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1

Mesenchymal cells of the intestinal lamina propria.  

PubMed

The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

Powell, D W; Pinchuk, I V; Saada, J I; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R C

2011-01-01

2

Collagen composite hydrogels for vocal fold lamina propria restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic voice impairment due to scarring of the vocal fold (VF) lamina propria (LP) can be debilitating in terms of quality of life. Due to the dependence of normal VF vibration on proper VF geometry, an implant inserted to restore appropriate shape and pliability to scarred LP should ideally maintain its insertion-dimensions while being replaced by newly synthesized extracellular matrix

Mariah S. Hahn; Benjamin A. Teply; Molly M. Stevens; Steven M. Zeitels; Robert Langer

2006-01-01

3

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

4

Proteolytic degradation of intestinal mucosal extracellular matrix after lamina propria T cell activation.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Proteoglycans, consisting of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains covalently linked to a protein core, are a major component of the extracellular matrix of the intestinal lamina propria. AIMS: This study investigated the effects of lamina propria T cell activation on the proteoglycan component of the matrix. METHODS: The high degree of sulphation of GAGs means that they are polyanionic and thus can be visualised in tissue sections by means of colloidal-gold labelled cationic probes. RESULTS: In human fetal small intestine there is a dense meshwork of anionic residues in the lamina propria and basement membrane. When explants of human fetal small intestine are cultured ex vivo, and resident lamina propria T cells are activated with pokeweed mitogen, mucosal destruction occurs within three days. This is associated with the rapid loss of anionic sites from the lamina propria. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycan is lost from the tissue and is present at increased concentrations in the organ culture supernatants, indicating that T cell activation has led to solubilisation of lamina propria proteoglycans. Tissue destruction and loss of anionic residues are inhibited in a dose dependent fashion by dexamethasone, and by the protease inhibitor, alpha 2 macroglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: Proteolytic degradation of the lamina propria may therefore be a mechanism by which T cell hypersensitivity injures the intestinal mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8977345

Pender, S L; Lionetti, P; Murch, S H; Wathan, N; MacDonald, T T

1996-01-01

5

Isolation and characterization of antigen-presenting dendritic cells from the mouse intestinal lamina propria.  

PubMed Central

A method was developed for the isolation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, and macrophages, from mouse intestinal lamina propria and Peyer's patches. Peyer's patches, and the lamina propria of both the small and large intestine, contained cells with potent stimulatory activity in the allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction. These cells were separated from macrophages by fibronectin adherence and further enriched by density centrifugation. The isolated stimulatory cells expressed high levels of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, and resembled splenic dendritic cells in both morphology and function. Macrophages were recovered from the lamina propria but not Peyer's patches. These cells also expressed class II MHC antigens, but failed to stimulate the mixed leucocyte reaction and, instead, induced indomethacin-sensitive suppression. Images Figure 5 PMID:2141319

Pavli, P; Woodhams, C E; Doe, W F; Hume, D A

1990-01-01

6

A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.  

PubMed

In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors. PMID:18345850

Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

2008-03-01

7

Measurement of liquid and solid component parameters in canine vocal fold lamina propria.  

PubMed

This study aimed to measure solid and liquid component parameters for canine vocal fold lamina propria tissue, as is consistent with the solid and liquid fraction parameters in the context of the biphasic theory. A liquid-displacement apparatus was developed and utilized to estimate volumes of small samples of tissue. Accuracy was determined by calibrations with an object of known mass and density (copper). The experimental apparatus was then used to determine the volume of eight tissue samples, followed by an apparently complete dehydration of the samples, yielding the dry or solid tissue. The mass and volume fractions of the liquid component were sufficiently higher than those of the solid component. These results represent preliminary experimental evidence for the biphasic composition (solid-liquid) of canine lamina propria tissue as predicted in the biphasic theory. This study presents an effective experimental method to estimate some of the biphasic model parameters, and may provide a valuable application in exploring the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria tissue. PMID:19354403

Phillips, Robert; Zhang, Yu; Keuler, Megan; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

2009-04-01

8

Modeling of the transient responses of the vocal fold lamina propria.  

PubMed

The human voice is produced by flow-induced self-sustained oscillation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues are important for understanding phonation, including the time-dependent and transient changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)). Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on a group of specimens of the vocal fold lamina propria, including the superficial layer (vocal fold cover) (5 male, 5 female) and the deeper layers (vocal ligament) (6 male, 6 female). Results showed that the vocal fold lamina propria, like many other soft tissues, exhibits both elastic and viscous behavior. Specifically, the transient mechanical responses of cyclic stress relaxation and creep were observed. A three-network constitutive model composed of a hyperelastic equilibrium network in parallel with two viscoplastic time-dependent networks proves effective in characterizing the cyclic stress relaxation and creep behavior. For male vocal folds at a stretch of 1.4, significantly higher peak stress was found in the vocal ligament than in the vocal fold cover. Also, the male vocal ligament was significantly stiffer than the female vocal ligament. Our findings may help explain the mechanisms of some widely observed transient phenomena in F(0) regulation during phonation, such as the global declination in F(0) during the production of declarative sentences, and local F(0) changes such as overshoot and undershoot. PMID:19122858

Zhang, Kai; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W

2009-01-01

9

IL-2 production by intestinal lamina propria cells in normal inflamed and cancer-bearing colons.  

PubMed Central

Biologically significant levels of IL-2 activity were produced by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from normal intestine (n = 12), cancer-bearing colons (n = 35) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affected tissue (n = 12). The levels of IL-2 produced were similar for all three sources of LPMC (normal 252 +/- 48 U/ml, IBD-affected mucosa 197 +/- 42 U/ml and colon cancer 285 +/- 43 U/ml). These levels were significantly greater than those produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (20 +/- 5 U/ml, P less than 0.01) on a per cell basis. In mucosa from cancer-bearing colons the amount of IL-2 produced by LPMC was unaffected by the invasiveness of the colon cancer. LPMC IL-2 production was markedly suppressed by drugs used in IBD therapy. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) reduced activity in a dose-dependent fashion. At a dose equivalent to the faecal therapeutic level of 0.5 mg/ml activity, IL-2 production by LPMC was suppressed to 3.4% of controls. Similarly, exposure of LPMC to cyclosporin A (CyA) and hydrocortisone (HC) at therapeutic levels reduced IL-2 activity to less than 1% of controls. The major producers of IL-2 activity were shown to be CD3+ T lymphocytes and those bearing the activation markers IL-2R and TFR. Suppression of mucosal IL-2 production represents an important therapeutic mechanism of drugs used in the management of IBD including HC, 5-ASA and CyA. These results suggest that mucosal T cells produce appreciable levels of IL-2 activity that may be important in maintaining immune homeostasis in the normal intestine, provide anti-neoplastic cytotoxic activity and contribute to the inflammatory events that characterize the mucosal lesions of IBD. PMID:1563100

Pullman, W E; Doe, W F

1992-01-01

10

Microbiota Controls the Homeostasis of Glial Cells in the Gut Lamina Propria  

PubMed Central

Summary The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, Song Hui; Snippert, Hugo J.; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

2015-01-01

11

Biomechanics of fundamental frequency regulation: Constitutive modeling of the vocal fold lamina propria.  

PubMed

Accurate characterization of biomechanical characteristics of the vocal fold is critical for understanding the regulation of vocal fundamental frequency (F(0)), which depends on the active control of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles as well as the passive biomechanical response of the vocal fold lamina propria. Specifically, the tissue stress-strain response and viscoelastic properties under cyclic tensile deformation are relevant, when the vocal folds are subjected to length and tension changes due to posturing. This paper describes a constitutive modeling approach quantifying the relationship between vocal fold stress and strain (or stretch), and establishes predictions of F(0) with the string model of phonation based on the constitutive parameters. Results indicated that transient and time-dependent changes in F(0), including global declinations in declarative sentences, as well as local F(0) overshoots and undershoots, can be partially attributed to the time-dependent viscoplastic response of the vocal fold cover. PMID:19415568

Chan, Roger W; Siegmund, Thomas; Zhang, Kai

2009-12-01

12

Empirical measurements of biomechanical anisotropy of the human vocal fold lamina propria.  

PubMed

The vocal folds are known to be mechanically anisotropic due to the microstructural arrangement of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin in the lamina propria. Even though this has been known for many years, the biomechanical anisotropic properties have rarely been experimentally studied. We propose that an indentation procedure can be used with uniaxial tension in order to obtain an estimate of the biomechanical anisotropy within a single specimen. Experiments were performed on the lamina propria of three male and three female human vocal folds dissected from excised larynges. Two experiments were conducted: each specimen was subjected to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading in the longitudinal (i.e., anterior-posterior) direction, and then to cyclic indentation loading in the transverse (i.e., medial-lateral) direction. The indentation experiment was modeled as contact on a transversely isotropic half-space using the Barnett-Lothe tensors. The longitudinal elastic modulus E(L) was computed from the tensile test, and the transverse elastic modulus E(T) and longitudinal shear modulus G(L) were obtained by inverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement response. It was discovered that the average of E(L) /E(T) was 14 for the vocal ligament and 39 for the vocal fold cover specimens. Also, the average of E(L)/G(L), a parameter important for models of phonation, was 28 for the vocal ligament and 54 for the vocal fold cover specimens. These measurements of anisotropy could contribute to more accurate models of fundamental frequency regulation and provide potentially better insights into the mechanics of vocal fold vibration. PMID:22886592

Kelleher, Jordan E; Siegmund, Thomas; Du, Mindy; Naseri, Elhum; Chan, Roger W

2013-06-01

13

Empirical Measurements of Biomechanical Anisotropy of the Human Vocal Fold Lamina Propria  

PubMed Central

The vocal folds are known to be mechanically anisotropic due to the microstructural arrangement of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin in the lamina propria. Even though this has been known for many years, the biomechanical anisotropic properties have rarely been experimentally studied. We propose that an indentation procedure can be used with uniaxial tension in order to obtain an estimate of the biomechanical anisotropy within a single specimen. Experiments were performed on the lamina propria of three male and three female human vocal folds dissected from excised larynges. Two experiments were conducted: each specimen was subjected to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading in the longitudinal (i.e. anterior-posterior) direction, and then to cyclic indentation loading in the transverse (i.e. medial-lateral) direction. The indentation experiment was modeled as contact on a transversely isotropic half-space using the Barnett-Lothe tensors. The longitudinal elastic modulus EL was computed from the tensile test, and the transverse elastic modulus ET and longitudinal shear modulus GL were obtained by inverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement response. It was discovered that the average of EL/ET was 14 for the vocal ligament and 39 for the vocal fold cover specimens. Also, the average of EL/GL, a parameter important for models of phonation, was 28 for the vocal ligament and 54 for the vocal fold cover specimens. These measurements of anisotropy could contribute to more accurate models of fundamental frequency regulation and provide potentially better insights into the mechanics of vocal fold vibration. PMID:22886592

Kelleher, Jordan E.; Siegmund, Thomas; Du, Mindy; Naseri, Elhum; Chan, Roger W.

