodiversity in natural ecosystems.\\u000a Invasive plants can transform ecosystems by establishing viable populations with growth rates high enough to displace elements\\u000a of the native biota (Rejmánek 1999) or to modify disturbance regimes (Brooks et al. 2004), thereby potentially transforming\\u000a ecosystem structure and functioning (Dukes and Mooney 2004). Because

  10. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, W?odzimierz; S?odkowski, Maciej; Krasnod?bski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  12. Augmented Reality in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio

    In the last 15 years Minimally Invasive Surgery, with techniques such as laparoscopy or endoscopy, has become very important\\u000a and research in this field is increasing since these techniques provide the surgeons with less invasive means of reaching\\u000a the patient’s internal anatomy and allow for entire procedures to be performed with only minimal trauma to the patient. The\\u000a advantages of

  13. Genetics of Invasive Species in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gleeson; H. Harman; T. Armstrong

    Genetic effects following the colonization and invasion of New Zealand have been studied in relatively few cases for a variety\\u000a of reasons. The outcomes of these studies have shown that there are ranges of genetic effects that do occur after colonization,\\u000a although it is often difficult to attribute genetics as a factor in the success or failure of invasive species.

  14. Cervids with different vocal behavior demonstrate different viscoelastic properties of their vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

    2010-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (epithelium, lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle). The vocal fold epithelium and the lamina propria were investigated in two sets of tensile tests. First, creep rupture tests demonstrated that ultimate stress in mule deer lamina propria is of the same magnitude as in elk. Second, cyclic loading tests revealed similar elastic moduli for the vocal fold epithelium in mule deer and elk. The elastic modulus of the lamina propria is also similar between the two species in the low-strain region, but differs at strains larger than 0.3. Sex differences in the stress-strain response, which have been reported for elk and human vocal folds, were not found for mule deer vocal folds. The laminae propriae in mule deer and elk vocal folds are comparatively large. In general, a thick and uniformly stiff lamina propria does not self-oscillate well, even when high subglottic pressure is applied. If the less stiff vocal fold seen in elk is associated with a differentiated lamina propria it would allow the vocal fold to vibrate at high tension and high subglottic pressure. The results of this study support the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of vocal folds varies with function and vocal behavior. PMID:19603411

  15. Understanding the genetic basis of invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Invasive species provide excellent study systems to evaluate the ecological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the colonization of novel environments. While the ecological processes that contribute to the successful establishment of invasive plants have been studied in detail, investigation of the evolutionary processes involved in successful invasions has only recently received attention. In particular, studies investigating the genomic and gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of invasive species are just beginning and are required if we are to understand how plants become invasive. In the current issue of Molecular Ecology, Hodgins et al. (2013) tackle this unresolved question, by examining gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of annual ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The study identifies a number of potential candidate genes based on gene expression differences that may be responsible for the success of annual ragweed in its introduced range. Furthermore, genes involved in stress response are over-represented in the differentially expressed gene set. Future experiments could use functional studies to test whether changes in gene expression at these candidate genes do in fact underlie changes in growth characteristics and reproductive output observed in this and other invasive species. PMID:23738371

  16. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  17. Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Perry, Laura G; Blumenthal, Dana M; Monaco, Thomas A; Paschke, Mark W; Redente, Edward F

    2010-05-01

    Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil removal, and biomass removal, as well as a less frequently proposed management approach for lowering N availability, establishment of plant species adapted to low N availability. We conclude that many of these approaches may be promising for lowering N availability by stimulating N immobilization, even though most are generally ineffective for removing N from ecosystems (excepting topsoil removal). C addition and topsoil removal are the most reliable approaches for lowering N availability, and often favor desired species over invasive species, but are too expensive or destructive, respectively, for most management applications. Less intensive approaches, such as establishing low-N plant species, burning, grazing and biomass removal, are less expensive than C addition and may lower N availability if they favor plant species that are adapted to low N availability, produce high C:N tissue, and thus stimulate N immobilization. Regardless of the method used, lowering N availability sufficiently to reduce invasion will be difficult, particularly in sites with high atmospheric N deposition or agricultural runoff. Therefore, where feasible, the disturbances that result in high N availability should be limited in order to reduce invasions by nitrophilic weeds. PMID:20387033

  18. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  19. Low invasion fluids for pressure coring

    SciTech Connect

    Heckes, A.A.; McFall, A.L.; Delgado, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on seven different low invasion fluids. The investigation employed commercially available calcium carbonate (CaCO/sub 3/) materials which were compared using two different sandstone core samples (brown and gray berea) and two simulated field conditions (static and dynamic). Results indicate that the presently used mixture of 10 lb/bbl HEC polymer and 300 lb/bbl CaCO/sub 3/ in a CaCl/sub 2/ eutectic brine mixture appears to be a very good choice for minimizing invasion of the core sample. Minor improvements in core invasion are achieved by matching the CaCO/sub 3/ particle size to the formation pore size. Experimentation or prior experience is necessary for choosing the type of CaCO/sub 3/ to be used. At best, the invasion of the core may only be slowed and not stopped completely. Factors which cause relatively large amounts of filtrate intrusion into the core are long exposure times, low fluid viscosities, and low solids content of the fluid. Curves demonstrating the effectiveness of high polymer and CaCO/sub 3/ particle concentrations and comparing the core invasion of water, bentonite drilling mud and the seven low invasion fluids are presented.

  20. Invasive species information networks: collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Simpson; Catherine Jarnevich; John Madsen; Randy Westbrooks; Christine Fournier; Les Mehrhoff; Michael Browne; Jim Graham; Elizabeth Sellers

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate