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1

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

2

Epithelial: lamina propria lymphocyte interactions promote epithelial cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Lymphoepithelial interactions in the gut can occur in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial space. We asked whether Normal, Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) could promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and differentiation. Methods T84 cells were co-cultured with freshly isolated LPL for varying periods. After removal of LPL, IECs were lysed and subjected to i) measurement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity; ii) Western blot analysis for MAPK and Akt activation; and iii) Real Time-PCR to assess CDX2 mRNA levels. Tissue sections were immunostained for evidence of MAPK and PI3K activation, CDX2 and IAP; and CDX2 mRNA expression was assessed on human colonic biopsies. Results IAP activity was increased in T84 cells co-cultured for 8 days with Normal LPL (p<0.05), and even greater with CD LPL (p<0.001). Crypt IECs in active CD mucosa expressed IAP ex vivo. Phospho-MAPK (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and phospho-Akt were seen as early as 30 min after co-culture. MAPK activation was greatest in T84 cells co-cultured with CD LPL. There was a specific increase in P-p38 MAPK and P-Akt staining in the nuclei of crypt IECs in active vs inactive CD, normal mucosa and UC mucosa. CDX2 mRNA expression was increased in CD LPL co-cultured T84 cells which not correlated with the CDX2 protein localization ex vivo. Conclusion Our observations indicate that there is crosstalk between LPL and IECs, which leads to IEC differentiation. Moreover, in CD mucosa, the differentiation of IEC is accelerated. PMID:18045591

Dahan, Stephanie; Roda, Giulia; Pinn, David; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Kamalu, Okebugwu; Martin, Andrea P.; Mayer, Lloyd

2010-01-01

3

Lamina propria T cells in Crohn's disease and other gastrointestinal inflammation show defective CD2 pathway-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Normal human lamina propria lymphocytes manifest increased unstimulated apoptosis compared with peripheral lymphocytes, which are enhanced after stimulation via the CD2 activation pathway. This activation-induced apoptosis down-regulates cell expansion and cytokine production. In previous studies, it was shown that lamina propria T cells from patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis manifest abnormal proliferation and cytokine production.

Monica Boirivant; Marco Marini; Gabriella Di Felice; Anna Maria Pronio; Chiara Montesani; Roberto Tersigni; Warren Strober

1999-01-01

4

Lamina propria macrophages and dendritic cells differentially induce regulatory and interleukin 17–producing T cell responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal immune system must elicit robust immunity against harmful pathogens but must also restrain immune responses directed against commensal microbes and dietary antigens. The mechanisms that maintain this dichotomy are poorly understood. Here we describe a population of CD11b+F4\\/80+CD11c? macrophages in the lamina propria that expressed several anti-inflammatory molecules, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), but little or no proinflammatory cytokines,

Timothy L Denning; Yi-chong Wang; Seema R Patel; Ifor R Williams; Bali Pulendran

2007-01-01

5

Interleukin 12 is expressed and actively released by Crohn's disease intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell-mediated immunity is a feature of Crohn's disease (CD). The heterodimer interleukin (IL)-12, produced by phagocytes, induces T-cell cytokines, primarily interferon (IFN)-gamma. This study examined whether CD lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) express and release bioactive IL-12. METHODS: LPMCs were isolated from 13 patients with CD, 9 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 13 controls. Messenger RNA for

G Monteleone; L Biancone; R Marasco; G Morrone; O Marasco; F Luzza; F Pallone

1997-01-01

6

Immune responses of TLR5 + lamina propria dendritic cells in enterobacterial infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 has been shown\\u000a to recognize bacterial flagellin. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 is not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages.\\u000a By contrast, TLR5 is mainly expressed on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells (LPCs), which do not express TLR4. These cells detect pathogenic bacteria and secreted proinflammatory\\u000a cytokines,

Satoshi Uematsu; Shizuo Akira

2009-01-01

7

Anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 induced T cell cytotoxicity of human intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The effector function of immunocompetent cells in the gut mucosa has not yet been defined. The cytotoxic function of these cells might be important in the normal immune response and could be relevant to the mucosal damage seen in inflammatory conditions. The cytotoxic function of isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria mononuclear cells in six and 18 hour assays after the addition of various stimuli that interact with the human leukocyte antigens CD2 and CD3 on the mucosal effector cells was investigated. T cell phenotypes were determined using CD4, CD8, and HML1 to characterise cells of the appropriate compartments. Anti-CD3 and phytohaemagglutinin can induce toxic activity of lamina propria lymphocytes in most individuals after six hours and in all individuals after 18 hours. Anti-CD2, anti-CD3, and phytohaemagglutinin are similarly effective at triggering lamina propria lymphocytes. Intraepithelial lymphocytes contain predominantly CD8 and HML1 positive T cells, differentiating phenotypically intraepithelial lymphocytes from lamina propria lymphocytes. Intraepithelial lymphocytes are not cytotoxic at six hours, but have a toxic function comparable with lamina propria lymphocytes after 18 hours with all three triggers. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from inflamed mucosa (Crohn's disease and diverticulitis) mediate significantly reduced cytotoxicity in vitro compared with normal mucosa, whereas lamina propria lymphocyte toxicity is not different. Reduced numbers of cytotoxic cells and reduced reactivity to the trigger substances used after in vivo activation or cold target inhibition could explain the observed differences between intraepithelial lymphocytes from inflamed and uninflamed mucosa. Changes in cell mediated cytotoxicity of intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes may be involved in the mucosal damage in these inflammatory conditions. PMID:1362554

Ruthlein, J; Heinze, G; Auer, I O

1992-01-01

8

Empirical measurements of biomechanical anisotropy of the human vocal fold lamina propria.  

PubMed

The vocal folds are known to be mechanically anisotropic due to the microstructural arrangement of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin in the lamina propria. Even though this has been known for many years, the biomechanical anisotropic properties have rarely been experimentally studied. We propose that an indentation procedure can be used with uniaxial tension in order to obtain an estimate of the biomechanical anisotropy within a single specimen. Experiments were performed on the lamina propria of three male and three female human vocal folds dissected from excised larynges. Two experiments were conducted: each specimen was subjected to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading in the longitudinal (i.e., anterior-posterior) direction, and then to cyclic indentation loading in the transverse (i.e., medial-lateral) direction. The indentation experiment was modeled as contact on a transversely isotropic half-space using the Barnett-Lothe tensors. The longitudinal elastic modulus E(L) was computed from the tensile test, and the transverse elastic modulus E(T) and longitudinal shear modulus G(L) were obtained by inverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement response. It was discovered that the average of E(L) /E(T) was 14 for the vocal ligament and 39 for the vocal fold cover specimens. Also, the average of E(L)/G(L), a parameter important for models of phonation, was 28 for the vocal ligament and 54 for the vocal fold cover specimens. These measurements of anisotropy could contribute to more accurate models of fundamental frequency regulation and provide potentially better insights into the mechanics of vocal fold vibration. PMID:22886592

Kelleher, Jordan E; Siegmund, Thomas; Du, Mindy; Naseri, Elhum; Chan, Roger W

2013-06-01

9

Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria  

PubMed Central

The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease ("RAG") initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles Ig heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires1. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH ? and IgL (Ig? or Ig?) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B cell antigen-binding receptor ("BCR"). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells2, allowing continued Ig? V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial V?J? exon with one that generates a new specificity3–5. This “receptor editing” process, which also can lead to Ig? V(D)J recombination and expression3,6,7, provides a mechanism whereby antigen-encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of post-natal B cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary Ig repertoire diversification in mice. Here, we report that early B cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP Ig repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B lineage cells that harbor intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B, and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different V? repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing BM counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Ig?-expressing versus Ig?-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extra-cellular signals from commensal microbes that influence gut Ig repertoires. PMID:23965619

Wesemann, Duane R.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Meyers, Robin M.; Gallagher, Michael P.; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M.; Panchakshari, Rohit A.; Rodig, Scott J.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alt, Frederick W.

2013-01-01

10

Implications of olfactory lamina propria transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in rats with complete spinal cord transection.  

PubMed

Transplantation with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) has been adopted after several models of spinal cord injury (SCI) with the purpose of creating a favorable environment for the re-growth of injured axons. However, a consensus on the efficacy of this cellular transplantation has yet to be reached. In order to explore alternative parameters that could demonstrate the possible restorative properties of such grafts, the present study investigated the effects of olfactory lamina propria (OLP) transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in adult rats with complete spinal cord transection. The efficacy of OLP (graft containing OECs) and respiratory lamina propria (RLP, graft without OECs) was tested at different post-injury times (acutely, 2- and 4-week delayed), to establish the optimum period for transplantation. In the therapeutic windows used, OLP and RLP grafts produced no considerable improvements in withdrawal reflex responses or on the low-frequency dependent depression of H-reflex. Both lamina propria grafts produced comparable results for the myelinated fiber density and for the estimated total number of myelinated fibers at the lesion site, indicating that the delayed transplantation approach does not seem to limit the regenerative effects. However, animals transplanted with OLP 2 or 4 weeks after injury exhibit smaller myelin sheath thickness and myelinated fiber area and diameter at the lesion site compared to their respective RLP groups. Despite the ongoing clinical use of OECs, it is important to emphasize the need for more experimental studies to clarify the exact nature of the repair capacity of these grafts in the treatment of SCI. PMID:23179588

Centenaro, Lígia Aline; da Cunha Jaeger, Mariane; Ilha, Jocemar; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Balbinot, Luciane Fachin; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Marcuzzo, Simone; Achaval, Matilde

2013-02-01

11

Morphological and histochemical characteristics of the lamina propria in scrotal and abdominal testes from postpubertal boars: correlation with the appearance of the seminiferous epithelium  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to investigate the morphological characteristics and lectin affinity of the testicular lamina propria in healthy boars and in unilateral and bilateral abdominal cryptorchid boars. The lamina propria of scrotal testes from healthy boars and unilateral cryptorchid boars was constituted by an innermost noncellular layer, the basal lamina, and by 2 layers of peritubular cells, each separated by a fibrous layer. The noncellular layers contained collagen fibres and glycoconjugates with abundant N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. The inner peritubular cell layer was composed of myoid cells, the outer layer of fibroblasts. In the abdominal testes of unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria of nondegenerating and degenerating seminiferous tubules appeared thickened due to an increased content of collagen fibres and glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates showed decreased amounts of fucose, neuraminic acid and galactose, and increased amounts of N-acetylglucosamine residues. The basal lamina formed infoldings toward the seminiferous epithelium and contained small cells. Both inner and outer peritubular cells were fibroblasts of immature appearance. In degenerated seminiferous tubules of bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria was composed of a thickened and collagenised basal lamina, without peritubular cells and with a low content of glycoconjugates. In scrotal testes, therefore, the lamina propria was implicated in tubular contractility and in mediating the communication and the substrate diffusion between seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue. Cryptorchidism induced morphological and histochemical alterations in the lamina propria of abdominal testes, which may be linked to evidence from other studies of lack of tubular contractility and defective cell–cell communication and substrate diffusion. The severity of these anomalies correlated with the severity of Sertoli cell alterations. PMID:11693304

PINART, E.; BONET, S.; BRIZ, M.; PASTOR, L. M.; SANCHO, S.; GARCIA, N.; BADIA, E.; BASSOLS, J.

2001-01-01

12

Total parenteral nutrition-associated lamina propria inflammation in mice is mediated by a MyD88 dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background Enteral nutrient-deprivation, via total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration leads to local mucosal inflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods Wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- mice underwent jugular vein cannulation. One group received TPN without chow and controls received standard chow. After 7days, we harvested intestinal mucosally-associated bacteria, and isolated small-bowel lamina propria (LP) cells. Bacterial populations were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. LP cells were analyzed using quantitative PCR and multi-color flow cytometry. Results WT, control mucosally-associated microbiota were Firmicutes-dominant while WT TPN mice were Proteobacteria-domiant. Similar changes were observed in MyD88-/- mice with TPN administration. Unifrac analysis showed divergent small bowel and colonic bacterial communities in controls, merging towards similar microbiota (but distinct from controls) with TPN. The percentage of LP T-regulatory cells significantly decreased with TPN in WT mice. F4/80+CD11b+CD11cdull-neg macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased with TPN. These pro-inflammatory immunologic changes were significantly abrogated in MyD88-/- TPN mice. Conclusions TPN administration is associated with significant expansion of Proteobacteria within the intestinal microbiota and increased pro-inflammatory LP cytokines. MyD88 signaling blockade abrogated this pro-inflammatory response. PMID:23667106

Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Feng, Yongjia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Erb-Downward, John; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Mason, Katie L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

13

IL10 Synergizes with IL4 and IL13 in Inhibiting Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Human Monocytes and Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue injury and inflammation in inflammatorybowel disease (IBD) are associated with enhancedmonocytic lysosomal enzyme release. In this study,peripheral monocytes and lamina propria mononuclearcells (LPMNC) were isolated from IBD patients andnormal controls. Cells were stimulated withlipopolysaccharide after treatment with IL-13, IL-4, andIL-10, and enzyme secretion was assessed by using thecorresponding p-nitrophenyl glycosides as substrates.Molecular forms of cathepsin D were examined to

Norbert Lugering; Torsten Kucharzik; Henning Stein; Gunther Winde; Andreas Lugering; Andrej Hasilik; Wolfram Domschke; Reinhard Stoll

1998-01-01

14

Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina”) on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-? and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-? and IFN-? increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice. PMID:24686517

Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

2014-01-01

15

Intestinal CD103+ CD11b+ lamina propria dendritic cells instruct intestinal epithelial cells to express antimicrobial proteins in response to Toll-like receptor 5 activation  

PubMed Central

Microbial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier triggers inflammatory responses that include induction of the bactericidal C-type lectin RegIII?. Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Flagellin-induced RegIII? expression is IL-22-dependent, but how TLR signaling leads to IL-22 expression is incompletely defined. Using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, we demonstrated that CD103+ CD11b+ LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103? CD11b+ LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 following bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIII? production. Maximal expression of IL-23 subunits IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 occurred within 60 minutes of exposure to flagellin. IL-23 subsequently induced a burst of IL-22 followed by sustained RegIII? expression. Thus, CD103+ CD11b+ LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. PMID:22306017

Kinnebrew, Melissa A.; Buffie, Charlie G.; Diehl, Gretchen E.; Zenewicz, Lauren A.; Leiner, Ingrid; Hohl, Tobias M.; Flavell, Richard A.; Littman, Dan R.; Pamer, Eric G.

2012-01-01

16

Immunomodulatory effect of mushrooms on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of intestinal lamina propria leukocytes does not necessarily depend on ?-glucan contents.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNF?, IFN?, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to ?-glucan content of the mushroom. PMID:25213921

Lee, Jae-Sung; Oka, Kohsuke; Watanabe, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

2011-06-15

17

Nectin-4-Dependent Measles Virus Spread to the Cynomolgus Monkey Tracheal Epithelium: Role of Infected Immune Cells Infiltrating the Lamina Propria  

PubMed Central

After the contagion measles virus (MV) crosses the respiratory epithelium within myeloid cells that express the primary receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), it replicates briskly in SLAM-expressing cells in lymphatic organs. Later, the infection spreads to epithelia expressing nectin-4, an adherens junction protein expressed preferentially in the trachea, but how it gets there is not understood. To characterize the mechanisms of spread, we infected groups of 5 or 6 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with either a wild-type MV or its “N4-blind” derivative, which is unable to enter nectin-4-expressing cells because of the targeted mutation of two hemagglutinin residues. As expected, both viruses caused similar levels of immunosuppression, as monitored by reductions in white blood cell counts and lymphocyte proliferation activity. However, monkeys infected with the N4-blind MV cleared infection more rapidly. Wild-type virus-infected monkeys secreted virus, while marginal virus titers were detected in tracheal lavage fluid cells of N4-blind MV-infected hosts. Analyses of tracheal rings obtained at necropsy (day 12) documented widespread infection of individual cells or small cell clusters in the subepithelial lamina propria of monkeys infected with either virus. However, only wild-type MV spread to the epithelium, forming numerous infectious centers comprised of many contiguous columnar cells. Infected CD11c+ myeloid (macrophage or dendritic) cells were frequently observed in the lamina propria below epithelial infectious centers. Thus, MV may use myeloid cells as vehicles not only immediately after contagion but also to infect epithelia of tissues expressing nectin-4, including the trachea. PMID:23255790

Frenzke, Marie; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao X.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Mateo, Mathieu; von Messling, Veronika

2013-01-01

18

Quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of IgA, IgM, IgG and antigen-specific immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells in pig small intestinal lamina propria.  

PubMed

Intestinal immune response plays an important defensive role for pathogens, particularly for those transmitted by the oro-faecal route or for foecal shedding modulation. This work examined three parts of intestine from twelve gilts experimentally infected with PCV2-spiked semen, six vaccinated (V group) and six unvaccinated (NV group) against PCV2, 29 and 53 days post infection (DPI). An immunohistochemical investigation for IgA-, IgG- and IgM-antibody bearing plasma cells (PCs) was run on intestinal samples coupled with a sandwich immunohistochemical method to reveal anti-PCV2 antibody-secreting PCs. Plasma cell density was compared in the two groups of animals at 29 and 53 DPI. The IgA, IgG and IgM PC density did not differ between groups but displayed an increase from the upper (villus) to the lower part of the crypts while a decreasing trend in PC density was identified from duodenum to ileum. In the NV group, no increase in anti-PCV2 PC density was demonstrable in the two sampling moment: the amounts of lamina propria PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs remained constant, 10.55 ± 4.24 and 10.06 ± 5.01 at 29 DPI and 53 DPI, respectively. In the V group a significant increase in PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs was observed over time. The amounts of PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs increased from 9.37 ± 13.36 at 29 DPI to 18.76 ± 15.83 at 53 DPI. The data on IgA, IgM and IgG PC counts can be considered reference values in a population of adult pigs. The sandwich method can be proposed as a technique able to identify specific antibody-secreting PCs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A practical application of the sandwich method is the demonstration of a "booster-like" response of the lamina propria in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated animals. After virus challenge, vaccination induced an increase in the number of PCs containing specific anti-PCV2 antibodies at the level of intestinal mucosa. PMID:24961900

Bianco, C; Felice, V; Panarese, S; Marrocco, R; Ostanello, F; Brunetti, B; Muscatello, L V; Leotti, G; Vila, T; Joisel, F; Sarli, G

2014-08-15

19

CX3CR1? cells facilitate the activation of CD4 T cells in the colonic lamina propria during antigen-driven colitis.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages populate the intestinal lamina propria to initiate immune responses required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. To investigate whether CX3CR1(+) phagocytes communicate with CD4 T cells during the development of transfer colitis, we established an antigen-driven colitis model induced by the adoptive transfer of DsRed OT-II cells in CX3CR1(GFP/+) × RAG(-/-) recipients challenged with Escherichia coli expressing ovalbumin (OVA) fused to a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). After colonization of CX3CR1(GFP/+) × RAG(-/-) animals with red fluorescent E. coli pCherry-OVA, colonic CX3CR1(+) cells but not CD103(+) DCs phagocytosed E. coli pCherry-OVA. Degraded bacterial-derived antigens are transported by CD103(+) DCs to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), where CD103(+) DCs prime naive T cells. In RAG(-/-) recipients reconstituted with OT II cells and gavaged with OVA-expressing E. coli, colonic CX3CR1(+) phagocytes are in close contact with CD4 T cells and presented bacterial-derived antigens to CD4 T cells to activate and expand effector T cells. PMID:24129164

Rossini, V; Zhurina, D; Radulovic, K; Manta, C; Walther, P; Riedel, C U; Niess, J H

2014-05-01

20

Enhanced secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may be regulated in part by an increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines due to either an appropriate response to initial stimulating agents, and/or due to an impaired down-regulation of cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine the secretion patterns of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-1 beta, from isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) isolated from colonic biopsies from patients with untreated ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. LPMNC isolated from involved inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosa spontaneously produced increased amounts of TNF-alpha, and IL-6, and IL-1 beta. The TNF-alpha secretion from IBD LPMNC could be further enhanced by pokeweed mitogen stimulation. The secretion patterns of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta by LPMNC from patients with either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease demonstrated a close correlation with the degree of tissue involvement and mucosal inflammation. LPMNC from non-involved ulcerative colitis mucosa secreted markedly increased levels of IL-6 compared with non-involved Crohn's disease mucosa or control mucosa. The heightened IL-6 secretion from LPMNC from non-involved ulcerative colitis mucosa without visible or microscopic signs of inflammation indicates that the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the initiation of inflammation may differ between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The determination of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by isolated LPMNC from colonoscopic biopsies may be a sensitive method for monitoring the severity of mucosal inflammation in IBD patients. PMID:8403503

Reinecker, H C; Steffen, M; Witthoeft, T; Pflueger, I; Schreiber, S; MacDermott, R P; Raedler, A

1993-01-01

21

Probiotic Lactobacillus-induced improvement in murine chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lamina propria mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

IL-6/STAT-3 signals play key roles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is known that Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) improves inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of LcS on murine chronic IBD and to clarify the mechanism. We focused the inhibitory effect of LcS on the production of IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC) isolated from mice with chronic colitis and in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. We also determined in vivo the effect of LcS on murine chronic IBD models induced with dextran sodium sulphate and SAMP1/Yit mice. Finally, we examined the cellular determinants of LcS for the down-regulation of IL-6 secretion by LI-LPMC, RAW264.7 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). LcS, but not other strains of Lactobacillus, inhibited the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated LI-LPMC and RAW264.7 cells, down-regulating the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The LcS-diet-improved murine chronic colitis is associated with the reduction of IL-6 synthesis by LI-LPMC. LcS also improved chronic ileitis in SAMP1/Yit mice. The release of IL-6 in vitro in LPS-stimulated LI-LPMC, RAW 264.7 cells and UC-PBMC was inhibited by a polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) derived from LcS. This probiotic-induced improvement in murine chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IFN-gamma production in LPMC. Therefore, LcS may be a useful probiotic for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15932502

Matsumoto, S; Hara, T; Hori, T; Mitsuyama, K; Nagaoka, M; Tomiyasu, N; Suzuki, A; Sata, M

2005-06-01

22

Gut IgA class switch recombination in the absence of CD40 does not occur in the lamina propria and is independent of germinal centers.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have recently been presented as to the sites and sources of B cells that undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to IgA in the gut. In this study we provide compelling evidence in CD40(-/-) mice demonstrating that IgA CSR can be independent of CD40 signaling and germinal center formation and does not occur in the gut lamina propria (LP) itself. We found that CD40(-/-) mice had near normal levels of gut total IgA despite lacking germinal centers and completely failing to raise specific responses against the T cell-dependent Ags cholera toxin and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The Peyer's patches in CD40(-/-) mice expressed unexpectedly high levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA and germline alpha transcripts, but few postswitch circular DNA transcripts, arguing against significant IgA CSR. Moreover and more surprisingly, wild-type mice exhibited no to low IgA CSR in mesenteric lymph nodes or isolated lymphoid follicles. Importantly, both strains failed to demonstrate any of the molecular markers for IgA CSR in the gut LP itself. Whereas all of the classical sites for IgA CSR in the GALT in CD40(-/-) mice appeared severely compromised for IgA CSR, B cells in the peritoneal cavity demonstrated the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA comparable to that of wild-type mice. However, peritoneal cavity B cells in both strains expressed intermediate levels of the germinal center marker GL7 and exhibited no germline alpha transcripts, and only three of 51 mice analyzed showed the presence of postswitch circular DNA transcripts. Taken together, these findings strongly argue for alternative inductive sites for gut IgA CSR against T cell-independent Ags outside of the GALT and the nonorganized LP. PMID:17114448

Bergqvist, Peter; Gärdby, Eva; Stensson, Anneli; Bemark, Mats; Lycke, Nils Y

2006-12-01

23

Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion: limitations in its use as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) is an adverse prognostic feature, which may prompt consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease. Controversies and challenges surrounding its assessment have led to consideration of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) as an alternative marker of advanced local spread. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the prognostic significance of peritoneal ELI in stage II CRC and (2) to determine the feasibility of ELI assessment in routine practice with the use of an elastic stain. Two hundred seventeen patients with stage II CRC (186, pT3; 31, pT4) were assessed for ELI and other established adverse histologic features. Of the pT3 tumors, 31 (16.7%) were ELI positive, 121 (65%) were ELI negative, and 34 (18.3%) lacked an identifiable elastic lamina. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival between pT3 ELI-negative and ELI-positive tumors (P = .517). The disease-free survival of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT3 ELI-negative tumors (P = .024) and pT3 ELI-positive tumors (P = .026), respectively. The elastic lamina was detected less frequently in right-sided pT3 tumors compared with left-sided tumors (65/91 [71.4%] versus 87/95 [91.6%], P < .001). Right-sided tumors were also associated with a reduction in the staining intensity of the elastic lamina (P < .001). In conclusion, peritoneal ELI was not an adverse prognostic factor in this study. The frequent absence of an identifiable elastic lamina, particularly in right-sided tumors, may limit the use of ELI as a prognostic marker in CRC. PMID:24074534

Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Cook, Megan; O'Connor, Brenda I; Hafezi, Sara; El-Zimaity, Hala; Kirsch, Richard

2013-12-01

24

Characterization of the vocal fold lamina propria towards voice restoration  

E-print Network

During normal speech, human vocal folds sustain greater than 100 high impact collisions each second. When the pliability of this complex biomechanical system is reduced by scarring, voice quality may be compromised. ...

Hahn, Mariah S

2004-01-01

25

Smoothelin and caldesmon are reliable markers for distinguishing muscularis propria from desmoplasia: a critical distinction for accurate staging colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

An accurate distinction between deep muscularis propria invasion versus subserosal invasion by colonic adenocarcinoma is essential for the accurate staging of cancer and subsequent optimal patient management. However, problems may arise in pathologic staging when extensive desmoplasia blurs the junction between deep muscularis propria and subserosal fibroadipose tissue. To address this issue, forty-three (43) cases of colonic adenocarcinoma resections from 2007-2009 at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX were reviewed. These cases were selected to address possible challenges in differentiating deep muscularis propria invasion from superficial subserosal invasion based on H&E staining alone. Immunohistochemical staining using smooth muscle actin (SMA), smoothelin, and caldesmon were performed on 51 cases: 8 cases of pT1 tumors (used mainly as control); 12 pT2 tumors; and 31 pT3 tumors. All 51 (100%) had diffuse, strong (3+) immunoreactivity for caldesmon and smoothelin in the muscularis propria with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. However, the desmoplastic areas of these tumors, composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, showed negative immunostaining for caldesmon and smoothelin (0/35). SMA strongly stained the muscularis propria and weakly (1+) or moderately (2+) stained the spindled fibroblasts in the desmoplastic areas (the latter presumably because of myofibroblastic differentiation). Compared to SMA, caldesmon and smoothelin are more specific stains that allow better delineation of the muscularis propria from the desmoplastic stromal reaction which provides a critical aide for proper staging of colonic adenocarcinoma and subsequent patient care. PMID:24551305

Roberts, Jordan A; Waters, Lindsay; Ro, Jae Y; Zhai, Qihui Jim

2014-01-01

26

Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended.

Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

2014-01-01

27

The intriguing plant nuclear lamina  

PubMed Central

The nuclear lamina is a complex protein mesh attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which is also associated with nuclear pore complexes. It provides mechanical support to the nucleus and nuclear envelope, and as well as facilitating the connection of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton, it is also involved in chromatin organization, gene regulation, and signaling. In metazoans, the nuclear lamina consists of a polymeric layer of lamins and other interacting proteins responsible for its association with the INM and chromatin. In plants, field emission scanning electron microscopy of nuclei, and thin section transmission electron microscopy of isolated nucleoskeletons, reveals the lamina to have a similar structure to that of metazoans. Moreover, although plants lack lamin genes and the genes encoding most lamin-binding proteins, the main functions of the lamina are fulfilled in plants. Hence, it would appear that the plant lamina is not based on lamins and that other proteins substitute for lamins in plant cells. The nuclear matrix constituent proteins are the best characterized structural proteins in the plant lamina. Although these proteins do not display strong sequence similarity to lamins, their predicted secondary structure and sub-nuclear distribution, as well as their influence on nuclear size and shape, and on heterochromatin organization, suggest they could be functional lamin analogs. In this review we shall summarize what is currently known about the organization and composition of the plant nuclear lamina and its interacting complexes, and we will discuss the activity of this structure in the plant cell and its nucleus. PMID:24808902

Ciska, Malgorzata; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

2014-01-01

28

Infliximab but not etanercept induces apoptosis in lamina propria T-lymphocytes from patients with Crohn’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Steroid-refractory Crohn’s disease responds to therapy with the chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? antibody infliximab. Etanercept, a recombinant TNF receptor\\/immunoglobulin G fusion protein, is highly effective in rheumatoid arthritis but not in Crohn’s disease. Because both infliximab and etanercept are TNF-?-neutralizing drugs, we investigated the differences in TNF-?-neutralizing capacity and human lymphocyte binding and apoptosis-inducing capacity of both

Jan M. H Van den Brande; Henri Braat; Gijs R van den Brink; Henri H Versteeg; Christiaan A Bauer; Inge Hoedemaeker; Catherine van Montfrans; Daan W Hommes; Maikel P Peppelenbosch; Sander J. H van Deventer

2003-01-01

29

The nuclear lamina and inherited disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited disorders of the nuclear lamina present some of the most intriguing puzzles in cell biology. Mutations in lamin A and lamin C – nuclear intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in nearly all somatic cells – cause tissue-specific diseases that affect striated muscle, adipose tissue and peripheral nerve or skeletal development. Recent studies provide clues about how different mutations

Howard J. Worman; Jean-Claude Courvalin

2002-01-01

30

Inhibition of Intestinal Bacterial Translocation with Rifaximin Modulates Lamina propria Monocytic Cells Reactivity and Protects against Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A modification of the intestinal flora and an increased bacterial translocation is a common finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in animal model of colitis. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable derivative of rifamycin, is an effective antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid synthesis. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the administration

Stefano Fiorucci; Eleonora Distrutti; Andrea Mencarelli; Miriam Barbanti; Ernesto Palazzini; Antonio Morelli

2002-01-01

31

The influence of elastin-like recombinant polymer on the self-renewing potential of a 3D tissue equivalent derived from human lamina propria fibroblasts and oral  

E-print Network

mucosal epithelial cell sheets successfully recon- structed in vitro were reported to degenerate one week maintenance of stem and progenitor cells and therefore could not produce long-term survival [8]. This indi- cates the importance of the presence of highly proliferative cells such as stem or progenitor cells i

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

32

HLA Class-I-Restricted and Colon-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells from Lamina Propria Lymphocytes of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) lines against colonic epithelial cell line from LPLs of patients with ulcerative colitis by continuous stimulation with human lymphocyte antigen A (HLA-A) matched colonic epithelial cell lines and clones from LPLs using polyclonal stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The established CTL lines and clones showed cytotoxicity against HLA-A-matched colonic epithelial cell line but not against HLA-mismatched colonic

Takashi Sunagawa; Yoshimasa Yonamine; Fukunori Kinjo; Mamoru Watanabe; Toshifumi Hibi; Atsushi Saito

2001-01-01

33

Initiation of teeth from the dental lamina in the ferret.  

PubMed

Mammalian tooth development is characterized by formation of primary teeth that belong to different tooth classes and are later replaced by a single set of permanent teeth. The first primary teeth are initiated from the primary dental lamina, and the replacement teeth from the successional dental lamina at the lingual side of the primary teeth. An interdental lamina connects the primary tooth germs together. Most mammalian tooth development research is done on mouse, which does not have teeth in all tooth classes, does not replace its teeth, and does not develop an interdental lamina. We have used the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) as a model animal to elucidate the morphological changes and gene expression during the development of the interdental lamina and the initiation of primary teeth. In addition we have analyzed cell-cell signaling taking place in the interdental lamina as well as in the successional lamina during tooth replacement. By 3D reconstructions of serial histological sections we observed that the morphogenesis of the interdental lamina and the primary teeth are intimately linked. Expression of Pitx2 and Foxi3 in the interdental lamina indicates that it has odontogenic identity, and there is active signaling taking place in the interdental lamina. Bmp4 is coexpressed with the stem cell factor Sox2 at its lingual aspect suggesting that the interdental lamina may retain competence for tooth initiation. We show that when tooth replacement is initiated there is Wnt pathway activity in the budding successional lamina and adjacent mesenchyme but no active Fgf or Eda signaling. Genes associated with human tooth replacement phenotypes, including Runx2 and Il11r?, are mostly expressed in the mesenchyme around the successional lamina in the ferret. Our results highlight the importance of the dental lamina in the mammalian tooth development during the initiation of both primary and replacement teeth. PMID:24393477

Jussila, Maria; Crespo Yanez, Xenia; Thesleff, Irma

2014-01-01

34

Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG  

PubMed Central

Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2 mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. PMID:25038441

Troebinger, Luzia; Lopez, Jose David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

2014-01-01

35

[Dental lamina as presumptive source of odontogenic cyst].  

PubMed

The possibility of the dental lamina as a source of odontogenic cyst was investigated. The mandibular first molar tooth germs with the dental lamina and surface oral epithelium were cut from 17.5-day-old C3H mouse embryos. The following 5 kinds of grafts were prepared: (I) recombinant of the dental lamina and dental papilla, (II) dental lamina, (III) dental papilla, (IV) recombinant of the oral epithelium and dental papilla and (V) oral epithelium. After the renal subcapsular transplantation to the 3-month-old syngenic male mice, each graft was harvested at timed sequences from 2 to 24 weeks and was examined histopathologically. The recombinant of the dental lamina and dental papilla (1) grew into a cyst lined by para-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The cyst enlarged gradually and might be compared to the odontogenic keratocyst of the human being. The recombinant of the oral epithelium and dental papilla (IV) and the oral epithelium (V) developed into a cyst lined by orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium which differed from the epithelium seen in Experiment (I). The dental papilla (III) grew to be a bone tissue while nothing developed from the dental lamina (II). These results suggest that the dental lamina is one of the sources of the odontogenic keratocyst and the dental papilla plays an important role in its histogenesis. PMID:2081936

Zhu, E

1990-12-01

36

Transcardiac tunneling technique for endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric fundus tumors arising from the muscularis propria.  