2013-01-01

14

Immunohistological characterization of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes in control ileum and colon and in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using monoclonal antibodies to T and B lymphocytes, to natural killer cells, and to HLA-DR antigen, we characterized the lymphocyte population within the epithelial and lamina propria regions in control intestine and colon, and in grossly involved and in grossly uninvolved intestine and colon of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. There were significantly more intraepithelial T cells in control

Ichiro Hirata; Gabriel Berrebi; Linda L. Austin; David F. Keren; William O. Dobbins

1986-01-01

15

Unique lamina propria stromal cells imprint the functional phenotype of mucosal dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestine acquire the unique capacity to produce retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite that induces gut tropism and regulates the functional differentiation of the T cells they prime. Here, we identified a stromal cell (SC) population in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), which is capable of inducing RA production in DCs in a RA- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent fashion. Unlike DCs, LP SCs constitutively expressed the enzymatic machinery to produce RA even in the absence of dietary vitamin A, but were not able to do so in germ-free mice implying regulation by microbiota. Interestingly, DCs promoted GM-CSF production by the SCs indicating a two-way cross-talk between both cell types. Furthermore, RA-producing LP SCs and intestinal DCs localized closely in vivo suggesting that the interactions between both cell types might have an important role in the functional education of migratory DCs and therefore in the regulation of immune responses toward oral and commensal antigens. PMID:24938743

Vicente-Suarez, I; Larange, A; Reardon, C; Matho, M; Feau, S; Chodaczek, G; Park, Y; Obata, Y; Gold, R; Wang-Zhu, Y; Lena, C; Zajonc, D M; Schoenberger, S P; Kronenberg, M; Cheroutre, H

2015-01-01

16

Dendritic cell subsets in the intestinal lamina propria: Ontogeny and function  

PubMed Central

The intestinal mucosa is exposed to large amounts of foreign antigen (Ag) derived from commensal bacteria, dietary Ags, and intestinal pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be involved in the induction of tolerance to harmless Ags and in mounting protective immune responses to pathogens and, as such, to play key roles in regulating intestinal immune homeostasis. The characterization of classical DCs (cDCs) in the intestinal lamina propria has been under intense investigation in recent years but the use of markers (including CD11c, CD11b, MHC class II), which are also expressed by intestinal M?s, has led to some controversy regarding their definition. Here we review recent studies that help to distinguish cDCs subsets from monocyte-derived cells in the intestinal mucosa. We address the phenotype and ontogeny of these cDC subsets and highlight recent findings indicating that these subsets play distinct roles in the regulation of mucosal immune responses in vivo. PMID:23966272

Persson, Emma K; Scott, Charlotte L; Mowat, Allan McI; Agace, William W

2013-01-01

17

Morphological and histochemical characteristics of the lamina propria in scrotal and abdominal testes from postpubertal boars: correlation with the appearance of the seminiferous epithelium  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to investigate the morphological characteristics and lectin affinity of the testicular lamina propria in healthy boars and in unilateral and bilateral abdominal cryptorchid boars. The lamina propria of scrotal testes from healthy boars and unilateral cryptorchid boars was constituted by an innermost noncellular layer, the basal lamina, and by 2 layers of peritubular cells, each separated by a fibrous layer. The noncellular layers contained collagen fibres and glycoconjugates with abundant N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. The inner peritubular cell layer was composed of myoid cells, the outer layer of fibroblasts. In the abdominal testes of unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria of nondegenerating and degenerating seminiferous tubules appeared thickened due to an increased content of collagen fibres and glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates showed decreased amounts of fucose, neuraminic acid and galactose, and increased amounts of N-acetylglucosamine residues. The basal lamina formed infoldings toward the seminiferous epithelium and contained small cells. Both inner and outer peritubular cells were fibroblasts of immature appearance. In degenerated seminiferous tubules of bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria was composed of a thickened and collagenised basal lamina, without peritubular cells and with a low content of glycoconjugates. In scrotal testes, therefore, the lamina propria was implicated in tubular contractility and in mediating the communication and the substrate diffusion between seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue. Cryptorchidism induced morphological and histochemical alterations in the lamina propria of abdominal testes, which may be linked to evidence from other studies of lack of tubular contractility and defective cell–cell communication and substrate diffusion. The severity of these anomalies correlated with the severity of Sertoli cell alterations. PMID:11693304

PINART, E.; BONET, S.; BRIZ, M.; PASTOR, L. M.; SANCHO, S.; GARCÍA, N.; BADIA, E.; BASSOLS, J.

2001-01-01

18

Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+)retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)(+) dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3(+) lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+)RALDH(+) dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+) lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+) dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+) dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+)RALDH(+) LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation. PMID:23704880

Konieczna, Patrycja; Ferstl, Ruth; Ziegler, Mario; Frei, Remo; Nehrbass, Dirk; Lauener, Roger P; Akdis, Cezmi A; O'Mahony, Liam

2013-01-01

19

Total parenteral nutrition-associated lamina propria inflammation in mice is mediated by a MyD88 dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background Enteral nutrient-deprivation, via total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration leads to local mucosal inflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods Wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- mice underwent jugular vein cannulation. One group received TPN without chow and controls received standard chow. After 7days, we harvested intestinal mucosally-associated bacteria, and isolated small-bowel lamina propria (LP) cells. Bacterial populations were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. LP cells were analyzed using quantitative PCR and multi-color flow cytometry. Results WT, control mucosally-associated microbiota were Firmicutes-dominant while WT TPN mice were Proteobacteria-domiant. Similar changes were observed in MyD88-/- mice with TPN administration. Unifrac analysis showed divergent small bowel and colonic bacterial communities in controls, merging towards similar microbiota (but distinct from controls) with TPN. The percentage of LP T-regulatory cells significantly decreased with TPN in WT mice. F4/80+CD11b+CD11cdull-neg macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased with TPN. These pro-inflammatory immunologic changes were significantly abrogated in MyD88-/- TPN mice. Conclusions TPN administration is associated with significant expansion of Proteobacteria within the intestinal microbiota and increased pro-inflammatory LP cytokines. MyD88 signaling blockade abrogated this pro-inflammatory response. PMID:23667106

Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Feng, Yongjia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Erb-Downward, John; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Mason, Katie L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

20

Uptake and storage of vitamin A as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells in the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine.  

PubMed

Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) was injected subcutaneously or administered to rats by tube feeding. After subcutaneous injection, vitamin A was taken up and stored in cells of the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine. After oral administration, vitamin A was absorbed by the intestinal absorptive epithelial cells and transferred to cells of the lamina propria mucosae, where cells took up and stored the transferred vitamin A. The morphology of these cells was similar to that of hepatic stellate cells (also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells or Ito cells). Thus, these cells in the intestine could take up vitamin A from the systemic circulation and as well as by intestinal absorption, and store the vitamin in the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The data suggest that these cells are extrahepatic stellate cells of the digestive tract that may play roles in both the absorption and homeostasis of vitamin A. PMID:23765517

Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki

2013-11-01

21

Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina”) on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-? and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-? and IFN-? increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice. PMID:24686517

Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

2014-01-01

22

Focused Examination of the Intestinal lamina Propria Yields Greater Molecular Insight into Mechanisms Underlying SIV Induced Immune Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is critical to AIDS pathogenesis as it is the primary site for viral transmission and a major site of viral replication and CD4+ T cell destruction. Consequently GI disease, a major complication of HIV/SIV infection can facilitate translocation of lumenal bacterial products causing localized/systemic immune activation leading to AIDS progression. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying GI disease we analyzed global gene expression profiles sequentially in the intestine of the same animals prior to and at 21 and 90d post SIV infection (PI). More importantly we maximized information gathering by examining distinct mucosal components (intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes [LPL], epithelium and fibrovascular stroma) separately. The use of sequential intestinal resections combined with focused examination of distinct mucosal compartments represents novel approaches not previously attempted. Here we report data pertaining to the LPL. A significant increase (±1.7-fold) in immune defense/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, cell signaling, transcription and cell division/differentiation genes were observed at 21 and 90d PI. Genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway (IL21, IL12R, STAT5A, IL10, SOCS1) and T-cell activation (NFATc1, CDK6, Gelsolin, Moesin) were notably upregulated at 21d PI. Markedly downregulated genes at 21d PI included IL17D/IL27 and IL28B/IFN?3 (anti-HIV/viral), activation induced cytidine deaminase (B-cell function) and approximately 57 genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation, a critical metabolic shift associated with T-cell activation. The 90d transcriptome revealed further augmentation of inflammation (CXCL11, chitinase-1, JNK3), immune activation (CD38, semaphorin7A, CD109), B-cell dysfunction (CD70), intestinal microbial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide binding protein) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (NLRX1) genes. Reduced expression of CD28, CD4, CD86, CD93, NFATc1 (T-cells), TLR8, IL8, CCL18, DECTIN1 (macrophages), HLA-DOA and GPR183 (B-cells) at 90d PI suggests further deterioration of overall immune function. Conclusions/Significance The reported transcriptional signatures provide significant new details on the molecular pathology of HIV/SIV induced GI disease and provide new opportunity for future investigation. PMID:22511950

Mohan, Mahesh; Kaushal, Deepak; Aye, Pyone P.; Alvarez, Xavier; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

2012-01-01

23

Intestinal CD103+ CD11b+ lamina propria dendritic cells instruct intestinal epithelial cells to express antimicrobial proteins in response to Toll-like receptor 5 activation  

PubMed Central

Microbial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier triggers inflammatory responses that include induction of the bactericidal C-type lectin RegIII?. Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Flagellin-induced RegIII? expression is IL-22-dependent, but how TLR signaling leads to IL-22 expression is incompletely defined. Using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, we demonstrated that CD103+ CD11b+ LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103? CD11b+ LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 following bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIII? production. Maximal expression of IL-23 subunits IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 occurred within 60 minutes of exposure to flagellin. IL-23 subsequently induced a burst of IL-22 followed by sustained RegIII? expression. Thus, CD103+ CD11b+ LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. PMID:22306017

Kinnebrew, Melissa A.; Buffie, Charlie G.; Diehl, Gretchen E.; Zenewicz, Lauren A.; Leiner, Ingrid; Hohl, Tobias M.; Flavell, Richard A.; Littman, Dan R.; Pamer, Eric G.

2012-01-01

24

Immunomodulatory effect of mushrooms on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of intestinal lamina propria leukocytes does not necessarily depend on ?-glucan contents.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNF?, IFN?, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to ?-glucan content of the mushroom. PMID:25213921

Lee, Jae-Sung; Oka, Kohsuke; Watanabe, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

2011-06-15

25

In Vitro Whole-Virus Binding of a Norovirus Genogroup II Genotype 4 Strain to Cells of the Lamina Propria and Brunner's Glands in the Human Duodenum ? †  

PubMed Central

Human norovirus (hNoV) remains refractory to propagation in cell culture systems. We believe that knowing the exact cell type that hNoV targets will provide important insights into culturing the virus. By the use of an in vitro whole-virus binding assay, the hNoV genogroup II genotype 4 Sakai variant was found to bind predominantly to cells of the lamina propria and Brunner's glands, but not to those of the luminal epithelial surface, of human duodenum tissue. Our findings, together with accumulating evidence reported elsewhere, suggest that hNoV may display tropism to nonepithelial cells, which is distinct from observations of other human enteric pathogens. PMID:21680503

Chan, Martin Chi-Wai; Ho, Wing-Shan; Sung, Joseph Jao-Yiu

2011-01-01

26

Differential control of major histocompatibility complex class II I-Ek alpha protein expression in the epithelium and in subsets of lamina propria antigen-presenting cells of the gut.  

PubMed Central

In the gut, both the villus epithelium and cells of macrophages and dendritic cell lineages of the lamina propria and Peyer's patches express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II glycoproteins and have the potential to present soluble protein antigen. Using mice transgenic for the X and Y promoter deletion mutants of the gene encoding the I-Ek alpha class II protein we have shown: that an intact promoter is essential for expression of I-Ek alpha on the epithelium and lamina propria macrophages; that only the Y box is essential for expression by lamina propria dendritic cells; and that dendritic cells in Peyer's patches are phenotypically more restricted than in the lamina propria and express I-Ek alpha under different regulatory control mechanisms. The results show that different inductive mechanisms exist for class II in distinct mucosal cell populations and provide a model for the analysis of differential antigen handling in the gut mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8509132

Bland, P W; Whiting, C V

1993-01-01

27

Pitfalls in the use of smoothelin to identify muscularis propria invasion by urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Studies predominantly performed on cystectomy specimens have shown that antibodies against smoothelin can distinguish between muscularis mucosae (MM) (negative or weak stain) and muscularis propria (MP) (strong stain). However, studies on diagnostically difficult (transurethral resection) specimens have not been performed. We studied 34 transurethral resection cases where outside pathologists questioned the presence of MP invasion. Upon expert review of the H&E slides, there was no MP invasion in 18 cases. Smoothelin in MM was negative in 8/18 (44%), weakly positive (1+) in 5/18 (28%), moderately positive (2+) in 4/18 (22%), and moderately/strongly (2-3+) positive in 1/18 (6%). Smoothelin in uninvolved MP present in 8 cases was: 2+ in 2/8 (25%) and 3+in 6/8 (75%). Smoothelin expression in MM was weaker than in MP in 7/8 (88%) cases where both were present. Of 16 tumors with MP invasion, smoothelin in involved MP was: 1+ in 1/16 (6%), 2+ in 3/16 (19%), 2 to 3+ in 9/16 (56%), and 3+ in 3/16 (19%). Smoothelin expression in concurrent uninvolved MP was similar. Our data confirm the relatively distinct staining pattern of smoothelin between MM and MP. However, due to the overlap of intensity between MM and MP, caution should be maintained while using smoothelin immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic tool for MP invasion. PMID:20154589

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Sharma, Rajni B; Illei, Peter B; Epstein, Jonathan I

2010-03-01

28

Enhanced secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may be regulated in part by an increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines due to either an appropriate response to initial stimulating agents, and/or due to an impaired down-regulation of cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine the secretion patterns of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-1 beta, from isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) isolated from colonic biopsies from patients with untreated ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. LPMNC isolated from involved inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosa spontaneously produced increased amounts of TNF-alpha, and IL-6, and IL-1 beta. The TNF-alpha secretion from IBD LPMNC could be further enhanced by pokeweed mitogen stimulation. The secretion patterns of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta by LPMNC from patients with either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease demonstrated a close correlation with the degree of tissue involvement and mucosal inflammation. LPMNC from non-involved ulcerative colitis mucosa secreted markedly increased levels of IL-6 compared with non-involved Crohn's disease mucosa or control mucosa. The heightened IL-6 secretion from LPMNC from non-involved ulcerative colitis mucosa without visible or microscopic signs of inflammation indicates that the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the initiation of inflammation may differ between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The determination of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by isolated LPMNC from colonoscopic biopsies may be a sensitive method for monitoring the severity of mucosal inflammation in IBD patients. PMID:8403503

Reinecker, H C; Steffen, M; Witthoeft, T; Pflueger, I; Schreiber, S; MacDermott, R P; Raedler, A

1993-01-01

29

Proteinase-activated receptor 2 is an anti-inflammatory signal for colonic lamina propria lymphocytes in a mouse model of colitis  

PubMed Central

The proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is a member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors for proteases. Proteases cleave PARs within the extracellular N-terminal domains to expose tethered ligands that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. PAR-2 is highly expressed in colon in epithelial and neuronal elements. In this study we show that PAR-2 activation prevents the development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. A role for PAR-2 in the protection against colon inflammation was explored by the use of SLIGRL-NH2, a synthetic peptide that corresponds to the mouse tethered ligand exposed after PAR-2 cleavage. TNBS-induced colitis was dose-dependently reduced by the administration of SLIGRL-NH2, whereas the scramble control peptide, LSIGRL-NH2, was uneffective. This beneficial effect was reflected by increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, decrease in mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines, protein, and mRNA, and a diminished myeloperoxidase activity. SLIGRL-NH2, but not the scramble peptide, directly inhibited IFN-? secretion and CD44 expression on lamina propria T lymphocytes. Protection exerted by PAR-2 in TNBS-treated mice was reverted by injecting mice with a truncated form of calcitonin gene-related peptide and by sensory neurons ablation with the neurotoxin capsaicin. Collectively, these studies show that PAR-2 is an anti-inflammatory receptor in the colon and suggest that PAR-2 ligands might be effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11717450

Fiorucci, Stefano; Mencarelli, Andrea; Palazzetti, Barbara; Distrutti, Eleonora; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Wallace, John L.; Morelli, Antonio; Cirino, Giuseppe

2001-01-01

30

Basal lamina fenestrations in the human colon: transmission and scanning electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Basal lamina at the interface between colonic epithelial cells and the lamina propria was exposed by incubating colonic specimens in 1% boric acid solutions. Examination of this epithelial-stromal interface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a smooth, slightly undulating basal lamina covering crypts and luminal surfaces. The basal lamina on the luminal surfaces had numerous round or ovoid fenestrations, most measuring 2.5-4.0 microns. These were continuous with channels in the collagen fiber network of the lamina propria. Except very near the surface, no fenestrations were found in the basal lamina lining the crypts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of serial thin sections of colonic mucosa without the epithelial cells removed showed only a few actual basal lamina fenestrations. Rarely, epithelial cell processes extended into the lamina propria through the basal lamina. Most of the fenestrations seen by SEM appeared to correspond spatially by TEM to foci of close contact between the basal lamina and underlying fibroblastic cell processes. At these sites the basal lamina and fibroblastic cell process might be removed along with the overlying epithelial cells during processing with boric acid. These data support functional differences in epithelial-stromal interaction between cell populations lining the luminal surface and those making up the crypt lining and pericryptal fibroblast sheath. The TEM findings demonstrate that the human colonic basal lamina is not absolutely continuous and that the development of basal lamina fenestrations and epithelial cell processes extending into the lamina propria is not pathognomonic of neoplastic transformation and stromal invasion. PMID:3348488

Warfel, K A; Hull, M T

1988-01-01

31

Essential roles of IL-6 trans-signaling in colonic epithelial cells, induced by the IL-6/soluble-IL-6 receptor derived from lamina propria macrophages, on the development of colitis-associated premalignant cancer in a murine model.  