PubMed

The promising endoscopic resection techniques for upper gastrointestinal submucosal tumors (SMTs) are challenged when performed in the gastric fundus. Here, we report on the development of a transcardiac endoscopic tunneling technique (TCTT) for the resection of tumors in this area. A total of 18 patients with gastric fundus SMTs arising from the muscularis propria on endoscopic ultrasound underwent TCTT. The procedure involved the excavation of a submucosal tunnel from the esophagus, through the cardia, to the gastric SMT for resection. The tunnel was closed by clips after retrieval of the tumor. The mean tumor size was 2.1?cm (range 0.8?-?5.0?cm). The mean procedure time was 75.1 minutes (range 40?-?100 minutes). Complete resection was achieved in all cases. Iatrogenic perforation occurred in one case. This and one other patient developed mild pneumoperitoneum on the day after the procedure; symptoms resolved under conservative management. No patient developed gastrointestinal leakage, delayed bleeding, or secondary infection. Therefore, in this pilot study, TCTT provided a definitive histological diagnosis as well as a feasible, safe, and easy therapeutic approach for gastric fundus SMTs arising from muscularis propria in the circular area within 8?cm below the cardia. PMID:25036658

Lu, Jiaoyang; Zheng, Minhua; Jiao, Taotao; Wang, Yanan; Lu, Xuefeng

2014-10-01

37

How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin  

E-print Network

Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined ...

Ingram, Jessica

38

The role of the dental lamina in mammalian tooth replacement.  

PubMed

We have applied the ferret, Mustela putorius furo, as a model for tooth replacement. Ferret has a heterodont dentition, which includes all tooth families, and all antemolar teeth are replaced. Compared with mouse, the ferret therefore has a less derived mammalian dentition resembling that of humans. We have studied tooth replacement in serial histological sections in embryonic and young postnatal ferrets. Our observations indicate that the replacement teeth form from the dental lamina that is intimately connected to the lingual aspect of the deciduous tooth enamel organ. It grows as an offshoot from the enamel organ, elongates in cervical direction and later buds to give rise to the replacement tooth. The extent of the dental lamina growth, preceding replacement tooth budding, varied between different teeth. The dynamic gene expression patterns of Sostdc1, Shh and Axin2 brought new insight into the signal networks regulating the tooth replacement process. The distinct expression of Sostdc1 at the interface between the dental lamina and the deciduous tooth is the first indication of a specific tissue identity of the dental lamina. We suggest that the reactivation of a competent dental lamina is pivotal for the replacement tooth formation. PMID:19137538

Järvinen, Elina; Tummers, Mark; Thesleff, Irma

2009-06-15

39

Ultrasonographic thickening of the muscularis propria in feline small intestinal small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in the cat. More recently, an ultrasonographic pattern associated with feline small cell T-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma has been recognized as a diffuse thickening of the muscularis propria of the small intestine. This pattern is also described with feline inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the similarities between the diseases, we quantified the thickness of the muscularis propria layer in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 14 cats affected by small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 19 healthy cats. We found a significantly increased thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma and IBD compared with healthy cats. The mean thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma or IBD was twice the thickness than that of healthy cats, and was the major contributor to significant overall bowel wall thickening in the duodenum and jejunum. A muscularis to submucosa ratio >1 is indicative of an abnormal bowel segment. Colic lymph nodes in cats with lymphoma were increased in size compared with healthy cats. In cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma and histologic transmural infiltration of the small intestines, colic or jejunal lymph nodes were rounded, increased in size and hypoechoic. PMID:23900499

Daniaux, Lise A; Laurenson, Michele P; Marks, Stanley L; Moore, Peter F; Taylor, Sandra L; Chen, Rachel X; Zwingenberger, Allison L

2014-01-01

40

Ozone laminae near the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of ozonesonde data collected at high northern latitudes in winter and spring shows that laminae of enhanced and depleted ozone are associated with the polar vortex. In January and February, they are most common at all latitudes in the potential temperature range 370-430 K, but are abundant up to 500 K between 60 and 70 deg N. In March and April they occur most frequently northward of 75 deg N, and are abundant up to 520 K, whereas they are largely confined to the range 320-440 K at lower latitudes. Analysis of ozone lidar data obtained during AASE-1 depicts clearly the extrusion of laminae of enhanced ozone concentration from the polar regions in the altitude range 13-15 km. These extrusions form a class of laminae which transport ozone equatorward in the lowest levels of the stratosphere.

Reid, S. J.; Vaughan, Geraint

1994-01-01

41

Response properties of stained monopolar cells in the honeybee lamina  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Monopolar cells of the first visual ganglion, the lamina, of the bee were recorded from and stained intracellularly.2.Several different response types to pulses of spectral light were found. The most common response type hyperpolarized in a phasic-tonic fashion. The tonic hyperpolarizing response frequently decreased gradually, but in some cases increased with lasting illumination. Some cells also gave a transient response

John de Souza; Horst Hertel; Dora Fix Ventura; Randolf Menzel

1992-01-01

42

Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

2014-01-01

43

Co-ordinated development of the leaf midrib xylem with the lamina in Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The water-transport capacity of leaf venation is positively related to the leaf-lamina area, because the number and diameter of vein-xylem conduits are controlled to match the lamina area. This study aimed to investigate how this co-ordinated relationship between the leaf-lamina area and vein-xylem characteristics is achieved by examining the midrib xylem of tobacco leaves. Methods The changes in the midrib-xylem characteristics over time were quantified using leaves with four different final lamina areas. The measured data were fitted to sigmoidal functions. From the constants of the fitted curves, the final values in mature leaves, maximal developmental rates (VDev) and developmental duration (TDev) were estimated for each of the xylem characteristics. Whether it is the lamina or the midrib xylem that drives the co-ordinated development was examined by lamina removal from unfolding leaves. The effects of the application of 0·1 % IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) to leaves with the laminas removed were also analysed. Key Results For both the leaf lamina and the midrib-xylem characteristics, the differences in final values among leaves with different lamina areas were more strongly associated with those in VDev. Notably, the VDev values of the midrib-xylem characteristics were related to those of the leaf-lamina area. By lamina removal, the conduit diameter was reduced but the number of conduits did not significantly change. By IAA application, the decrease in the conduit diameter was halted, and the number of conduits in the midrib xylem increased. Conclusions According to the results, the VDev values of the lamina area and the midrib-xylem characteristics changed in a co-ordinated manner, so that the water-transport capacity of the midrib xylem was positively related to the leaf-lamina area. The results also suggest that IAA derived from the leaf lamina plays a crucial role in the development of the leaf venation. PMID:22589329

Taneda, Haruhiko; Terashima, Ichiro

2012-01-01

44

NCX-1015, a nitric-oxide derivative of prednisolone, enhances regulatory T cells in the lamina propria and protects against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

NCX-1015 is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of prednisolone. In this study we show NCX-1015 protects mice against the S. A. development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The beneficial effect of NCX-1015 was reflected in increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, a

Stefano Fiorucci; Elisabetta Antonelli; Eleonora Distrutti; Piero del Soldato; Roderick J. Flower; Mark J. Paul Clark; Antonio Morelli; Mauro Perretti; Louis J. Ignarro

2002-01-01

45

Shape, Orientation and Spacing of the Primary Epidermal Laminae in the Hooves of Neonatal and Adult Horses (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumferential and proximodistal variations in the morphology of the primary epidermal laminae of six neonatal and five adult equine feet were documented. Three parameters were quantified: interlaminar spacing, the orientation of the laminae with respect to the overlying wall, and any angulation within the laminae themselves (‘internal angle’). In adult feet, the laminae were most closely spaced at the dorsum,

Janet E. Douglas; Jeffrey J. Thomason

2000-01-01

46

Automated Measurement and Statistical Modeling of Elastic Laminae in Arteries  

PubMed Central

Structural features of elastic laminae within arteries can provide vital information for both the mechanobiology and the biomechanics of the wall. In this paper, we propose, test, and illustrate a new computer-based scheme for automated analysis of regional distributions of elastic laminae thickness, inter-lamellar distances, and fragmentation (furcation points) from standard histological images. Our scheme eliminates potential artifacts produced by tissue cutting, automatically aligns tissue according to physiologic orientations, and performs cross-sectional measurements along radial directions. A statistical randomized complete block design (RCBD) and F-test were used to assess potential (non)-uniformity of lamellar thicknesses and separations along both radial and circumferential directions. Illustrative results for both normotensive and hypertensive thoracic porcine aorta revealed marked heterogeneity along the radial direction in nearly stress-free samples. Clearly, regional measurements can provide more detailed information about morphologic changes that cannot be gained by globally averaged evaluations alone. We also found that quantifying Furcation Point densities offers new information about potential elastin fragmentation, particularly in response to increased loading due to hypertension. PMID:20221934

Xu, Hai; Hu, Jin-Jia; Humphrey, Jay D.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

2010-01-01

47

An assessment of grafts in the posterior cricoid lamina.  

PubMed

Subglottic stenosis is a recognized complication of prolonged intubation. To date, there is no uniformly successful operative procedure for severe subglottic stenosis, fulfilling the criteria of decannulation and a serviceable voice. The surgical ideals for such a procedure should include the use of autogenous grafting material, avoidance of internal stenting, and limited manipulation of the mucosa. This study was intended to assess the fate of isolated hyoid and thyroid alar grafts interposed in the posterior cricoid lamina. Additionally, anterior/posterior splits with and without anterior grafting were evaluated. Seventeen dogs were used in the determinate animal model. Vocal cord mobility was evaluated by direct laryngoscopy prior to sacrifice. Graphic gross anatomical specimens depict the effects of anterior/posterior splitting on the cricoid cartilage. Clinical correlations are suggested. PMID:7132512

Strome, M; Norris, C M; Joseph, M P; Brodsky, G; Eavey, R D

1982-10-01

48

Induction of HLA-DR Expression in Human Lamina Cribrosa Astrocytes by Cytokines and Simulated Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Recent evidence strongly suggests that activated im- munity occurs during the neurodegenerative process of glau- comatous optic neuropathy. Although activation of lamina cri- brosa astrocytes has been identified in glaucomatous optic nerve head, their role on the activated immune responses seen in glaucoma patients is unknown. Here, the authors aimed to study the potential role of lamina cribrosa astrocytes

Junjie Yang; Ping Yang; Gulgun Tezel; Rajkumar V. Patil; M. Rosario Hernandez; Martin B. Wax

2001-01-01

49

Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type, and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing, and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes. PMID:23849200

Tuthill, John C.; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Reiser, Michael B.

2013-01-01

50

A putative relay circuit providing low-threshold mechanoreceptive input to lamina I projection neurons via vertical cells in lamina II of the rat dorsal horn  

PubMed Central

Background Lamina I projection neurons respond to painful stimuli, and some are also activated by touch or hair movement. Neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve damage is often associated with tactile allodynia (touch-evoked pain), and this may result from increased responsiveness of lamina I projection neurons to non-noxious mechanical stimuli. It is thought that polysynaptic pathways involving excitatory interneurons can transmit tactile inputs to lamina I projection neurons, but that these are normally suppressed by inhibitory interneurons. Vertical cells in lamina II provide a potential route through which tactile stimuli can activate lamina I projection neurons, since their dendrites extend into the region where tactile afferents terminate, while their axons can innervate the projection cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether vertical cell dendrites were contacted by the central terminals of low-threshold mechanoreceptive primary afferents. Results We initially demonstrated contacts between dendritic spines of vertical cells that had been recorded in spinal cord slices and axonal boutons containing the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), which is expressed by myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. To confirm that the VGLUT1 boutons included primary afferents, we then examined vertical cells recorded in rats that had received injections of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the sciatic nerve. We found that over half of the VGLUT1 boutons contacting the vertical cells were CTb-immunoreactive, indicating that they were of primary afferent origin. Conclusions These results show that vertical cell dendritic spines are frequently contacted by the central terminals of myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. Since dendritic spines are associated with excitatory synapses, it is likely that most of these contacts were synaptic. Vertical cells in lamina II are therefore a potential route through which tactile afferents can activate lamina I projection neurons, and this pathway could play a role in tactile allodynia. PMID:24433581

2014-01-01

51

Recent advances in OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa.  

PubMed

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and modelling, a number of recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have dramatically improved the ability to visualise the LC, such that it is now possible to image the LC in vivo in humans and animals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in OCT imaging of the LC, in the technology, processing and analysis, and discuss the impact that these will have on the ability to diagnose and monitor glaucoma, as well as to expand our understanding of its pathophysiology. With this manuscript, we aspire to share our excitement on the achievements and potential of recent developments as well as advise caution regarding the challenges that remain before imaging of the LC and optic nerve can be used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:24934221

Sigal, Ian A; Wang, Bo; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Akagi, Tadamichi; Girard, Michael J A

2014-07-01

52

Recent advances in OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa  

PubMed Central

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and modelling, a number of recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have dramatically improved the ability to visualise the LC, such that it is now possible to image the LC in vivo in humans and animals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in OCT imaging of the LC, in the technology, processing and analysis, and discuss the impact that these will have on the ability to diagnose and monitor glaucoma, as well as to expand our understanding of its pathophysiology. With this manuscript, we aspire to share our excitement on the achievements and potential of recent developments as well as advise caution regarding the challenges that remain before imaging of the LC and optic nerve can be used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:24934221

Sigal, Ian A; Wang, Bo; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Akagi, Tadamichi; Girard, Michael J A

2014-01-01

53

Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.  

PubMed

Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn. PMID:23386329

Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

2013-08-15

54

Robust Internal Elastic Lamina Fenestration in Skeletal Muscle Arteries  

PubMed Central

Holes within the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of blood vessels are sites of fenestration allowing for passage of diffusible vasoactive substances and interface of endothelial cell membrane projections with underlying vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial projections are sites of dynamic Ca2+ events leading to endothelium dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations and the activity of these events increase as vessel diameter decreases. We tested the hypothesis that IEL fenestration is greater in distal vs. proximal arteries in skeletal muscle, and is unlike other vascular beds (mesentery). We also determined ion channel protein composition within the endothelium of intramuscular and non-intramuscular skeletal muscle arteries. Popliteal arteries, subsequent gastrocnemius feed arteries, and first and second order intramuscular arterioles from rat hindlimb were isolated, cut longitudinally, fixed, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed a significantly larger total fenestration area in second and first order arterioles vs. feed and popliteal arteries (58% and 16% vs. 5% and 3%; N?=?10 images/artery), due to a noticeably greater average size of holes (9.5 and 3.9 µm2 vs 1.5 and 1.9 µm2). Next, we investigated via immunolabeling procedures whether proteins involved in EDH often embedded in endothelial cell projections were disparate between arterial segments. Specific proteins involved in EDH, such as inositol trisphosphate receptors, small and intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and the canonical (C) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3 were present in both popliteal and first order intramuscular arterioles. However due to larger IEL fenestration in first order arterioles, a larger spanning area of EDH proteins is observed proximal to the smooth muscle cell plasma membrane. These observations highlight the robust area of fenestration within intramuscular arterioles and indicate that the anatomical architecture and endothelial cell hyperpolarizing apparatus for distinct vasodilatory signaling is potentially present. PMID:23359815

Sullivan, Michelle N.; Francis, Michael; Dinenno, Frank A.; Earley, Scott

2013-01-01

55

High resolution in vivo imaging of the lamina cribrosa  

PubMed Central

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is considered to be the principal site of retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. Imaging technology has steadily improved in recent years, allowing greater resolution of fine details of laminar structure. Histological studies have elucidated the details of LC structure, both in normal and glaucomatous eyes, but such studies are limited by smaller sample size, greater difficulty of conducting prospective studies, and possibility of altered tissue architecture during histologic processing. We reviewed the literature describing the LC in primate and human eyes using in vivo imaging devices and provided a brief explanation of the imaging technology and main results of the articles. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality described, including optic disk photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities provide en face and/or cross-sectional images of the LC in vivo. Enhanced depth imaging OCT has recently led to important advances in imaging deeper structures of the posterior segment, including the LC. Adaptive optics has been adopted in CSLO and OCT imaging to correct for ocular aberration and has improved resolution and contrast of the LC images. Post-image processing techniques to compensate for light attenuation and enhance contrast in OCT images enabled better visualization of the LC beneath the neuroretinal rim, vascular structures, and scleral rim. Long-wavelength probe OCT has shown good visualization of the LC with improved penetration when combined with swept-source OCT. Contrast agents for enhanced visualization of selective target structures in OCT have been developed. All these technologies hold great promise for improved in vivo imaging of the LC and require further investigation. PMID:23960950

Park, Sung C.; Ritch, Robert

2011-01-01

56

The rotational transformation of elastic moduli for fiber-reinforced laminae  

E-print Network

THE ROTATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF ELASTIC MODULI FOR FIBER-REINFORCED LAMINAE A Thesis by DAVID EDWARD ELLIS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ROTATIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF ELASTIC MODULI FOR FIBER-REINFORCED LAMINAE A Thesis by DAVID EDWARD ELLIS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Ellis, David Edward

2012-06-07

57

Distribution of trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic lamina I terminations in the cat.  

PubMed

The distribution in the thalamus of terminal projections from lamina I neurons of the trigeminal, cervical, and lumbosacral dorsal horn was investigated with the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) in the cat. Iontophoretic injections were guided by single- and multi-unit physiological recordings. The injections in particular cases were essentially restricted to lamina I, whereas in others they spread across laminae I-III or laminae I-V. The trigemino- and spinothalamic (TSTT) terminations were identified immunohistochemically. In all cases, regardless of the level of the injections, terminal fibers were consistently distributed in three main locations: the submedial nucleus; the ventral aspect of the basal ventral medial nucleus and ventral posterior nuclei; and, the dorsomedial aspect of the ventral posterior medial nucleus. The terminal fields in the submedial nucleus and the ventral aspect of the ventral posterior group were topographically organized. Terminations along the ventral aspect of the ventral posterior group extended posterolaterally into the caudal part of the posterior nucleus and anteromedially into the ventromedial part of the ventral lateral nucleus. In several cases with trigeminal lamina I injections, a terminal labeling patch was observed within the core of the ventral posterior medial nucleus. In cases with spinal lamina I injections, terminations were also consistently found in the lateral habenula, the parafascicular nucleus, and the nucleus reuniens. Isolated terminal fibers were occasionally seen in the zona incerta, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, and other locations. These anatomical observations extend prior studies of TSTT projections and identify lamina I projection targets that are important for nociceptive, thermoreceptive, and homeostatic processing in the cat. The findings are consistent with evidence from physiological (single-unit and antidromic mapping) and behavioral studies. The novel identification of spinal lamina I input to the lateral habenula could be significant for homeostatic behaviors. PMID:14675960

Craig, A D

2003-01-01

58

The Meiotic Nuclear Lamina Regulates Chromosome Dynamics and Promotes Efficient Homologous Recombination in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope and is well known for its central role in nuclear organization and maintaining nuclear stability and shape. In the past, a number of severe human disorders have been identified to be associated with mutations in lamins. Extensive research on this topic has provided novel important clues about nuclear lamina function. These studies have contributed to the knowledge that the lamina constitutes a complex multifunctional platform combining both structural and regulatory functions. Here, we report that, in addition to the previously demonstrated significance for somatic cell differentiation and maintenance, the nuclear lamina is also an essential determinant for germ cell development. Both male and female mice lacking the short meiosis-specific A-type lamin C2 have a severely defective meiosis, which at least in the male results in infertility. Detailed analysis revealed that lamin C2 is required for telomere-driven dynamic repositioning of meiotic chromosomes. Loss of lamin C2 affects precise synapsis of the homologs and interferes with meiotic double-strand break repair. Taken together, our data explain how the nuclear lamina contributes to meiotic chromosome behaviour and accurate genome haploidization on a mechanistic level. PMID:23382700

Schmitt, Johannes; Gob, Eva; Baar, Johannes; Ortega, Sagrario; Benavente, Ricardo; Alsheimer, Manfred

2013-01-01

59

Application of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation in thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation on patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, following laminectomy. Thirteen patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors underwent total lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation and repair of the supraspinous ligaments, following laminectomy and tumor enucleation. To investigate the clinical effect of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were determined, and pre- and postoperative X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were conducted. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were also included in the follow-up. No complications were observed pre- or postoperatively. The VAS and ODI results 2 weeks following surgery and at the final follow-up examination demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the corresponding preoperative results. The X-ray examination results indicated a satisfactory internal fixation location, without any characteristics of a fracture, lumbar scoliosis, kyphosis or instability. Following the surgery, the CT and MRI examination results demonstrated that healing of the lamina bone and repair of the supraspinous ligament had occurred without tumor recurrence or spinal epidural scar recompression. Two of the 13 cases were lost to follow-up. The results indicated that in patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation following total laminectomy is effective and provides thoracolumbar stability. Furthermore, this has been identified to be an effective technique for preventing intraspinal scar proliferation. PMID:24137233

ZHOU, DONG; NONG, LU-MING; GAO, GONG-MIN; JIANG, YU-QIN; XU, NAN-WEI

2013-01-01

60

Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

2014-12-01

61

Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

1992-01-01

62

Iunconsistencies in Accumulation Rates of Black Sea Sediments Inferred from Records of Laminae and 210Pb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-published estimates for the age of the unit 1-unit 2 contact in Black Sea sediments based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements [Jones, 1990; Calvert et al., 1991] appear to be older than those based on the previously published chronology based on lamina couplets [Degens et al., 1980; Hay, 1988] by a factor of 2 to 3. To help reconcile the differences, we compare sediment accumulation rates based on the 210Pb method with estimates based on lamina counts for two cores from the Black Sea abyssal plain. Accumulation rates estimated using the 210Pb technique have varied little over the last 150 years from the averages of 55 and 50 g m-2 yr-1 at stations in the western and eastern basins, respectively. These values are about a factor of 2 lower than accumulation rates derived by counting lamina couplets over the dated intervals. Close examination of the laminae suggests that the discrepancy exists both because it is difficult to count the very fine laminae and because a complete couplet is not deposited every year. In order to provide a useful stratigraphic horizon for future investigators studying sedimentary records of the Black Sea, we estimate the age of a distinct black marker horizon which can be easily identified across the entire abyssal plain to be 150±8 years (deposited in 1838±8 A.D.).

Crusius, J.; Anderson, R. F.

1992-04-01

63

Characteristics of annual laminae gray level variations in a stalagmite from Shihua Cave, Beijing and its climatic significance (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual laminae gray level variations in the stalagmite TS9501 of Shihua Cave, Beijing are studied in detail. The environmental\\u000a factors influencing the laminae gray level are also analyzed. The following conditions may be necessary to the study on the\\u000a lamina gray level. A) The seasonal differences of climate in the studied area are strong. B) The cave has a

Xiaoguang Qin; Ming Tan; Dongsheng Liu; Tungsheng Liu; Xianfeng Wang; Tieying Li; Jinpo Lü

2000-01-01

64

Acetylcholinesterase from the motor nerve terminal accumulates on the synaptic basal lamina of the myofiber  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle is concentrated at neuromuscular junctions, where it is found in the synaptic cleft between muscle and nerve, associated with the synaptic portion of the myofiber basal lamina. This raises the question of whether the synaptic enzyme is produced by muscle, nerve, or both. Studies on denervated and regenerating muscles have shown that myofibers can produce synaptic AChE, and that the motor nerve may play an indirect role, inducing myofibers to produce synaptic AChE. The aim of this study was to determine whether some of the AChE which is known to be made and transported by the motor nerve contributes directly to AChE in the synaptic cleft. Frog muscles were surgically damaged in a way that caused degeneration and permanent removal of all myofibers from their basal lamina sheaths. Concomitantly, AChE activity was irreversibly blocked. Motor axons remained intact, and their terminals persisted at almost all the synaptic sites on the basal lamina in the absence of myofibers. 1 mo after the operation, the innervated sheaths were stained for AChE activity. Despite the absence of myofibers, new AChE appeared in an arborized pattern, characteristic of neuromuscular junctions, and its reaction product was concentrated adjacent to the nerve terminals, obscuring synaptic basal lamina. AChE activity did not appear in the absence of nerve terminals. We concluded therefore, that the newly formed AChE at the synaptic sites had been produced by the persisting axon terminals, indicating that the motor nerve is capable of producing some of the synaptic AChE at neuromuscular junctions. The newly formed AChE remained adherent to basal lamina sheaths after degeneration of the terminals, and was solubilized by collagenase, indicating that the AChE provided by nerve had become incorporated into the basal lamina as at normal neuromuscular junctions. PMID:1918162

1991-01-01

65

Glutamate, GABA and Acetylcholine Signaling Components in the Lamina of the Drosophila Visual System  

PubMed Central

Synaptic connections of neurons in the Drosophila lamina, the most peripheral synaptic region of the visual system, have been comprehensively described. Although the lamina has been used extensively as a model for the development and plasticity of synaptic connections, the neurotransmitters in these circuits are still poorly known. Thus, to unravel possible neurotransmitter circuits in the lamina of Drosophila we combined Gal4 driven green fluorescent protein in specific lamina neurons with antisera to ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase, a GABAB type of receptor, L-glutamate, a vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT), ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, choline acetyltransferase and a vesicular acetylcholine transporter. We suggest that acetylcholine may be used as a neurotransmitter in both L4 monopolar neurons and a previously unreported type of wide-field tangential neuron (Cha-Tan). GABA is the likely transmitter of centrifugal neurons C2 and C3 and GABAB receptor immunoreactivity is seen on these neurons as well as the Cha-Tan neurons. Based on an rdl-Gal4 line, the ionotropic GABAA receptor subunit RDL may be expressed by L4 neurons and a type of tangential neuron (rdl-Tan). Strong vGluT immunoreactivity was detected in ?-processes of amacrine neurons and possibly in the large monopolar neurons L1 and L2. These neurons also express glutamate-like immunoreactivity. However, antisera to ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors did not produce distinct immunosignals in the lamina. In summary, this paper describes novel features of two distinct types of tangential neurons in the Drosophila lamina and assigns putative neurotransmitters and some receptors to a few identified neuron types. PMID:18464935

Kolodziejczyk, Agata; Sun, Xuejun; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Nassel, Dick R.

2008-01-01

66

[Analgesia of the axilla using a paravertebral catheter in the lamina technique].  

PubMed

A 62-year-old female suffered from therapy-resistant pain in the axilla after lymphadenectomy. The pain ranged from 8-10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS) despite multimodal pain therapy (non-steroid anti-rheumatics, opioids, physiotherapy, acupuncture). A paravertebral trial injection was performed preoperatively on the laminae of the thoracic vertebrae Th 2-Th 4. As the patient responded well, a paravertebral catheter was inserted close to Th 4 directly before the revision operation took place the following day. The case study describes the possibilities of eliminating pain segmentally in the axilla and an alternative technique to a paravertebral block (lamina technique). PMID:16404582

Pfeiffer, G; Oppitz, N; Schöne, S; Richter-Heine, I; Höhne, M; Koltermann, C

2006-04-01

67

Integrative role of the lamina terminalis in the regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.  

PubMed

1. Cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis depends upon the activation and co-ordination of reflexes and behavioural responses. In order to accomplish this, the brain receives and processes both neural and chemical input. Once in the brain, information from sources signalling the status of the cardiovascular system and body fluid balance travels, and is integrated, throughout a widely distributed neural network. Recent studies using neuroanatomical and functional techniques have identified several key areas within this neural network. One major processing node is comprised of structures located along the lamina terminalis. 2. Structures associated with the lamina terminalis include the median preoptic nucleus (MePO) and two sensory circumventricular organs (SCVO), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Current evidence indicates that blood-borne signals, such as angiotensin II (AngII), reach SCVO (e.g. SFO) where they are transduced. This information is then carried via neural pathways to brain nuclei (e.g. MePO) where it is integrated with other inputs, such as those derived from systemic arterial blood pressure and volume receptors. 3. Because of their receptive and integrative functions, lamina terminalis structures are essential for the normal control of hormone release (e.g. vasopressin), sympathetic activation and behaviours (thirst and salt appetite), which collectively contribute to maintenance of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis. PMID:8819650

Johnson, A K; Cunningham, J T; Thunhorst, R L

1996-02-01

68

Pravastatin reduces microvascular basal lamina damage following focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.  

PubMed

Transient ischemia has been shown to damage the basal lamina of the cerebral microvasculature. Other studies proved statins to be beneficial to non-cerebral microvessels. The aim of this study was to determine whether pravastatin pretreatment ameliorates microvascular basal lamina damage following transient ischemia. Using the suture model, we subjected 15 rats to focal ischemia (3 h) and reperfusion (24 h). Rats received pravastatin (20 mg/kg/day) or saline for 4 weeks prior to the experiment. The outcome was determined by a behavior test and the infarct size. Collagen type IV, a marker for an intact basal lamina, and hemoglobin extravasation were measured by Western blot analysis. A ratio (in percentage) between ischemic and contralateral hemispheres was calculated. Pravastatin pretreatment resulted in a significantly better neurological outcome and reduced infarct size (15 +/- 0.5 and 59 +/- 10 mm(3), respectively) compared with controls (12.25 +/- 0.4 and 167 +/- 13 mm(3), respectively, P < 0.01 for both). In controls, loss of collagen type IV was seen in the basal ganglia and in the cortex (43 +/- 4 and 64 +/- 5%, respectively). Pravastatin prevented significant collagen loss (basal ganglia: 106 +/- 17%; cortex: 112 +/- 14%, P < 0.01 for both) and significantly reduced the hemoglobin extravasation compared with controls in the basal ganglia (198 +/- 49 vs. 553 +/- 47%, P < 0.01). Pravastatin pretreatment resulted in a reduction of microvascular basal lamina damage and hemoglobin extravasation following transient ischemia. Pravastatin seems to protect the cerebral microvascular system. PMID:16836638

Trinkl, Andreas; Vosko, Milan R; Wunderlich, Nathalie; Dichgans, Martin; Hamann, Gerhard F

2006-07-01

69

A refined hybrid plate theory for composite laminates with piezoelectric laminae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a refined theory of laminated composite plates with piezoelectric laminae is developed. The equations of motion of the theory are developed using an energy principle. This formulation is based on linear piezoelectricity, and includes the coupling between mechanical deformations and the charge equations of electrostatics. The theory developed herein is hybrid in the sense that an equivalent

J. A. Mitchell; J. N. Reddy

1995-01-01

70

Spinal lamina I neurons that express neurokinin 1 receptors: morphological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of neurons in lamina I of the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord which express neurokinin 1 receptors in the rat has been investigated. On the basis of soma and dendritic measurements, these neurons form two populations. One group consists of large neurons that stain intensely for the neurokinin 1 receptor with the immunochemical methods employed. They

O Cheunsuang; R Morris

2000-01-01

71

The MAN antigens are non-lamin constituents of the nuclear lamina in vertebrate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of the human antiserum designated MAN has led to the identification of a subset of non-lamin proteins that are exclusively located at the nuclear periphery in all vertebrate cell types examined, from human to fish. Immunoreactive protein species were whown to comprise three major polypeptides of Mr 78000, 58000 and 40000. These antigens co-partitioned with the nuclear lamina

Micheline Paulin-Levasseur; Deborah Lyn Blake; Martha Julien; Louise Rouleau

1996-01-01

72

Nuclear mechanotransduction: Response of the lamina to extracellular stress with implications in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechnotransduction, the phenomenon by which cells respond to applied force, is necessary for normal cell processes and is implicated in the pathology of several diseases including atherosclerosis. The exact mechanisms which govern how forces can affect gene expression have not been determined, but putative direct force effects on the genome would require transduction through the nuclear lamina. In this study

Julia T. Philip; Kris Noel Dahl

2008-01-01

73

Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms.

N. M. Abuelfoutouh; M. J. Verrilli; G. R. Halford

1989-01-01

74

The influence of cultured Schwann cells on regeneration through acellular basal lamina grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acellular basal lamina grafts have been shown to be less immunogenic in comparison to cellular grafts, but possess a limited potential for supporting axonal regeneration through them. The present study describes the effect of cultured Schwann cells on enhancing regeneration through acellular grafts. 2 cm long acellular grafts, and in vitro Schwann cell populated acellular grafts were used to repair

Adarsh K. Gulati; Daya R. Rai; Ayman M. Ali

1995-01-01

75

Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-11-01

76

Comparison of nerve cell and nerve cell plus Schwann cell cultures, with particular emphasis on basal lamina and collagen formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of cultures of normal nerve cells (NCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) with and without fibroblasts has allowed us to investigate the sources of endoneu- rial and perineurial constituents of peripheral nerve . NCs cultured alone, devoid of ensheathment but healthy in appearance, lack basal lamina and extracellular fibrils. In contrast, when SCs accompany NCs, basal lamina and extracellular

M. B. Bunge; ANN K. WILLIAMS; JOUNI UITTO; JOHN J. JEFFREY

1980-01-01

77

Diencephalic projections from the superficial and deep laminae of the medullary dorsal horn in the rat.  