PubMed

Activation of the IL-6/Stat3 via IL-6 trans-signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is a large bowel cancer and occurs with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease. The role of the IL-6/Stat3 in the development of CAC has not been fully understood. We investigate whether IL-6 trans-signaling contributes to the development of CAC using a mouse colitis-associated premalignant cancer (CApC) model. Chronic colitis (CC) was induced in BALB/c mice using dextran sodium sulfate. CApC was induced by dextran sodium sulfate treatment to CC-affected mice. IL-6 expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining in colon. Phospho-Stat3 expression was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. The expression of IL-6 receptors (i.e., the IL-6R alpha-chain and gp130) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme in the colon was examined by laser-capture microdissection and immunofluorescence staining. Soluble IL-6R alpha (sIL-6R alpha) was examined by Western blotting of epithelial cell-depleted colonic tissues. We also investigated whether a soluble gp130-Fc fusion protein could prevent CApC. IL-6 expression was increased in the colon of CC- and CApC-affected mice and was restricted to lamina propria-macrophages. The expression of IL-6R alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme was increased in the lamina propria CD11b-macrophages of CC-affected mice. sIL-6R alpha expression was also increased in these tissues. Reduced levels of IL-6R alpha generation were observed in the colonic epithelial cells of CC- and CApC-affected mice and were associated with the increased expression of gp130 and phospho-Stat3. Treatment with soluble gp130Fc significantly reduced the CApC. IL-6 trans-signaling in epithelial cells induced by macrophage-derived IL-6/sIL-6R alpha plays a crucial role in the development of CAC. PMID:20042582

Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taeko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Kado, Sho-ichi; Takada, Toshihiko

2010-02-01

32

NCX-1015, a nitric-oxide derivative of prednisolone, enhances regulatory T cells in the lamina propria and protects against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice  

PubMed Central

NCX-1015 is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of prednisolone. In this study we show NCX-1015 protects mice against the S. A. development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The beneficial effect of NCX-1015 was reflected in increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, a decrease in the mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines (protein and mRNA), and diminished myeloperoxidase activity in the colon. In contrast to its NO derivative, only very high doses of prednisolone were effective in reproducing these beneficial effects. NCX-1015 was 10- to 20-fold more potent than the parent compound in inhibiting IFN-? secretion by lamina propria mononuclear cells. Protection against developing colitis correlated with inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65/Rel A in these cells. In vivo treatment with NCX-1015 potently stimulated IL-10 production, suggesting that the NO steroid induces a regulatory subset of T cells that negatively modulates intestinal inflammation. PMID:12427966

Fiorucci, Stefano; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Del Soldato, Piero; Flower, Roderick J.; Clark, Mark J. Paul; Morelli, Antonio; Perretti, Mauro; Ignarro, Louis J.

2002-01-01

33

Characterization of the vocal fold lamina propria towards voice restoration  

E-print Network

During normal speech, human vocal folds sustain greater than 100 high impact collisions each second. When the pliability of this complex biomechanical system is reduced by scarring, voice quality may be compromised. ...

Hahn, Mariah S

2004-01-01

34

Smoothelin and caldesmon are reliable markers for distinguishing muscularis propria from desmoplasia: a critical distinction for accurate staging colorectal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

An accurate distinction between deep muscularis propria invasion versus subserosal invasion by colonic adenocarcinoma is essential for the accurate staging of cancer and subsequent optimal patient management. However, problems may arise in pathologic staging when extensive desmoplasia blurs the junction between deep muscularis propria and subserosal fibroadipose tissue. To address this issue, forty-three (43) cases of colonic adenocarcinoma resections from 2007-2009 at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX were reviewed. These cases were selected to address possible challenges in differentiating deep muscularis propria invasion from superficial subserosal invasion based on H&E staining alone. Immunohistochemical staining using smooth muscle actin (SMA), smoothelin, and caldesmon were performed on 51 cases: 8 cases of pT1 tumors (used mainly as control); 12 pT2 tumors; and 31 pT3 tumors. All 51 (100%) had diffuse, strong (3+) immunoreactivity for caldesmon and smoothelin in the muscularis propria with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. However, the desmoplastic areas of these tumors, composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, showed negative immunostaining for caldesmon and smoothelin (0/35). SMA strongly stained the muscularis propria and weakly (1+) or moderately (2+) stained the spindled fibroblasts in the desmoplastic areas (the latter presumably because of myofibroblastic differentiation). Compared to SMA, caldesmon and smoothelin are more specific stains that allow better delineation of the muscularis propria from the desmoplastic stromal reaction which provides a critical aide for proper staging of colonic adenocarcinoma and subsequent patient care. PMID:24551305

Roberts, Jordan A; Waters, Lindsay; Ro, Jae Y; Zhai, Qihui Jim

2014-01-01

35

Smoothelin and caldesmon are reliable markers for distinguishing muscularis propria from desmoplasia: a critical distinction for accurate staging colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

An accurate distinction between deep muscularis propria invasion versus subserosal invasion by colonic adenocarcinoma is essential for the accurate staging of cancer and subsequent optimal patient management. However, problems may arise in pathologic staging when extensive desmoplasia blurs the junction between deep muscularis propria and subserosal fibroadipose tissue. To address this issue, forty-three (43) cases of colonic adenocarcinoma resections from 2007-2009 at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX were reviewed. These cases were selected to address possible challenges in differentiating deep muscularis propria invasion from superficial subserosal invasion based on H&E staining alone. Immunohistochemical staining using smooth muscle actin (SMA), smoothelin, and caldesmon were performed on 51 cases: 8 cases of pT1 tumors (used mainly as control); 12 pT2 tumors; and 31 pT3 tumors. All 51 (100%) had diffuse, strong (3+) immunoreactivity for caldesmon and smoothelin in the muscularis propria with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. However, the desmoplastic areas of these tumors, composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, showed negative immunostaining for caldesmon and smoothelin (0/35). SMA strongly stained the muscularis propria and weakly (1+) or moderately (2+) stained the spindled fibroblasts in the desmoplastic areas (the latter presumably because of myofibroblastic differentiation). Compared to SMA, caldesmon and smoothelin are more specific stains that allow better delineation of the muscularis propria from the desmoplastic stromal reaction which provides a critical aide for proper staging of colonic adenocarcinoma and subsequent patient care. PMID:24551305

Roberts, Jordan A; Waters, Lindsay; Ro, Jae Y; Zhai, Qihui Jim

2014-01-01

36

The intriguing plant nuclear lamina  

PubMed Central

The nuclear lamina is a complex protein mesh attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which is also associated with nuclear pore complexes. It provides mechanical support to the nucleus and nuclear envelope, and as well as facilitating the connection of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton, it is also involved in chromatin organization, gene regulation, and signaling. In metazoans, the nuclear lamina consists of a polymeric layer of lamins and other interacting proteins responsible for its association with the INM and chromatin. In plants, field emission scanning electron microscopy of nuclei, and thin section transmission electron microscopy of isolated nucleoskeletons, reveals the lamina to have a similar structure to that of metazoans. Moreover, although plants lack lamin genes and the genes encoding most lamin-binding proteins, the main functions of the lamina are fulfilled in plants. Hence, it would appear that the plant lamina is not based on lamins and that other proteins substitute for lamins in plant cells. The nuclear matrix constituent proteins are the best characterized structural proteins in the plant lamina. Although these proteins do not display strong sequence similarity to lamins, their predicted secondary structure and sub-nuclear distribution, as well as their influence on nuclear size and shape, and on heterochromatin organization, suggest they could be functional lamin analogs. In this review we shall summarize what is currently known about the organization and composition of the plant nuclear lamina and its interacting complexes, and we will discuss the activity of this structure in the plant cell and its nucleus. PMID:24808902

Ciska, Malgorzata; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

2014-01-01

37

Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

2014-01-01

38

Diagnostic use of antibody to smoothelin in the recognition of muscularis propria in transurethral resection of urinary bladder tumor (TURBT) specimens.  

PubMed

Accurate recognition of muscularis propria invasion by urothelial carcinoma is vital as it serves as a crossroad between conservative and aggressive clinical management. Recently, there has been attention to the hyperplastic pattern of muscularis mucosae which may mimic the muscularis propria. We have earlier shown that smoothelin, a marker of terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, is relatively specific for muscularis propria (positive staining) and is variably negative to weak in muscularis mucosae. The earlier study was based on cystectomy specimen slides in which the bladder cancer was not present. Pathologic staging in transurethral resection of urinary bladder tumor (TURBT) specimens is complicated by limited, unoriented, or highly cauterized samples. Herein, we test the capability of smoothelin to recognize muscularis propria in TURBT specimens to further substantiate its diagnostic applicability in routine practice. Representative sections from 70 TURBTs were immunostained with smoothelin, and muscularis propria was evaluated in H&E slides and the corresponding smoothelin immunohistochemistry slides using double-blinded analysis. In 31/70 (44%) cases, muscularis propria was involved by invasive carcinoma. Cautery artifact was present in 46/70 (66%) cases, which did not seem to affect smoothelin immunohistochemistry staining of the muscularis propria. Muscularis propria was present by H&E in 48/70 (69%) cases and 48/70 (69%) cases had muscularis propria by smoothelin immunohistochemistry-based 2 (+) or 3 (+) positivity in larger muscle bundles with round regular contours. Desmoplastic response to invasive carcinoma stained negatively for smoothelin. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of smoothelin based on comparison with morphology in TURBT specimens was 98%, 95%, 98%, and 95%, respectively. This study confirms the relatively high sensitivity and specificity for smoothelin in MP, including in TURBT specimens. Immunoreactivity is retained despite the presence of thermal tissue injury, desmoplasia, or involvement by carcinoma. Our data confirm the use of smoothelin in the accurate distinction between muscularis propria and muscularis mucosae or desmoplastic reactions, thereby facilitating appropriate pathologic stage designation in often challenging TURBT specimens. PMID:20421781

Paner, Gladell P; Brown, Jeffrey G; Lapetino, Shawn; Nese, Nalan; Gupta, Ruta; Shen, Steven S; Hansel, Donna E; Amin, Mahul B

2010-06-01

39

Infliximab but not etanercept induces apoptosis in lamina propria T-lymphocytes from patients with Crohn’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Steroid-refractory Crohn’s disease responds to therapy with the chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? antibody infliximab. Etanercept, a recombinant TNF receptor\\/immunoglobulin G fusion protein, is highly effective in rheumatoid arthritis but not in Crohn’s disease. Because both infliximab and etanercept are TNF-?-neutralizing drugs, we investigated the differences in TNF-?-neutralizing capacity and human lymphocyte binding and apoptosis-inducing capacity of both

Jan M. H Van den Brande; Henri Braat; Gijs R van den Brink; Henri H Versteeg; Christiaan A Bauer; Inge Hoedemaeker; Catherine van Montfrans; Daan W Hommes; Maikel P Peppelenbosch; Sander J. H van Deventer

2003-01-01

40

Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?) regulates the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestinal lamina propria  

PubMed Central

Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?/CD172a) is a conserved transmembrane protein thought to play an inhibitory role in immune function by binding the ubiquitous ligand CD47. SIRP? expression has been used to identify dendritic cell subsets across species and here we examined its expression and function on intestinal DCs in mice. Normal mucosa contains four subsets of DCs based on their expression of CD103 and CD11b and three of these express SIRP?. However, loss of SIRP? signaling in mice leads to a selective reduction in the CD103+CD11b+ subset of DCs in the small intestine, colon, and among migratory DCs in the mesenteric lymph node. In parallel, these mice have reduced numbers of TH17 cells in steady-state intestinal mucosa, and a defective TH17 response to Citrobacter infection. Identical results were obtained in CD47KO mice. DC precursors from SIRP? mutant mice had an enhanced ability to generate CD103+CD11b+ DCs in vivo, but CD103+CD11b+ DCs from mutant mice were more prone to die by apoptosis. These data show a previously unappreciated and crucial role for SIRP? in the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestine, as well as providing further evidence that this subset of DCs is critical for the development of mucosal TH17 responses. PMID:25236797

Scott, Charlotte L; TFP, Zangerle Murray; Beckham, Katherine S H; Douce, Gillian; Mowat, Allan McI

2014-01-01

41

invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niche-based models calibrated in the native range by relating species observations to climatic variables are commonly used to predict the potential spatial extent of species invasion. This climate matching approach relies on the assumption that invasive species conserve their climatic niche in the invaded ranges. We test this assumption by analysing the climatic niche spaces of Spotted Knapweed in western

O. Broennimann; U. A. Treier; H. Muller-Scharer; W. Thuiller; A. T. Peterson; A. Guisan

42

Making Thin Laminae Of Frozen Alloy Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In new technique, primary objective to develop method to distribute uniformly-thin powder-metal-alloy layers between alternate fiber layers prior to consolidation. Involves use of sheets of frozen alloy powder. These laminae, interspersed with fiber mats, used to make metal/fiber composites. In addition to aerospace applications, this technique, appropriately modified, has potential in the manufacture of future automobile engines or components including molded ceramics.

Ghosh, A. K.; Holmes, L. M.; Houston, R. B.; Ecer, G. M.

1992-01-01

43

Versican in the developing brain: lamina-specific expression in interneuronal subsets and role in presynaptic maturation.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix help stabilize synaptic connections in the postnatal brain and impede regeneration after injury. Here, we show that a CSPG of the lectican family, versican, also promotes presynaptic maturation in the developing brain. In the embryonic chick optic tectum, versican is expressed selectively by subsets of interneurons confined to the retinorecipient laminae, in which retinal axons arborize and form synapses. It is a major receptor for the Vicia villosa B4 lectin (VVA), shown previously to inhibit invasion of the retinorecipient lamina by retinal axons (Inoue and Sanes, 1997). In vitro, versican promotes enlargement of presynaptic varicosities in retinal axons. Depletion of versican in ovo, by RNA interference, results in retinal arbors with smaller than normal varicosities. We propose that versican provides a lamina-specific cue for presynaptic maturation and discuss the related but distinct effects of versican depletion and VVA blockade. PMID:16162928

Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

2005-09-14

44

Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG  

PubMed Central

Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2 mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. PMID:25038441

Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

2014-01-01

45

Inhibition of Intestinal Bacterial Translocation with Rifaximin Modulates Lamina propria Monocytic Cells Reactivity and Protects against Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A modification of the intestinal flora and an increased bacterial translocation is a common finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in animal model of colitis. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable derivative of rifamycin, is an effective antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid synthesis. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the administration

Stefano Fiorucci; Eleonora Distrutti; Andrea Mencarelli; Miriam Barbanti; Ernesto Palazzini; Antonio Morelli

2002-01-01

46

Invasive ability of Escherichia coli O18 isolated from swine neonatal diarrhea.  

PubMed

Neonatal diarrhea occurred at two swine breeding farms in Hokkaido. Ten piglets aged 2 to 4 days were examined. Grossly, significant changes were confined to the small intestine. The mucous membrane was muddy and thickened. The intraluminal contents from the jejunum to the colon were liquid and yellow. In the small intestine, numerous Gram-negative bacilli preferentially adhered to the apex of villi. The mucosa was erosive with villous atrophy. There were bacilli also in the lamina propria and in the cytoplasm of degenerated enterocytes. Nonhemolytic Escherichia coli strains, belonging to serogroup E. coli O18 and possessing K88 fimbriae, were isolated from the small intestine. They could not be classified into any of the diarrheagenic E. coli groups because of the absence of genes of LT, STh, STp, VT1, VT2, eae, invE, and ipaH. After inoculation of the isolates on HEp-2 cells, some bacilli were engulfed by cytoplasmic projections resembling membrane ruffles and subsequently were localized in cytoplasmic vacuoles or free in the cytoplasm. These findings support the view that the present E. coli O18 is a new invasive strain enteropathogenic to piglets. PMID:15232148

Wada, Y; Kato, M; Yamamoto, S; Shibahara, T; Ishikawa, Y; Kadota, K

2004-07-01

47

Muscularis mucosae versus muscularis propria in gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct: smoothelin and desmin immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muscle layer in the cystic duct and common bile duct is not well defined, and it is unresolved whether it represents muscularis mucosae or muscularis propria. Smoothelin is a novel smooth muscle–specific contractile protein expressed only in fully differentiated smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria and not in proliferative or noncontractile smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae.

Kirtee Raparia; Qihui J. Zhai; Mary R. Schwartz; Steven S. Shen; Alberto G. Ayala; Jae Y. Ro

2010-01-01

48

Human Lamina Cribrosa Insertion and Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To test the hypothesis that in healthy human eyes the lamina cribrosa (LC) insertion into the pia mater increases with age. Methods. The optic nerve heads (ONHs) of donor eyes fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under bright- and dark-field conditions. A 3-dimensional (3D) model of each ONH was reconstructed. From the 3D models we measured the area of LC insertion into the peripapillary scleral flange and into the pia, and computed the total area of insertion and fraction of LC inserting into the pia. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the measurements were associated with age or IOP. Results. We analyzed 21 eyes from 11 individuals between 47 and 91 years old. The LC inserted into the pia in all eyes. The fraction of LC inserting into the pia (2.2%–29.6%) had a significant decrease with age (P = 0.049), which resulted from a nonsignificant increase in the total area of LC insertion (P = 0.41) and a nonsignificant decrease in the area of LC insertion into the pia (P = 0.55). None of the measures was associated with fixation IOP (P values 0.44–0.81). Differences between fellow eyes were smaller than differences between unrelated eyes. Conclusions. The LC insertion into the pia mater is common in middle-aged and older eyes, and does not increase with age. The biomechanical and vascular implications of the LC insertion into the pia mater are not well understood and should be investigated further. PMID:22956611

Sigal, Ian A.; Flanagan, John G.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Tertinegg, Inka; Bilonick, Richard

2012-01-01

49

How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin  

E-print Network

Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined ...

Ingram, Jessica

50

Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma invading the muscularis propria with multiphoton microscopy Detecting the imaging characteristics of colorectal carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the muscularis propria (mp) of human colorectum tissue with carcinoma invasion and help to advance the development for the diagnosis and therapy of early colorectal cancer. Multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the second harmonic generation (SHG) images of samples respectively through the two-channel model. This work demonstrates the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in obtaining clear images from thick layers of label-free tissues. Combined with endoscopy and miniaturization probes will be helpful for representing new methods to assess the functional behaviors of tissue and diagnose the early colorectal cancer in vivo.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, J. X.; Chen, G.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Jiang, X. S.

2012-02-01

51

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Facilitates Invasion of Staphylococcus aureus into the Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyp Tissue  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of severe chronic airway disease, such as nasal polyps. However the mechanisms underlying the initiation of damage and/or invasion of the nasal mucosa by S. aureus are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between S. aureus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in the invasion of the nasal mucosa and nasal polyp tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp samples were cultured and infected with either HSV1 alone, S. aureus alone or a combination of both. Both in turbinate mucosa and nasal polyp tissue, HSV1, with or without S. aureus incubation, led to focal infection of outer epithelial cells within 48 h, and loss or damage of the epithelium and invasion of HSV1 into the lamina propria within 72 h. After pre-infection with HSV1 for 24 h or 48 h, S. aureus was able to pass the basement membrane and invade the mucosa. Epithelial damage scores were significantly higher for HSV1 and S. aureus co-infected explants compared with control explants or S. aureus only-infected explants, and significantly correlated with HSV1-invasion scores. The epithelial damage scores of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate tissues upon HSV1 infection. Consequently, invasion scores of HSV1 of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate mucosa in the HSV1 and co-infection groups, and invasion scores of S. aureus of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate tissues in the co-infection group. Conclusions/Significance HSV1 may lead to a significant damage of the nasal epithelium and consequently may facilitate invasion of S. aureus into the nasal mucosa. Nasal polyp tissue is more susceptible to the invasion of HSV1 and epithelial damage by HSV1 compared with inferior turbinate mucosa. PMID:22768151

Holtappels, Gabriele; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Krysko, Olga; Zhang, Luo; Han, Demin; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Bachert, Claus

2012-01-01

52

Role of histone deacetylases in gene regulation at nuclear lamina.  