PubMed

An important function of the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) is the relay of nociceptive information from the face and mouth to higher centers of the central nervous system. We studied the central projection pattern of axons arising from the MDH by examining the axonal transport of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). Labeled axon and axon terminal distributions arising from the MDH were analyzed at the light microscopic level. After large injections of PHA-L into both superficial and deep laminae of the MDH in the rat, labeled axons were observed in the nucleus submedius of the thalamus (SUB), ventroposterior thalamic nucleus medialis (VPM), ventroposterior thalamic nucleus parvicellularis (VPPC), posterior thalamic nuclei (PO), zona incerta (ZI), lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH), and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH). Restriction of PHA-L into only the superficial laminae resulted in heavy axon and varicosity labeling in the SUB, VPM, PO, and VPPC and light labeling in LH. In contrast, after injections into deep laminae, labeled axons were mainly distributed in ZI and PH; some were also in VPM and LH, and fewer still in PO and SUB. Varicosities in VPM, SUB, and PO were significantly larger than those in VPPC, ZI, LH, and PH. Varicosity density was highest in SUB and lowest in the VPPC. We concluded that there are two distinct nociceptive pathways, one originating from the superficial MDH and terminating primarily in the dorsal diencephalon and the second originating from deep laminae of the MDH and terminating primarily in the ventral diencephalon. We propose that in the rat, input from the deeper laminae is primarily involved in the motivational-affective component of pain, whereas input from the superficial MDH is related to both the sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective component of pain. PMID:1506477

Iwata, K; Kenshalo, D R; Dubner, R; Nahin, R L

1992-07-15

78

Globular and asymmetric acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic basal lamina of skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) associated with the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction. The observations were made on the neuromuscular junctions of cutaneous pectoris muscles of frog, Rana pipiens, which are similar to junctions of most other vertebrates including mammals, but are especially convenient for experimentation. By measuring relative AChE activity in junctional and extrajunctional regions of muscles after selective inactivation of extracellular AChE with echothiophate, or of intracellular AChE with DFP and 2-PAM, we found that > 66% of the total AChE activity in the muscle was junction- specific, and that > 50% of the junction-specific AChE was on the cell surface. More than 80% of the cell surface AChE was solubilized in high ionic strength detergent-free buffer, indicating that most, if not all, was a component of the synaptic basal lamina. Sedimentation analysis of that fraction indicated that while asymmetric forms (A12, A8) were abundant, globular forms sedimenting at 4-6 S (G1 and G2), composed > 50% of the AChE. It was also found that when muscles were damaged in various ways that caused degeneration of axons and muscle fibers but left intact the basal lamina sheaths, the small globular forms persisted at the synaptic site for weeks after phagocytosis of cellular components; under certain damage conditions, the proportion of globular to asymmetric forms in the vacated basal lamina sheaths was as in normal junctions. While the asymmetric forms required high ionic strength for solubilization, the extracellular globular AChE could be extracted from the junctional regions of normal and damaged muscles by isotonic buffer. Some of the globular AChE appeared to be amphiphilic when examined in detergents, suggesting that it may form hydrophobic interactions, but most was non-amphiphilic consistent with the possibility that it forms weak electrostatic interactions. We conclude that the major form of AChE in frog synaptic basal lamina is globular and that its mode of association with the basal lamina differs from that of the asymmetric forms. PMID:8138570

1994-01-01

79

Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth, Age, and Visual Field Sensitivity in the Portland Progression Project  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the effect of age on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)-detected lamina cribrosa depth while controlling for visual field (VF) status and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in 221 high-risk ocular hypertension and glaucoma patients enrolled in the Portland Progression Project. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, each participant underwent 870-nm SDOCT to obtain high-resolution radial B-scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH) and a standardized ophthalmologic examination, including automated perimetry, on the same day. For each ONH, an anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) parameter was generated as the average perpendicular distance from each anterior lamina cribrosa surface point relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) reference plane within all 24 delineated B-scans. The relative effects of age, age-corrected VF status (mean deviation [MD]), and RNFLT on ALCSD were analyzed. Results. The mean age ± SD of participants was 64 ± 11 years (range, 33–90 years). The relationship between ALCSD and MD was age-dependent. ALCSD = 407.68 ? 67.13 × MD ? 0.08 × Age + 0.89 × MD × Age (MD, P = 0.001; MD × Age, P = 0.004). The relationship between ALCSD and RNFLT may also be age-dependent but did not achieve significance (interaction term, P = 0.067). ALCSD increased with worse VF status in younger eyes but not in older eyes. In older eyes, the anterior lamina was shallower than in younger eyes for the same VF status and RNFLT. Conclusions. These data are consistent with the concept that structure/structure and structure/function relationships change with age. PMID:24474264

Ren, Ruojin; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Fortune, Brad; Hardin, Christy; Demirel, Shaban; Burgoyne, Claude F.

2014-01-01

80

Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses in the floating lamina of Trapa natans exposed to molybdenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to molybdenum (Mo) was studied in the metal-tolerant hydrophyte Trapa natans L. Previously, it was shown that the plant accumulates Mn in the floating lamina by means of phenolic compounds and responded\\u000a with acclimation responses of the chloroplast. Since the involvement of phenolics has been proposed also in Mo resistance,\\u000a we tested the response of T. natans to

Costanza Baldisserotto; Lorenzo Ferroni; Cristina Zanzi; Roberta Marchesini; Antonella Pagnoni; Simonetta Pancaldi

2010-01-01

81

The MAN antigens are non-lamin constituents of the nuclear lamina in vertebrate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of the human antiserum designated MAN has led to the identification of a subset of non-lamin proteins that are exclusively located at the nuclear periphery in all vertebrate cell types examined, from human to fish. Immunoreactive protein species were shown to comprise three major polypeptides of M r78000, 58000 and 40000. These antigens co-partitioned with the nuclear lamina

Micheline Paulin-Levasseur; Deborah Lyn Blake; Martha Julien; Louise Rouleau

1996-01-01

82

Polarization sensitivity of crayfish photoreceptors is correlated with their termination sites in the lamina ganglionaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Crayfish,Procambarus clarkii, photoreceptor sensitivity to the e-vector of polarized light was measured with micropipettes filled with Lucifer Yellow. The terminals of the dye injected cells were located in the two plexiform layers of the lamina ganglionaris (first optic ganglion).2.Receptors with greater sensitivity to the horizontal e-vector orientation projected their terminals to the distal plexiform layer (epl1) (Fig. 2). Conversely, receptors

Rabih Sabra; Raymon M. Glantz

1985-01-01

83

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Assisted Tunnel-Type Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for the Treatment of Esophageal Tumors Arising in the Muscularis Propria (with video)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Esophageal tumors arising in the muscularis propria are difficult to be resected endoscopically using standard electro-surgical techniques, even the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique appeared recently. Our purpose is to investigate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-assisted tunnel-type ESD for resection of these tumors. Methods: A total of 17 patients were included in this study. A standard endoscope was used. The submucosal tunnel was created with the triangle knife according to the standard ESD technique, about 5 cm proximal to the lesion. EUS was performed within the tunnel to detect the tumor, and then the tumor was separated both from the submucosal and the muscle layers. After the tumor was removed, several clips were used to close the mucosal defect. EUS was performed to evaluate the healing quality 1 week after the procedure. Result: In all the cases, the tumors were completely resected. Mean tumor size was 24.2 mm (12-50 mm) in diameter. The histo-logical diagnoses were leiomyoma (16/17) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, 1/17). Subcutaneous emphysema was found in 2 patients after the procedure, but disappeared by the third day. No patients sustained perforation or developed significant hem-orrhage, and there were no other immediate severe complications after the procedure. The healing quality was satisfying in 16/17 patients evaluated by EUS 1 week after the procedure. No recurrence has been found during follow-up (mean 7 months, range 3-13 months). Conclusion: EUS-assisted tunnel-type ESD is effective and safe in treatment of esophageal tumors arising in the muscularis pro-pria. PMID:24949361

Ge, Nan; Sun, Siyu; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Guoxin; Guo, Jintao

2013-01-01

84

Influences of Biogenic Gas Production on Lamina-Scale Microbial Microfabrics in Modern and Ancient Stromatolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromatolites provide a record of Earth’s earliest ecosystems, yet attributing stromatolite characteristics to uniquely biogenic processes is often difficult. Siliceous stromatolites growing at the rim of Obsidian Prime Pool, Yellowstone National Park, USA, resemble finely laminated stromatolites common in Precambrian rocks. Because they consist of well-preserved silicified filaments, they provide a unique opportunity to examine biogenic structures that are analogous ancient stromatolites where biogenicity can be ambiguous. Alternating light-dark laminae couplets in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites reflect variability in density and orientation of silicified filaments. The thinner, dark laminae (10-80 ?m) are comprised of dense networks of silicified filaments, generally oriented parallel to the lamination. The thicker light laminae (40-220 ?m) consist of an open, more porous network of filaments with variable orientation, and include dense hourglass-shaped bundles of filaments surrounding mm-scale, spherical to vertically-elongate pores. These pores are interpreted to have formed from gas bubbles on the lamina surface that were “colonized” by filamentous cyanobacteria that rapidly silicified, preserving the bubble morphology. Quantitative analysis of filament orientation reveals that filament meshes in light laminae are preferentially oriented normal to the lamination surface rather than vertically. However, dense bundles of filaments surrounding bubble pores are often vertically oriented, likely reflecting the influence of vertically migrating gas bubbles. Experiments with living microbial mats confirmed that filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of “colonizing” gas bubbles, and that variability in gas bubble production produces different microstructures, including some that are similar to those in the Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites. Thicker filament bundles, which commonly occur around gas bubbles, may be more robust than filament meshes, and therefore have greater preservation potential. Thus, vertically oriented structures may be preferentially preserved in the geologic record. Indeed, comparisons of fabrics in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites with stromatolite fabrics in the Neoproterozoic Beck Spring Dolomite reveal similar vertical structures surrounding round pores, which likely indicate the presence of photosynthetic microbes and very rapid lithification. In summary, results indicate that biogenic gas production can distinctly influence lamination characteristics in stromatolites and that fabrics with rounded pores may be good indicators of microbial metabolic activity and motility. Furthermore, vertical fabrics in ancient stromatolites may reflect gas bubble production rather than phototaxis.

Harwood, C. L.; Eilers, K. G.; Mata, S. A.; Stork, N. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.; International Geobiology Course 2010

2010-12-01

85

Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

2005-01-01

86

Differentiation of axon-related Schwann cells in vitro. I. Ascorbic acid regulates basal lamina assembly and myelin formation  

PubMed Central

Rat Schwann cells cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons in a serum- free defined medium fail to ensheathe or myelinate axons or assemble basal laminae. Replacement of defined medium with medium that contains human placental serum (HPS) and chick embryo extract (EE) results in both basal lamina and myelin formation. In the present study, the individual effects of HPS and EE on basal lamina assembly and on myelin formation by Schwann cells cultured with neurons have been examined. Some batches of HPS were unable to promote myelin formation in the absence of EE, as assessed by quantitative evaluation of cultures stained with Sudan black; such HPS also failed to promote basal lamina assembly, as assessed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The addition of EE or L-ascorbic acid with such HPS led to the formation of large quantities of myelin and to the assembly of basal laminae. Pretreatment of EE with ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the EE activity, whereas trypsin did not. Other batches of HPS were found to promote both basal lamina and myelin formation in the absence of either EE or ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid oxidase treatment or dialysis of these batches of HPS abolished their ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation, whereas the subsequent addition of ascorbic acid restored that ability. Ascorbic acid in the absence of serum was relatively ineffective in promoting either basal lamina or myelin formation. Fetal bovine serum was as effective as HPS in allowing ascorbic acid (and several analogs but not other reducing agents) to manifest its ability to promote Schwann cell differentiation. We suggest that ascorbic acid promotes Schwann cell myelin formation by enabling the Schwann cell to assemble a basal lamina, which is required for complete differentiation. PMID:3624305

1987-01-01

87

Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

Leach, Natalie R. [Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2010-10-10

88

Harmonic oscillations of a lamina in a viscous fluid near a solid surface: A lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a rigid thickless lamina is immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid and it undergoes transverse finite amplitude harmonic oscillations near a solid surface. The surrounding flow physics is computed through the lattice Boltzmann method. In order to account for the presence of the lamina in the lattice fluid background, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. Several scenarios are investigated by varying the distance between the initial position of the lamina and the solid wall. For a given lamina-solid surface distance, the effect of the Reynolds number is investigated, together with the influence of the Keulegan-Carpenter number. Findings in terms of drag coefficient show that the force exerted by the encompassing fluid upon the lamina is remarkably influenced by the distance from the solid surface, especially for low values of the Reynolds number. Moreover, such results are confirmed by the computation of the hydrodynamic function. In fact, it highlights that the added mass effect and the non-linear damping experienced by the oscillating lamina grow as the above mentioned distance and the Reynolds number reduce.

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-12-01

89

Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

1992-01-01

90

Non-peptidergic primary afferents are presynaptic to neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactive lamina I projection neurons in rat spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Background Pain-related (nociceptive) information is carried from the periphery to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord mostly by two populations of small diameter primary afferents, the peptidergic and the non-peptidergic. The peptidergic population expresses neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, while the non-peptidergic fibers are devoid of neuropeptides, express the purinergic receptor P2X3, and bind the isolectin B4 (IB4). Although it has been known for some time that in rat the peptidergic afferents terminate mostly in lamina I and outer lamina II and non-peptidergic afferents in inner lamina II, the extent of the termination of the latter population in lamina I was never investigated as it was considered as very minor. Because our preliminary evidence suggested otherwise, we decided to re-examine the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I, in particular with regards to their innervation of projection neurons expressing substance P receptors (NK-1r). We used retrograde labeling of neurons from the parabrachial nucleus combined with lectin IB4 binding and immunocytochemistry. Samples were examined by confocal and electron microscopy. Results By confocal microscopy, we studied the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I using IB4 binding and P2X3 immunoreactivity as markers, in relation to CGRP immunoreactivy, a marker of peptidergic afferents. The number of IB4 or P2X3-labeled fibers in lamina I was higher than previously thought, although they were less abundant than CGRP-labeled afferents. There were very few fibers double-labeled for CGRP and either P2X3 or IB4. We found a considerable number of IB4-positive fiber varicosities in close apposition to NK-1r-positive lamina I projection neurons, which were distinct from peptidergic varicosities. Furthermore, we confirmed at the ultrastructural level that there were bona fide synapses between P2X3-immunoreactive non-peptidergic boutons and neurokinin-1 receptor-positive lamina I dendrites. Conclusions These results indicate the presence of direct innervation by non-peptidergic nociceptive afferents of lamina I projection neurons expressing NK-1r. Further investigations are needed to better understand the role of these connections in physiological conditions and chronic pain states. PMID:22963197

2012-01-01

91

Automated lamina cribrosa microstructural segmentation in optical coherence tomography scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an automated segmentation method for in-vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the lamina cribrosa (LC). Manual segmentations of coronal slices of the LC were used as a gold standard in parameter selection and evaluation of the automated technique. The method was validated using two prototype OCT devices; each had a subject cohort including both healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Automated segmentation of in-vivo 3D LC OCT microstructure performed comparably to manual segmentation and is useful for investigative research and in clinical quantification of the LC. PMID:24298418

Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Lu, Chen D.; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Schuman, Joel S.

2013-01-01

92

Invasive mammals.  

PubMed

Every region of the world is concerned by potential mammal invasions, as humans are already present on all the world's land masses. All these invasions are a result of species introductions by humans for one reason or another. The authors briefly review the known movements and observed consequences of mammal-related invasions. They take examples from all five continents, as well as from a few island systems. The ancient introduction of game species, and later of domestic species, has been followed more recently by movements of commercial species. We are now seeing the emergence of what are known as entertainment species. In a number of cases, such introductions have led to the establishment of new epidemiological cycles that previously might never have been thought possible. According to current indicators, this phenomenon is not on the wane. PMID:20919577

Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

2010-08-01

93

Characterization of microvascular basal lamina damage and blood-brain barrier dysfunction following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Vasogenic brain edema is one of the major determinants for mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although the formation of vasogenic brain edema occurs on the microvascular level by opening of endothelial tight junctions and disruption of the basal lamina, microvascular changes following experimental SAH are poorly characterized. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the time course of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and basal lamina damage following SAH as a basis for the better understanding of the pathophysiology of SAH. SAH was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by an endovascular filament. Animals were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, and 72 h thereafter (n=9 per group). Microvascular basal lamina damage was quantified by collagen type IV immunostaining. Western blotting was used to quantify collagen IV protein content and bovine serum albumin (BSA) extravasation as a measure for basal lamina damage and blood-brain barrier disruption, respectively. BSA Western blot revealed significant (p<0.05) BBB opening in the cerebral cortex ipsilateral to the hemorrhage beginning 6 h and peaking 48 h after SAH. Significant (p<0.05) basal lamina damage occurred with gradual increase from 24 to 72 h. Basal lamina damage correlated significantly with BBB dysfunction (r=-0.63; p=0.0001). Microvascular damage as documented by collagen IV degradation and albumin extravasation is a long lasting and ongoing process following SAH. Due to its delayed manner microvascular damage may be prone for therapeutic interventions. However, further investigations are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for basal lamina degradation and hence damage of the microvasculature following SAH. PMID:17303089

Schöller, Karsten; Trinkl, Andreas; Klopotowski, Mariusz; Thal, Serge C; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Trabold, Raimund; Hamann, Gerhard F; Schmid-Elsaesser, Robert; Zausinger, Stefan

2007-04-20

94

Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and nucleoplasmic lamins in adult stem cell regulation and disease?  

PubMed Central

A-type lamins are components of the lamina network at the nuclear envelope, which mediates nuclear stiffness and anchors chromatin to the nuclear periphery. However, A-type lamins are also found in the nuclear interior. Here we review the roles of the chromatin-associated, nucleoplasmic LEM protein, lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) in the regulation of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior. The lamin A/C–LAP2? complex may be involved in the regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-mediated pathway and other signaling pathways balancing proliferation and differentiation, and in the stabilization of higher-order chromatin organization throughout the nucleus. Loss of LAP2? in mice leads to selective depletion of the nucleoplasmic A-type lamin pool, promotes the proliferative stem cell phenotype of tissue progenitor cells, and delays stem cell differentiation. These findings support the hypothesis that LAP2? and nucleoplasmic lamins are regulators of adult stem cell function and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we discuss potential implications of this concept for defining the molecular disease mechanisms of lamin-linked diseases such as muscular dystrophy and premature aging syndromes. PMID:24374133

Gesson, Kevin; Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

2014-01-01

95

Human glomerular visceral epithelial cells synthesize a basal lamina collagen in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Isolated human glomeruli were digested with purified bacterial collagenase yielding epithelial cells. These cells grew to saturation density and did not become multi-layered. They were identified as visceral glomerular epithelial cells by their morphologic appearance by phase and electron microscopy and by the presence of surface receptors for C3b. Neither Factor VIII antigen nor Fc receptors were observed. The glomerular epithelial cells synthesized a collagenous protein that was antigenically similar to human glomerular basal lamina. Proteins precipitated from visceral epithelial cell medium with affinity purified antibody against noncollagenous glomerular basal lamina antigens yielded a single collagenase labile protein that by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis migrated with an apparent Mr of 168,000 in the presence of reducing agents. Analysis of hydroxyproline isomers yielded a ratio of 3-hydroxyproline to total hydroxyproline of 0.17. Pepsin digestion yielded a disulfide-bonded multimer which, with reduction, migrated with an apparent Mr of 148,000. These data demonstrate that human glomerular visceral epithelial cells can be isolated and propagated in vitro and that they synthesize a collagen similar to that found in vivo. Images PMID:91167

Killen, P D; Striker, G E

1979-01-01

96

Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat  

PubMed Central

The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

2014-01-01

97

Major component of acetylcholinesterase in Torpedo electroplax is not basal lamina associated.  

PubMed

Electroplax tissue from Torpedo californica contains two major structural forms of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. One form, composed of tetrameric protomers which are further aggregated by interactions among associated collagenous "tail fibers", has been well characterized previously. This form is associated in situ with the basal lamina. The other form is described and characterized herein. This latter form accounts for at least 50% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of the tissue. This enzyme associated with the tissue phospholipids. It aggregates in aqueous solution but readily dissociates to dimers in 1% sodium cholate solution, a solvent in which it is both soluble and catalytically fully active. The same dimer is obtained in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution where the enzyme is denatured. Denaturation in the presence of the reductant dithiothreitol results in the formation of a single 80000-dalton subunit. The purified enzyme contains no collagenous component. It is not derivable from the collagenous "tailed-enzyme" form in the tissue homogenate. However, the two enzymes have similar molecular weight catalytic subunits and the same substrate-dependent turnover numbers (per active site) for a variety of choline esters which are generally utilized to distinguish specific esterase function. In the tissue homogenate each form of the enzyme is associated with a characteristic structural component (phospholipid or collagen). By implication, acetylcholinesterase function is localized in situ in the phospholipid membrane as well as at the basal lamina. PMID:7459321

Viratelle, O M; Bernhard, S A

1980-10-28

98

Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina.  

PubMed

The distribution of anionic sites on the cell membranes and basal laminae of vascular endothelial cells in the rat sciatic nerve was investigated using cationic ferritin (CF) and cationic colloidal gold (CCG). Nerves fixed by perfusion followed by immersion were chopped into 400 microns thick slices and incubated in CF or embedded in LR White resin for staining with CCG. Using electron microscopy, the distribution of these tracers was investigated. The results indicated that microdomains of various charge densities exist. Diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels, and luminal endothelial processes are highly anionic, the basal laminae of endothelial cells and pericytes and luminal membranes are medium and abluminal membranes least anionic. Inter-endothelial tight junctions were unlabelled and not penetrated by CF. These structures are thought to represent charge and size filters that control permeability of the vasa nervorum. The distribution of these charge-size filters is discussed in terms of the blood-nerve barrier, a physiological property present in the endo- but absent in the peri- and epineurial vessels. PMID:1705854

Bush, M S; Allt, G

1990-12-10

99

Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and nucleoplasmic lamins in adult stem cell regulation and disease.  

PubMed

A-type lamins are components of the lamina network at the nuclear envelope, which mediates nuclear stiffness and anchors chromatin to the nuclear periphery. However, A-type lamins are also found in the nuclear interior. Here we review the roles of the chromatin-associated, nucleoplasmic LEM protein, lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) in the regulation of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior. The lamin A/C-LAP2? complex may be involved in the regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-mediated pathway and other signaling pathways balancing proliferation and differentiation, and in the stabilization of higher-order chromatin organization throughout the nucleus. Loss of LAP2? in mice leads to selective depletion of the nucleoplasmic A-type lamin pool, promotes the proliferative stem cell phenotype of tissue progenitor cells, and delays stem cell differentiation. These findings support the hypothesis that LAP2? and nucleoplasmic lamins are regulators of adult stem cell function and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we discuss potential implications of this concept for defining the molecular disease mechanisms of lamin-linked diseases such as muscular dystrophy and premature aging syndromes. PMID:24374133

Gesson, Kevin; Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

2014-05-01

100

Invasive Bluegills  

E-print Network

" policy and offering recipes for blue gill fried, marinated and in chili sauce. Hmmm. Maybe we can adopt that approach to deal with our own invasive Japanese species... so would you like that kudzu with a balsamic vinaigrette or the house dressing? #ceas...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2008-02-13

101

Constitutive nuclear lamina–genome interactions are highly conserved and associated with A/T-rich sequence  

PubMed Central

In metazoans, the nuclear lamina is thought to play an important role in the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes, by providing anchoring sites for large genomic segments named lamina-associated domains (LADs). Some of these LADs are cell-type specific, while many others appear constitutively associated with the lamina. Constitutive LADs (cLADs) may contribute to a basal chromosome architecture. By comparison of mouse and human lamina interaction maps, we find that the sizes and genomic positions of cLADs are strongly conserved. Moreover, cLADs are depleted of synteny breakpoints, pointing to evolutionary selective pressure to keep cLADs intact. Paradoxically, the overall sequence conservation is low for cLADs. Instead, cLADs are universally characterized by long stretches of DNA of high A/T content. Cell-type specific LADs also tend to adhere to this “A/T rule” in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated cells. This suggests that the A/T rule represents a default positioning mechanism that is locally overruled during lineage commitment. Analysis of paralogs suggests that during evolution changes in A/T content have driven the relocation of genes to and from the nuclear lamina, in tight association with changes in expression level. Taken together, these results reveal that the spatial organization of mammalian genomes is highly conserved and tightly linked to local nucleotide composition. PMID:23124521

Meuleman, Wouter; Peric-Hupkes, Daan; Kind, Jop; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Pagie, Ludo; Kellis, Manolis; Reinders, Marcel; Wessels, Lodewyk; van Steensel, Bas

2013-01-01

102

Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi Glossary Biological invasion The process by which species on its environment. Invasibility The vulnerability of a habitat, community, or ecosystem of biological invasions. Invasional meltdown The phenomenon in which multiple nonnative species facilitate one

Ricciardi, Anthony

103

Combined light and electron microscopy of Golgi-labelled neurons in lamina III of the feline spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

Golgi-impregnated neurons in lamina III of the cat spinal cord were examined using light microscopy and combined light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed that the neurons formed a variety of dendrite configurations. The majority of neurons arborised in the rostrocaudal plane and were confined to the lamina of origin. However, some arborised dorsoventrally and had dendrites that penetrated lamina II. Electron microscopy of the neurons revealed that they were associated with many different types of bouton, thus suggesting that they received synaptic input from various sources. Some of the boutons were postsynaptic to other axon terminals indicating that they are under presynaptic control. One of the neurons participated in synaptic triads which consisted of two axo-axonically coupled boutons that were presynaptic to the cell. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:4077713

Maxwell, D J

1985-01-01

104

Invasive Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive plant species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-10

105

Optical seeing-mechanism of formation of thin turbulent laminae in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from balloon soundings taken at sites in the Canary Islands, France, and Chile are used to show that hydrodynamic instability, perhaps engendered by the propagation of buoyancy (gravity) or other waves, leads to the formation of thin, turbulent laminae, or ""seeing layers.'' These seeing layers occur almost invariably in pairs and exhibit large values for the temperature-structure coefficient CT 2 because they form where the gradient of temperature is particularly steep. The refractive-index-structure coefficient is correspondingly large, and so these layers adversely affect the quality of optical propagation. The mechanism proposed here is already known to create clear air turbulence in the stratosphere, and we show how it is consistent with the formation of thin turbulent seeing layers in the troposphere and the stratosphere at night, when the atmosphere is generally stably stratified.

Coulman, C. E.; Vernin, J.; Fuchs, A.

1995-08-01

106

Functional coupling between the extracellular matrix and nuclear lamina by Wnt signaling in Progeria  

PubMed Central

The segmental premature aging disease, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A. In a mouse model for HGPS, a similar Lamin A variant causes the proliferative arrest and death of post-natal but not embryonic fibroblasts. Arrest is due to an inability to produce a functional extracellular matrix (ECM), as growth on normal ECM rescues proliferation. The defects are associated with inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling, due to reduced nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Lef1, but not Tcf4, in both mouse and human progeric cells. Defective Wnt signaling, affecting ECM synthesis, maybe critical to the etiology of HGPS as mice exhibit skeletal defects and apoptosis in major blood vessels proximal to the heart. These results establish a functional link between the nuclear envelope/lamina and the cell surface/ECM and may provide insights into the role of Wnt signaling and the ECM in aging. PMID:20833363

Hernandez, Lidia; Roux, Kyle J.; Wong, Esther Sook Min; Mounkes, Leslie C.; Mutalif, Rafidah; Navasankari, Raju; Rai, Bina; Cool, Simon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Wang, Honghe; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kozlov, Serguei; Grunert, Martin; Keeble, Thomas; Jones, C. Michael; Meta, Margarita D.; Young, Stephen G.; Daar, Ira O.; Burke, Brian; Perantoni, Alan O.; Stewart, Colin L.

2010-01-01

107

Ventral lamina terminalis mediates enhanced cardiovascular responses of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons during increased dietary salt.  

PubMed

Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurons of the forebrain lamina terminalis (LT) mediated these changes in the RVLM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without LT lesions were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl for 14 to 15 days. Unilateral injection of l-glutamate into the RVLM produced significantly larger increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure of sham rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, these differences were not observed between ventral LT-lesioned rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. Similar findings were observed when angiotensin II or gamma-aminobutyric acid was injected into the RVLM. Interestingly, a subset of animals drinking 0.9% but with damage restricted to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis did not show enhanced responses to l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid. In marked contrast, RVLM injection of l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid produced exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses in animals drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water after an acute ventral LT lesion or chronic lesion of the subfornical organ. Additional experiments demonstrated that plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were increased at night in rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl. These findings suggest that neurons of the ventral LT mediate the ability of increased dietary salt to enhance the responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic neurons. PMID:19506102

Adams, Julye M; Bardgett, Megan E; Stocker, Sean D

2009-08-01

108

Heat treatment of retinal pigment epithelium induces production of elastic lamina components and antiangiogenic activity  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. In advanced AMD, new vessels from choriocapillaris (CC) invade through the Bruch's membrane (BrM) into the retina, forming choroidal neovascularization (CNV). BrM, an elastic lamina that is located between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and CC, is thought to act as a physical and functional barrier against CNV. The BrM of patients with early AMD are characterized by decreased levels of antiangiogenic factors, including endostatin, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), as well as by degeneration of the elastic layer. Motivated by a previous report that heat increases elastin expression in human skin, we examined the effect of heat on human ARPE-19 cell production of BrM components. Heat treatment stimulated the production of BrM components, including TSP-1, PEDF, and tropoelastin in vitro and increased the antiangiogenic activity of RPE measured in a mouse corneal pocket assay. The effect of heat on experimental CNV was investigated by pretreating the retina with heat via infrared diode laser prior to the induction of CNV. Heat treatment blocked the development of experimental CNV in vivo. These findings suggest that heat treatment may restore BrM integrity and barrier function against new vessel growth.—Sekiyama, E., Saint-Geniez, M., Yoneda, K., Hisatomi, T., Nakao, S., Walshe, T. E., Maruyama, K., Hafezi-Moghadam, A., Miller, J. W., Kinoshita, S., D'Amore, P. A. Heat treatment of retinal pigment epithelium induces production of elastic lamina components and anti-angiogenic activity. PMID:22067481

Sekiyama, Eiichi; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Yoneda, Kazuhito; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakao, Shintaro; Walshe, Tony E.; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Miller, Joan W.; Kinoshita, Shigeru; D'Amore, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

109

Viral Mimicry of Cdc2/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 Mediates Disruption of Nuclear Lamina during Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress  

PubMed Central

The nuclear lamina is a major obstacle encountered by herpesvirus nucleocapsids in their passage from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (nuclear egress). We found that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase UL97, which is required for efficient nuclear egress, phosphorylates the nuclear lamina component lamin A/C in vitro on sites targeted by Cdc2/cyclin-dependent kinase 1, the enzyme that is responsible for breaking down the nuclear lamina during mitosis. Quantitative mass spectrometry analyses, comparing lamin A/C isolated from cells infected with viruses either expressing or lacking UL97 activity, revealed UL97-dependent phosphorylation of lamin A/C on the serine at residue 22 (Ser22). Transient treatment of HCMV-infected cells with maribavir, an inhibitor of UL97 kinase activity, reduced lamin A/C phosphorylation by approximately 50%, consistent with UL97 directly phosphorylating lamin A/C during HCMV replication. Phosphorylation of lamin A/C during viral replication was accompanied by changes in the shape of the nucleus, as well as thinning, invaginations, and discrete breaks in the nuclear lamina, all of which required UL97 activity. As Ser22 is a phosphorylation site of particularly strong relevance for lamin A/C disassembly, our data support a model wherein viral mimicry of a mitotic host cell kinase activity promotes nuclear egress while accommodating viral arrest of the cell cycle. PMID:19165338

Ndassa-Colday, Yasmine M.; Lin, Alison J.; Jahng, Wan Jin; Baek, Moon-Chang; Noton, Sarah; Silva, Laurie A.; Simpson-Holley, Martha; Knipe, David M.; Golan, David E.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Coen, Donald M.