PubMed

Theoretical models suggest that gene silencing at the nuclear periphery may involve "closing" of chromatin by transcriptional repressors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we provide experimental evidence confirming these predictions. Histone acetylation, chromatin compactness, and gene repression in lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains were analyzed in Drosophila S2 cells in which B-type lamin, diverse HDACs, and lamina-associated proteins were downregulated by dsRNA. Lamin depletion resulted in decreased compactness of the repressed multigenic domain associated with its detachment from the lamina and enhanced histone acetylation. Our data reveal the major role for HDAC1 in mediating deacetylation, chromatin compaction, and gene silencing in the multigenic domain, and an auxiliary role for HDAC3 that is required for retention of the domain at the lamina. These findings demonstrate the manifold and central involvement of class I HDACs in regulation of lamina-associated genes, illuminating a mechanism by which these enzymes can orchestrate normal and pathological development. PMID:23226217

Milon, Beatrice C; Cheng, Haibo; Tselebrovsky, Mikhail V; Lavrov, Sergei A; Nenasheva, Valentina V; Mikhaleva, Elena A; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Nurminsky, Dmitry I

2012-01-01

53

Role of Histone Deacetylases in Gene Regulation at Nuclear Lamina  

PubMed Central

Theoretical models suggest that gene silencing at the nuclear periphery may involve “closing” of chromatin by transcriptional repressors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we provide experimental evidence confirming these predictions. Histone acetylation, chromatin compactness, and gene repression in lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains were analyzed in Drosophila S2 cells in which B-type lamin, diverse HDACs, and lamina-associated proteins were downregulated by dsRNA. Lamin depletion resulted in decreased compactness of the repressed multigenic domain associated with its detachment from the lamina and enhanced histone acetylation. Our data reveal the major role for HDAC1 in mediating deacetylation, chromatin compaction, and gene silencing in the multigenic domain, and an auxiliary role for HDAC3 that is required for retention of the domain at the lamina. These findings demonstrate the manifold and central involvement of class I HDACs in regulation of lamina-associated genes, illuminating a mechanism by which these enzymes can orchestrate normal and pathological development. PMID:23226217

Milon, Beatrice C.; Cheng, Haibo; Tselebrovsky, Mikhail V.; Lavrov, Sergei A.; Nenasheva, Valentina V.; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Shevelyov, Yuri Y.; Nurminsky, Dmitry I.

2012-01-01

54

[Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].  

PubMed

CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma. It is considered a precursor of invasive bladder cancer. CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm. BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%. BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases. Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy. Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign. CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma. Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa. 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement. In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts. Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment. Two patients died for disseminated disease. 1 patient is alive at 60-month's follow-up. In the last patient cancer relapsed at 36-month's follow-up. We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment with BCG in CIS represents a high risk of developing invasive and incontrolled cancer. A careful watch is recommended in these patients. PMID:21308679

Ruoppolo, M; Gozo, M; Milesi, R; Spina, R; Fragapane, G

2010-01-01

55

Giant Ethmoid Osteoma Originated from the Lamina Papyracea  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Osteomas are slow- growing, benign tumors. They are the most common neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. They are usually originates from the frontal and ethmoid sinus and much less frequently seen in the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. Although the lamina papyracea is a part of ethmoid bone, a giant osteoma originated from the lamina papyracea is very uncommon. An osteoma of the paranasal sinus is usually asymptomatic. Headache, proptosis, epiphora, diplopia, dizziness, facial deformity, face pain and cerebral complications are possible symptoms. The treatment of the paranasal osteomas are controversial. Case report: A 65 year old patient that applied with stuffiness and headache to our clinic. She has had a smooth mass in the right nasal cavity. Paranasal sinus tomography showed an osseous lesion, the size of 4x 3 cm, arising from the right lamina papyracea. The mass excised endoscopically and reported as osteoma histopathologically. There was no complication. After 9 months, there was no recurrence. Conclusion: Giant osteomas of paranasal sinuses, especially originated from the lamina papyracea are rare. They can be treated successfully by endoscopic approaches without any recurrence and complication despite its size.

Torun, Mümtaz Taner; Turan, Fatih; Tuncel, Ümit

2014-01-01

56

Trends in positive and negative ozone laminae in the Northern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measured ozone profile is often not a smooth curve with a maximum in the stratosphere. It exhibits narrow layers of enhanced ozone concentration (positive laminae) and of depleted ozone (negative laminae). Here we deal with the trends in ozone laminae characteristics. All sufficiently long data series of ozonesonde soundings from the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 30°N are analyzed separately

P. Krizan; J. Lastovicka

2005-01-01

57

Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

2014-01-01

58

Co-ordinated development of the leaf midrib xylem with the lamina in Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The water-transport capacity of leaf venation is positively related to the leaf-lamina area, because the number and diameter of vein-xylem conduits are controlled to match the lamina area. This study aimed to investigate how this co-ordinated relationship between the leaf-lamina area and vein-xylem characteristics is achieved by examining the midrib xylem of tobacco leaves. Methods The changes in the midrib-xylem characteristics over time were quantified using leaves with four different final lamina areas. The measured data were fitted to sigmoidal functions. From the constants of the fitted curves, the final values in mature leaves, maximal developmental rates (VDev) and developmental duration (TDev) were estimated for each of the xylem characteristics. Whether it is the lamina or the midrib xylem that drives the co-ordinated development was examined by lamina removal from unfolding leaves. The effects of the application of 0·1 % IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) to leaves with the laminas removed were also analysed. Key Results For both the leaf lamina and the midrib-xylem characteristics, the differences in final values among leaves with different lamina areas were more strongly associated with those in VDev. Notably, the VDev values of the midrib-xylem characteristics were related to those of the leaf-lamina area. By lamina removal, the conduit diameter was reduced but the number of conduits did not significantly change. By IAA application, the decrease in the conduit diameter was halted, and the number of conduits in the midrib xylem increased. Conclusions According to the results, the VDev values of the lamina area and the midrib-xylem characteristics changed in a co-ordinated manner, so that the water-transport capacity of the midrib xylem was positively related to the leaf-lamina area. The results also suggest that IAA derived from the leaf lamina plays a crucial role in the development of the leaf venation. PMID:22589329

Taneda, Haruhiko; Terashima, Ichiro

2012-01-01

59

Shape, Orientation and Spacing of the Primary Epidermal Laminae in the Hooves of Neonatal and Adult Horses (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumferential and proximodistal variations in the morphology of the primary epidermal laminae of six neonatal and five adult equine feet were documented. Three parameters were quantified: interlaminar spacing, the orientation of the laminae with respect to the overlying wall, and any angulation within the laminae themselves (‘internal angle’). In adult feet, the laminae were most closely spaced at the dorsum,

Janet E. Douglas; Jeffrey J. Thomason

2000-01-01

60

Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

2014-10-01

61

The morphology of Golgi-stained neurons in lamina II of the rat spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

Golgi-stained neurons in Lamina II of the rat spinal cord were examined by light microscopy. Stalked and islet cells similar to those seen in other species were found. Stalked cells were present in large numbers in the dorsal part of the lamina where they made up nearly half the population of stained cells. Islet cells were found throughout the lamina and constituted about one third of the total population. In the ventral part of the lamina half of the stained cells did not fall into either category, but could be divided into groups on the basis of dendritic spread. The axons of many of these cells either remained in Lamina II or passed ventrally into Lamina III. Some of these cells may correspond to the stellate or the II-III border cells which have been seen in human spinal cord and cat medulla respectively. PMID:2447052

Todd, A J; Lewis, S G

1986-01-01

62

Automated Measurement and Statistical Modeling of Elastic Laminae in Arteries  

PubMed Central

Structural features of elastic laminae within arteries can provide vital information for both the mechanobiology and the biomechanics of the wall. In this paper, we propose, test, and illustrate a new computer-based scheme for automated analysis of regional distributions of elastic laminae thickness, inter-lamellar distances, and fragmentation (furcation points) from standard histological images. Our scheme eliminates potential artifacts produced by tissue cutting, automatically aligns tissue according to physiologic orientations, and performs cross-sectional measurements along radial directions. A statistical randomized complete block design (RCBD) and F-test were used to assess potential (non)-uniformity of lamellar thicknesses and separations along both radial and circumferential directions. Illustrative results for both normotensive and hypertensive thoracic porcine aorta revealed marked heterogeneity along the radial direction in nearly stress-free samples. Clearly, regional measurements can provide more detailed information about morphologic changes that cannot be gained by globally averaged evaluations alone. We also found that quantifying Furcation Point densities offers new information about potential elastin fragmentation, particularly in response to increased loading due to hypertension. PMID:20221934

Xu, Hai; Hu, Jin-Jia; Humphrey, Jay D.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

2010-01-01

63

Liquid carbon dioxide and the Martian polar laminae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important findings of the Mariner 9 mission was the existence of a set of apparent stacked layers in both the north and south polar regions of Mars. The total thickness of the laminated terrain is approximately several kilometers. Because the Martian atmosphere is composed largely of CO2 and because the frost point of CO2 is known to be reached in both polar regions, it has been assumed that the volatiles in the bright laminae are in appreciable part condensed CO2, although condensed H2O, and a CO2-H2O clathrate are also possible. As long as the ratio of CO2 to H2O is large, the physical properties will be dominated by the CO2.

Sagan, C.

1973-01-01

64

A nomenclature for vertebral laminae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrae of sauropods are characterized by numerous bony struts that connect the costovertebral and intervertebral articulations, centrum, and neural spine of the presacral, sacral, and anterior caudal vertebrae. A nomenclature for sauropod vertebral laminae is proposed that: 1) utilizes the morphological landmarks connected by the laminae (rather than their spatial orientation); and 2) provides the same name for serial

Jeffrey A. Wilson

1999-01-01

65

The hydraulic conductance of the angiosperm leaf lamina: a comparison of three measurement methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made of three methods for meas- uring the leaf lamina hydraulic conductance (Klamina) for detached mature leaves of six woody temperate angiosperm species. The high-pressure method, the evaporative flux method and the vacuum pump method involve, respectively, pushing, evaporating and pulling water out of the lamina while determining the flow rate into the petiole and the water

Lawren Sack; Peter J. Melcher; Maciej A. Zwieniecki; N. Michele Holbrook

2010-01-01

66

Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type, and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing, and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes. PMID:23849200

Tuthill, John C.; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Reiser, Michael B.

2013-01-01

67

Muscularis mucosae versus muscularis propria in gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct: smoothelin and desmin immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The muscle layer in the cystic duct and common bile duct is not well defined, and it is unresolved whether it represents muscularis mucosae or muscularis propria. Smoothelin is a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only in fully differentiated smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria and not in proliferative or noncontractile smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae. In this study, we characterize the histologic aspects of the muscle layer in gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct by evaluation of routine histologic sections and the utilization of immunohistochemistry using desmin and smoothelin. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the gallbladder (15 cases), cystic duct (11 cases), and common bile duct (10 cases) were stained for smoothelin and desmin. Staining intensity was evaluated as weak or strong. The staining pattern score was evaluated as follows: 0 or negative = less than or equal to 5% positivity, +1 or focal = 6% to 10% positivity, +2 or moderate = 11% to 50% positivity, and +3 = greater than 50% muscle cells positivity. With desmin, strong and diffuse (+3) staining was observed in all gallbladder cases (15/15, 100%), highlighting one continuous muscle layer. The muscle layer was discontinuous and interrupted in all cystic duct cases and in most common bile ducts, highlighted by the desmin stain. Smoothelin intensely stained (at least +2) muscle fibers in the gallbladder in 11 (73%) of 15 cases similar to that observed with desmin staining. In contrast, common bile ducts predominantly had absent or weak and focal immunostaining (0 or +1 staining) with smoothelin (7/10, 70%), with only a few cases (3/10, 30%) having +2 staining (no cases with +3). Cystic ducts also showed absent or weak and focal immunostaining with smoothelin, with 5 (44%) of 11 cases showing 2+ immunostaining with smoothelin (no cases with 3+). Based on our findings, we conclude that, in the gallbladder wall, the muscle layer is muscularis propria and there is no muscularis mucosae present. In the cystic duct and common bile duct, only an attenuated and incomplete muscle layer of muscularis mucosae is present; because there is no muscularis propria, there probably is limited contractile function. Differentiating these anatomical muscle structures may be important for the pathologic staging of carcinoma in these organs. PMID:21074688

Raparia, Kirtee; Zhai, Qihui J; Schwartz, Mary R; Shen, Steven S; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2010-12-01

68

A poroelastic model for the perfusion of the lamina cribrosa in the optic nerve head.  

PubMed

In this work we present a mathematical model for the coupling between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the lamina cribrosa, a thin porous tissue at the base of the optic nerve head which is thought to be the site of injury in ocular neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. In this exploratory two-dimensional investigation, the lamina cribrosa is modeled as a poroelastic material where blood vessels are viewed as pores in a solid elastic matrix. The model is used to investigate the influence on the distributions of stress, blood volume fraction (or vascular porosity) and blood velocity within the lamina cribrosa due to the application of different levels of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the enforcement of different mechanical constraints at the lamina's boundary. The model simulations suggest that the degree of fixity of the boundary constraint strongly influences the lamina's response to IOP elevation. Specifically, when the boundary is mechanically clamped, IOP elevation leads to an increase in stress close to the lamina's boundary, making it more susceptible to tissue damage. On the other hand, when rotations are allowed at the boundary, the most vulnerable region appears to be located at the lamina's central axis, in proximity of the eye globe, where increased stress and reduced vascular porosity and blood velocity are predicted for increased levels of IOP. PMID:25149561

Causin, Paola; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Prada, Daniele; Sacco, Riccardo; Terragni, Samuele

2014-11-01

69

Ultrastructural observations on the basal lamina in the normal human breast.  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the basal lamina of histologically normal human breast tissue was determined in 19 women undergoing operations for removal of a fibroadenoma or reduction mammoplasty. The day of the menstrual cycle was determined by hormone assay and direct questioning. Previously documented ultrastructural appearances were confirmed: in addition, three morphological variants were found. In all tissue examined, there was reduplication of basal lamina in some areas, which has been described previously as a pathological feature. Also, there was complex branching of the basal lamina into the periductular connective tissue. Some projections contained cytoplasmic processes and, in almost all, hemidesmosomes were seen. The third variant consisted of loops of basal lamina thrown up in folds into the collagenous stromal cuff. Reduplication of basal lamina was detected in breast tissue removed at all stages of the menstrual cycle, looping was not and could not be related to any particular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, complex branching was seen predominantly in the periovulatory and early luteal phase. We conclude that these appearances are normal variants of basal lamina. The appearance of branching basal lamina in the luteal phase suggests that this may be produced in response to endocrine stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3417540

Watson, R J; Eyden, B P; Howell, A; Sellwood, R A

1988-01-01

70

Axon Diversity of Lamina I Local-Circuit Neurons in the Lumbar Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III–IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal “processing units” in the dorsal horn. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:2719–2741, 2013. PMID:23386329

Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena YX; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

2013-01-01

71

Recent advances in OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa.  

PubMed

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and modelling, a number of recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have dramatically improved the ability to visualise the LC, such that it is now possible to image the LC in vivo in humans and animals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in OCT imaging of the LC, in the technology, processing and analysis, and discuss the impact that these will have on the ability to diagnose and monitor glaucoma, as well as to expand our understanding of its pathophysiology. With this manuscript, we aspire to share our excitement on the achievements and potential of recent developments as well as advise caution regarding the challenges that remain before imaging of the LC and optic nerve can be used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:24934221

Sigal, Ian A; Wang, Bo; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Akagi, Tadamichi; Girard, Michael J A

2014-07-01

72

Transverse harmonic oscillations of laminae in viscous fluids: a lattice Boltzmann study.  

PubMed

In this paper, we use the lattice Boltzmann method with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook linear collision operator to study the flow physics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing moderately large harmonic oscillations in a viscous fluid. We propose a refill procedure for the hydrodynamic quantities in the lattice sites that are in the vicinity of the oscillating lamina. The numerically estimated flow field is used to compute the complex hydrodynamic function that describes the added mass and hydrodynamic damping experienced by the lamina. Results of the numerical simulations are validated against theoretical predictions for small amplitude vibrations and experimental and numerical findings for moderately large oscillations. PMID:21576160

Falcucci, Giacomo; Aureli, Matteo; Ubertini, Stefano; Porfiri, Maurizio

2011-06-28

73

High resolution in vivo imaging of the lamina cribrosa  

PubMed Central

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is considered to be the principal site of retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. Imaging technology has steadily improved in recent years, allowing greater resolution of fine details of laminar structure. Histological studies have elucidated the details of LC structure, both in normal and glaucomatous eyes, but such studies are limited by smaller sample size, greater difficulty of conducting prospective studies, and possibility of altered tissue architecture during histologic processing. We reviewed the literature describing the LC in primate and human eyes using in vivo imaging devices and provided a brief explanation of the imaging technology and main results of the articles. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality described, including optic disk photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities provide en face and/or cross-sectional images of the LC in vivo. Enhanced depth imaging OCT has recently led to important advances in imaging deeper structures of the posterior segment, including the LC. Adaptive optics has been adopted in CSLO and OCT imaging to correct for ocular aberration and has improved resolution and contrast of the LC images. Post-image processing techniques to compensate for light attenuation and enhance contrast in OCT images enabled better visualization of the LC beneath the neuroretinal rim, vascular structures, and scleral rim. Long-wavelength probe OCT has shown good visualization of the LC with improved penetration when combined with swept-source OCT. Contrast agents for enhanced visualization of selective target structures in OCT have been developed. All these technologies hold great promise for improved in vivo imaging of the LC and require further investigation. PMID:23960950

Park, Sung C.; Ritch, Robert

2011-01-01

74

Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms. The effect of the fiber orientation on loading direction is accounted for while predicting composite life. The application is currently limited to isothermal cases where the internal thermal stresses that might arise from thermal strain mismatch between fibers and matrix are negligible. The theory is formulated to predict the fatigue life of a composite lamina under either load or strain control. It is applied currently to predict the life of tungsten-copper composite lamina at 260 C under tension-tension load control. The calculated life of the lamina is in good agreement with available composite low cycle fatigue data.

Abuelfoutouh, Nader M.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Halford, Gary R.

1989-01-01

75

A Model of Lamina Digestibility of Orchardgrass as Influenced by Nitrogen and Defoliation.  

PubMed

The morphogenesis of grass-sward regrowth drives the relationship between sward management effects and herbage digestibility. Our objective was to create a model of herbage digestibility for a range of N fertilizer levels and defoliation practices on the basis of changes in vegetative grass tiller structure rather than on dates of cutting or grazing. An experiment was conducted for two spring and two summer regrowths to examine the digestibility of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) whole laminae (Lw) and youngest fully expanded laminae (Ly) for two N rates, and two defoliation patterns differing in the initial cutting date. Data were collected for lamina digestibility, dates at which a new leaf and its ligule were visible, and lamina and sheath lengths at least three times during each regrowth. There was a significant effect of N and cutting date on Ly and Lw digestibility, both variables being correlated significantly. At the ligule stage, Ly digestibility decreased between two successive leaves on a tiller, but this decrease was least when the N rate was low. For each regrowth, a single significant relationship was found between Ly digestibility and the growth duration of the lamina outside the sheath. As lamina growth duration depends both on sheath length and herbage N status, Ly digestibility was expressed according to these two easily measurable sward states. The model used to predict the green lamina digestibility at the whole canopy level could also explain the faster decline of herbage digestibility when the N rate was higher or when daily temperatures increased. In both cases, sheath length increased faster from one insertion level to the next, leading to a longer lamina growth duration. PMID:11756277

Duru, M.; Ducrocq, H.

2002-01-01

76

The number and arrangement of elements in the lamina cartridge of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum.  

PubMed

Five monopolar cells and two long visual fibres are a consistent component of the lamina cartridge of the ventral half of the eye of the dragonfly Sympetrum rubicundulum. They communicate with the chiasm via a cartridge axon bundle comprising a minimum of ten fibres. The arrangement of these elements is documented with respect to the ommatidial photoreceptor axon bundle innervating them. These relationship are described both within the lamina cortex and in the cross-section of the underlying cartridge. PMID:7388897

Meinertzhagen, I A; Armett-Kibel, C J; Frizzell, K L

1980-01-01

77

Separated dental laminae are present in the upper jaw of Mesoamerican lungless salamanders (Amphibia, Plethodontidae).  