2009-01-01

110

Angiotensin II receptor content within the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum lamina terminalis increases after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nests of cells within the central nervous system, namely the circumventricular organs (CVOs) which include the subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), area postrema (AP) and the median eminence (ME) are known to contain not only receptors for angiotensin II (ANG II) but also ANG II itself. Though the significance of this central ANG II network in

B. Açikgöz; T. Özgen; F. Özdo?an; A. Sungur; ?. Hakki Tekkök

1996-01-01

111

The development of the reticular lamina in the hamster: An examination of transitory features and their functional roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the development of the reticular lamina in the Syrian golden hamster postriatally from birth to adulthood at 2 day intervals using the scanning electron microscope. During this period, numerous transitory features emerged whose roles were concerned primarily with the development of the tectorial membrane (TM). The principal findings were as follows. (1) The surface of the developing

James A Kaltenbach; Pamela R Falzarano

1997-01-01

112

Evidence of Constriction of Optic Nerve Axons at the Lamina cribrosa in the Normotensive Eye in Humans and Other Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of optic nerve axons was examined in several mammals (human, cat, rat, sheep, ox, pig, guinea pig, rabbit). Human material was obtained from normotensive, glaucoma-free eyes and from eyes with a history of glaucoma and raised intra-ocular pressure (IOP). We describe accumulations of organelles (principally mitochondria) in optic nerve axons where they traverse the lamina cribrosa. Accumulations were

Horstmar Hollander; Felix Makarov; F. H. Stefani; Jonathan Stone

1995-01-01

113

Aging is associated with increased collagen type IV accumulation in the basal lamina of human cerebral microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microvascular alterations contribute to the development of stroke and vascular dementia. The goal of this study was to evaluate age and hypertension related changes of the basal lamina in cerebral microvessels of individuals, who died from non-cerebral causes. RESULTS: We examined 27 human brains: 11 young and 16 old patients. Old patients were divided into two subgroups, those with

Olga Uspenskaia; Martin Liebetrau; Jochen Herms; Adrian Danek; Gerhard F Hamann

2004-01-01

114

Primary osteosarcoma of the L2 lamina presenting as “silent” paraplegia: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary osteosarcomas of the vertebral column are not common, and to our knowledge a total of 78 cases, mostly located in the vertebral body, have been previously reported. We report a primary osteosarcoma of the spine with an extremely rare location — the lamina of the second lumbar vertebra. The patient, a 38-year-old woman, was admitted with paraplegia of a

P. Korovessis; M. Repanti; M. Stamatakis

1995-01-01

115

Membrane properties of nociceptive neurones in lamina II of lumbar spinal cord in the cat.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord of the cat, and the electrotonic responses to brief rectangular current pulses of up to 0.5 nA passed through the recording microelectrode measured. 2. The majority of penetrations were associated with input resistances lower than 70 M omega, low resting potentials (-25 to -45 mV) and frequent firing of action potentials. Stable resting potentials of -50 to -75 mV were recorded in twenty neurones which exhibited continuous ongoing synaptic activity without action potentials. The threshold for action potential initiation was around -42 mV. The current-voltage relationships were linear over most of the range of currents used; with depolarizing currents rectification became apparent close to the firing threshold. Input resistances ranged from 80 to 150 M omega. 3. The time course of the decay of the electrotonic response was exponential with a time constant of 0.8-2.0 ms. The morphology of the cells--small soma with a small number of fine processes--and these short time constants suggest that axial current flow is limited and that the charge is dissipated locally within the soma through the membrane capacitance. 4. Effective membrane capacities were calculated from the estimated soma surface area of typical neurones in lamina II stained with HRP, and assuming a specific membrane conductance of 1.0 microF cm-2 they ranged from 3.1 to 15.7 pF. Membrane capacities were calculated for the twenty neurones in this study from measurement of input resistance and time constants (6.4-15.0 pF) and lay within this range. 5. Three neurones which had their electrical properties measured were also stained with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Their specific membrane capacitances (1.1-1.2 microF cm-2) and specific resistances (0.9-1.1 k omega cm2) were within the range of values measured for other neurones in the CNS. 6. The short time constants found for these neurones suggests that temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials evoked by short-acting neurotransmitters will be limited. This may help to explain why action potentials arise singly from discrete, short-lived EPSPs. There is anatomical evidence for multiple connections from terminal branches of A delta and C afferent fibres within the superficial dorsal horn; this suggests that spatial summation of EPSPs is a major factor in synaptic integration of some of the primary afferent inputs to these neurones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3418530

Iggo, A; Molony, V; Steedman, W M

1988-01-01

116

British Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month marks the 35th anniversary of the Beatles' arrival in America, an event that sparked the "second British Invasion" of 1964-67. Soon after their historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, a string of British bands sought their fortune on the US pop charts, as American youths clamored for singles, clothes, and anything else hip and new from the old country. This new site from the Encyclopedia Brittanica offers brief histories of the influences, careers, and members of some of the principal British invaders, including the Beatles, the Who, the Rolling Stones, the Kinks, and the Hollies. Other resources include RealPlayer music clips, a section on London fashion with a movie of a 1966 Carnaby Street fashion show, band trading cards, and sections exploring the roots of British rock.

1999-01-01

117

Lamina-Specific Alterations in Cortical GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia is associated with lamina-specific alterations in particular subpopulations of interneurons. In pyramidal cells, postsynaptic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors containing different ? subunits are inserted preferentially in distinct subcellular locations targeted by inputs from specific interneuron subpopulations. We used in situ hybridization to quantify the laminar expression of ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?5 subunit, and of ?1-3 subunit, mRNAs in the DLFPC of schizophrenia, and matched normal comparison subjects. In subjects with schizophrenia, mean GABAA ?1 mRNA expression was 17% lower in layers 3 and 4, ?2 expression was 14% higher in layer 2, ?5 expression was 15% lower in layer 4, and ?3 expression did not differ relative to comparison subjects. The mRNA expression of ?2, which preferentially assembles with ?1 subunits, was also 20% lower in layers 3 and 4, whereas ?1 and ?3 mRNA levels were not altered in schizophrenia. These expression differences were not attributable to medication effects or other potential confounds. These findings suggest that GABA neurotransmission in the DLPFC is altered at the postsynaptic level in a receptor subunit- and layer-specific manner in subjects with schizophrenia and support the hypothesis that GABA neurotransmission in this illness is predominantly impaired in certain cortical microcircuits. PMID:20843900

Abbott, Andrew; Hashimoto, Takanori; Lewis, David A.

2011-01-01

118

Non-Hebbian plasticity at C-fiber synapses in rat spinal cord lamina I neurons.  

PubMed

Current concepts of memory storage are largely based on Hebbian-type synaptic long-term potentiation induced by concurrent activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Little is known about non-Hebbian synaptic plasticity, which, if present in nociceptive pathways, could resolve a number of unexplained findings. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat spinal cord slices and found that a rise in postsynaptic [Ca(2+)]i due to postsynaptic depolarization was sufficient to induce synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the absence of any presynaptic conditioning stimulation. LTP induction could be prevented by postsynaptic application of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid), the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) antagonist nifedipine, and by postsynaptic application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801. This indicates that synaptic potentiation was induced postsynaptically by Ca(2+) entry likely via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) and via NMDA receptor channels. The paired pulse ratio and the coefficient of variation remained unchanged in neurons expressing LTP, suggesting that this form of synaptic potentiation was not only induced, but also expressed postsynaptically. Postsynaptic depolarization had no influence on firing patterns, action potential shape, or neuronal excitability. An increase in [Ca(2+)]i in spinal lamina I neurons induces a non-Hebbian form of synaptic plasticity in spinal nociceptive pathways without affecting neuronal active and passive membrane properties. PMID:23707311

Naka, Asami; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Sandkühler, Jürgen

2013-08-01

119

The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

120

Fos immunoreactivity in the lamina terminalis of adrenalectomized rats and effects of angiotension II type 1 receptor blockade or deoxycorticosterone.  

PubMed

Neural activity, as measured immunohistochemically by the presence of Fos protein, was determined in the lamina terminalis, a thin strip of tissue forming the anterior wall of the third brain ventricle, after adrenalectomy. Several weeks after surgery, the adrenalectomized rats were maintained with access to water and a low sodium diet for five days. In addition, hypertonic (0.5M) NaCl solution was available for the entire five-day period (sodium available) or only during the first four days (sodium unavailable). The number of neurons expressing Fos, determined at the end of the fifth day, was increased in the adrenalectomized rats with or without NaCl solution to drink. Fos activity in the median preoptic nucleus was increased only in adrenalectomized rats without access to NaCl solution. Treatment of adrenalectomized rats with the sodium-retaining mineralocorticoid hormone, deoxycorticosterone, at the end of the fourth day, decreased Fos expression in the subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis when NaCl solution was available but not when the NaCl solution was unavailable. In the adrenalectomized rats with NaCl solution available, mineralocorticoid treatment decreased both urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake. Brain nuclei in the lamina terminalis also became activated in intact rats made sodium deplete by treatment with the diuretic, furosemide. Relative to sodium-deplete intact rats, however, sodium-deplete adrenalectomized rats had a greater number of neurons expressing Fos in the organum vasculosum. Treatment of sodium-deplete rats, adrenalectomized or intact, with the angiotensin II-type 1 receptor antagonist, ZD7155, decreased sodium intake and Fos expression in the subfornical organ but not in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis or median preoptic nucleus. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that activation of the brain nuclei located in the lamina terminalis of adrenalectomized rats was primarily related to sodium deficit and not to the absence of the mineralocorticoid hormones, although the adrenal hormones may have a role in limiting the activation of organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis during sodium depletion. Furthermore, the results obtained with the administration of the angiotensin receptor antagonist are consistent with the proposal that sodium appetite of the sodium-deplete rat, adrenalectomized or intact, is mediated by circulating angiotensin II acting in the subfornical organ. PMID:10858623

Weisinger, R S; Burns, P; Colvill, L M; Davern, P; Giles, M E; Oldfield, B J; McKinley, M J

2000-01-01

121

An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

1991-01-01

122

Endothelial nuclear lamina is not required for glucocorticoid receptor nuclear import but does affect receptor-mediated transcription activation  

PubMed Central

The lamina serves to maintain the nuclear structure and stiffness while acting as a scaffold for heterochromatin and many transcriptional proteins. Its role in endothelial mechanotransduction, specifically how nuclear mechanics impact gene regulation under shear stress, is not fully understood. In this study, we successfully silenced lamin A/C in bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine its role in both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) transcriptional activation in response to dexamethasone and shear stress. Nuclear translocation of GR, an anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor, in response to dexamethasone or shear stress (5, 10, and 25 dyn/cm2) was observed via time-lapse cell imaging and quantified using a Bayesian image analysis algorithm. Transcriptional activity of the GRE promoter was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid. We found no dependence on nuclear lamina for GR translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, the absence of lamin A/C led to significantly increased expression of luciferase under dexamethasone and shear stress induction as well as changes in histone protein function. PCR results for NF-?B inhibitor alpha (NF-?BIA) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) genes further supported our luciferase data with increased expression in the absence of lamin. Our results suggest that absence of lamin A/C does not hinder passage of GR into the nucleus, but nuclear lamina is important to properly regulate GRE transcription. Nuclear lamina, rather than histone deacetylase (HDAC), is a more significant mediator of shear stress-induced transcriptional activity, while dexamethasone-initiated transcription is more HDAC dependent. Our findings provide more insights into the molecular pathways involved in nuclear mechanotransduction. PMID:23703529

Nayebosadri, Arman

2013-01-01

123

Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).  

PubMed

The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

1985-06-01

124

Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).  

PubMed Central

The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

1985-01-01

125

Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

2012-04-01

126

What is relationship between the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and Kallmann syndrome?  

PubMed

The medial preoptic area is a structure located in the hypothalamic anteroventral third ventricle region, and is closely related to the olfactory brain development and sexual differentiation of the brain. The medial preoptic area surrounds the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and both structures are the main areas where synthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone occurs in the brain. Neurons synthesizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone migrate from the medial nasal epithelium to the rostral brain and reach the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the medial preoptic area. Kallmann syndrome is a genetic disorder which combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is characterized by the absence or reduced levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and anosmia due to olfactory bulb aplasia. This paper speculates on the connection between the development of the medial preoptic area, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and olfactory bulbs with Kallmann syndrome, since the anteroventral third ventricle region is crucial for the normal development of these structures and its connection with the olfactory nerves and sexual maturation. PMID:23702295

Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Agustín; González-Toledo, Juan M; de Paz-Carmona, Héctor; Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Carmona-Calero, Emilia M

2013-08-01

127

Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).  

PubMed

We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces. PMID:11788405

Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

2002-02-01

128

Inhibition of lamina outgrowth following Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10 (SlARF10) derepression.  

PubMed

Auxin response factors (ARFs) are plant transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of auxin-responsive genes and accordingly, play key roles in auxin-mediated developmental processes. Here we identified and characterized the Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) ARF10 homolog (SlARF10), demonstrated that it is posttranscriptionally regulated by Sl-miR160, and investigated the significance of this regulation for tomato development. In wild-type tomato, SlARF10 is primarily expressed in the pericarp of mature and ripened fruit, showing an expression profile complementary to that of Sl-miR160. Constitutive expression of wild-type SlARF10 did not alter tomato development. However, transgenic tomato plants that constitutively expressed the Sl-miR160a-resistant version (mSlARF10) developed narrow leaflet blades, sepals and petals, and abnormally shaped fruit. During compound leaf development, mSlARF10 accumulation specifically inhibited leaflet blade outgrowth without affecting other auxin-driven processes such as leaflet initiation and lobe formation. Moreover, blade size was inversely correlated with mSlARF10 transcript levels, strongly implying that the SlARF10 protein, which was localized to the nucleus, can function as a transcriptional repressor of leaflet lamina outgrowth. Accordingly, known auxin-responsive genes, which promote cell growth, were downregulated in shoot apices that accumulated increased mSlARF10 levels. Taken together, we propose that repression of SlARF10 by Sl-miR160 is essential for auxin-mediated blade outgrowth and early fruit development. PMID:22287097

Hendelman, A; Buxdorf, K; Stav, R; Kravchik, M; Arazi, T

2012-04-01

129

Cytotoxic T cells in AIDS colonic cryptosporidiosis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims—It is not known how enteric cryptosporidiosis induces severe intestinal impairment despite minimal invasion by the parasite. The aim of this study was to analyse the histological features and locally implicated immune cells in colonic biopsies of AIDS related cryptosporidiosis. Patients/Methods—Colonic biopsies from patients with AIDS related cryptosporidiosis (n = 10, group I), patients with AIDS but without intestinal infection (n = 9, group II), and human seronegative controls (n = 9, group III) were studied. Using immunohistochemistry the infiltrating mononuclear cells were analysed in both the epithelium and lamina propria for the expression of CD3, CD8, TiA1, granzyme B, and CD68 and for glandular expression of human major histocompatibility complex DR antigen (HLA-DR). Results—Severe histological changes, resulting in abundant crypt epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria, were seen in all biopsies from group I. A significant increase of CD8+, TiA1+, and granzyme B+ T cells in the lamina propria and HLA-DR glandular expression was noted in group I compared with groups II and III. However, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria CD3+ T cells, and macrophages was not significantly increased in cryptosporidiosis specimens compared with controls. Conclusion—Epithelial apoptosis mediated by granzyme B+ cytotoxic host T cells might play a major role in the development of colonic lesions in AIDS related cryptosporidiosis. Key Words: cryptosporidiosis • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome • colon • apoptosis • cytotoxicity • immunochemistry PMID:11304847

Reijasse, D; de Serre, N P.-M.; Canioni, D; Huerre, M; Haddad, E; Leborgne, M; Blanche, S; Brousse, N

2001-01-01

130

A novel 105-kDa lamina lucida autoantigen: association with bullous pemphigoid.  

PubMed

Several cases have been reported of patients with immunemediated subepidermal blistering disorders whose autoantibodies react to antigens present on both the dermal and epidermal side of 1 M NaCl-split skin. In this report, we identify, localize, and characterize the basement membrane zone antigen corresponding to the dermal staining in a patient whose serum stains both the dermal and epidermal side of 1 M NaCl-split skin. This patient's serum contains autoantibodies directed against a 105-kilodalton(kDa) dermal antigen and the 230-kDa epidermal (bullous pemphigoid) antigen. This novel 105-kDa protein was previously identified as the sole antigen in another patient with a unique bullous disease whose autoantibodies were directed against only the dermal side of 1 M NaCl-split skin. This 105-kDa antigen was identical by one- and two-dimensional immunoblot analysis in these two patients. By immunoblot analysis, autoantibodies from our patient labeled a 105-kDa protein within various extracts of human skin basement membrane. Immunoblot analyses using epitope-selected autoantibodies directed against the 105-kDa protein demonstrated that this antigen is independent and distinct from other known basement membrane antigens. The 105-kDa antigen is an extracellular matrix component of the basement membrane, which is synthesized and secreted by both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Identical electrophoretic migration of cellular and secreted forms of the protein suggested there is no major post-translational modification of the protein. Immunomapping of normal human skin fractured through the dermal-epidermal junction by incubation in 1 M NaCl or by suction blistering demonstrated that the location of the 105-kDa antigen within the basement membrane zone is between the bullous pemphigoid antigens and two other lamina lucida components, laminin and nicein. These data demonstrate clearly that a subepidermal autoimmune bullous disease may have autoantibodies directed against two distinct components of the dermal-epidermal junction. PMID:8027584

Cotell, S L; Lapiere, J C; Chen, J D; Iwasaki, T; Krusinski, P A; Chan, L S; Woodley, D T

1994-07-01

131

Reproducibility of Measuring Lamina Cribrosa Pore Geometry in Human and Nonhuman Primates with In Vivo Adaptive Optics Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The ability to consistently resolve lamina cribrosa pores in vivo has applications in the study of optic nerve head and retinal disease mechanisms. Repeatability was assessed in imaging laminar pores in normal living eyes with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Methods. Reflectance images (840 nm) of the anterior lamina cribrosa were acquired using the AOSLO in four or more different sessions in two normal rhesus monkey eyes and three normal human eyes. Laminar pore areas, elongations (ratio of major to minor axes of the best-fit ellipse) and nearest neighbor distances were calculated for each session. Measurement repeatability was assessed across sessions. Results. Pore areas ranged from 90 to 4365 ?m2 in monkeys and 154 to 6637 ?m2 in humans. Mean variabilities in measuring pore area and elongation (i.e., mean of the standard deviation of measurements made across sessions for the same pores) were 50 ?m2 (6.1%) and 0.13 (6.7%), respectively, in monkeys and 113 ?m2 (8.3%) and 0.17 (7.7%), respectively, in humans. Mean variabilities in measuring nearest neighbor distances were 1.93 ?m (5.2%) in monkeys and 2.79 ?m (4.1%) in humans. There were no statistically significant differences in any pore parameters across sessions (ANOVA, P > 0.05). Conclusions. The anterior lamina cribrosa was consistently imaged in vivo in normal monkey and human eyes. The small intersession variability in normal pore geometry suggests that AOSLO imaging could be used to measure and track changes in laminar pores in vivo during glaucomatous progression. PMID:21546533

Li, Chaohong; Patel, Nimesh; Sredar, Nripun; Luo, Xunda; Queener, Hope; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Porter, Jason

2011-01-01

132

Invasive Species Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Conservation Biology Dr. Philpott Thanks to Dr. Mayer for many images and text #12;Which of the following are "exotic species"? · Wheat in Kansas · Steelhead trout in Lake Michigan · Bluegrass in Kentucky · Zebra mussels in Lake Erie #12;Invasive Species · Terminology · Routes of Invasion

Gottgens, Hans

133

Invasive Species: Lightning Round!  

E-print Network

Invasive Species: Lightning Round! Dan Gullickson, MnDOT Peter Leete, MN DNR;#12;#12;Metro Ash Tree Inventory Research Project #12;#12;AquaCc Invasive Species Peter Leete #12;AquaFc Invasive Species Minnesota has several state laws intended

Minnesota, University of

134

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

135

Nuclear lamina defects cause ATM-dependent NF-?B activation and link accelerated aging to a systemic inflammatory response  

PubMed Central

Alterations in the architecture and dynamics of the nuclear lamina have a causal role in normal and accelerated aging through both cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the molecular cues involved in this process remains incompletely defined. Here we report that the accumulation of prelamin A isoforms at the nuclear lamina triggers an ATM- and NEMO-dependent signaling pathway that leads to NF-?B activation and secretion of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in two different mouse models of accelerated aging (Zmpste24?/? and LmnaG609G/G609G mice). Causal involvement of NF-?B in accelerated aging was demonstrated by the fact that both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B signaling prevents age-associated features in these animal models, significantly extending their longevity. Our findings provide in vivo proof of principle for the feasibility of pharmacological modulation of the NF-?B pathway to slow down the progression of physiological and pathological aging. PMID:23019125

Osorio, Fernando G.; Barcena, Clea; Soria-Valles, Clara; Ramsay, Andrew J.; de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Juan; Fueyo, Antonio; Freije, Jose M.P.; Lopez-Otin, Carlos

2012-01-01

136

Environmental enrichment causes a global potentiation of neuronal responses across stimulus complexity and lamina of sensory cortex  

PubMed Central

Enriched social and physical housing produces many molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavior benefits even in adult animals. Much less is known of its effects on cortical electrophysiology, especially in how sensory cortex encodes the altered environment, and extant studies have generally been restricted to neurons in input laminae in sensory cortex. To extend the understanding of how an enriched environment alters the way in which cortex views the world, we investigated enrichment-induced changes in neuronal encoding of sensory stimuli across all laminae of the rat barrel cortex receiving input from the face whisker tactile system. Animals were housed in Enriched (n = 13) or Isolated housing (n = 13) conditions for 8 weeks before extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex in response to simple whisker deflections and whisker motions modeling movements seen in awake animals undertaking a variety of different tasks. Enrichment resulted in increases in neuronal responses to all stimuli, ranging from those modeling exploratory behavior through to discrimination behaviors. These increases were seen throughout the cortex from supragranular layers through to input Layer 4 and for some stimuli, in infragranular Layer 5. The observed enrichment-induced effect is consistent with the postulate that enrichment causes shift in cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance, and we demonstrate this is greatest in supragranular layers. However, we also report that the effects are non-selective for stimulus parameters across a range of stimuli except for one modeling the likely use of whiskers by the rats in the enriched housing. PMID:23964199

Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

2013-01-01

137

What is an Invasive Species? Invasion Ecology's terminology problem  

E-print Network

What is an Invasive Species? #12;Invasion Ecology's terminology problem Lockwood text #12;What is an Invasive Species? · Non-native · Capable of surviving without direct help from people (naturalized consequences #12;Why are Invasive Species here? #12;Why are Invasive Species here? · We brought them here

Schweik, Charles M.

138

A silent invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions mediated by humans have been reported from around the world, and ships’ ballast water has been recognized as the\\u000a main source of marine invaders worldwide. Some invasions have dramatic economic and ecological consequences. On the other\\u000a hand, many invasions especially in the marine realm, can go unnoticed. Here we identify a human mediated, worldwide introduction\\u000a of the hydrozoan species

Maria Pia Miglietta; Harilaos A. Lessios

2009-01-01

139

Non-peptidergic small diameter primary afferents expressing VGluT2 project to lamina I of mouse spinal dorsal horn  

PubMed Central

Background Unmyelinated primary afferent nociceptors are commonly classified into two main functional types: those expressing neuropeptides, and non-peptidergic fibers that bind the lectin IB4. However, many small diameter primary afferent neurons neither contain any known neuropeptides nor bind IB4. Most express high levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) and are assumed to be glutamatergic nociceptors but their terminations within the spinal cord are unknown. We used in vitro anterograde axonal tracing with Neurobiotin to identify the central projections of these putative glutamatergic nociceptors. We also quantitatively characterised the spatial arrangement of these terminals with respect to those that expressed the neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Results Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-immunoreactive (IR) terminals were restricted to lamina I, with a medial-to-lateral distribution similar to CGRP-IR terminals. Most VGluT2-IR terminals in lateral lamina I were not labeled by Neurobiotin implying that they arose mainly from central neurons. 38 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR terminals contained CGRP-IR. Conversely, only 17 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled CGRP-IR terminals expressed detectable VGluT2-IR. Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR or CGRP-IR terminals often aggregated into small clusters or microdomains partially surrounding intrinsic lamina I neurons. Conclusions The central terminals of primary afferents which express high levels of VGluT2-IR but not CGRP-IR terminate mainly in lamina I. The spatial arrangement of VGluT2-IR and CGRP-IR terminals suggest that lamina I neurons receive convergent inputs from presumptive nociceptors that are primarily glutamatergic or peptidergic. This reveals a previously unrecognized level of organization in lamina I consistent with the presence of multiple nociceptive processing pathways. PMID:22152428

2011-01-01

140

Repeatability of in vivo 3D lamina cribrosa microarchitecture using adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the repeatability of lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture for in vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of healthy, glaucoma suspects, and glaucomatous eyes. Eyes underwent two scans using a prototype adaptive optics spectral domain OCT (AO-SDOCT) device from which LC microarchitecture was semi-automatically segmented. LC segmentations were used to quantify pore and beam structure through several global microarchitecture parameters. Repeatability of LC microarchitecture was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating parameter imprecision. For all but one parameters (pore volume) measurement imprecision was <4.7% of the mean value, indicating good measurement reproducibility. Imprecision ranged between 27.3% and 54.5% of the population standard deviation for each parameter, while there was not a significant effect on imprecision due to disease status, indicating utility in testing for LC structural trends. PMID:24761293

Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X; Schuman, Joel S

2014-04-01

141

Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.  

PubMed

Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies. PMID:23430352

Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

2013-06-01

142

The Alien Invasion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alien Invasion? explores the increasingly prevalent undercurrent of xenophobia and nativism appearing both in political circles and major media outlets throughout the nation. Of prime significance to the invasion rhetoric are the arguments that the current wave of immigration is of a volume unprecedented in American history, that it negatively impacts the nation’s economy, and that it puts America’s

Ediberto Roman

2008-01-01

143

Species Invasiveness in Biological Invasions: A Modelling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of invasiveness, the traits that enable a species to invade a habitat, and invasibility, the habitat characteristics that determine its susceptibility to the establishment and spread of an invasive species, provide a useful conceptual framework to formulate the biological invasion problem in a modelling context. Another important aspect is the complex interaction emerging among the invader species, the

Diana E. Marco; Sergio A. Páez; Sergio A. Cannas

2002-01-01

144

Intensity coding by TMJ-responsive neurons in superficial laminae of caudal medullary dorsal horn of the rat.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) represent a family of recurrent conditions that often cause pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region and muscles of mastication. To determine if TMJ-responsive neurons encoded the intensity of pro-inflammatory chemical signals, dose-effect relationships were assessed after direct injection bradykinin into the joint space and compared with responses after injection of glutamate or saline. Neurons were recorded from superficial laminae of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord junction region (Vc/C(2)) and identified by palpation of the TMJ region in barbiturate-anesthetized male rats. The majority (62 of 84) of units received convergent input from facial skin, while 26% were driven only by deep input from the TMJ region. Conduction-velocity based on the latency to firing after electrical stimulation of the TMJ region indicated 64% of units were driven by A-delta fiber input only. Bradykinin (0.1-10 microM) excited 69% of neurons tested, and 70% (19 of 27) of these units were activated by the lowest dose (0.1 microM). Glutamate (50-200 mM) excited 27% of units; however, when tested after bradykinin, 58% of units were activated by glutamate. Some TMJ units (17%) were excited by saline injection alone and not enhanced further by bradykinin or glutamate. Most (88%) TMJ units were activated by injection of the small fiber excitant, mustard oil (20% solution), into the TMJ region. Units responsive to bradykinin or glutamate were not restricted to particular classes [e.g., wide dynamic range (WDR), nociceptive specific (NS), deep only]. A small percentage of TMJ units (approximately 15%) were activated antidromically from the contralateral posterior thalamus. In parallel studies using c-fos immunocytochemistry, bradykinin (1 microM) injection into the TMJ region produced a greater number of Fos-positive neurons at the Vc/C(2) region than glutamate (200 mM) or saline. These results revealed two broad classes of TMJ units that encoded the intensity of pro-inflammatory chemical stimuli applied to the TMJ region, units that received convergent nociceptive input from facial skin (i.e., WDR and NS units) and units that responded only to deep input from the TMJ region. On the basis of encoding properties and efferent projection status, it is concluded that activation of TMJ units within the superficial laminae at the Vc/C(2) region contribute to the diffuse and spreading nature of TMD pain sensation. PMID:11698529

Takeshita, S; Hirata, H; Bereiter, D A

2001-11-01

145

The Lionfish Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study addresses the invasion of lionfish, a native to coral reefs in the tropical waters of the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, to the Alantic Ocean off the southeastern United States. The study explains how scientists are using newly collected data and technology to learn how an invasive species like the lionfish affects an ecosystem. Students can learn about the environmental and economic consequences of invasive species using the recent invasion of the lionfish as a case study. Supporting resources include student and teacher guides, interactive quizzes, exercises with real data, and interviews with National Ocean Service scientists that explore how scientists think. In addition, an instructor section provides materials and resources for use in the classroom.

146

Prostate resection - minimally invasive  

MedlinePLUS

... Whelan JP, Goeree L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transurethral resection of the prostate versus minimally ... invasive treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a cross-analysis of the literature. Can J Urol . 2010;17( ...

147

Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis  

E-print Network

Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis 2 biology 2 MarkA.DavisInvasionBiology2 1 With the exception of climate change, biological invasions have probably received more attention during the past ten years than on the subject, Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological

Davis, Mark A.

148

3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes  

PubMed Central

En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (?0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M.; Queener, Hope M.; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

2013-01-01

149

3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes.  

PubMed

En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (-0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M; Queener, Hope M; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

2013-07-01

150

Hypertonicity sensing in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons: a mechanical process involving TRPV1 but not TRPV4.  

PubMed

Primary osmosensory neurons in the mouse organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) transduce hypertonicity via the activation of nonselective cation channels that cause membrane depolarization and increased action potential discharge, and this effect is absent in mice lacking expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) gene (Ciura and Bourque, 2006). However other experiments have indicated that channels encoded by Trpv4 also contribute to central osmosensation in mice (Liedtke and Friedman, 2003; Mizuno et al., 2003). At present, the mechanism by which hypertonicity modulates cation channels in OVLT neurons is unknown, and it remains unclear whether Trpv1 and Trpv4 both contribute to this process. Here, we show that physical shrinking is necessary and sufficient to mediate hypertonicity sensing in OVLT neurons isolated from adult mice. Steps coupling progressive decreases in cell volume to increased neuronal activity were quantitatively equivalent whether shrinking was evoked by osmotic pressure or mechanical aspiration. Finally, modulation of OVLT neurons by tonicity or mechanical stimulation was unaffected by deletion of trpv4 but was abolished in cells lacking Trpv1 or wild-type neurons treated with the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Thus, hypertonicity sensing is a mechanical process requiring Trpv1, but not Trpv4. PMID:21994383

Ciura, Sorana; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

2011-10-12

151

A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.  

PubMed

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes). PMID:22533413

Arancio, Walter

2012-04-01

152

Primary osteosarcoma of the L2 lamina presenting as "silent" paraplegia: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Primary osteosarcomas of the vertebral column are not common, and to our knowledge a total of 78 cases, mostly located in the vertebral body, have been previously reported. We report a primary osteosarcoma of the spine with an extremely rare location--the lamina of the second lumbar vertebra. The patient, a 38-year-old woman, was admitted with paraplegia of a short duration without pain. Preoperatively, the patient underwent CT scanning for staging (Enneking IIB) followed by a needle biopsy and local preoperative arterial embolization. An emergency decompressive laminectomy was performed, and stabilization was carried out using methylacrylate. The patient showed a complete neurologic recovery. Combined chemotherapy and local irradiation did not prevent tumor recurrences, which occurred 12 and 19 months after the initial intervention and were associated with recurrent neurologic impairment. The patient died 19 months after the initial presentation, while in paraplegia, from lung metastases. Based on our unique observation, it seems that in primary osteosarcomas located in the posterior elements of the spin, the symptoms are not specific, and the disease may only become manifest when the tumor is no longer resectable. When the tumor is associated with neurologic impairment, spinal canal decompression should be performed even though it does not radically resect the tumor because it significantly improves the quality of the patient's life. PMID:8983662

Korovessis, P; Repanti, M; Stamatakis, M

1995-01-01

153

Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U L34 and U S3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A\\/C and lamin B rearrangement, while UL34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that UL34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, US3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a US3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. US3 regulation

Susan L. Bjerke; Richard J. Roller

2006-01-01

154

Reduction of anion reversal potential subverts the inhibitory control of firing rate in spinal lamina I neurons: towards a biophysical basis for neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reduction of the transmembrane chloride gradient in spinal lamina I neurons contributes to the cellular hyperexcitability producing allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury. The resultant decrease in anion reversal potential (i.e. shift in Eanion to less negative potentials) reduces glycine\\/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but the large increase in membrane conductance caused by inhibitory input can nonetheless shunt concurrent excitatory

Steven A Prescott; Terrence J Sejnowski; Yves De Koninck

2006-01-01

155

Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

1992-01-01

156

Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.  

PubMed

The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively. PMID:19924636

Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

2010-01-01

157

Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.  

PubMed

Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control. PMID:25230477

Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

2014-08-01

158

Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion  

PubMed Central

Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

2011-01-01

159

Robust Adaptive 3-D Segmentation of Vessel Laminae From Fluorescence Confocal Microscope Images and Parallel GPU Implementation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents robust 3-D algorithms to segment vasculature that is imaged by labeling laminae, rather than the lumenal volume. The signal is weak, sparse, noisy, nonuniform, low-contrast, and exhibits gaps and spectral artifacts, so adaptive thresholding and Hessian filtering based methods are not effective. The structure deviates from a tubular geometry, so tracing algorithms are not effective. We propose a four step approach. The first step detects candidate voxels using a robust hypothesis test based on a model that assumes Poisson noise and locally planar geometry. The second step performs an adaptive region growth to extract weakly labeled and fine vessels while rejecting spectral artifacts. To enable interactive visualization and estimation of features such as statistical confidence, local curvature, local thickness, and local normal, we perform the third step. In the third step, we construct an accurate mesh representation using marching tetrahedra, volume-preserving smoothing, and adaptive decimation algorithms. To enable topological analysis and efficient validation, we describe a method to estimate vessel centerlines using a ray casting and vote accumulation algorithm which forms the final step of our algorithm. Our algorithm lends itself to parallel processing, and yielded an 8× speedup on a graphics processor (GPU). On synthetic data, our meshes had average error per face (EPF) values of (0.1–1.6) voxels per mesh face for peak signal-to-noise ratios from (110–28 dB). Separately, the error from decimating the mesh to less than 1% of its original size, the EPF was less than 1 voxel/face. When validated on real datasets, the average recall and precision values were found to be 94.66% and 94.84%, respectively. PMID:20199906

Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Dwarakapuram, Saritha; Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Cutler, Barbara M.; Shain, William

2010-01-01

160

In Vivo Lamina Cribrosa Micro-Architecture in Healthy and Glaucomatous Eyes as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a prime location of glaucomatous damage. The purpose of this study was to compare LC 3-dimensional micro-architecture between healthy and glaucomatous eyes in vivo by using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. Sixty-eight eyes (19 healthy and 49 glaucomatous) from 47 subjects were scanned in a 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.64-mm volume (400 × 400 × 896 pixels) at the optic nerve head by using swept-source OCT. The LC micro-architecture parameters were measured on the visible LC by an automated segmentation algorithm. The LC parameters were compared to diagnosis and visual field mean deviation (VF MD) by using a linear mixed effects model accounting for age. Results. The average VF MD for the healthy and glaucomatous eyes was ?0.50 ± 0.80 dB and ?7.84 ± 8.75 dB, respectively. Beam thickness to pore diameter ratio (P = 0.04) and pore diameter standard deviation (P < 0.01) were increased in glaucomatous eyes. With worse MD, beam thickness to pore diameter ratio (P < 0.01), pore diameter standard deviation (P = 0.05), and beam thickness (P < 0.01) showed a statistically significant increase while pore diameter (P = 0.02) showed a significant decrease. There were no significant interactions between any of the parameters and age (all P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucomatous micro-architecture changes in the LC, detected by OCT analysis, reflect beams remodeling and axonal loss leading to reduction in pore size and increased pore size variability. PMID:24302585

Wang, Bo; Nevins, Jessica E.; Nadler, Zach; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Kraus, Martin; Lu, Chen D.; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Schuman, Joel S.

2013-01-01

161

Neurochemical characterisation of lamina II inhibitory interneurons that express GFP in the PrP-GFP mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn play important roles in modulating sensory transmission, and these roles are thought to be performed by distinct functional populations. We have identified 4 non-overlapping classes among the inhibitory interneurons in the rat, defined by the presence of galanin, neuropeptide Y, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and parvalbumin. The somatostatin receptor sst2A is expressed by ~50% of the inhibitory interneurons in this region, and is particularly associated with nNOS- and galanin-expressing cells. The main aim of the present study was to test whether a genetically-defined population of inhibitory interneurons, those expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the PrP-GFP mouse, belonged to one or more of the neurochemical classes identified in the rat. Results The expression of sst2A and its relation to other neurochemical markers in the mouse was similar to that in the rat, except that a significant number of cells co-expressed nNOS and galanin. The PrP-GFP cells were entirely contained within the set of inhibitory interneurons that possessed sst2A receptors, and virtually all expressed nNOS and/or galanin. GFP was present in ~3-4% of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn, corresponding to ~16% of the inhibitory interneurons in this region. Consistent with their sst2A-immunoreactivity, all of the GFP cells were hyperpolarised by somatostatin, and this was prevented by administration of a selective sst2 receptor antagonist or a blocker of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Conclusions These findings support the view that neurochemistry provides a valuable way of classifying inhibitory interneurons in the superficial laminae. Together with previous evidence that the PrP-GFP cells form a relatively homogeneous population in terms of their physiological properties, they suggest that these neurons have specific roles in processing sensory information in the dorsal horn. PMID:24176114

2013-01-01

162

Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

1998-03-01

163

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

164

Global Invasive Species Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Invasive Species Database was developed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), an international group of 100+ scientific and policy experts with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The entry page of the Website offers background information on invasive species and instructions on how to use the database. A section entitled 100 of the worst (ranging from Rat to Purple Loosestrife) gives viewers an idea of the type of information that will be included in the database, both in terms of expected detail and organizational structure of the database. Types of information provided for each species include Ecology, Distribution, Habitat Matches, References, and Contacts. In addition, a Predictive feature allows viewers to predict the expansion of invasive species, and the Early Warning System matches habitats that the species has already invaded with "other similar habitats around the world." Although still under construction, this database should be a powerful tool for researchers and educators, once completed.

165

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

Villano, Christine P.; Spellman, Katie V.

2011-01-01

166

INTRODUCTION Weed invasion hypotheses  

E-print Network

) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus STEEN OLE HANSEN1 , JAN HATTENDORF1 the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became an invasive weed which created major hogweed (Caucasus) and were compared to those found on plants in

Richner, Heinz

167

Minimally invasive thyroid surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic surgery is often considered to be ‘minimally invasive surgery’ in the light of recent technical developments. Endoscopic neck surgery, including thyroid and parathyroid surgery, has developed rapidly over the past 2 years. The various techniques of thyroid surgery, including sites of incision and procedures for creating adequate working space, are described here. The cosmetic benefits of endoscopic versus conventional

Kazuo Shimizu

2001-01-01

168

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: � Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species � Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies � A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

169

Invasive Animals in Marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to other marine systems, salt marshes and estuaries are highly susceptible to invasion, and impacts by exotic species in these systems seem particularly pronounced. These impacts range from purely trophic and competitive effects that can lead to replacement of native species by exotics, to physical transformation by exotic species that engineer habitat and alter large-scale abiotic and hydrographic properties

James E. Byers

170

Na +\\/K +ATPase activity and immunocytochemical labeling in podobranchial filament and lamina of the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz: evidence for the existence of sodium transport in the filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, the podobranch, bearing respiratory and ion-transporting filaments, is attached to the lamina. The Na+\\/K+-ATPase activity is higher in filaments than in lamina. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the ? subunit of Na+\\/K+-ATPase, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we can observe that the immunoreactivity of the antibody is different for each kind of structure. The

C. Barradas; J. M. Wilson; S. Dunel-Erb

1999-01-01

171

Lamina- and cell-specific alterations in cortical somatostatin receptor 2 mRNA expression in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Disturbed cortical ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in schizophrenia is evident from lamina- and cell type- specific alterations in presynaptic markers. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), these alterations include lower transcript expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide expressed in the Martinotti subpopulation of GABA neurons whose axons innervate the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, whether the alterations in SST-containing interneurons are associated with changes in post-synaptic receptors for SST has not been examined. Thus, we used in situ hybridization to quantify the mRNA expression levels of SST receptors subtype 1 (SSTR1) and subtype 2 (SSTR2) in DLPFC area 9 from 23 matched pairs of subjects with schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. We also assessed the effects of potential confounding variables within the human subjects and in brain specimens from macaque monkeys with long term exposure to antipsychotic drugs. SSTR1 mRNA levels did not differ between subject groups. In contrast, mean cortical SSTR2 mRNA levels were significantly 19% lower in the subjects with schizophrenia. Laminar and cellular level analyses revealed that lower SSTR2 mRNA levels were localized to pyramidal cells in cortical layers 5-6. Expression of SSTR2 mRNA did not differ between monkeys exposed chronically to high doses of haloperidol or olanzapine and control animals, or between subjects with schizophrenia on or off antipsychotic medications at the time of death. However, levels of SSTR2 mRNA were significantly 37.6% lower in monkeys exposed chronically to low dose haloperidol, suggesting that the lower levels of SSTR2 mRNA selectively in pyramidal neurons in DLPFC layers 5-6 in schizophrenia should be interpreted with caution. In concert with prior findings of lower SST mRNA expression in the same subjects, the results of this study suggest the convergence of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms to reduce inhibitory inputs to pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of the DLPFC. PMID:21215273

Beneyto, Monica; Morris, Harvey M.; Rovenski, Katherine C.; Lewis, David A.

2011-01-01

172

GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated transmission in rat lamina II neurones: relevance to the analgesic actions of neuroactive steroids  

PubMed Central

Analgesic neurosteroids such as 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?) are potent selective endogenous modulators of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) while certain synthetic derivatives (i.e. minaxolone) additionally enhance the function of recombinant glycine receptors (GlyR). Inhibitory transmission within the superficial dorsal horn has been implicated in mediating the analgesic actions of neurosteroids. However, the relative contribution played by synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors is unknown. In this study, we have compared the actions of 5?3? and minaxolone upon inhibitory transmission mediated by both GABAA and strychnine-sensitive GlyRs in lamina II neurones of juvenile (P15–21) rats. At the near physiological temperature of 35°C and at a holding potential of ?60 mV we recorded three kinetically distinct populations of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs): GlyR-mediated, GABAAR-mediated and mixed GABAAR-GlyR mIPSCs, arising from the corelease of both inhibitory neurotransmitters. In addition, sequential application of strychnine and bicuculline revealed a small (5.2 ± 1.0 pA) GlyR- but not a GABAAR-mediated tonic conductance. 5?3? (1–10 ?m) prolonged GABAAR and mixed mIPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner but was without effect upon GlyR mIPSCs. In contrast, minaxolone (1–10 ?m) prolonged the decay of GlyR mIPSCs and, additionally, was ?10-fold more potent than 5?3? upon GABAAR mIPSCs. However, 5?3? and minaxolone (1 ?m) evoked a similar bicuculline-sensitive inhibitory conductance, indicating that the extrasynaptic GABAARs do not discriminate between these two steroids. Furthermore, ?92% of the effect of 1 ?m 5?3? upon GABAergic inhibition could be accounted for by its action upon the extrasynaptic conductance. These findings are relevant to modulation of inhibitory circuits within spinally mediated pain pathways and suggest that extrasynaptic GABAARs may represent a relevant molecular target for the analgesic actions of neurosteroids. PMID:17656439

Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Gentet, Luc J; Dempster, John; Belelli, Delia

2007-01-01

173

Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees and only a single genus of native bees, provide an ideal location to test this theory. The European honey bee (Apis mellifera: Apidae), an invasive species which has become naturalized on all of the main

Silver, Whendee

174

Invasive salmonellosis in Malawi.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive salmonellosis has increased among children and HIV-infected adults in Malawi. This has been associated with the emergence of drug resistance in the non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. In contrast, S. Typhi isolates have remained fully sensitive to commonly used antibiotics and the estimated incidence of typhoid fever, although still present, has fallen slightly among both adults and children. Infection with S. Typhi is not closely associated with underlying immunosuppression but it is possible that the non-typhoidal Salmonellae have adapted to the person-person human transmission niche in this frequently immunosuppressed population. The huge burden of invasive salmonellosis in Malawi, the high associated mortality, and the recent emergence of drug resistance emphasise the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology and the need for vaccine development. PMID:19745520

Gordon, Melita A; Graham, Stephen M

2008-01-01

175

Invasive Pituitary Oncocytoma  

PubMed Central

A large invasive pituitary neoplasm, surgically resected by left frontotemporal craniotomy, and thought to represent “chromophobe” adenoma by light microscopy, exhibited ultrastructural features characteristic of oncocytoma. Electron microscopic and immunocytochemical studies showed that the tumor did not possess enhanced secretory activity. The indispensable role of electron microscopy in the identification of this rare neoplasm and especially in the classification of all pituitary tumors is emphasized. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:6655723

Okoye, Matthias I.; Mueller, Willys F.

1983-01-01

176

Pathways in Plant Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least at a global scale, species transfer through human agency is much more frequent, efficient and effective than through\\u000a natural mechanisms and has no parallel in evolutionary history (Elton 1958; Mack et al. 2000). As propagule pressure is one\\u000a of the most powerful bottlenecks in invasions (Williamson 1996), human-mediated dispersal is a key process in the range expansion\\u000a of

Ingo Kowarik; Moritz von der Lippe

177

Remodelling of the nuclear lamina during human cytomegalovirus infection: role of the viral proteins pUL50 and pUL53.  

PubMed

A fundamental step in the efficient production of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) progeny is viral egress from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of infected cells. In the family Herpesviridae, this process involves alteration of nuclear lamina components by two highly conserved proteins, whose homologues in HCMV are named pUL50 and pUL53. This study showed that HCMV infection induced the mislocalization of nuclear lamins and that pUL50 and pUL53 play a role in this event. At late stages of infection, both lamin A/C and lamin B showed an irregular distribution on the nuclear rim, coincident with areas of pUL53 accumulation. No variations in the total amount of nuclear lamins could be detected, supporting the view that HCMV induces a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, alteration of these cellular components, as has been suggested previously for other herpesviruses. Interestingly, pUL53, in the absence of other viral products, localized diffusely in the nucleus, whilst the co-expression and interaction of pUL53 with its partner, pUL50, restored its nuclear rim localization in distinct patches, thus indicating that pUL50 is sufficient to induce the localization of pUL53 observed during virus infection. Importantly, analysis of the nuclear lamina in the presence of pUL50-pUL53 complexes at the nuclear boundary and in the absence of other viral products showed that the two viral proteins were sufficient to promote alterations of lamins, strongly resembling those observed during HCMV infection. These results suggest that pUL50 and pUL53 may play an important role in the exit of virions from the nucleus by inducing structural modifications of the nuclear lamina. PMID:18272765

Camozzi, Daria; Pignatelli, Sara; Valvo, Cecilia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Capanni, Cristina; Dal Monte, Paola; Landini, Maria Paola

2008-03-01

178

The somatostatin analogue octreotide inhibits capsaicin-mediated activation of nociceptive primary afferent fibres in spinal cord lamina II (substantia gelatinosa).  

PubMed

Somatostatin (SST) in spinal cord has been linked with the inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission in several experimental paradigms. The SST2 receptor (SSTR2) is the main SST receptor subtype in the superficial dorsal horn (DH) and is activated, besides to the naïve peptide, by the SST synthetic analogue octreotide (OCT). In the present work, we have studied the central effects of SSTR2 activation on capsaicin (CAP)-induced glutamate release in mouse DH. In neurons of the lamina II of DH, CAP (2 ?M) induced a strong increase of mEPSC frequency that was significantly reduced (70%) by OCT. SSTR2 involvement was assessed by using the specific antagonist CYN 154806. No differences were observed between frequency increase in CAP alone vs. CAP in the presence of CYN 154806+OCT. The effect of OCT was further investigated by studying c-fos expression in spinal cord slices. The CAP-induced increase in density of Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the superficial DH was strongly prevented by OCT. SSTR2a (a splicing variant of SSTR2) immunoreactivity was found in both pre- and post-synaptic compartments of laminae I-II synapses. By light and electron microscopy, SSTR2a was mainly localized onto non-peptidergic isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive primary afferent fibres (PAFs). A subset of them was also found to express the CAP receptor TRPV1. These data show that the SST analogue OCT inhibits CAP-mediated activation of non-peptidergic nociceptive PAFs in lamina II. Our data indicate that SSTR2a plays an important role in the pre-synaptic modulation of central excitatory nociceptive transmission in mouse. PMID:21109472

Bencivinni, Ileana; Ferrini, Francesco; Salio, Chiara; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Merighi, Adalberto

2011-07-01

179

Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate a massive lamina reticularis.  

PubMed

In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10 ?m) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an ?6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23834951

Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C

2013-09-01

180

Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests  

EPA Science Inventory

On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

181

Characterisation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1: a novel basal lamina component expressed at cell-tooth interfaces.  

PubMed

Functional genomic screening of the rat enamel organ (EO) has led to the identification of a number of secreted proteins expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, including amelotin (AMTN) and odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM). In this study, we characterise the gene, protein and pattern of expression of a related protein called secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1). The Scpppq1 gene resides within the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (Scpp) cluster. SCPPPQ1 is a highly conserved, 75-residue, secreted protein rich in proline, leucine, glutamine and phenylalanine. In silico data mining has revealed no correlation to any known sequences. Northern blotting of various rat tissues suggests that the expression of Scpppq1 is restricted to tooth and associated tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the protein is expressed during the late maturation stage of amelogenesis and in the junctional epithelium where it localises to an atypical basal lamina at the cell-tooth interface. This discrete localisation suggests that SCPPPQ1, together with AMTN and ODAM, participates in structuring the basal lamina and in mediating attachment of epithelia cells to mineralised tooth surfaces. PMID:25193156

Moffatt, Pierre; Wazen, Rima M; Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Nanci, Antonio

2014-12-01

182

The Defective Nuclear Lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Disrupts the Nucleocytoplasmic Ran Gradient and Inhibits Nuclear Localization of Ubc9?  

PubMed Central

The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways. PMID:21670151

Kelley, Joshua B.; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J.; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubenas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J.; Paschal, Bryce M.

2011-01-01

183

[A total removal case of cavernous angioma at the lateral wall of the third ventricle with interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach].  

PubMed

A case of cavernous angioma at the lateral wall of the third ventricle which was totally removed with interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach is reported. A 40-year-old male had a slowly progressive onset of partial diabetes insipidus and headache with no neurological deficit . CT scan revealed a high density area at anterior third ventricle. The tumor was diagnosed ectopic pinealoma because of CT findings and clinical symptoms. Irradiation and chemotherapy ( RAFP therapy) was performed to this lesion. After two months, his clinical symptoms disappeared. CT scan showed decrease of the density of the region at this point. He was discharged with no symptom. After a half year, he suddenly complained of right homonymous hemianopsia with headache. CT scan showed that the high density area became larger to left posterior than that of half year before. Left carotid angiogram showed no mass lesion and no abnormal vessel. Operation was performed with interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach using bifrontal craniotomy. Operative findings revealed that the tumor situated at the lateral wall of the third ventricle, had rough surface with reddish colour, and old and fresh blood clots inside the tumor. The tumor was carefully dissected without brain damage and was totally removed. The histological findings was compatible with cavernous angioma. Post-operative CT scan showed no high density area. He was discharged with no neurological deficit without right homonymous hemianopsia. Cavernous angioma of anterior third ventricle is very rare.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6738798

Amagasa, M; Ishibashi, Y; Kayama, T; Suzuki, J

1984-03-01

184

Psychophysical stress increases the expression of phospho-CREB, Fos protein and neurokinin-1 receptors in superficial laminae of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in female rats.  

PubMed

Psychological stress and estrogen status are risk factors to develop painful temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD); however, the neural basis for this relationship is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated forced swim stress and estradiol treatment alter the phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (pCREB) in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), the initial site of sensory input from the TMJ. Ovariectomized female rats were given low or high dose estradiol and subjected to repeated forced swim stress for 3 days and on day 4 an intra-TMJ injection of mustard oil or vehicle was given. Forced swim alone increased the number of pCREB-positive neurons, independent of estradiol treatment or TMJ stimulation, in superficial and deep laminae of Vc. Forced swim also increased the number of Fos-positive neurons in superficial laminae and neurokinin-1 receptor mRNA in whole dorsal Vc, independent of estradiol treatment. These results indicated that persistent psychophysical stress alone was sufficient to increase the expression of pCREB and downstream regulated genes associated with enhanced excitability in the caudal medullary dorsal horn, a brainstem region thought to be critical for TMJD pain. PMID:20884322

Duenes, Sara L; Thompson, Randy; Chang, Zheng; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A

2010-12-17

185

Malignant cancer and invasive placentation  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Gunter P.

2014-01-01

186

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade?  

E-print Network

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? #12;Many are introduced, few become invasive #12;Hypotheses about why invaders succeed: 1. Invasive species have traits that favor establishment and spread 2. Invasive species are released from enemies 3. Invasive species exploit empty niches

Schweik, Charles M.

187

Alex Lester Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance?  

E-print Network

Alex Lester 3/18/2013 Invasive Plants: Just A Nuisance? Invasive plant species have moved with invasive plant species in some form causing damage or impacting a landscape, and often times the only real of action is to remove invasive species, it is beneficial to look at what negative impacts invasive plant

Young, Terence

188

Invasion of Nile Perch in  

E-print Network

Invasion of Nile Perch in Lake Victoria #12;Lake Victoria Haplochromine cichlids !800 species !Lake in Lake Erie until 1921 · Thereafter invasion quickened; found in Lake Huron in 1932, Lake Michigan into Lake Michigan #12;Alewife · Euryhaline species · Traveled through canals (maybe native to Ontario

Gottgens, Hans

189

Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions  

E-print Network

Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions Anne Pringle,1 James D. Bever,2 Monique Gardes,3 Jeri L mycorrhizal, conservation biology, ectomycorrhizal, fungi Abstract The factors that influence a plant of dif- ferent mechanisms depends on the specific invasion. Here we consider one factor--mycorrhizal

Pringle, Anne

190

Antibodies to basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans bind to the laminae rarae of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and induce subepithelial GBM thickening  

PubMed Central

Antibodies specific for the core protein of basement membrane HSPG (Mr = 130,000) were administered to rats by intravenous injection, and the pathologic consequences on the kidney were determined at 3 min to 2 mo postinjection. Controls were given antibodies against gp330 (the pathogenic antigen of Heymann nephritis) or normal rabbit IgG. The injected anti-HSPG(GBM) IgG disappeared rapidly (by 1 d) from the circulation. The urinary excretion of albumin increased in a dose- dependent manner during the first 4 d, was increased 10-fold at 1-2 mo, but remained moderate (mean = 12 mg/24 h). By immunofluorescence the anti-HSPG(GBM) was seen to bind rapidly (by 3 min) to all glomerular capillaries, and by immunoperoxidase staining the anti-HSPG was seen to bind exclusively to the laminae rarae of the GBM where it remained during the entire 2-mo observation period. C3 was detected in glomeruli immediately after the injection (3 min), where it bound exclusively to the lamina rara interna; the amount of C3 bound increased up to 2 h but decreased rapidly thereafter, and was not detectable after 4 d. Mononuclear and PMN leukocytes accumulated in glomerular capillaries, adhered to the capillary wall, and extended pseudopodia through the endothelial fenestrae to contact in the LRI of the GBM where the immune deposits and C3 were located. At 1 wk postinjection, staining for C3 reappeared in the glomeruli of some of the rats, and by this time most of the rats, including controls injected with normal rabbit IgG, had circulating anti-rabbit IgG (by ELISA) and linear deposits of rat IgG along the GBM (by immunofluorescence). Beginning at 9 d, there was progressive subepithelial thickening of the GBM which in some places was two to three times its normal width. This thickening was due to the laying down of a new layer of basement membrane-like material on the epithelial side of the GBM, which gradually displaced the old basement membrane layers toward the endothelium. The results show that the core proteins of this population of basement membrane HSPG (Mr = 130,000), which are ubiquitous components of basement membranes, are exposed to the circulation and can bind anti-HSPG(GBM) IgG in the laminae rarae of the GBM. Binding of these antibodies to the GBM leads to changes (C3 deposition, leukocyte adherence, moderate proteinuria, GBM thickening) considered typical of the acute phase of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. Antibody binding interferes with the normal turnover of the GBM, presumably by affecting the biosynthesis and/or degradation of basement membrane components. PMID:2939168

1986-01-01

191

Trace element distribution in annual stalagmite laminae mapped by micrometer-resolution X-ray fluorescence: Implications for incorporation of environmentally significant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stalagmite ER78, from Grotta di Ernesto cave in NE Italy displays clear annual lamination consistent with its shallow depth below a forest ecosystem subject to autumnal peaking of water infiltration. Synchrotron radiation scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence analyses of heavy elements at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility beamline ID22, and light elements at ID21, with 1-3 ?m resolution has been combined with data from ion microprobe analyses to reveal chemical variability across the visible layers of these annual laminae. A series of elements display a symmetrical peak, centered around the thin, dark layer at the top of each lamina. The peak concentration is ordered Y > Zn, Cu and Pb > P and Br. This hierarchy is thought to reflect the selectivity of transport of these elements, possibly by organic colloids flushed from the soil zone during autumn infiltration. Ion microprobe analysis indicates Na and F also increase, as does H, the latter reflecting increased microporosity. Sr displays a trough around the dark and thin autumn layer implying that its incorporation may be limited by competition with other elements. Mg and S show a different pattern of annual variation and Fe displays none. The trace metals, Br and Y display peak abundance in the early 20th century, which appears to reflect a period of tree-felling rather than a climatic anomaly. The results demonstrate the power of the high spatial resolution and low detection limits of the synchrotron technique, and its ability to produce quantitative maps that allow distinction of layered structure from that of isolated particles, or irregular inhomogeneities.

Borsato, Andrea; Frisia, Silvia; Fairchild, Ian J.; Somogyi, Andrea; Susini, Jean

2007-03-01

192

The trajectory of sensory pathways from the lamina terminalis to the insular and cingulate cortex: a neuroanatomical framework for the generation of thirst.  

PubMed

The pathways involved in the emotional aspects of thirst, the arousal and affect associated with the generation of thirst and the motivation to obtain satiation, have been studied but remain poorly understood. Rats were therefore injected with the neurotropic virus pseudorabies in either the insular or cingulate cortex. After 2 days of infection, pseudorabies-positive neurons were identified within the thalamus and lamina terminalis. In a separate group of rats, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was used in combination with either isotonic (0.15 M NaCl) or hypertonic (0.8 M NaCl) saline (1 ml/100 g body wt ip). Rats injected with CTb in the insular cortex and stimulated with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the paraventricular, rhomboid, and reuniens thalamic nuclei, whereas those rats injected with CTb in the cingulate cortex and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the medial part of the mediodorsal, interanteromedial, anteromedial, and ventrolateral part of the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei. Rats injected with CTb in the dorsal midline of the thalamus and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus, and insular cortex but not the subfornical organ. A small proportion of the CTb-positive neurons in the OVLT were immunopositive for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a putative osmoresponsive membrane protein. These results identify functional thalamocortical pathways involved in relaying osmotic signals to the insular and cingulate cortex and may provide a neuroanatomical framework for the emotional aspects of thirst. PMID:18234743

Hollis, Jacob H; McKinley, Michael J; D'Souza, Moyra; Kampe, Juliane; Oldfield, Brian J

2008-04-01

193

Integrated assessment of biological invasions.  

PubMed

As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions. PMID:24640532

Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

2014-01-01

194

INVASIVE ANTS Invasive species, those species that demonstrate  

E-print Network

, and ecological roles of invasive ants in the context of the environment and evolutionary processes. Indeed, unicoloniality, gener- alist habits, ecological release, and genetic changes. The final two chapters concern

Suarez, Andrew V.

195

[Non-invasive ventilation].  

PubMed

The advent of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has radically changed the management of acute and chronic respiratory failure. Over the last few years, the number of possible applications of NIMV has progressively increased, both in the hospital and extrahospital setting. NIMV is now used in all hospitals and resident physicians currently receive specific training -nonexistent until a few years ago- in this modality. It falls to all of us to push forward the clinical and scientific advances represented by the development of NIMV, by promoting the events that accompany better knowledge of the physiopathological bases of ventilation and of its continuous applications in daily clinical practice and by perfecting the elements required for the correct application of this technique. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of NIMV, from the most theoretical knowledge (the physiopathology of NIMV) to the most practical skills (recognition of patient-ventilator asynchrony). Through this progression from the complex to the most basic, or from the basics to the most complex, depending on the perspective taken, we aim to provide deeper knowledge of the concepts required to understand the technical functioning of the ventilator, describing its distinct modes and parameters and the abilities that must be developed for the correct indication, use and monitoring of the technique. We provide a final reflection on other forms of respiratory support that can be offered to patients with ventilatory failure. PMID:21316544

Gallardo Romero, Jose Manuel; García, Teresa Gómez; Sancho Chust, José Norberto; González Martínez, Mónica

2010-10-01

196

Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

197

Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... screen and open the door to informed medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute ... be progressive and less invasive in how we care for our patients. 8 Here's one from one ...

198

Biological Invasions by Marine Jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparatively little research has been conducted on the ecology of invasive organisms in marine ecosystems when balanced against\\u000a their terrestrial counterparts (Carlton and Geller 1993). Perhaps rates of invasions in marine systems are simply lower than\\u000a in other systems, but more likely lack of scrutiny, difficulty with taxonomic resolution, and unusual life-history characters\\u000a of marine organisms cause the vast majority

William M. Graham; Keith M. Bayha

199

In this issue: Florida Invasive Species Partnership  

E-print Network

In this issue: · Florida Invasive Species Partnership · Mulching: A New Forest Management Tool, No. 1 Spring-Summer 2009 The Florida Invasive Species Partnership (FISP): Invasive Species Know in Wildland Weeds, Winter 2008. Chances are good that if you work with invasive non-native species issues

Watson, Craig A.

200

Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and immunocytochemical labeling in podobranchial filament and lamina of the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz: evidence for the existence of sodium transport in the filaments.  

PubMed

In the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, the podobranch, bearing respiratory and ion-transporting filaments, is attached to the lamina. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is higher in filaments than in lamina. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we can observe that the immunoreactivity of the antibody is different for each kind of structure. The lamina presents an ion-transporting type epithelium, which is thick and presents a developed apical infolding system but no developed basolateral infolding system. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the lamina is very weak. Respiratory filaments present a thin epithelium with a few small apical folds and scarce mitochondria. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the respiratory filaments is very weak. In contrast, the ion-transporting filament epithelium is thick, presents a short apical infolding system, a well-developed basal infolding system, and numerous mitochondria. The immunoreactivity of the antibody in the ion-transporting filaments is strong. Ion-transporting filaments, which have a cuticle permeable to cations, seem particularly implicated in Na(+)regulation, by way of the sodium pump. PMID:18627870

Barradas, C; Wilson, J M; Dunel-Erb, S

1999-10-01

201

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is present in peptidergic C primary afferents and axons of excitatory interneurons with a possible role in nociception in the superficial laminae of the rat spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CART) have been implicated in the regulation of several physiological functions, including pain transmission. A dense plexus of CART-immunoreactive fibres has been described in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord, which are key areas in sensory information and pain processing. In this study, we used antibody against CART peptide, together with markers for various

Márk Kozsurek; Erika Lukácsi; Csaba Fekete; Gábor Wittmann; Miklós Réthelyi; Zita Puskár

2007-01-01

202

Plant invasions and extinction debts  

PubMed Central

Whether introduced species invasions pose a major threat to biodiversity is hotly debated. Much of this debate is fueled by recent findings that competition from introduced organisms has driven remarkably few plant species to extinction. Instead, native plant species in invaded ecosystems are often found in refugia: patchy, marginal habitats unsuitable to their nonnative competitors. However, whether the colonization and extinction dynamics of these refugia allow long-term native persistence is uncertain. Of particular concern is the possibility that invasive plants may induce an extinction debt in the native flora, where persistence over the short term masks deterministic extinction trajectories. We examined how invader impacts on landscape structure influence native plant persistence by combining recently developed quantitative techniques for evaluating metapopulation persistence with field measurements of an invaded plant community. We found that European grass invasion of an edaphically heterogeneous California landscape has greatly decreased the likelihood of the persistence of native metapopulations. It does so via two main pathways: (i) decreasing the size of native refugia, which reduces seed production and increases local extinction, and (ii) eroding the dispersal permeability of the matrix between refugia, which reduces their connectivity. Even when native plant extinction is the deterministic outcome of invasion, the time to extinction can be on the order of hundreds of years. We conclude that the relatively short time since invasion in many parts of the world is insufficient to observe the full impact of plant invasions on native biodiversity. PMID:23297239

Gilbert, Benjamin; Levine, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

203

Invasion of Distal Nephron Precursors Associates with Tubular Interconnection during Nephrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Formation of a functional renal network requires the interconnection of two epithelial tubes: the nephron, which arises from kidney mesenchyme, and the collecting system, which originates from the branching ureteric epithelium. How this connection occurs, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we used high-resolution image analysis in conjunction with genetic labeling of epithelia to visualize and characterize this process. Although the focal absence of basal lamina from renal vesicle stages ensures that both epithelial networks are closely apposed, we found that a patent luminal interconnection is not established until S-shaped body stages. Precursor cells of the distal nephron in the interconnection zone exhibit a characteristic morphology consisting of ill-defined epithelial junctional complexes but without expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and Snai2. Live-cell imaging revealed that before luminal interconnection, distal cells break into the lumen of the collecting duct epithelium, suggesting that an invasive behavior is a key step in the interconnection process. Furthermore, loss of distal cell identity, which we induced by activating the Notch pathway, prevented luminal interconnection. Taken together, these data support a model in which establishing the distal identity of nephron precursor cells closest to the nascent collecting duct epithelium leads to an active cell invasion, which in turn contributes to a patent tubular interconnection between the nephron and collecting duct epithelia. PMID:22904347

Kao, Robert M.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Drummond, Iain A.

2012-01-01

204

Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species  

E-print Network

character- istics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species. ­ Preslia inva- sive and naturalized non-invasive neophytes. Species were sampled and seed collected in the field or in the laboratory. Invasive species significantly differ from naturalized non-invasive species in propagule length

Kratochvíl, Lukas

205

Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.  

PubMed

Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. PMID:22006671

Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

2012-01-01

206

Innovations in minimally invasive hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Vaginal hysterectomy, when feasible, is the safest and most cost-effective route for hysterectomy, however, when this is not possible, minimally invasive hysterectomy is often the next best option. Laparoscopic hysterectomy has advanced significantly since 1988, when it was first introduced. Continued improvements in instrumentation, energy sources, hemostatic agents, and vaginal cuff closure techniques have expanded the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy. Variations of laparoscopy, specifically laparoendoscopic single-site surgery hysterectomy and robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy, have further expanded the role of minimally invasive hysterectomy with the goal of decreasing morbidity. As with any evolving technology, well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness before wide-spread adoption. PMID:24145361

Ridgeway, Beri; Falcone, Tommaso

2014-03-01

207

A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

1991-01-01

208

Cholinergic Partition Cells and Lamina X Neurons Induce a Muscarinic-Dependent Short-Term Potentiation of Commissural Glutamatergic Inputs in Lumbar Motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine and the activation of muscarinic receptors influence the activity of neural networks generating locomotor behavior in the mammalian spinal cord. Using electrical stimulations of the ventral commissure, we show that commissural muscarinic (CM) depolarizations could be induced in lumbar motoneurons. We provide a detailed electrophysiological characterization of the muscarinic receptors and the membrane conductance involved in these responses. Activation of the CM terminals, originating from lamina X neurons and partition cells, induced a pathway-specific short-term potentiation (STP) of commissural glutamatergic inputs in motoneurons. This STP is occluded in the presence of the muscarinic antagonist atropine. During fictive locomotion, the activation of the commissural pathways transiently enhanced the motor output in a muscarinic-dependent manner. This study describes for the first time a novel regulatory mechanism of synaptic strength in spinal locomotor networks. Such cellular mechanisms would endow the locomotor central pattern generators with adaptive processes needed to generate appropriate synaptic inputs to motoneurons during different motor tasks. PMID:22069380

Bertrand, Sandrine S.; Cazalets, Jean-Rene

2011-01-01

209

Managing Invasive PlantsManaging Invasive Plants In our yard  

E-print Network

species introductions (arboretums, botanic gardens, gardeners). ·Often plants were brought methods of control based on these criteria Identify replacement garden plants #12;Now, for a very purple loosestrife and Japanese Knotweed end up along our roads? Some invasive plants don't proliferate

New Hampshire, University of

210

INVASION NOTE Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book  

E-print Network

+Business Media B.V. 2009 Charles Elton was a founder of ecology with fundamental contributions to diverse topics Ecology--The Legacy of Charles Elton'. This is probably the most exciting scientific meeting I have ever, University of Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain e-mail: emili.garcia@udg.edu 123 Biol Invasions (2010

García-Berthou, Emili

211

Elec 331 -Minimally Invasive Surgery Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

· Appendix ­ Attached to colon / large intestine ­ No known function ­ Inflamed · Surgery ­ Removal #12;Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 7 Hernia · Hernia ­ Weakened abdominal wall (muscle) ­ Intestine protrudes through abdomen ­ Visible bulge · Surgery ­ Retract intestine ­ Sew abdominal wall Gallbladder Pre

Pulfrey, David L.

212

100 OFTHE WORLD'S WORST INVASIVE  

E-print Network

image: Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis). Photo: Gordon Rodda Printed in New Zealand by: Hollands'EntrepriseTOTAL(1998 - 2000). #12;Biological Invasion What happens when a species is in- troduced into an ecosystem natural barriers to all but the hardiest of species. Ecosystems evolved in relative isolation. Early human

With, Kimberly A.

213

Water use by invasive eastern  

E-print Network

Water use by invasive eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the Nebraska Sandhills David Wedin semi-arid regions (GLACE et al. 2004). #12;Research by Awada/Wedin group on physiology and water use and season of water uptake by trees and grasses (stable isotopes) 3. Tree and stand-level transpiration

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

214

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida  

E-print Network

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida #12;· General Whitefly Introduction · Other Problems Whiteflies · Managing Whiteflies Outline #12;· 1500 species worldwide, at least 60 have been reported from, Michigan State University, www.bugwood.org, #5351016 ­ 2 pairs of wings which are covered by a white dust

Watson, Craig A.

215

Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success  

PubMed Central

Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.?sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.?× bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F.?sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F.?sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F.?japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

2014-01-01

216

Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success.  

PubMed

Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.?sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.?× bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F.?sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F.?sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F.?japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

2014-03-01

217

Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences  

PubMed Central

Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses). Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection. PMID:24251186

Kumbhkar, Tapas; Bansal, Shaifali; Jindal, Sushil; Saxena, Vivek; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Kapoor, Anil

2013-01-01

218

Ecosystem Consequences of Biological Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species affect the biogeochemical pools and fluxes of materials and energy, thereby altering the fundamental structure and function of their ecosystems. Rapidly accumulating evidence from many species of both animal and plant invaders suggests that invasive species often increase pool sizes, particularly of biomass, and promote accelerated flux rates, but many exceptions can be found. Ecosystem dynamics are altered

Joan G. Ehrenfeld

2010-01-01

219

Ecosystem Consequences of Biological Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species affect the biogeochemical pools and fluxes of materials and energy, thereby altering the fundamental structure and function of their ecosystems. Rapidly accumulating evidence from many species of both animal and plant invaders suggests that invasive species often increase pool sizes, particularly of biomass, and promote accelerated flux rates, but many exceptions can be found. Ecosystem dynamics are altered

Joan G. Ehrenfeld

220

Non-invasive physiological measurements  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

Rolfe, P.

1983-01-01

221

78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Executive Order 13112, on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The...

2013-11-25

222

76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Executive Order 13112, on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control and minimizing the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The...

2011-11-07

223

Fire and Invasive Plants on California Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout the world, the functioning of natural ecosystems is being altered by invasions from nonnative plants and animals.\\u000a Disturbances that alter ecosystem processes often initiate species invasions. Increasingly it is evident that fire-prone ecosystems\\u000a can be highly vulnerable both to invasion during the immediate postfire period and to alterations of fire regime by altered\\u000a fuel bed properties after invasion. Here

Jon E. Keeley; Janet Franklin; Carla D’Antonio

224

Biphasic behaviour in malignant invasion.  

PubMed

Invasion is an important facet of malignant growth that enables tumour cells to colonise adjacent regions of normal tissue. Factors known to influence such invasion include the rate at which the tumour cells produce tissue-degrading molecules, or proteases, and the composition of the surrounding tissue matrix. A common feature of experimental studies is the biphasic dependence of the speed at which the tumour cells invade on properties such as protease production rates and the density of the normal tissue. For example, tumour cells may invade dense tissues at the same speed as they invade less dense tissue, with maximal invasion seen for intermediate tissue densities. In this paper, a theoretical model of malignant invasion is developed. The model consists of two coupled partial differential equations describing the behaviour of the tumour cells and the surrounding normal tissue. Numerical methods show that the model exhibits steady travelling wave solutions that are stable and may be smooth or discontinuous. Attention focuses on the more biologically relevant, discontinuous solutions which are characterised by a jump in the tumour cell concentration. The model also reproduces the biphasic dependence of the tumour cell invasion speed on the density of the surrounding normal tissue. We explain how this arises by seeking constant-form travelling wave solutions and applying non-standard phase plane methods to the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. In the phase plane, the system possesses a singular curve. Discontinuous solutions may be constructed by connecting trajectories that pass through particular points on the singular curve and recross it via a shock. For certain parameter values, there are two points at which trajectories may cross the singular curve and, as a result, two distinct discontinuous solutions may arise. PMID:16627537

Marchant, Ben P; Norbury, John; Byrne, Helen M

2006-09-01

225

Ponto-Caspian Goby Invasions ! Many are invasive & inhabit a variety of  

E-print Network

in invasions 2. To develop species- & population-specific markers for rapid typing & DNA barcoding 3 L. Huron L. Michigan L. Huron Dnieper R. = Primary source For North American invasion St. Lawrence R! Ponto-Caspian Goby Invasions ! Many are invasive & inhabit a variety of habitats- fresh, brackish

Gottgens, Hans

226

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 43 Terrestrial Animals as Invasive  

E-print Network

for terrestrial animals include the following: · Protecting wildlife from endangerment by invasions Animals as Invasive Species and as Species at Risk From Invasions Deborah M. Finch1 , Dean Pearson2 , Joseph Wunderle3 , and Wayne Arendt3 Abstract Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive

227

Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A\\/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the

Susan L. Bjerke; Richard J.. Roller

2006-01-01

228

Effects of electro-acupuncture on the expression of c-jun and c-fos in spared dorsal root ganglion and associated spinal laminae following removal of adjacent dorsal root ganglia in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the plastic changes of c-jun and c-fos in the right sixth lumbar dorsal root ganglion (L6 DRG), Rexed’s lamina II in representative spinal segments L3, L5, and L6 and in the nucleus dorsalis (ND) at L3 segments after electro-acupuncture (EA) in cats subjected to removal of L1–L5 and L7–S2 DRG. Following dorsal root ganglionectomy, there was a

T. T.-H. Wang; W.-L. Yuan; Q. Ke; X.-B. Song; X. Zhou; Y. Kang; H.-T. Zhang; Y. Lin; Y.-L. Hu; Z.-T. Feng; L. L.-Y. Wu; X.-F. Zhou

2006-01-01

229

Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subunit 2 ion channels modulate synaptic transmission from nociceptive primary afferents containing substance P to secondary sensory neurons in laminae I-IIo of the rodent spinal dorsal horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subunit 2 (HCN2) is expressed by terminals of peptidergic nociceptive primary afferents in laminae I-IIo of the rat spinal dorsal horn. In this study, we investigated the possible neurotransmitters and postsynaptic targets of these HCN2-expressing primary afferent terminals in the superficial spinal dorsal horn by using immunocytochemical methods. We

Ildikó Papp; Krisztina Holló; Ferenc Erdélyi; Gábor Szabó; Miklós Antal

2006-01-01

230

Origin and hierarchy of basal lamina-forming and -non-forming myogenic cells in mouse skeletal muscle in relation to adhesive capacity and Pax7 expression in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a novel approach to distinguish skeletal myogenic cell populations, basal lamina (BL) formation of myogenic cells was examined\\u000a in the mouse compensatory enlarged plantaris muscles in vivo and in fiber-bundle cultures in vitro. MyoD+ myogenic cells located inside the regenerative muscle fiber BL were laminin? but interstitial MyoD+ cells were laminin+. This was also confirmed by electron microscopy as

Tetsuro Tamaki; Kayoko Tono; Yoshiyasu Uchiyama; Yoshinori Okada; Maki Masuda; Shuichi Soeda; Masahiro Nitta; Akira Akatsuka

2011-01-01

231

Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery Maria Vatshaug Ottermo Department-- A preliminary design of a remote palpation in- strument for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is given. The lack mm * 18 mm * 45 mm. I. INTRODUCTION Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is one of the meth- ods

Johansen, Tor Arne

232

Biological Invasion: Observations, Theory, Models, Simulations  

E-print Network

of the introduced species in the new environment: U ? 0 x (c) Spread of the introduced species over space, invasion #12;Stages of biological invasion (contd.)0 x (c) Spread of the introduced species over space x (c) Spread of the introduced species over space, invasion of new areas: U 0 x where U

233

Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Biological invasion can permanently alter ecosystem structure and function. In- vasive species are difficult to eradicate, so methods for constraining invasions would be ecologically valuable. We examined the potential of ecological restoration to constrain invasion of an old field by Agropyron cristatum , an introduced C 3 grass. 2. A field experiment was conducted in the northern Great

JONATHAN D. BAKKER; SCOTT D. WILSON

234

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

level monitored in the state of New Jersey during a 9-year period. The invasive A. albopictus and Aedes by A. albopictus, leading to partial displacement of A. triseriatus. Although the invasive species, amplifying public health concerns. Keywords Competitive displacement Á Invasive species Á Interspecies

235

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus is recognized as one of the most important invasive pest species described for other invasive termite and ant species. Keywords Isoptera Á Invasive insect Á Microsatellites University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA J. K. Grace Department of Plant and Environmental

Wang, Changlu

236

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities  

E-print Network

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009�29 #12;A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009�29 United States Department Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009�29 iii We thank Carlos

237

The Effect of the Invasive Species Caulerpa  

E-print Network

The Effect of the Invasive Species Caulerpa taxifolia among Native Species Lena Collins IROP 2007;Invasive Species · One the of largest environmental crises that we face today · Exotic species are considered the second greatest threat to imperiled species in the United States http://www.samab.org/Focus/Invasive

New Hampshire, University of

238

CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

239

Inhibition of medulloblastoma cell invasion by Slit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of brain tumor cells has made primary malignant brain neoplasms among the most recalcitrant to therapeutic strategies. We tested whether the secreted protein Slit2, which guides the projection of axons and developing neurons, could modulate brain tumor cell invasion. Slit2 inhibited the invasion of medulloblastoma cells in a variety of in vitro models. The effect of Slit2 was inhibited

T E Werbowetski-Ogilvie; M Seyed Sadr; N Jabado; A Angers-Loustau; N Y R Agar; J Wu; R Bjerkvig; J P Antel; D Faury; Y Rao; R F Del Maestro

2006-01-01

240

Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Research Station  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Mountain Research Station Contents RMRS Invasive Species Research Program.......................................2 Common themes of RMRS invasive species research ...................3 RMRS Invasive Species Research Priorities and Future Direction....3 Summary of Taxa

241

Human colonic intraepithelial and lamina proprial lymphocytes: cytotoxicity in vitro and the potential effects of the isolation method on their functional properties.  

PubMed Central

Colonic mucosal lymphoid cells, selectively enriched for intraepithelial (IEL) or lamina proprial lymphocytes (LPL), were isolated by sequential EDTA-collagenase treatment of resected human colons. Cytotoxic activities of colonic and peripheral blood lymphoid cells (PBL) were tested in three different assays, using chicken erythrocytes (CRBC) and Chang cells as targets. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and PHA-induced cytotoxicity (MICC) for both targets were shown by all the isolates of PBL, as was spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC) for Chang cells. However, no SCMC or ADCC for Chang cells was found with LPL, and IEL showed minimal or no activity in either assay. PBL, LPL and IEL demonstrated MICC for Chang cells but, contrasting with PBL and LPL, IEL showed no MCC for CRBC. No significant differences were found between the cytotoxic capabilities of colonic lymphoid cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and those from patients with other colonic diseases. Importantly, control studies with PBL showed that SCMC for Chang cells and ADCC for CRBC and Chang cells were reduced by collagenase treatment used in the isolation, of LPL. Also, SCMC for Chang cells was reduced by the treatment of PBL with EDTA. In contrast, neither EDTA nor collagenase reduced MICC for CRBC or Chang cells. Both forms of treatment induced variable degrees of cell losses in the PBL. By analogy, it can be implied that the isolation of intestinal mononuclear cells using EDTA and collagenase may influence some of their cytotoxic activities in vitro. This raises an important caveat in the interpretation of such studies. PMID:6262195

Chiba, M; Bartnik, W; ReMine, S G; Thayer, W R; Shorter, R G

1981-01-01

242

Müllerianosis and endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder: report of two cases with review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare benign condition, characterized by the presence of a mixture of at least two müllerian-derived components, and endosalpingiosis is also an extremely rare condition, characterized by the presence of tubal-type epithelium. In this report, we describe the 17th case of müllerianosis and 5th case of endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder. A 39-year-old Japanese female presented with menstrual hematuria and was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. Histopathological study demonstrated variably-sized dilated tubular glands in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. These dilated glands were covered by ciliated cuboidal cells, and some of them were covered by columnar cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Moreover, a tiny focus of endometrial tissues was also present. Immunohistochemically, these glandular cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of müllerianosis was made. The second case was a 37-year-old Japanese female, who was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the bladder. Dilated tubular glands were covered by ciliated cells in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. Neither endocervical nor endometrial tissues were observed. Immunohistochemically, these ciliated cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of endosalpingiosis was made. Our analysis revealed that these two conditions mainly affect premenopausal females and occur exclusively in the posterior wall. Although the pathogenesis remains completely unresolved, a metaplastic theory is favored. The recognition of these two conditions is important because they can mimic invasive adenocarcinoma. PMID:25120826

Maeda, Koki; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Kagotani, Akiko; Kawauchi, Akihiro

2014-01-01

243

Hypocalcemia after minimally invasive thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia following minimally invasive thyroidectomy. During the 2-year study period, 74 patients-16 men and 58 women (mean age: 43.7)-underwent either total or hemithyroidectomy through a 3-cm incision. Postoperative hypocalcemia occurred in 14 of these patients (18.9%)-4 men and 10 women-all of whom underwent total rather than hemithyroidectomy. All these patients received supplementation with calcium and vitamin D for 2 weeks postoperatively in order to regain a normal calcium status, and all demonstrated normal serum calcium levels at 3 weeks. Despite their low calcium levels, none of the 14 patients exhibited any overt symptoms of hypocalcemia. We conclude that minimally invasive thyroidectomy is associated with a low rate of postoperative hypocalcemia that is comparable to the rates previously reported for standard thyroidectomy. PMID:25255349

Massick, Doug; Garrett, Matthew R

2014-09-01

244

Why Ecology of Invasive Species?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your students may think of ecologists as people who pick up trash and protest for a cleaner environment. In this manual, the term ecologist is used to refer to scientists who study ecology--that is, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment. Through the readings, exercises, protocols, and research projects in Invasion Ecology, students will learn not only abut important ecological concepts, but also about how ecologists conduct research. Furthermore, they will learn how ecological science and research can be applied to solving a real-life environmental problem--the control of invasive species. This free selection also includes a bonus section--Inquiry and Ecology, the Table of Contents, and Introduction.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

245

Laboratory diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Severe infections due to Candida species have become more frequent during the past two decades because of the increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients being treated in our hospitals. Distinguishing colonization from invasive disease requires knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to invasion. To assist the clinician in therapeutic decisions, clinical microbiologists should identify to species Candida organisms isolated from immunosuppressed patients. Quantitative or semiquantitative cultures of urine, burn tissues, intravascular catheter tips, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens may provide useful information. Immunofluorescent staining of certain specimens can enhance diagnostic yield. The lysis-centrifugation blood culture technique offers some advantages over traditional broth techniques in detecting Candida fungemia. Antibody testing is of limited diagnostic value in highly immunosuppressed patients. Developing simple and reliable tests for detecting antigens or metabolites of Candida spp. in the sera of infected patients has proven difficult. Methods for typing Candida albicans are evolving. Typing should prove useful for studying the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients. Images PMID:2404567

Jones, J M

1990-01-01

246

Characterizing Vectors of Marine Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of an invasive species in a new region is the culmination of a set of relatively discrete steps, including the\\u000a invader ' s initial association with a transport vector, its tolerance of environmental conditions encountered during transit,\\u000a and its survival upon entering its new ecosystem (Ruiz and Carlton 2003). In the chapters that follow, a number of issues

Dan Minchin; Stephan Gollasch; Andrew N. Cohen; Chad L. Hewitt; Sergej Olenin

247

Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

248

Ecological Factors Affecting Community Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a community invasible? For over a century ecologists have sought to understand the relative importance of biotic\\u000a and abiotic factors that determine community composition. The fact that we are still exploring this topic today hints at both\\u000a its importance and complexity. As the impacts from harmful non-native species accumulate, it has become increasingly urgent\\u000a to find answers to

Suzanne V. Olyarnik; Matthew E. S. Bracken; Jarrett E. Byrnes; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; John J. Stachowicz

249

Allelopathy and Exotic Plant Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biologists have long searched for an explanation as to why some plant invaders become much more dominant in their naturalized\\u000a range than in their native range, and, accordingly, several nonexclusive hypotheses have been proposed. Plants are unparalleled\\u000a factories for the production of diverse biochemicals, and allelochemistry has recently re-emerged as a possible mechanism\\u000a for the success of some invasive plants.

Amutha Sampath Kumar; Harsh P. Bais

250

Fungal invasion of epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Interaction between host cells and invasive Candida plays a large role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Fungal-induced endocytosis and active penetration are the two distinct, yet complementary invasion mechanisms of invasive candidiasis. Induced endocytosis is a microorganism-triggered, epithelial-driven, clathrin-mediated and actin-dependent process. During the fundamental pathological process of induced endocytosis, invasins (Als3 and Ssa1), which mediate the binding of host epithelial surface proteins, are expressed by Candida species on the hyphal surface. Sequentially, the interaction between invasins and host epithelial surface proteins stimulates the recruitment of clathrin, dynamin and cortactin to the sites where Candida enters epithelial cells, which in turn induce the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Actin cytoskeleton provides the force required for fungal internalization. Parallely, active penetration of Candida can directly pass through epithelial cells possibly due to progressive elongation of hyphae and physical forces. Several molecules, such as secreted hydrolases and Als3, can affect the protective barrier of the epithelium and make Candida actively penetrate into epithelial cells through intercellular gaps of epithelial layers. PMID:24670964

Yang, Weiming; Yan, Lei; Wu, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiangwang; Tang, Jianguo

2014-11-01

251

Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'. PMID:24189403

Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

2014-01-01

252

Secretome Signature of Invasive Glioblastoma Multiforme  

PubMed Central

The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%. PMID:21574646

Formolo, Catherine A.; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Lee, Norman H.; Hathout, Yetrib

2011-01-01

253

Secretome signature of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.  

PubMed

The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%. PMID:21574646

Formolo, Catherine A; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J; Lee, Norman H; Hathout, Yetrib

2011-07-01

254

Alien Invasion: Invasive Species (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the example of the Eastern United States continental shelf, this lesson helps students understand how alien species enter non-native habitats, what problems are associated with these species, and what can be done about them. Students will be able to compare and contrast "alien species" and "invasive species," explain positive and negative impacts associated with the introduction of non-native species, and give a specific example of species that produces these impacts. They will also describe at least three ways in which species may be introduced into non-native environments and discuss actions that can be taken to mitigate negative impacts caused by non-native species.

255

Heparan Sulfate Degradation: Relation to Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Properties of Mouse B16 Melanoma Sublines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After transport in the blood and implantation in the microcirculation, metastatic tumor cells must invade the vascular endothelium and underlying basal lamina. Mouse B16 melanoma sublines were used to determine the relation between metastatic properties and the ability of the sublines to degrade enzymatically the sulfated glycosaminoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of cultured vascular endothelial cells. Highly invasive and metastatic B16 sublines degraded matrix glycosaminoglycans faster than did sublines of lower metastatic potential. The main products of this matrix degradation were heparan sulfate fragments. Intact B16 cells (or their cell-free homogenates) with a high potential for lung colonization degraded purified heparan sulfate from bovine lung at higher rates than did B16 cells with a poor potential for lung colonization. Analysis of the degradation fragments indicated that B16 cells have a heparan sulfate endoglycosidase. Thus the abilities of B16 melanoma cells to extravasate and successfully colonize the lung may be related to their capacities to degrade heparan sulfate in the walls of pulmonary blood vessels.

Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro; di Ferrante, Daniela; di Ferrante, Nicola; Nicolson, Garth L.

1983-05-01

256

Low invasion corehead reduces mud invasion while improving performances  

SciTech Connect

A corehead was designed, manufactured and tested to reduce fluid invasion of the core. This is obtained by minimizing the exposure time of the core to the drilling fluid in increasing the rate of penetration. The design includes a medium heavy set Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) cutting structure developed in accordance with cutting models and balancing methods used for the drill bits. The highest R.O.P. is also achieved by a particular hydraulic design: flow ports shape and positioning to clean the cutting structure enhance the drilled cuttings removal while preventing drilling fluid in the throat of the corehead. Moreover, an internal lip works with a special inner barrel shoe to effectively seal off mud flow from the throat. All the design features have been subjected to several tests: measurement of pressure drop across the corehead, flow visualization studies. Flow visualization tests include high speed filming of the flow and paint tracing to ensure the special flow pattern. In conjunction with lab tests, a numerical simulation was performed on a C.F.D. code to optimize hydraulic parameters. The low invasion core bit has been used in numerous applications. The performance achieved was significantly better than the average achieved over a period of years using various PDC coreheads. The rate of penetration was increased by a factor of 4.8 and bit life by 2.3 (often with re-usable condition).

Clydesdale, G. [DBS, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Leseultre, A.; Lamine, E. [DBS, Brussels (Belgium)

1994-12-31

257

Low invasion corehead reduces mud invasion while improving performances  

SciTech Connect

A corehead was designed, manufactured and tested to reduce fluid invasion of the core. This is obtained by minimizing the exposure time of the core to the drilling fluid in increasing the rate of penetration (ROP). The design incorporates a medium heavyset polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutting structure developed in accordance with cutting models and balancing methods used for drill bits. The highest ROP is achieved by a particular hydraulic design: flow ports shape and positioning to clean the cutting structure enhance the drilled cuttings removal while preventing drilling fluid in the throat of the corehead. Moreover, an internal lip works with a special inner barrel shoe to effectively seal off mud flow from the throat. All the design features have been subjected to laboratory tests, including measurement of pressure drop across the corehead and flow visualization studies. Flow visualization tests include high-speed filming of the flow and paint tracing to indicate the special flow pattern. In conjunction with lab tests, a numerical simulation was performed using fluid dynamics software to optimize hydraulic parameters. The low invasion core bit has been used in numerous applications. The performance achieved was significantly better than the average achieved over a period of years using various PDC coreheads. The rate of penetration was increased by a factor of 4.8 and bit life by 2.3 (often with reusable condition).

Clydesdale, G.M. (DB Stratabit Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Leseultre, A.; Lamine, E. (Security DBS, Brussels (Belgium))

1994-12-01

258

Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?  

PubMed

Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis". PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

259

Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

260

The Invasive Species Forecasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these features enable a degree of decentralization and distributed ownership that have helped other types of scientific information services succeed in recent years.

Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

2011-01-01

261

Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

2014-01-01

262

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services have attracted worldwide attention. Despite the overwhelming evidence\\u000a of these impacts and a growing appreciation for ecosystem services, however, researchers and policymakers rarely directly\\u000a address the connection between invasions and ecosystem services.Various attempts have been made to address the ecosystem processes\\u000a that are affected by invasive species (e.g., Levine et al. 2003;

Heather Charles; Jeffrey S. Dukes

263

Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modeling  

E-print Network

'lling with invasive specil" in the United States. The order was designed to l.ty the foundation f()r a program "to prevent the introduction of invasive ;.pecies ,md provide for their control Jnd to minimIze the eUll1Omic. t'cological, and human health Impacts th...'lt invasive "pecies l ause" (Clmton 1 ':19':1). Thi~ program includes far-I'CStates,

Peterson, A. Townsend; Vieglais, David A.

2001-05-01

264

FPGA implementation of an invasive computing architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive computing is a novel paradigm for exploitation of run-time parallelism of future MPSoC architectures through resource-aware programming and dynamic reconfiguration of the underlying architectures. Based on the state and availability of resources, an invasive algorithm organizes its computation itself. This paper presents a general methodology for mapping invasive algorithms to FPGA-based dynamically reconfigurable architectures. A detailed description of a

Abdulazim Amouri; Farhadur Arifin; Frank Hannig; Jurgen Teich

2009-01-01

265

Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma  

PubMed Central

Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

2014-01-01

266

Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Model Using Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Vocal Fold Augmentation  

E-print Network

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may provide a clinical option for rebuilding damaged superficial lamina propria of the vocal fold. We investigated the effects of five hydrogels (hyaluronic acid [HA], collagen, fibrin, ...

Park, Hyoungshin

267

Role of Vaccination in the Control of Turkey Coccidiosis: Vaccine Associated Oocyst Shedding, Lesions, and Mucosal Gene Expression  

E-print Network

sections adjacent to the Meckel's diverticulum, ileocecal junction, and middle of the ceca were collected for histological analysis and gene expression. Measurements from the tip of the villus to the base of the lamina propria, villus width...

Behl, Michelle 1983-

2012-07-11

268

Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids.  

E-print Network

??This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high… (more)

Voogt, M.J.

2012-01-01

269

Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.  

PubMed

Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success. PMID:24989502

Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

2014-07-22

270

Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

2014-01-01

271

Inflammation reduces the contribution of N-type calcium channels to primary afferent synaptic transmission onto NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons in the rat dorsal horn  

PubMed Central

N-type calcium channels contribute to the release of glutamate from primary afferent terminals synapsing onto nocisponsive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but little is known of functional adaptations to these channels in persistent pain states. Subtype-selective conotoxins and other drugs were used to determine the role of different calcium channel types in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Electrically evoked primary afferent synapses onto lumber dorsal horn neurons were examined three days after induction of inflammation with intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant. The maximal inhibitory effect of the N-type calcium channel blockers, ?-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA, were attenuated in NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons after inflammation, but the potency of CVID was unchanged. This was associated with reduced inhibition of the frequency of asynchronous-evoked synaptic events by CVID studied in the presence of extracellular strontium, suggesting reduced N-type channel contribution to primary afferent synapses after inflammation. After application of CVID, the relative contributions of P/Q and L channels to primary afferent transmission and the residual current were unchanged by inflammation, suggesting the adaptation was specific to N-type channels. Blocking T-type channels did not affect synaptic amplitude under control or inflamed conditions. Reduction of N-type channel contribution to primary afferent transmission was selective for NK1 receptor-positive neurons identified by post hoc immunohistochemistry and did not occur at synapses in laminae IIo or IIi, or inhibitory synapses. These results suggest that inflammation selectively downregulates N-type channels in the terminals of primary afferents synapsing onto (presumed) nociceptive lamina I NK1 receptor-positive neurons. PMID:17303639

Rycroft, Beth K; Vikman, Kristina S; Christie, MacDonald J

2007-01-01

272

Soil modification by invasive plants: effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive\\u000a species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America:\\u000a leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group

Nicholas R. Jordan; Diane L. Larson; Sheri C. Huerd

2008-01-01

273

An alien approach to invasive species: objectivity and society in invasion biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have recently argued that invasion biologists should adopt a more objective and dispassionate stance towards\\u000a invasive species. Brown and Sax (Austral Ecol 29:530–536, 2004; Austral Ecol 30:481–483, 2005) assert that invasion biologists risk their objectivity, “commit the naturalist fallacy” or “embark on a slippery slope”\\u000a with engaged concern about invasive species. Elsewhere, Colautti and MacIsaac (Divers Distrib 10:135–141,

Brendon M. H. Larson

2007-01-01

274

Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review  

PubMed Central

Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

2013-01-01

275

[Combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis].  

PubMed

The frequency of invasive fungal infections, and specifically invasive aspergillosis, has increased in the last few decades. Despite the development of new antifungal agents, these infections are associated with high mortality, ranging from 40% to 80%, depending on the patient and the localization of the infection. To reduce these figures, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed, including combination therapy. Most of the available data on the efficacy of these combinations are from experimental models, in vitro data and retrospective observational studies or studies with a small number of patients that have included both patients in first-line treatment and those receiving rescue therapy; in addition there are many patients with possible forms of aspergillosis and few with demonstrated or probable forms. To date, there is no evidence that combination therapy has significantly higher efficacy than monotherapy; however, combination therapy could be indicated in severe forms of aspergillosis, or forms with central nervous involvement or extensive pulmonary involvement with respiratory insufficiency, etc. Among the combinations, the association of an echinocandin--the group that includes micafungin--with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B seems to show synergy. These combinations are those most extensively studied in clinical trials and therefore, although the grade of evidence is low, are recommended by the various scientific societies. PMID:21420576

Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

2011-03-01

276

Clear and Present Danger: Invasive Species Threats toInvasive Species Threats to  

E-print Network

disease Chesnut Blight Invasive/ Exotic Species Dutch elm disease, Chesnut Blight ­ Hemlock woolly adelgid honeybees, biocontrol species) ­ Livestock (Cows, pigs, chickens) · Harmful/ Invasive Exotics ­ Dutch elm and reservoirs for human disease:Human ­ West Nile Virus ­ Malaria ­ Yellow Fever u a Health Invasive/ Exotic

Gray, Matthew

277

Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

2007-01-01

278

Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion.  Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive

D. Blumenthal; R. A. Chimner; J. M. Welker; J. A. Morgan

2008-01-01

279

Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions  

E-print Network

Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions #12;Invasive Species as Predators Towns et al., 2006 #12;Invasive Species as Competitors #12;Invasive species impacts on ecosystem function Vila et al;Invasive species impacts on biodiversity Vila et al., 2011 #12;Abundance Declines in Concord Willis et al

Schweik, Charles M.

280

Aquatic Invasive Species funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative  

E-print Network

Aquatic Invasive Species funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Progress toward restoring, and terrestrial invasive species. More than 180 aquatic nuisance species (ANS) now exist in the Great Lakes effectively respond to current invasions or prevent future invasions. NOAA's Aquatic Invasive Species efforts

281

Invasion of Dentinal Tubules by Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp

R. M. Love; H. F. Jenkinson

2002-01-01

282

The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

2010-01-01

283

Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced

Nathan M. Torbick

2007-01-01

284

A dynamic model of controlling invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of controlling invasive weeds is first developed which is a large scale, nonlinear 0-1 integer programming problem. This model is then applied for the case of control of the invasive grass, Pennisetum ciliare (buffelgrass), in the Arizona desert. The large size of the problem makes the application of direct optimization methods impossible, instead the most frequently suggested

?. Esra Büyüktahtak?n; Zhuo Feng; George Frisvold; Ferenc Szidarovszky; Aaryn Olsson

2011-01-01

285

The spatial dynamics of invasive species spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of invasive species spread requires timely analysis of the biological dynamics that lead to spatial dispersion. Here, a spatial dynamic model captures the invasive behavior of the recently introduced emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) and its impacts on host ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Parasite-host system dynamics are extended spatially using the Spatial Modeling Environment. The resulting model

Todd K. BenDora; Sara S. Metcalf

2006-01-01

286

Microscopic-based fluid flow invasion simulations  

SciTech Connect

A microscopic method for the generation of invasion percolation structures using armies' of interacting random walkers is presented. Two distinct species are used to simulate the invading and defending fluids of a fluid invasion process. Trapping of the defending species is accomplished purely by local rules, without the need to repetitively check the connection between the to be displaced' defender phase and the sink.

Wilson, W.G.; Laidlaw, W.G. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1992-02-01

287

Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years since Charles Elton proposed that more diverse communities should be less susceptible to invasion by exotic species, empirical studies have both supported and refuted Elton's hypothesis. Here, I use grassland community microcosms to test the effect of functional diversity on the success of an invasive annual weed (Centaurea solstitialis L.). I found that high functional diversity reduced

Jeffrey S. Dukes

2001-01-01

288

Distribution and Ecology of Invasive Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines exactly how invasive specific types of ants are, and what effect that has on the ecosystem. To do so, most of the research must be compiled for the first time, as there is a lack of knowledge and research on this subject. Through former research, Tillberg finds that there are invasive pavement ants in Oregon state parks,

Chad Tillberg; Frank Andrews; Carson Moscoso; Lily Ratliff; Claire Steele; Chris Turpin; Ben Edmonds; Alex Freauff; Erik Grimstad; Sara Grusing

2010-01-01

289

Elevated Invasive Potential of Glioblastoma Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most lethal and common types of primary brain tumors. The hallmark of GBMs is their highly infiltrative nature. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive cancer invasion in GBMs are poorly understood. GBM displays remarkable cellular heterogeneity and hierarchy containing self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Whether GSCs are more invasive than non-stem tumor cells and contribute to the invasive phenotype in GBMs has not been determined. Here we provide experimental evidence supporting that GSCs derived from GBM surgical specimens or xenograts display greater invasive potential in vitro and in vivo than matched non-stem tumor cells. Furthermore, we identified several invasion-associated proteins that were differentially expressed in GSCs relative to non-stem tumor cells. One of such proteins is L1CAM, a cell surface molecule shown to be critical to maintain GSC tumorigenic potential in our previous study. Immunohistochemical staining showed that L1CAM is highly expressed in a population of cancer cells in the invasive fronts of primary GBMs. Collectively, these data demonstrate the invasive nature of GSCs, suggesting that disrupting GSCs through a specific target such as L1CAM may reduce GBM cancer invasion and tumor recurrence. PMID:21371437

Cheng, Lin; Wu, Qiulian; Guryanova, Olga A; Huang, Zhi; Huang, Qian; Rich, Jeremy N; Bao, Shideng

2011-01-01

290

Plant Invasions on an Oceanic Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant invasions are particularly noticeable on oceanic islands. For many ecological or evolutionary phenomena, oceanic islands offer advantages in comparison to continental regions, because they are often simpler systems. The Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) Islands, located 667 km west of continental Chile, provide an especially favorable case study of plant invasions on an oceanic archipelago. They have little flora, no

Josef Greimler; Tod F. Stuessy; Ulf Swenson; Carlos M. Baeza; Oscar Matthei

2002-01-01

291

LettersForum512 Can biological invasions  

E-print Network

, biodiversity and food security (Schlesinger et al., 1990; Knapp et al., 2008). However, this is not the only present a new desertification paradigm that includes the invasion of stable desert shrublands by exotic's effect on land cover and soil resources. Both shrub encroachment and exotic grass invasions affect

D'Odorico, Paolo

292

Bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) invasion in Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of North American bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana), invasion in Uruguay. This Anura was introduced for farming proposes in 1987, but at present most of the farms are closed.\\u000a At one of these closed farms, located at Rincón de Pando, Canelones, we report the occurrence of a feral population of L. catesbeianus. This invasion point

Gabriel Laufer; Andrés Canavero; Diego Núñez; Raúl Maneyro

2008-01-01

293

The ecology of forest insect invasions and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by nonindigenous forest insects can have spectacular effects on the biodiversity, ecology, and economy of affected areas. This introduction explores several critical issues that are generally relevant to invasions by forest in- sects to provide an extended background for this special issue of the Cundiun Jourrtal ($* fi)re,st Research and highligllts the key findings of the papers included in

Eckehard G. BrockerhofV; Andrew M. Liebhold; Hewe Jactel

2006-01-01

294

Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although coastal estuarine and marine systems are among the most heavily invaded systems in the world, the study of nonindigenous species in these systems has, historically, lagged behind that of terrestrial and freshwater systems. However, in the past decade, a rapid increase in studies of coastal invasions has provided important insight into the invasion process in these systems and how

Edwin Grosholz

2002-01-01

295

Conservation Implications of Invasion by Plant Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of invasive exotic plant species in many regions and the continuing alteration of natural ecosystems by humans promote hybridization between previously allopatric species; among both native as well as between native and introduced species. We review the ecological factors and mechanisms that promote such hybridization events and their negative consequences on biological diversity. Plant invasions through hybridization

Montserrat Vilà; Ewald Weber; Carla M. D Antonio

2000-01-01

296

INVASIVE CORDGRASS MODIFIES WETLAND TROPHIC FUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plants strongly control belowground environments in most ecosys- tems. Invasion by vascular plants in coastal wetlands, and by cordgrasses (Spartina spp.) in particular, are increasing in incidence globally, with dramatic ecosystem-level conse- quences. We examined the trophic consequences of invasion by a Spartina hybrid (S. alterniflora 3 S. foliosa) in San Francisco Bay (USA) by documenting differences in biomass

Lisa A. Levin; Carlos Neira; Edwin D. Grosholz

2006-01-01

297

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus  

E-print Network

this invasive species from the native, Celastrus scandens whose flowers and fruit are more terminally locatedInvasive Species Taxonomic Name: Celastrus orbiculatus Common Name: Oriental bittersweet Physical Description: Growth Type: Celastrus orbiculatus grows as a rapid and aggressive, thicket forming vine

Hayden, Nancy J.

298

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade tree, typically 40' to 60' tall, but can reach furrows. #12;Invasive nature: Acer platanoides has invaded understory forest areas. Its dense canopy

Hayden, Nancy J.

299

GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF INVASION: THE ANNUAL BROMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among conservation biologists, there is great interest in developing rules to predict which alien species are most likely to become serious invaders. Invasion is both an ecological and a geographical process, but mostly ecological rules have been proposed. Studies of several weedy genera have found that invasion success correlates with the size of the species' native distribution. A geographical explanation

Mark A. Blumler

2006-01-01

300

Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.  

PubMed

Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity. PMID:20545732

Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

2010-08-01

301

Tactile Feedback for Robot Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

Tactile Feedback for Robot Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery: an Overview Pauwel Goethals Invasive Surgery 2 1.1 Importance of touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6 Applications 54 6.1 Minimally invasive surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 6

Otaduy, Miguel A.

302

Spatial Interactions among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project title  

E-print Network

Spatial Interactions among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project title: Spatial Interactions Among Fuels, Wildfire, and Invasive Plants Project location: Colorado State University, Western Forest, wildfire severity, exotic plant invasions, and post-fire fuel flammability in grasslands, shrub lands

303

Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense Alessia thistle (Cirsium arvense ­ Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants world-wide. Native modelling, Cirsium arvense, colonization history, Compositae, genetic bottleneck, invasive plant, multiple

Rieseberg, Loren

304

Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities  

E-print Network

Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities W. Brett Mattingly provoked much interest in assessing how native plant species diversity affects invasibility. Although common exotic invasive species. In this study, niche complementarity provides a potential mechanism

Damschen, Ellen

305

Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species  

E-print Network

27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape- nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease

Zavaleta, Erika

306

Invasive cancer cells and metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as sti

Mierke, Claudia Tanja

2013-12-01

307

Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

2013-01-01

308

Non-invasive glucose monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

309

Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

2009-01-01

310

Invasive neurostimulation in stroke rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen a growing interest in adjuvant treatments that synergistically influence mechanisms underlying rehabilitation of paretic upper limb in stroke. One such approach is invasive neurostimulation of spared cortices at the periphery of a lesion. Studies in animals have shown that during training of paretic limb, adjuvant stimulation targeting the peri-infarct circuitry enhances mechanisms of its reorganization, generating functional advantage. Success of early animal studies and clinical reports, however, failed to translate to a phase III clinical trial. As lesions in humans are diffuse, unlike many animal models, peri-infarct circuitry may not be a feasible, or consistent target across most. Instead, alternate mechanisms, such as changing transcallosal inhibition between hemispheres, or reorganization of other viable regions in motor control, may hold greater potential. Here, we review comprehensive mechanisms of clinical recovery and factors that govern which mechanism(s) become operative when. We suggest novel approaches that take into account a patient's initial clinical-functional state, and findings from neuroimaging and neurophysiology to guide to their most suitable mechanism for ideal targeting. Further, we suggest new localization schemes, and bypass strategies that indirectly target peri-lesional circuitry, and methods that serve to counter technical and theoretical challenge in identifying and stimulating such targets at the periphery of infarcts in humans. Last, we describe how stimulation may modulate mechanisms differentially across varying phases of recovery- a temporal effect that may explain missed advantage in clinical trials and help plan for the next stage. With information presented here, future trials would effectively be able to target patient's specific mechanism(s) with invasive (or noninvasive) neurostimulation for the greatest, most consistent benefit. PMID:24353109

Plow, Ela B; Machado, Andre

2014-07-01

311

Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress  

SciTech Connect

Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. U{sub S}3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either U{sub L}34 or U{sub S}3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection.

Bjerke, Susan L. [Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, 3115 Medical Laboratories, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Roller, Richard J. [Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, 3115 Medical Laboratories, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu

2006-04-10

312

A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition  

SciTech Connect

A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-03-10

313

Eating the competition speeds up invasions  

PubMed Central

Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels. PMID:20961884

Hall, Richard J.

2011-01-01

314

Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at ‘invasion hubs’. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2 242 000 to 1 385 000 km2. Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate. PMID:21345870

Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K.; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R.; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

2011-01-01

315

Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured density dependent responses of A. albopictus larvae to two invasive and one native leaf species in laboratory experiments. We found increased diversity of leaf species, particularly invasive species, in areas further from the urbanized coast, and a significant positive association between the presence of Schinus terebinthifolious (Brazilian pepper) and the abundance of A. albopictus. In laboratory experiments, we determined that larval growth and survivorship were significantly affected by both larval density and leaf species which, in turn, resulted in higher population performance on the most abundant invasive species (Brazilian pepper) relative to the most abundant native species, Quercus virginiana (live oak). These results suggest invasive leaf species can alleviate density dependent reductions in population performance in A. albopictus, and may contribute to its invasion success and potential to spread infectious disease. PMID:22523473

Zarrabi, Ali A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

2012-01-01

316

Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2014-01-01

317

Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes.

Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

2013-01-01

318

San Francisco Estuary: Invasive Spartina Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Invasive Spartina Project was developed by the California State Coastal Conservancy to determine the extent and address the problem of invasive Spartina in the San Francisco Estuary. This Web site describes the efforts of the Invasive Spartina Project and the risk that Spartina poses. A variety of maps and photos are used to describe the results of the 2000-2001 survey of Spartina populations within the estuary. A host of other documents regarding Spartina and this project are also available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

2002-01-01

319

Minimally invasive medial hip approach.  

PubMed

The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

2014-10-01

320

Multiple-well invasion percolation.  

PubMed

When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

2008-04-01

321

Overview of invasive fungal infections.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has seen a marked increase in the last two decades. This is especially evident among transplant recipients, patients suffering from AIDS, in addition to those in receipt of immunosuppressive therapy. Worryingly, this increased incidence includes infections caused by opportunistic fungi and emerging fungal infections which are resistant to or certainly less susceptible than others to standard antifungal agents. As a direct response to this phenomenon, there has been a resolute effort over the past several decades to improve early and accurate diagnosis and provide reliable screening protocols thereby promoting the administration of appropriate antifungal therapy for fungal infections. Early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy are vital if a patient is to survive an IFI. Substantial advancements have been made with regard to both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of an IFI. In parallel, stark changes in the epidemiological profile of these IFIs have similarly occurred, often in direct response the type of antifungal agent being administered. The effects of an IFI can be far reaching, ranging from increased morbidity and mortality to increased length hospital stays and economic burden. PMID:23296882

Tuite, Nina L; Lacey, Katrina

2013-01-01

322

Use of the Membrane Invasion Culture System (MICS) as a screen for anti-invasive agents.  

PubMed

The Membrane Invasion Culture System (MICS) assay was adapted for relatively rapid screening of compounds and used to identify anti-invasive drugs that inhibit human and murine tumor cell migration through a reconstituted basement membrane in vitro. Cell lines demonstrating low and high invasive and metastatic potentials were tested with all compounds for tumoricidal effects prior to evaluation in MICS at non-cytotoxic doses. The effect on invasive potential in the MICS assay was determined in 3 categories: (1) 48 hr drug pre-treatment prior to seeding in the MICS (exceptions: 90 min pre-treatment with pertussis toxin and, for some studies, continuous exposure for 2-7 days); (2) peptide or prostaglandins 2 hr after seeding and attachment to the membranes in MICS followed by continuous exposure; and (3) cells receiving neither drug nor peptide treatment and serving as controls in each MICS chamber. Since invasion involves cellular motility and deformability, some cytoskeleton disrupting agents were selected. Of these, vincristine, colcemid and colchicine inhibited invasion but taxol did not. Pre-treatment with cAMP agonists produced conflicting results: dibutyryl cAMP and 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio) cAMP resulted in 50% and 38% reduction in invasion, respectively, whereas 8-bromo cAMP stimulated invasive potential by 30%. Forskolin and cholera toxin both significantly reduced invasiveness. Pre-treatment with 5-azacytidine and araC, to consider the role of methylation and proliferations decreased invasive ability. Anti-metastatic drugs such as gamma-interferon and razoxane inhibited invasive potential but to varying degrees. Treatment of cells with prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha, A2, and D2 were ineffectual; however, indomethacin mildly inhibits invasion (less than 30%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2925275

Welch, D R; Lobl, T J; Seftor, E A; Wack, P J; Aeed, P A; Yohem, K H; Seftor, R E; Hendrix, M J

1989-03-15

323

Modelling invasibility in endogenously oscillating tree populations: timing of invasion matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing of introduction of a new species into an ecosystem can be critical in determining the invasibility (i.e. the sensitivity\\u000a to invasion) of a resident population. Here, we use an individual-based model to test how (1) the type of competition (symmetric\\u000a versus asymmetric) and (2) seed masting influence the success of invasion by producing oscillatory dynamics in resident tree

Paul Caplat; Madhur Anand; Chris Bauch

2010-01-01

324

Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern, process and scale in invasion ecology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion ecology has made rapid progress in recent years through synergies with landscape ecology, niche theory, evolutionary\\u000a ecology and the ecology of climate change. The palaeo-record of Holocene invasions provides a rich but presently underexploited\\u000a resource in exploring the pattern and process of invasions through time. In this paper, examples from the palaeo-literature\\u000a are used to illustrate the spread of

Lindsey Gillson; Anneli Ekblom; Katherine J. Willis; Cynthia Froyd

2008-01-01

325

Is there an equivalence of non-invasive to invasive referenciation in computer-aided surgery?  

PubMed

Various navigation systems with non-invasive patient referenciation and registration methods have been developed in times of minimal-invasive and computer-aided surgery. However, hard data proving the equivalence of different referenciation systems are missing. The present study investigated invasive and non-invasive referenciation systems with regard to overall navigation accuracy as well as navigation accuracy at specific anatomic locations. Four skull models were individually fabricated with a 3D printer based on patient's CT data sets and fitted with an individual customized silicone skin. 26 titanium screws on defined anatomic locations served as target fiducials. Two non-invasive referenciation systems (headband and headset) were compared with the invasive skull fixed reference array. Registration was done with laser surface scan. The mean accuracy was calculated and the target registration error for eight anatomical locations was measured. Mean accuracy was 1.3 ± 0.12 mm for the skull fixed reference array, 1.44 ± 0.24 mm for the headset and 1.46 ± 0.15 mm for the headband referenciation (non-significant). Navigation accuracy of the invasive referenciation system was significantly superior to the accuracy of both non-invasive systems on the ethmoid sinus with respect to the selected anatomic locations. In the midface headband referenciation was statistically significantly worse than the invasive system. Invasive and non-invasive referenciation systems seem to be on par in terms of overall navigation accuracy, but not regarding specific anatomic locations. Therefore, invasive referenciation systems should be preferred in high precision surgery. PMID:22562399

Grauvogel, Tanja D; Grauvogel, Juergen; Arndt, Susan; Berlis, Ansgar; Maier, Wolfgang

2012-10-01

326

Group A Streptococcus invasive infections: a review  

PubMed Central

The incidence of group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections has been increasing worldwide, and there is no obvious explanation for this phenomenon. In 1993, a working group on severe GAS infections was established to define accurately what constitutes an invasive infection. Three types of infection are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and a newly defined entity, named streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) because of a certain analogy with its staphylococcal counterpart. GAS produces many toxins responsible for its clinical manifestations. Some of them, labelled streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, have been characterized as superantigens. These proteins play a key role in initiating the immune response to GAS and are mostly responsible for the precipitous course of invasive infections. Death rates are high in streptococcal invasive infections, ranging from about 20% for necrotizing fasciitis to almost 100% for myositis. Therapy consists mainly of high doses of antibiotic combinations, aggressive surgery, and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins for STSS. PMID:9030079

Weiss, Karl A.; Laverdiere, Michel

1997-01-01

327

Lake Tahoe Aquatic Invasive Species Science Update  

E-print Network

& excrete nutrients, stimulating algal blooms #12;Marla Bay, July 2008 14 #12;15 Rapid response by the scientific community to determine 1) algal bloom relationship to invasive clams 2) impact on the native

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

328

Prevention of Invasiveness in Floricultural Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest quantity of invasive crops arises from the floriculture sector of the horticulture industry. While some floriculture\\u000a invasives are ‘old’ crops, e.g. purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a higher frequency are ‘new’ crops. This is due to the sheer number of new crops, as well as the vast quantities of cultivars\\u000a and product series distributed to the floriculture global economy.

Neil O. Anderson

329

Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.  

PubMed

Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. Efectos de las Plantas Invasoras sobre los Artrópodos. PMID:25065640

Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

2014-12-01

330

Weaning of infants from non invasive ventilation.  

PubMed

Non invasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to treat RDS in preterm infants. Although less risky than invasive ventilation, NIV has some potential side effects and appropriate weaning is therefore desirable. However, criteria for the definition of stability prior to attempting NIV weaning as well as the best weaning strategies need to be more investigated. The aim of this review is to identify criteria and interventions that can facilitate correct weaning from NIV. PMID:24957341

Gizzi, C; Massenzi, L; Pattumelli, M G; Moretti, C; Agostino, R

2014-01-01

331

Neurotechnology, Invasiveness and the Extended Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a standard view, the physical boundary of the person—the skin-and-skull boundary—matters morally because this\\u000a boundary delineates between where the person begins and the world ends. On the basis of this view we make a distinction between\\u000a invasive interventions that penetrate this boundary and non-invasive interventions that do not. The development of neuroprosthetics,\\u000a however, raises questions about the significance

Tom Buller

332

FSM-controlled architectures for linear invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive computing is a novel concept in multipro- cessor architecture and programming. Invasion will become an important step towards self-organizing behavior which will be needed in the next generation of massively parallel MPSoCs with unrivaled performance and resource efficiency numbers as on e of the main challenges for MPSoC apart from their programming. In this paper we introduce and model

Farhadur Arifin; Richard Membarth; Abdulazim Amouri; Frank Hannig; Jurgen Teich

2009-01-01

333

Invasive aphids attack native Hawaiian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species have had devastating impacts on the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian Islands. While the negative effects of\\u000a some invasive species are obvious, other species are less visible, though no less important. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae)\\u000a are not native to Hawai’i but have thoroughly invaded the Island chain, largely as a result of anthropogenic influences. As\\u000a aphids cause both

Russell H. Messing; Michelle N. Tremblay; Edward B. Mondor; Robert G. Foottit; Keith S. Pike

2007-01-01

334

Will Climate Change Promote Alien Plant Invasions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien plant species pose significant challenges to managing and maintaining indigenous biodiversity in natural ecosystems.\\u000a Invasive plants can transform ecosystems by establishing viable populations with growth rates high enough to displace elements\\u000a of the native biota (Rejmánek 1999) or to modify disturbance regimes (Brooks et al. 2004), thereby potentially transforming\\u000a ecosystem structure and functioning (Dukes and Mooney 2004). Because

Wilfried Thuiller; David M. Richardson; Guy F. Midgley

335

Augmented Reality in Minimally Invasive Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 15 years Minimally Invasive Surgery, with techniques such as laparoscopy or endoscopy, has become very important\\u000a and research in this field is increasing since these techniques provide the surgeons with less invasive means of reaching\\u000a the patient’s internal anatomy and allow for entire procedures to be performed with only minimal trauma to the patient. The\\u000a advantages of

Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio

336

The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.  

PubMed

It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V; Drijfhout, Falko P; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R; Nash, David R; Pedersen, Jes S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2008-01-01

337

Evolution of minimally invasive bariatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Minimally invasive Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency. It is an advanced laparoscopic procedure with a steep learning curve. With experience, it can be performed in a reasonable amount of time with minimal morbidity. Methods. We first performed minimally invasive gastric bypass with the hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) technique. After significant experience

Jon C Gould; Bradley J Needleman; E. Christopher Ellison; Peter Muscarella; Carol Schneider; W. Scott Melvin

2002-01-01

338

Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management  

PubMed Central

Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability.

Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

2010-01-01

339

Multivariate forecasts of potential distributions of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that plant invasions are an ongoing process makes generalizations of invasive spread extraordinarily challenging. This is particularly true given the idiosyncratic nature of invasions, in which both historical and local conditions affect establishment success and hinder our ability to generate guidelines for early detection and eradication of invasive species. To overcome these limitations we have implemented a comprehensive

Inés Ibáñez; John A. Silander; Adam M. Wilson; Nancy LaFleur; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Ikutaro Tsuyama

2009-01-01

340

Phenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by Altering Fitness Surface  

E-print Network

, Michigan, United States of America Understanding species invasion is a central problem in ecology becausePhenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by Altering Fitness Surface Scott D. Peacor1 invasions of exotic species severely impact ecosystems, and because invasions underlie fundamental

341

Invasive Predators Deplete Genetic Diversity of Island Lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species can dramatically impact natural populations, especially those living on islands. Though numerous examples illustrate the ecological impact of invasive predators, no study has examined the genetic consequences for native populations subject to invasion. Here we capitalize on a natural experiment in which a long-term study of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) was interrupted by rat invasion. An

Amandine Gasc; M. C. Duryea; Robert M. Cox; Andrew Kern; Ryan Calsbeek

2010-01-01

342

206 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America Invasion Terminology  

E-print Network

- ing species. The primary practical reason is that, outside of the discipline of ecology, "invasive of "invasive species" in Presi- dent Clinton's recent Executive Or- der on Invasive Species (Order 13112, February 3, 1999): "`Invasive species' means an alien species whose intro- duction does or is likely

Davis, Mark A.

343

Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds By Annabel Major  

E-print Network

Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds Awareness By Annabel Major Nebraska Invasive Species, with support from the Nebraska Environmental Trust, kicked off the first Nebraska Invasive Species Conference in Lincoln. The event attracted invasive species managers from across Nebraska. Speakers were from a variety

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

344

Invasion Dynamics of Cytisus scoparius: A Matrix Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is at the level of population dynamics that an invasion either fails or succeeds. By elucidating patterns of variation in population growth rates or demographic rates, it is possible to forge a connection between quantitative field data and theoretical ideas about invasiveness, invasibility, and rates of spread. Demographic models also provide a tool to guide control strategies for invasive

Ingrid M. Parker

2000-01-01

345

Understanding the genetic basis of invasiveness.  

PubMed

Invasive species provide excellent study systems to evaluate the ecological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the colonization of novel environments. While the ecological processes that contribute to the successful establishment of invasive plants have been studied in detail, investigation of the evolutionary processes involved in successful invasions has only recently received attention. In particular, studies investigating the genomic and gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of invasive species are just beginning and are required if we are to understand how plants become invasive. In the current issue of Molecular Ecology, Hodgins et al. (2013) tackle this unresolved question, by examining gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of annual ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The study identifies a number of potential candidate genes based on gene expression differences that may be responsible for the success of annual ragweed in its introduced range. Furthermore, genes involved in stress response are over-represented in the differentially expressed gene set. Future experiments could use functional studies to test whether changes in gene expression at these candidate genes do in fact underlie changes in growth characteristics and reproductive output observed in this and other invasive species. PMID:23738371

Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

2013-05-01

346

Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

2013-01-01

347

Nuclear Matrix Association: Switching to the Invasive Cytotrophoblast  

PubMed Central

Abnormal trophoblast invasion is associated with the most common and most severe complications of human pregnancy. The biology of invasion, as well as the etiology of abnormal invasion remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the transcriptome of the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line which displays well characterized invasive and non-invasive behavior, and to correlate the activity of the transcriptome with nuclear matrix attachment and cell phenotype. Comparison of the invasive to non-invasive HTR transcriptomes was unremarkable. In contrast, comparison of the MARs on chromosomes 14–18 revealed an increased number of MARs associated with the invasive phenotype. These attachment areas were more likely to be associated with silent rather than actively transcribed genes. This study supports that view that that nuclear matrix attachment may play an important role in cytotrophoblast invasion by ensuring specific silencing that facilitates invasion. PMID:20346505

Drennan, Kathryn J.; Linnemann, Amelia K.; Platts, Adrian E.; Heng, Henry H.; Armant, D. Randall; Krawetz, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

348

Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.  

PubMed

Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant. PMID:20808770

Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

2010-01-01

349

Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners alien to Europe: Jack of all trades, master of invasion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Oenothera includes a number of species alien to central Europe, which differ in their invasion success. The present study was designed to investigate how fecundity, growth rate of seedlings and competitive ability contribute to the invasion potential within this genus. The relative growth rate and response to interspecific competition from neighbouring vegetation were determined for 15 species. Relations

Vojtech Jaros

350

Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.  

PubMed

Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3?mmHg to 30.0?mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5?mmHg to 25.0?mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6?mmHg to 33.1?mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6?mmHg to 24.6?mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

2012-12-01

351

Preimplantation Factor Promotes First Trimester Trophoblast Invasion  

PubMed Central

Objectives Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a novel embryo-derived peptide which influences key processes in early pregnancy implantation, including immunity, adhesion, remodeling and apoptosis. Herein, we explore the effects of synthetic PIF (sPIF) on trophoblast invasion. Methods Invasion patterns of immortalized cultured HTR-8 trophoblast cells were analyzed through Matrigel extracellular matrix +/? sPIF (25–100nM) in a transwell assay. Effects were compared with epidermal growth factor (EGF) 10?g/mL, scrambled aminoacid sequence of PIF, or media alone as controls. Results sPIF enhances trophoblast invasion at physiologic doses [at 50nM 260% (174–346% 95%CI, p=0.05); 100nM 178% (170–184%, p<0.02)], compared to scrambled amnioacid sequence PIF or control media. EGF added to sPIF does not further enhance trophoblast invasion [sPIF 50nM+EGF, 238% (237–239%, p<0.03); sPIF 100nM+EGF 269% (265–273%, p<0.04)]. Conclusion PIF should be further investigated as it shows a potential preventative or therapeutic role for pregnancy complications associated with inadequate trophoblast invasion. PMID:20708167

DUZYJ, Christina M.; BARNEA, Eytan R.; LI, Min; HUANG, S. Joseph; KRIKUN, Graciela; PAIDAS, Michael J.

2010-01-01

352

Factors promoting marine invasions: A chemoecological approach  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean Sea is losing its biological distinctiveness, and the same phenomenon is occurring in other seas. It gives urgency to a better understanding of the factors that affect marine biological invasions. A chemoecological approach is proposed here to define biotic conditions that promote biological invasions in terms of enemy escape and resource opportunities. Research has focused on the secondary metabolite composition of three exotic sea slugs found in Greece that have most probably entered the Mediterranean basin by Lessepsian migration, an exchange that contributes significantly to Mediterranean biodiversity. We have found toxic compounds with significant activity as feeding deterrents both in the cephalaspidean Haminoea cyanomarginata and in the nudibranch Melibe viridis. These findings led us to propose aposematism in the former and dietary autonomy in producing defensive metabolites in the latter case, as predisposing factors to the migration. In the third mollusk investigated, the anaspidean Syphonota geographica, the topic of marine invasions has been approached through a study of its feeding biology. The identification of the same compounds from both the viscera of each individual, separately analyzed, and their food, the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, implies a dietary dependency. The survival of S. geographica in the Mediterranean seems to be related to the presence of H. stipulacea. The initial invasion of this exotic pest would seem to have paved the way for the subsequent invasion of a trophic specialist that takes advantage of niche opportunities. PMID:18337492

Mollo, Ernesto; Gavagnin, Margherita; Carbone, Marianna; Castelluccio, Francesco; Pozone, Ferdinando; Roussis, Vassilios; Templado, José; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Cimino, Guido

2008-01-01

353

Effect of environmental fluctuations on invasion fronts.  

PubMed

We determine the density profile and velocity of invasion fronts in one-dimensional infinite habitats in the presence of environmental fluctuations. The population dynamics is reformulated in terms of a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation and is reduced to a deterministic equation that incorporates the systematic contributions of the noise. We obtain analytical expressions for the front profile and velocity by constructing a variational principle. The effect of the noise differs, depending on whether it affects the density-independent growth rate, the intraspecific competition term or the Allee threshold. Fluctuations in the density-independent growth rate increase the invasion velocity and the population density of the invaded area. Fluctuations in the competition term also change the population density of the invaded area, but modify the invasion velocity only for certain initial conditions. Fluctuations in the Allee threshold can induce pulled or pushed invasion fronts as well as invasion failure. We compare our analytical results with numerical solutions of the stochastic partial differential equations and show that our procedure proves useful in dealing with reaction-diffusion equations with multiplicative noise. PMID:21549716

Méndez, Vicenç; Llopis, Isaac; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

2011-07-21

354

Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which epithelial cells acquire the characteristics of invasive mesenchymal cells. EMT has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis as well as the formation of many tissues and organs during development. Epithelial cells undergoing EMT lose cell-cell adhesion structures and polarity, and rearrange their cytoskeletons. Several oncogenic pathways such as transforming growth factor (TGF) -?, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways, have been shown to induce EMT. These pathways have activated transcription factors including Snail, Slug, and the ZEB family which work as transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, thereby making epithelial cells motile and resistant to apoptosis. Mounting evidence shows that EMT is associated with cell invasion and tumor progression.In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of EMT, pathways leading to EMT, and the role of EMT in cell invasion. Three topics are addressed in this review: (1) Definition of EMT, (2) Signaling pathways leading to EMT, (3) Role of EMT in cell invasion. Understanding the role of EMT in cell invasion will provide valuable information for establishing strategies to develop anti-metastatic therapeutics which modulate malignant cellular processes mediated by EMT. PMID:24278531

Son, Hwajin

2010-01-01

355

Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

Ortensi, Barbara; Setti, Matteo; Osti, Daniela; Pelicci, Giuliana

2013-01-01

356

Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

2013-01-01

357

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

PubMed Central

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

358

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.  

PubMed

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-03-01

359

Hippo - hungry, hungry for melanoma invasion  

PubMed Central

Summary The acquisition of invasive properties in melanoma is associated with a high proclivity for metastasis, but the underlying pathways are poorly characterized. The Hippo pathway plays an important role in organ size control and is dysregulated in some types of tumors. The present study, “Pro-invasive activity of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ in cutaneous melanoma” by Nallet-Staub et al., provides the first in-depth analysis of expression of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ (Tafazzin) in human melanocytic lesions. Importantly, results from this study demonstrate a causal relationship between YAP/TAZ levels and melanoma cell tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PMID:24352079

Sanchez, Ileine M.; Aplin, Andrew E.

2013-01-01

360

Hippo: hungry, hungry for melanoma invasion.  

PubMed

The acquisition of invasive properties in melanoma is associated with a high proclivity for metastasis, but the underlying pathways are poorly characterized. The Hippo pathway has an important role in organ size control and is dysregulated in some type of tumors. The present study, "Pro-invasive activity of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ in cutaneous melanoma" by Nallet-Staub et al., 2013, provides the first in-depth analysis of expression of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ (Tafazzin) in human melanocytic lesions. Importantly, results from this study demonstrate a causal relationship between YAP/TAZ levels and melanoma cell tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PMID:24352079

Sanchez, Ileine M; Aplin, Andrew E

2014-01-01

361

[Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].  

PubMed

The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants. PMID:24435155

Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

2014-02-01

362

Projecting rates of spread for invasive species.  

PubMed

All else being equal, the faster an invading species spreads, the more dangerous its invasion. The projection of spread rate therefore ought to be a central part of the determination of invasion risk. Originally formulated in the 1970s to describe the spatial spread of advantageous alleles, integrodifference equation (IDE) models have since been co-opted by population biologists to describe the spread of populations. More recently, they have been modified to include population structure and environmental variability. We review how IDE models are formulated, how they are parameterized, and how they can be analyzed to project spread rates and the sensitivity of those rates to changes in model parameters. For illustrative purposes, we apply these models to Cytisus scoparius, a large shrub in the legume family that is considered a noxious invasive species in eastern and western North America, Chile, Australia, and New Zealand. PMID:15357802

Neubert, Michael G; Parker, Ingrid M

2004-08-01

363

Minimally invasive surgery of the achilles tendon.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgical techniques for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to decrease perioperative morbidity, allow faster recovery times, shorten hospital stays, and improve functional outcomes when compared with open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. This article presents recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, and chronic tears. All of the techniques described in this article are inexpensive and do not require highly specialized equipment and training. Future randomized controlled trials are required to address the issue of the comparison between open versus minimally invasive AT surgery. PMID:19773054

Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Oliva, Francesco; Ronga, Mario; Denaro, Vincenzo

2009-10-01

364

Introduction: minimally invasive spine surgery video supplement.  

PubMed

This video supplement of Neurosurgery Focus is devoted to minimally invasive spine surgery. Minimally invasive spine surgery has gained popularity amongst patients and physicians over the past decade because it has been shown in select instances to lower blood loss and reduce length of hospital stay for appropriately selected candidates. This supplement includes videos from many of the leaders in the field. Pioneers like Frank LaMarca, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Juan Uribe, and Mike Wang have all sent in videos depicting minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery options. The supplement also includes videos from several different countries, demonstrating how widespread and nuanced minimally invasive spinal procedures have become. Drs. Barbagallo, Certo, Sciacca, and Albanese from Italy; Drs. Gragnaniello and Seex from Australia; and Drs. Liao, Wu, Huang, Wang, Chang, Cheng, and Shih from Taiwan have all sent in nuanced surgical videos that will be of interest to many viewers. I personally enjoyed viewing videos on lumbar degenerative disease surgery depicting unique surgical nuances to treat common problems. Dr. Beejal Amin, Dr. Harel Deutsch, Dr. Daniel Lu, and Dr. Adam Kanter have each submitted videos depicting lumbar decompression and/or fusion for lumbar degenerative stenosis and spondylosis. This supplement also included videos depicting the minimally invasive treatment of uncommon spinal pathologies as well. Videos from Dr. Fred Geisler, Dr. John O'Toole, and Dr. Noel Perin covered topics as varied as sacroiliac joint dysfunction, spinal arteriovenous malformations, and sympathetic chain surgery. I hope that you enjoy this issue of Neurosurgical Focus devoted to videos depicting the surgical nuances of minimally invasive spinal surgery. This video supplement has international appeal, and it has been an honor to be a guest editor on this superb supplement. PMID:23829838

Mummaneni, Praveen V

2013-07-01

365

Robotic and minimally invasive cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

The transition of mitral valve surgery away from the traditional sternotomy approach toward more minimally invasive strategies continues to evolve. The use of telemanipulative robotic arms with near 3-dimensional valve visualization has allowed for near complete endoscopic robotic-assisted mitral valve surgery, providing increased patient satisfaction and cosmesis. Studies have shown rapid recovery times without sacrificing perioperative safety or the durability of surgical repair. Although a steep learning curve exists as well as high fixed and disposable costs, continued technological development fueled by increasing patient demand may allow for further expansion in the use of robotic-assisted minimal invasive surgery. PMID:23711646

Vernick, William; Atluri, Pavan

2013-06-01

366

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Plant Resources and Colony Growth in an Invasive Ant: The  

E-print Network

interaction among an invasive mealybug, Antonina graminis (Maskell), an invasive host grass, Cynodon dactylon Antonina graminis, Cynodon dactylon, honeydew, invasive species, Solenopsis invicta The considerable

Helms, Ken

367

Invasive and non-invasive measurement in medicine and biology: calibration issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive and non-invasive measurement sensors and systems perform vital roles in medical care. Devices are based on various principles, including optics, photonics, and plasmonics, electro-analysis, magnetics, acoustics, bio-recognition, etc. Sensors are used for the direct insertion into the human body, for example to be in contact with blood, which constitutes Invasive Measurement. This approach is very challenging technically, as sensor performance (sensitivity, response time, linearity) can deteriorate due to interactions between the sensor materials and the biological environment, such as blood or interstitial fluid. Invasive techniques may also be potentially hazardous. Alternatively, sensors or devices may be positioned external to the body surface, for example to analyse respired breath, thereby allowing safer Non-Invasive Measurement. However, such methods, which are inherently less direct, often requiring more complex calibration algorithms, perhaps using chemometric principles. This paper considers and reviews the issue of calibration in both invasive and non-invasive biomedical measurement systems. Systems in current use usually rely upon periodic calibration checks being performed by clinical staff against a variety of laboratory instruments and QC samples. These procedures require careful planning and overall management if reliable data are to be assured.

Rolfe, P.; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Jinwei; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.; Yamakoshi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yamakoshi, T.; Yamakoshi, Y.; Ogawa, M.

2010-08-01

368

Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods--A Review  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

2012-01-01

369

Cervids with different vocal behavior demonstrate different viscoelastic properties of their vocal folds.  

PubMed

The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (epithelium, lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle). The vocal fold epithelium and the lamina propria were investigated in two sets of tensile tests. First, creep rupture tests demonstrated that ultimate stress in mule deer lamina propria is of the same magnitude as in elk. Second, cyclic loading tests revealed similar elastic moduli for the vocal fold epithelium in mule deer and elk. The elastic modulus of the lamina propria is also similar between the two species in the low-strain region, but differs at strains larger than 0.3. Sex differences in the stress-strain response, which have been reported for elk and human vocal folds, were not found for mule deer vocal folds. The laminae propriae in mule deer and elk vocal folds are comparatively large. In general, a thick and uniformly stiff lamina propria does not self-oscillate well, even when high subglottic pressure is applied. If the less stiff vocal fold seen in elk is associated with a differentiated lamina propria it would allow the vocal fold to vibrate at high tension and high subglottic pressure. The results of this study support the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of vocal folds varies with function and vocal behavior. PMID:19603411

Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

2010-01-01

370

On local probability of invasive tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami occurrence and invasive tsunami at a local area in the circum?Pacific seismic zone were studied as a Poisson process. The tsunami height at Osaka, Japan, was related to tsunami magnitude. The exceedence frequency of invaded tsunami at Osaka showed a good fitness to the Poisson process. However, an adapted process should be introduced for exceedence frequency of tsunami occurrence

Shigehisa Nakamura

1981-01-01

371

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Rhamnus cathartica  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Rhamnus cathartica Common Name: European Buckthorn Physical Description: Growth Type: Rhamnus cathartica is a shrub to small tree growing up to 22 ft high with a 10 inch. Rhamnus cathartica's fruit, when eaten by birds produces a severe laxative effect, helping to distribute

Hayden, Nancy J.

372

Antifungal stewardship in invasive Candida infections.  

PubMed

Bloodstream and other invasive infections due to Candida species (invasive fungal diseases = IFD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized adults and children in many countries worldwide. The high infection-related morbidity and mortality associated with invasive Candida infection/candidaemia (IC/C), combined with suboptimal diagnostic tools, have driven the overuse of antifungal drugs. Antifungal stewardship (AFS) may be regarded as subentity of the more general term Anti-infective or Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (AIS/AMS). The high costs and high contribution of antifungal agents to the management of IFDs along with their recognized toxicities have been addressed as the principal justification for antifungal stewardship. AFS programmes should be organized by an interdisciplinary team of clinicians, pharmacists, microbiologists and infection control experts with the lead of an infectious disease specialist preferably in each large hospital/institution dealing with high-risk patients for invasive fungal infections. These programmes should consider various aspects of IC/C including (i) the local fungal epidemiology, (ii) information on antifungal resistance rates, (iii) establishing and application of therapeutic guidelines, (iv) implementation of treatment strategies for empirical, pre-emptive therapy including PK/PD data for antifungal drugs, de-escalation and 'switch and step-down strategies' (from intravenous to oral medication) in defined patient populations, (v) catheter management together with the application of routine diagnostic procedures such as ophthalmological and cardiac evaluations and (vi) the best available diagnostic tests for diagnosing IC and candidaemia. PMID:24661820

Ruhnke, M

2014-06-01

373

Non-invasive ventilation and sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the effects of nocturnal mechanical ventilation on sleep. Indeed, although non-invasive assisted ventilation during sleep has been applied extensively, the exact effects of this treatment on sleep quality have not been thoroughly studied. In patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe restrictive ventilatory defects, the resulting respiratory failure is aggravated by the specific

Mónica M. González; Veronica F. Parreira; Daniel O. Rodenstein

2002-01-01

374

Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital exenteration aims at local control of disease invading the orbit that is potentially fatal or relentlessly progressive. Of all exenterations presenting to ophthalmologists, 40–50% are required for tumours in the eyelid or periocular skin. 99% of these are basal cell carcinomas and 4–6% each are squamous cell carcinomas or sebaceous gland carcinomas. Orbital invasion results in progressive fixation of

A G Tyers

2006-01-01

375

Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease  

PubMed Central

We diagnosed invasive meningococcal disease by using immunohistochemical staining of embalmed tissue and PCR of vitreous humor from 2 men in New York City. Because vitreous humor is less subject than other body fluids to putrefaction, it is a good material for postmortem analysis. PMID:24565379

Halse, Tanya A.; Musser, Kimberlee A.; Wroblewski, Danielle; Paddock, Christopher D.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa; Scordi-Bello, Irini; Del Rosso, Paula E.; Weiss, Don

2014-01-01

376

Invasion by Sweet Clover (Melilotus) in Montane  

E-print Network

Invasion by Sweet Clover (Melilotus) in Montane Grasslands, Rocky Mountain National Park Joy J by anthropogenic disturbances, can be detrimental to the biodiversity of indigenous plant communities. We examined) in the montane grassland community in Rocky Mountain National Park to determine (1) whether native and exotic

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

377

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

of the most important invasive plants in the Ohio River Valley is Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder (Amur of the end? Extensive dieback of an open-grown Amur honeysuckle stand in northern Kentucky, USA Richard L? Extensive dieback of an open- grown Amur honeysuckle stand in northern Kentucky, USA Richard L. Boyce

Boyce, Richard L.

378

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide) (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: � Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species � Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies � A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

1900-01-01

379

Invasive Species, climate change and Forest Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species have been invading new territories ever since life appeared on Earth, as invasion is part of the struggle for life. From the times of supercontinents Rodinia and then Pangea to the current distribution of the world's continents, species have moved within and between land masses in search of opportunities for survival and growth. Species have always taken advantage of

Jacques Régnière

2009-01-01

380

In vitro cell invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  

PubMed

The ability of the widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum to invade cultured human epithelial cells (HeLa-229) and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) was investigated by using the gentamicin invasion assay and a double immunofluorescence microscopic technique for accurate localization of cell-associated mycoplasmas. The presence of intracellular mycoplasmas in both cell lines was clearly demonstrated, with organisms entering the eukaryotic cells within 20 min. Internalized mycoplasmas have the ability to leave the cell, but also to survive within the intracellular space over a 48-h period. Frequencies of invasion were shown to differ between the two cell lines, but were also considerably dependent on the mycoplasma input population. Of the prototype strain R, a low-passage population in artificial medium, R(low), was capable of active cell invasion, while a high-passage population, R(high), showed adherence to but nearly no uptake into HeLa-229 and CEF. By passaging R(low) and R(high) multiple times through HeLa-229 cells, the invasion frequency was significantly increased. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that M. gallisepticum has the capability of entering nonphagocytic host cells that may provide this pathogen with the opportunity for resisting host defenses and selective antibiotic therapy, establishing chronic infections, and passing through the respiratory mucosal barrier to cause systemic infections. PMID:10858241

Winner, F; Rosengarten, R; Citti, C

2000-07-01

381

SIMPLE MODELS OF INVASIONS AND EPIDEMICS  

E-print Network

SIMPLE MODELS OF INVASIONS AND EPIDEMICS Fred Brauer EPIDEMIC MODELS The Kermack-McKendrick epidemic model The special case of the model proposed by Kermack and McKendrick in 1927 which is the starting point for our study of epidemic models is S = -SI I = (S - )I , together with initial conditions S

Linder, Tamás

382

Invasive Aspergillus infections in hematologic malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive Aspergillus (IA) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase. The most common species include Aspergillus fumigatus (approximately 90% of cases), A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans. Most infections involve the pulmonary parenchyma, though systemic dissemination of the fungus from a primary pulmonary focus or the paranasal sinuses after hyphal invasion into blood vessels is frequent. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients afflicted with this condition. The definitive diagnosis of IA is based on showing the hyphal invasion in tissue specimens together with a positive culture for Aspergillus species from the same specimen. The detection of circulating fungal antigens and DNA seems to be a promising, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of aspergillosis. The current antifungals available for the treatment of IA include amphotericin B deoxycholate and lipid formulations, itraconazole and caspofungin acetate. New investigational antifungal drugs include the triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole, liposomal nystatin, and 2 echinocandin derivatives (anidulafungin [VER-002] and micafungin [FK463]). Preventive measures include reduction of environmental exposure of patients from sources of infection and anti-fungal prophylaxis. Specialized air-handling systems capable of excluding Aspergillus spores, such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration with or without laminar air flow ventilation has proven to be very efficacious. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis for hematologic patients who are at high risk for developing invasive fungal infections is not currently standardized. PMID:12070828

Perea, Sofia; Patterson, Thomas F

2002-06-01

383

Involvement of PPARgamma in human trophoblast invasion.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls the expression of a large array of genes in a ligand-dependent manner. In the human placenta, PPARgamma is specifically expressed in the villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells (EVCT) along their invasive pathway. The present study used two cellular models, primary cultures of trophoblastic cells differentiated in vitro in extravillous trophoblastic cells and a cell line (HIPEC65), which was established from a primary culture of EVCT transformed by T-SV40. We observed that natural (15d-PGJ2) or synthetic ligands of PPARgamma (rosiglitazone) inhibit cell invasion in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on cell proliferation. This is associated with a modulation of the expression of trophoblastic genes described to be directly involved in the control of EVCT invasiveness, such as GH-V (-20%), TGFbeta2 (-30%), PAPP-A (-60%) and IL1beta (+300%.). In order to identify PPARgamma potential ligands at the fetomaternal interface, we purified LDL (low density lipoprotein) from human sera and oxidized them in vitro in the presence of copper. OxLDL inhibit in vitro extravillous trophoblast cell invasion, whereas native LDL have no effect. In situ OxLDL and their LOX-1 receptor, as well as PPARgamma are immunodetected in trophoblasts at the maternofetal interface. PMID:17321592

Fournier, T; Handschuh, K; Tsatsaris, V; Evain-Brion, D

2007-04-01

384

Occupation, Lifestyle, Diet, and Invasive Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the risk factors for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in immunocompromised hosts are well described and associated with the net state of immunosuppression, much less is written on the effects of lifestyle on the risk of IFIs in the general population. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Current Contents databases for all reports on IFIs associated with occupation, lifestyle,

N. V. Sipsas; D. P. Kontoyiannis

2008-01-01

385

Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions  

E-print Network

from exotic species are pervasive and integral components of our global economy. For example, food here; these insights highlight the utility of using exotic species as `model organisms'. We also. Species invasions as a source of insights Exotic species are variously perceived as beneficial, costly

Holt, Robert D.

386

Cell immortalization enhances Listeria monocytogenes invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of human listeriosis have emphasized the importance of food in the etiology of epidemic listeriosis, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract is the natural site of entry for Listeria monocytogenes into the organism. L. monocytogenes invasion of finite cell lines derived from the porcine ileum exhibited a 100-fold lower penetration level, without any intracellular multiplication, when compared to CaCo-2

Philippe Velge; Elisabeth Bottreau; Bertrand Kaeffer; Pierre Pardon

1994-01-01

387

Minimally invasive surgery in neonates and infants  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in this article. PMID:21180496

Lin, Tiffany; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

2010-01-01

388

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

plant species depends on mutualistic relationships with other species. We describe the assemblage show how different Opuntia species are integrated into native communities by means of mutualistic species Á Frugivores Á Plant invasion Á Seed germination Á Seed viability Introduction Mutualistic

Traveset, Anna

389

Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.  

PubMed

Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533

Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela

2012-01-01

390

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Lonicera maackii  

E-print Network

in width. They are coarse feeling to the touch. Their shape is round and almost egg-like. They do not have: birds and vegetative sprouting. Unfortunately this plant produces its fruit in great abundance which of bird feed on this invasive plant's fruit. #12;Coverage Area: Sources: http://www.nps.gov/plants

Hayden, Nancy J.

391

Rethinking the common garden in invasion research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common garden experiments, a number of genotypes are raised in a common environment in order to quantify the genetic component of phenotypic variation. Common gardens are thus ideally suited for disentangling how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the success of invasive species in their new non-native range. Although common garden experiments are increasingly employed in the study of

Kirk A. Moloney; Claus Holzapfel; Katja Tielbörger; Florian Jeltsch; Frank M. Schurr

2009-01-01

392

Invasive Aspergillosis in the Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data regarding the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce, and the incidence varies. An incidence of 5.8% in a medical ICU has been reported. The majority of patients did not have a hematological malignancy, and conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and liver failure became recognized as risk factors. Diagnosis of IA

Wouter Meersseman; Katrien Lagrou; Johan Maertens; Eric Van Wijngaerden

2007-01-01

393

Soluble factors involved in glioma invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶Recent studies using molecular and cellular techniques of the factors regulating the invasion process have revealed a crucial role for a number of growth factors and cytokines. Their function lies on the one hand in the autocrine stimulation of the tumor cells themselves, resulting in the stimulation of protease expression and an enhancement of migratory potential. On the other

M. M. Mueller; T. Werbowetski; R. F. Del Maestro

2003-01-01

394

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

10.1007/s10530-013-0491-2 Evidence for multiple introductions of Phragmites australis to North.springer.com". #12;INVASION NOTE Evidence for multiple introductions of Phragmites australis to North America Abstract We found a new non-native haplotype of Phragmites australis in North America that provides

Cronin, James T.

395

Combination Therapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, patients with invasive bladder cancer who are not suitable for cystectomy will be treated with the drug paclitaxel and daily radiation therapy. Additionally, patients whose tumors test positive for a protein called HER2 will be treated with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin).

396

Invasive Weed Outreach in Earl Creech  

E-print Network

1 Invasive Weed Outreach in Nevada Earl Creech Extension Weed Specialist Cache Valley, Utah at Purdue What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds Enforce weed control laws What does the Extension Weed Specialist do

Nowak, Robert S.

397

Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody  

E-print Network

Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody Species Removal in Hawaiian Lowland Wet-native species; nutrient cycling; productivity; resource availability. INTRODUCTION Few ecosystems remain by non-native species. One approach to studying these invaded ecosystems is the use of removal

Ostertag, Rebecca

398

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and  

E-print Network

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory (Cynoglossum officinale) invades rangelands in British Columbia (BC) and creates economic welfare losses

399

INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

400

European cabbageworm Pieris brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

European cabbageworm Pieris brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets species of Pieris butterflies have been documented in Michigan (Opler et al. 2009) and they all have white conspicuous black patterns. Potential economic and environmental impacts to Michigan The invasion

401

New technology Optical imaging technology in minimally invasive surgery  

E-print Network

New technology Optical imaging technology in minimally invasive surgery Current status and future are likely to improve diagnostic ability and patient care. Key words: Imaging -- Minimally invasive surgery of the tissue being imaged. Even after white-

Boppart, Stephen

402

Invasion Ecology and School Biology--Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that invasion biology can supply subject matter for teaching evolution, genetics, ecological relationships, and conservation. Describes flowering and non-flowering plant invaders, vertebrates and invertebrates, and two ecological invasions on the southern coast of England. (JN)

Wells, R. V.

1981-01-01

403

ORIGINAL PAPER Investigating the dispersal routes used by an invasive  

E-print Network

American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is a globally distributed invasive amphibian that has been Lithobates catesbeianus Á Landscape ecology Á Dispersal Á Habitat alteration Introduction AnthropogenicORIGINAL PAPER Investigating the dispersal routes used by an invasive amphibian, Lithobates

Johnson, Pieter

404

ORIGINAL PAPER Subjectivity and flexibility in invasion terminology  

E-print Network

and this is particularly true for invasion biology, where definitions of invasive, naturalized or alien have been debated of intelligent design (e.g. Bykoff 2008; Forrest and Gross 2004). However, we are concerned that our arguments

Barrett, C.H.

405

Hybridization between Invasive Populations of Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)  

E-print Network

Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Sarah M. Ward, Caren E. Fleischmann, Marie F. Turner, and Sharlene E. Sing; yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris P. Mill. LINVU. Key words: Hybridization, invasive plant, ISSRHybridization between Invasive Populations of Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow

406

Species-Rich Scandinavian Grasslands are Inherently Open to Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of native habitats by alien or generalist species is recognized worldwide as one of the major causes behind species\\u000a decline and extinction. One mechanism determining community invasibility, i.e. the susceptibility of a community to invasion,\\u000a which has been supported by recent experimental studies, is species richness and functional diversity acting as barriers to\\u000a invasion. We used Scandinavian semi-natural grasslands,

Ove Eriksson; Sofia Wikström; Åsa Eriksson; Regina Lindborg

2006-01-01

407

Minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Currently, 3 categories of treatment are available for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): (1) medicine, such as alpha-blockers and finasteride; (2) minimally invasive treatment, such as transurethral microwave thermotherapy and interstitial ablation using either radiofrequency or laser; and (3) surgical therapy. The 1990s have seen an explosion of transurethral technology to treat symptoms caused by bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH. Unlike surgical debulking procedures, the minimally invasive therapies attempt to treat patients without general or regional anesthesia, and even ambulatory procedures are performed in the office. Because of the demographics of patients with BPH, it is hoped that these minimally invasive options will relieve symptoms without any surgical complications and the side effects and compliance issues associated with medical therapy. It is important that urologists have a clear understanding of the clinical usefulness of these devices, so that the overall role of such treatment may be determined by science rather than marketing. Clinically, the degree of symptom score, peak flow, and quality-of-life improvement seen with all the minimally invasive techniques are similar. The techniques may differ in their ability to reach the maximum number of responders and achieve an acceptable duration of response, and the need for analgesia/sedation associated with each technique. This study will define the minimally invasive therapies and present the differences in catheter design and technique. The pathologic basis for these therapeutic options and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be discussed. Urologists must decide which therapy can be used in their office practice. The maximum numbers of responders and enhanced durability of the treatment can be achieved based on realistic expectations, proper selection of patients, and complete information on the potential of these devices. PMID:11750248

Blute, M L; Larson, T

2001-12-01

408

Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy: The Evolution and Technique of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with the widespread introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in late 1989, minimally invasive surgical technique\\u000a has been refined in conjunction with the development of advanced instrumentation and have subsequently been applied to increasingly\\u000a complicated disease processes. Esophageal surgeons have increasingly incorporated minimally invasive surgery into their practice\\u000a since the first laparoscopic fundoplication was described by Dallemagne et al. in 1991.

Toshitaka Hoppo; Blair A. Jobe; John G. Hunter

409

Invasive litter, not an invasive insectivore, determines invertebrate communities in Hawaiian forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hawaii, invasive plants have the ability to alter litter-based food chains because they often have litter traits that differ\\u000a from native species. Additionally, abundant invasive predators, especially those representing new trophic levels, can reduce\\u000a prey. The relative importance of these two processes on the litter invertebrate community in Hawaii is important, because\\u000a they could affect the large number of

Nathania C. Tuttle; Karen H. Beard; William C. Pitt

2009-01-01

410

The Role of Invasive and Non-Invasive Procedures in Diagnosing Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of fever of unknown origin has changed because of the recent advances in and widespread use of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tools. However, undiagnosed patients still constitute a significant number. Objective: To determine the etiological distribution and role of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. Materials & Methods: One hundred patients who were hospitalized between June 2001 and 2009 with a fever of unknown origin were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records retrospectively. Results: Fifty three percent of the patients were male, with a mean age of 45 years. The etiology of fever was determined to be infectious diseases in 26, collagen vascular diseases in 38, neoplastic diseases in 14, miscellaneous in 2 and undiagnosed in 20 patients. When the etiologic distribution was analyzed over time, it was noted that the rate of infectious diseases decreased, whereas the rate of rheumatological and undiagnosed diseases relatively increased because of the advances in imaging and microbiological studies. Seventy patients had a definitive diagnosis, whereas 10 patients had a possible diagnosis. The diagnoses were established based on clinical features and non-invasive tests for 61% of the patients and diagnostic benefit was obtained for 49% of the patients undergoing invasive tests. Biopsy procedures contributed a rate of 42% to diagnoses in patients who received biopsies. Conclusion: Clinical features (such as detailed medical history-taking and physical examination) may contribute to diagnoses, particularly in cases of collagen vascular diseases. Imaging studies exhibit certain pathologies that guide invasive studies. Biopsy procedures contribute greatly to diagnoses, particularly for malignancies and infectious diseases that are not diagnosed by non-invasive procedures. PMID:23091404

Mete, Bilgul; Vanli, Ersin; Yemisen, Mucahit; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Dagtekin, Hilal; Ozaras, Resat; Saltoglu, Nese; Mert, Ali; Ozturk, Recep; Tabak, Fehmi

2012-01-01

411

Herbivory on invasive exotic plants and their non-invasive relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enemy Release Hypothesis links exotic plant success to escape from enemies such as herbivores and pathogens. Recent work\\u000a has shown that exotic plants that more fully escape herbivores and pathogens are more likely to become highly invasive, compared\\u000a to plants with higher enemy loads in their novel ranges. We predicted that highly invasive plants from the Asteraceae and\\u000a the

Tania Jogesh; David Carpenter; Naomi Cappuccino

2008-01-01

412

Native and invasive plant interactions in wetlands and the minimal role of invasiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of invasive plants on plants native to areas that are being invaded can be quite variable, depending on the species\\u000a of the invasive plant involved as well as the physical characteristics of the location being invaded. My study focuses on\\u000a the effects of Phragmites australis Linnaeus (common reed) and Lythrum salicaria L. (purple loosestrife) on the same native

Catherine A. McGlynn

2009-01-01

413

RAPID COMMUNICATION / COMMUNICATION RAPIDE Establishment of two invasive crustaceans  

E-print Network

appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued "invasional meltdown" in Lake Michigan. Résumé : Le

Horvath, Thomas G.

414

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Hybridization and invasion: one of North America's most  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Hybridization and invasion: one of North America's most devastating invasive in outbreeding depression, as two disparate genomes are brought together (Price and Waser 1979). Yet, even if low evolutionary lineages is still possible (Arnold et al. 1999). In a review of plant hybridization and invasion

Hufbauer, Ruth A.

415

A global comparison of plant invasions on oceanic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic islands have long been considered to be particularly vulnerable to biotic invasions, and much research has focused on invasive plants on oceanic islands. However, findings from individual islands have rarely been compared between islands within or between biogeographic regions. We present in this study the most comprehensive, standardized dataset to date on the global distribution of invasive plant species

Christoph Kueffer; Curtis C. Daehler; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Christophe Lavergne; Jean-Yves Meyer; Rüdiger Otto; Luís Silva

2010-01-01

416

INVASIVE MUSSEL SPECIES AND THE INTEGRITY OF LARGE RIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation is a summary of patterns of invasion and ecological risk associated with invasive mussel species in Great Rivers. Data from EMAP-GRE are included. Findings of this study can inform expectations about where and what invasive species may colonize North American River...

417

THE INTRODUCTION OF POTENTIALLY INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES FOR HORTICULTURAL  

E-print Network

THE INTRODUCTION OF POTENTIALLY INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES FOR HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES IN NORTH: The Introduction of Potentially Invasive Alien Plant Species for Horticultural Purposes in North America: Assessing/Approved: ________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Invasive alien plant species are known to cause significant economic and ecological

418

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest  

E-print Network

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest Gaylord A. Desurmonta,1 for plant defense (11­14), evolutionarily naïve plants may be par- ticularly susceptible to invasive pest invasive pest in North America. Theory predicts that plant defenses should be convergently gained

Agrawal, Anurag

419

Notes on invasive and expansive trees and shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion and invasion of plants indicate successful colonization and competitive abilities of species. There are fewer invasive and expansive woody plants than herbs. Main expansive (native species) trees and shrubs are Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Clematis vitalba, Crataegus sp. div., Fraxinus excelsior, Prunus spinosa, Rubus sp. div., Sambucus nigra. Main invasive (alien species) are Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Amorpha fruticosa,

J. MÖLLEROVÁ

2005-01-01

420

Effects of Exotic Plant Invasions on Soil Nutrient Cycling Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is generally acknowledged that invasions by exotic plant species represent a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem stability, little attention has been paid to the potential impacts of these invasions on nutrient cycling processes in the soil. The literature on plant–soil interactions strongly suggests that the introduction of a new plant species, such as an invasive exotic, has

Joan G. Ehrenfeld

2003-01-01

421

Synthesizing ecology and evolution for the study of invasive species  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Synthesizing ecology and evolution for the study of invasive species This special volume is a compilation of papers from a workshop on Synthesizing Ecology and Evolution for the Study of Invasive Species objectives for the future, with an emphasis on synthesizing the ecology and evolution of invasive species

Holt, Robert D.

422

A Model of Inspection, Detection and Control for Invasive Species  

E-print Network

A Model of Inspection, Detection and Control for Invasive Species Steve Polasky University with colleagues involving a complicated model of invasive species with continuous population growth, spatial interventions to reduce damage from invasive species ­ Inspection: inspection of cargo & treatment that lowers

423

Application of Branching Models in the Study of Invasive Species  

E-print Network

Application of Branching Models in the Study of Invasive Species Earvin Balderama Department not previously been used in studying the incidence of invasive plant and animal species. Here, we apply ETAS models to study the spread of an invasive species in Costa Rica (Musa velutina). One challenge

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

424

Invasive Species: Implications for Habitat Restoration and Effects on Salmonids  

E-print Network

Invasive Species: Implications for Habitat Restoration and Effects on Salmonids Mark Sytsma Center Northwest · Management #12;Invasion Process Native and non-native species pool Colonists Established Invasive Species Source Region Host Region Spread Modified from Olson and Linen 1997 Transport

425

Adaptive evolution in invasive species Peter J. Prentis1  

E-print Network

Adaptive evolution in invasive species Peter J. Prentis1 , John R.U. Wilson2 , Eleanor E. Dormontt1, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia Many emerging invasive species display evidence of rapid introduced species establish, proliferate, and become invasive in new environments [1­7]. Evolutionary change

Linder, Tamás

426

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions  

E-print Network

Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions David L. Strayer1 , Valerie T. Eviner1 and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation

427

Invasibility: the local mechanism driving community assembly and species diversity  

E-print Network

Invasibility: the local mechanism driving community assembly and species diversity Mark A. Davis of envir- onments to invasion by species from other regions of the world. Although Elton did not use and establishment are sufficient criteria to define invasibility, since a species can persist at a site indefinitely

Minnesota, University of

428

Final Report Parris Island Depot Invasive Plant Species  

E-print Network

Final Report Parris Island Depot Invasive Plant Species Control Monitoring December 2010 Submitted Species Occurrence and Management Page 6 a. Invasive Species Survey Conducted in 2001 Page 7 b. Management and Control Efforts Page 9 c. Herbicides Page 10 IV. 2010 Survey of Invasive Species Page 16 a. Survey Methods

Bolding, M. Chad

429

Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions?  

E-print Network

Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Jessica Gurevitch and Dianna K. Padilla species invasions and the extinction of natives is widely accepted by scientists as well on the most effective ways to reduce or mitigate extinction threats from invasive species. Ecologists

Padilla, Dianna

430

ORIGINAL PAPER Abundance, rarity and invasion debt among exotic species  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Abundance, rarity and invasion debt among exotic species in a patchy ecosystem+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Community assembly through species invasions is a long-term process, for which, we examined multiple lines of evidence for `invasion debt', a latent expansion of exotic species

Vellend, Mark

431

Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pathogen invasion  

E-print Network

controlled for the predicted negative invasability­diversity relationships have been observed in a wide rangeLETTER Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pathogen invasion R. J. Dillon, C. T­invasibility relationships were explored in the novel context of the colonization resistance provided by gut bacteria

Buckling, Angus

432

Do Invasive Trees have a Hydraulic Advantage over Native Trees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis was tested that invasive trees have hydraulic traits that contribute to their invasive nature. Five pairs of co-occurring invasive and native trees, in mesic habitats, were selected: (1) Tamarix ramosissima and Salix amygdaloides; (2) Robinia pseudoacacia and Alnus rhombifolia (3) Schinus terebinthifolius and Myrica cerifera; (4) Ligustrum sinense and Acer negundo; and (5) Sapium sebiferum and Diospyros virginiana,

R B Pratt; R A Black

2006-01-01

433

INVASIVE PREY IMPACTS THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE PREDATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While an extensive literature exists on the negative effects of invasive species, little is known about their facilitative effects on native species, particularly the role of invasives as trophic subsidies to native predators. The invasive gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) undergoes periodic outbreaks during which it represents a super-abundant food source for predators capable of consuming it, particularly native cuckoos (Coccyzus

Nicholas A. Barber; Robert J. Marquis; Wendy P. Tori

2008-01-01

434

Numerical Simulation of Mud-Filtrate Invasion in Deviated Wells  

E-print Network

of deviated wells. We simulate numerically the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in vertical, horizontal by introducing an effective-flow-rate function that describes the evo- lution in time of the rate of invasion (numerically and in the laboratory) the physics of mud-filtrate invasion. Drilling variables such as mud

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

435

Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners in Europe related to seed characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Oenothera represents one of a few genera alien to Central Europe comprising a set of species differing in their invasive success, from successful invasion to rare. This study tests the hypothesis that higher seed production, smaller seeds and higher germination rates contribute to invasive potential within the genus Oenothera. The study tries to find relations between these species

Stanislav Mihulka; Petr Py; Jana Martínková

2003-01-01

436

Revealing historic invasion patterns and potential invasion sites for two non-native plant species.  

PubMed

The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two perennial species were chosen to contrast historic and potential phytogeographies: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), introduced intentionally across the US; and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), introduced largely accidentally to coastal areas. Spatial analysis revealed that early in the invasion, both species have a stochastic distribution across the contiguous US, but east of the 90(th) meridian, which approximates the Mississippi River, quickly spread to adjacent counties in subsequent decades. In contrast, in locations west of the 90(th) meridian, many populations never spread outside the founding county, probably a result of encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. Regression analysis using variables categorized as environmental or anthropogenic accounted for 24% (Japanese knotweed) and 30% (mugwort) of the variation in the current distribution of each species. Results show very few counties with high habitat suitability (>/=80%) remain un-invaded (5 for Japanese knotweed and 6 for mugwort), suggesting these perennials are reaching the limits of large-scale expansion. Despite differences in initial introduction loci and pathways, Japanese knotweed and mugwort demonstrate similar historic patterns of spread and show declining rates of regional expansion. Invasion mitigation efforts should be concentrated on areas identified as highly susceptible that border invaded regions, as both species demonstrate secondary expansion from introduction loci. PMID:18286192

Barney, Jacob N; Whitlow, Thomas H; Lembo, Arthur J

2008-01-01

437

Chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of native and invasive populations of the range expanding invasive plant Rorippa austriaca.  

PubMed

Due to global warming, species are expanding their range to higher latitudes. Some range expanding plants have become invasive in their new range. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis and the Shifting Defense Hypothesis (SDH) predict altered selection on plant defenses in the introduced range of invasive plants due to changes in herbivore pressures and communities. Here, we investigated chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of five native and seven invasive populations of the Eurasian invasive range expanding plant, Rorippa austriaca. Further, we studied feeding preferences of a generalist and a specialist herbivore among the populations. We detected eight glucosinolates in the leaves of R. austriaca. 8-Methylsulfinyloctyl glucosinolate was the most abundant glucosinolate in all plants. There were no overall differences between native and invasive plants in concentrations of glucosinolates. However, concentrations among populations within each range differed significantly. Feeding preference between the populations by a generalist herbivore was negatively correlated with glucosinolate concentrations. Feeding by a specialist did not differ between the populations and was not correlated with glucosinolates. Possibly, local differences in herbivore communities within each range may explain the differences in concentrations of glucosinolates among populations. Little support for the predictions of the EICA hypothesis or the SDH was found for the glucosinolate defenses of the studied native and invasive R. austriaca populations. PMID:24752856

Huberty, Martine; Tielbörger, Katja; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Müller, Caroline; Macel, Mirka

2014-04-01

438

Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis and invasion syndromes.  

PubMed

Invasion science is a very active subdiscipline of ecology. However, some scientists contend that theoretical integration has been limited and that predictive power remains weak. This paper, focusing on plants, proposes a new multi-pronged research strategy that builds on recent advances in invasion science. More intensive studies on particular model organisms and ecosystems are needed to improve our understanding of the full suite of interacting factors that influence invasions ('model system research'). At the same time, comparative studies across many study systems are essential for unravelling the context-dependencies of insights that emerge from particular studies ('multi-site studies'); and quantitative synthesis based on large datasets should be constrained to well-defined theoretical domains ('focused meta-analysis'). We also suggest ways for better integration of information about species biology and ecosystem characteristics ('invasion syndromes'). We expect that a resulting theory of invasions will need to be conceived as a somewhat heterogeneous conglomerate of elements of varying generality and predictive power: laws that apply to well-specified domains, general concepts and theoretical frameworks that can guide thinking in research and management, and in-depth knowledge about the drivers of particular i