PubMed

Plethodontid salamander species from Northern America exhibit a single, unseparated dental lamina in the upper jaw, which consistently provides teeth for the unpaired premaxillary and the two maxillary bones. During the distinct mating season, adult males of these species bear long, monocuspid, unbladed teeth in the entire upper jaw, which are used during courtship. However, plethodontid salamander species from Southern Central America studied so far show either three separated dental laminae or a single dental lamina with three distinguishable tooth-producing parts connected by non-producing parts. These species reproduce aseasonally and sexually mature males permanently bear long, monocuspid, unbladed teeth on the premaxillary only. As the formation of these long, monocuspid teeth depends on the presence of androgen-receptors in the tooth-forming tissues, the morphological separation of the dental lamina in plethodontid salamanders from Southern Central America is very likely to be a prerequisite for a region-specific expression of androgen-receptors in the tooth-forming tissues controlling the differentiated shape formation of teeth in these species. Seven species of plethodontid salamanders from Costa Rica and Panama were examined and, in all, a tendency to exhibit three separate dental lamina in the upper jaw was found, although the morphological separation is definitive only in Bolitoglossa colonnea, B. lignicolor, B. pesrubra, B. schizodactyla and B. striatula. B. dofleini and B. marmorea show a continuous dental lamina with non-producing parts at the transitional sites between the parts associated with the premaxillary and the maxillary bones. PMID:14994911

Ehmcke, Jens; Wistuba, Joachim; Clemen, Günter

2004-02-01

78

Basal Lamina Scaffold-Anatomy and Significance for Maintenance of Orderly Tissue Structure  

PubMed Central

The basal lamina is an extracellular scaffold positioned between parenchymal cells and connective tissue. Parenchymal cells attach to one of its surfaces and the other is anchored to connective tissue. By its presence it defines the spatial relationships among similar and dissimilar types of cells and between these cells and the space occupied by connective and supportive tissues. Replenishment of cells which have died during normal functioning or have become damaged in course of injury occurs with new cells in an orderly way along the framework of the basal lamina scaffold. This process appears to be aided by the polarity of the basal lamina and by an apparent specificity for cell types, and it enables multicellular organisms to reconstitute histologic structures of most tissues and organs to what they were prior to loss of cells. If the basal lamina is destroyed, the healing in most tissues results in formation of scar and loss of function. The properties of the basal lamina concerned with maintenance of histologic order in organs and tissues offer new ways to interpret the pathogenesis of several common disorders, including emphysema, scars, adhesions, cirrhosis of liver and excessive accumulation of basal lamina material as, for example, it occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8 PMID:4614671

Vracko, Rudolf

1974-01-01

79

Investigating Invasives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive nonnative species can provide the focus for projects that engage students in authentic science investigations. Here the author describes how she launched her students into a study of invasives while supporting their local environment using the 5E Learning Cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate).

Mary Lightbody

2008-11-01

80

Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

1992-01-01

81

The meiotic nuclear lamina regulates chromosome dynamics and promotes efficient homologous recombination in the mouse.  

PubMed

The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope and is well known for its central role in nuclear organization and maintaining nuclear stability and shape. In the past, a number of severe human disorders have been identified to be associated with mutations in lamins. Extensive research on this topic has provided novel important clues about nuclear lamina function. These studies have contributed to the knowledge that the lamina constitutes a complex multifunctional platform combining both structural and regulatory functions. Here, we report that, in addition to the previously demonstrated significance for somatic cell differentiation and maintenance, the nuclear lamina is also an essential determinant for germ cell development. Both male and female mice lacking the short meiosis-specific A-type lamin C2 have a severely defective meiosis, which at least in the male results in infertility. Detailed analysis revealed that lamin C2 is required for telomere-driven dynamic repositioning of meiotic chromosomes. Loss of lamin C2 affects precise synapsis of the homologs and interferes with meiotic double-strand break repair. Taken together, our data explain how the nuclear lamina contributes to meiotic chromosome behaviour and accurate genome haploidization on a mechanistic level. PMID:23382700

Link, Jana; Jahn, Daniel; Schmitt, Johannes; Göb, Eva; Baar, Johannes; Ortega, Sagrario; Benavente, Ricardo; Alsheimer, Manfred

2013-01-01

82

Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

2014-12-01

83

Preoperative staging of local invasion in rectal cancer using endoluminal ultrasound.  

PubMed Central

Digital examination is the most commonly used method of assessing local invasion in rectal cancer, but it is highly subjective and accuracy is related to surgical experience. The use of transrectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer has been assessed in 51 patients with histologically proven rectal cancers. Results showed a high degree of correlation when compared with postoperative histopathology (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). Invasion beyond the muscularis propria was predicted with a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 92% and predictive value of 97%. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:3550076

Beynon, J; Roe, A M; Foy, D M; Channer, J L; Virjee, J; Mortensen, N J

1987-01-01

84

Seasonal Evolution of Rossby and Gravity Wave Induced Laminae in Ozonesonde Data Obtained from Wallops Island, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for evaluating the seasonal evolution of ozone laminae using ozonesonde data is discussed. The method uses the correlation between small-scale ozone and potential temperature variations to distinguish between laminae generated by quasi-isentropic filamentation by Rossby waves and by vertical displacements of material surfaces by gravity waves. Data from Wallops Island, Virginia show that Rossby wave induced ozone laminae are most frequently encountered at Wallops during the winter months near 15 km while statistically significant gravity wave induced laminae occur above 15 km during the early winter and at the tropopause from late winter through early spring.

Pierce, R. Bradley; Grant, William B.

1998-01-01

85

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in laminae of black walnut extract treated horses correlates with neutrophil abundance.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether a correlation exists between neutrophil infiltration and tissue matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) content in digital laminae collected during the prodromal and acute phases of laminitis in horses treated with an aqueous black walnut heartwood extract (BWE). Hoof laminar tissue was obtained at the onset of leukopenia and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness from BWE-treated horses and at equivalent times from control horses. Thin sections of laminae were screened for neutrophils by immunohistochemistry with an anti-CD13 monoclonal antibody and extracts of the same tissues were screened for SDS-renaturable and native MMP-9 activities by denaturing and non-denaturing gelatin zymography. Samples were also screened for MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression by RT-qPCR. Control laminae were devoid of both MMP-9 and neutrophils, whereas neutrophils and SDS-renaturable MMP-9 activity were detected in laminae from BWE-treated horses and were strongly correlated at the acute stage of the disease at which time laminar MMP-9 gene expression was significantly (15-fold) elevated. In contrast, BWE-treatment did not significantly elevate MMP-2 gene or protein expression in the laminae. Interestingly, MMP-9 that was present in extracts of laminae from BWE-treated horses at both the prodromal and acute stages of the disease was mainly in the zymogen form, suggesting that the accumulation of the MMP did not contribute to pathology during these stages. However, elevated presence of the MMP-9 zymogen in the tissue would predispose it to catastrophic damage should conditions arise that cleave the regulatory propeptide domain. PMID:16822550

Loftus, John P; Belknap, James K; Black, Samuel J

2006-10-15

86

Structure and Development of Neuronal Connections in Isogenic Organisms: Cellular Interactions in the Development of the Optic Lamina of Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some details of the growth and initial cellular interactions of optic nerve axons were examined in a parthenogenetic clone of Daphnia magna. Results are summarized as follows: (i) the final structure of the optic lamina is dependent upon interactions between growing optic nerve fibers and optic lamina neuroblasts closest to the midplane of the animal, which trigger the morphological differentiation

V. Lopresti; E. R. Macagno; C. Levinthal

1973-01-01

87

Zur Morphologie und Histochemie von Subfornicalorgan, Organum Vasculosum Laminae Terminalis und Area Postrema bei Kaninchen und Ratte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subfornical organ, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, and area postrema are examined both histologically and histochemically in adult rabbits and rats of both sexes. The results are as follows:1)The three organs in question are present in both species. Although the subfornical organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis show in rabbits specific differentiations, the three organs — if compared

Adolf Weindl

1965-01-01

88

Emergence of Lamina-Specific Retinal Ganglion Cell Connectivity by Axon Arbor Retraction and Synapse Elimination  

PubMed Central

Throughout the nervous system, neurons restrict their connections to specific depths or ‘layers’ of their targets in order to constrain the type and number of synapses they make. Despite the importance of lamina-specific synaptic connectivity, the mechanisms that give rise to this feature in mammals remain poorly understood. Here we examined the cellular events underlying the formation of lamina-specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal projections to the superior colliculus (SC) of the mouse. By combining a genetically encoded marker of a defined RGC subtype (OFF-?RGCs) with serial immuno-electron microscopy, we resolved the ultrastructure of axon terminals fated for laminar stabilization versus those fated for removal. We found that OFF-?RGCs form synapses across the full depth of the retinorecipient SC before undergoing lamina-specific arbor retraction and synapse elimination to arrive at their mature, restricted pattern of connectivity. Interestingly, we did not observe evidence of axon degeneration or glia-induced synapse engulfment during this process. These findings indicate that lamina-specific visual connections are generated through the selective stabilization of correctly targeted axon arbors and suggest that the decision to maintain or eliminate an axonal projection reflects the molecular compatibility of pre- and postsynaptic neurons at a given laminar depth. PMID:21123583

Cheng, Ting-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Faulkner, Regina L.; Stephan, Alexander H.; Barres, Ben A.; Huberman, Andrew D.; Cheng, Hwai-Jong

2010-01-01

89

Iatrogenic perforation of the lamina cribrosa by nasogastric tube in an infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of iatrogenic perforation of the lamina cribrosa, followed by intracranial placement of a nasogastric tube in a preterm neonate is described. By routine ultrasound examination of the brain an echogenic structure was seen, which was radiographically diagnosed as a nasogastric tube. The tube was manually removed under antibiotic prophylaxis. No complications were observed. The false route disappeared and

J. N. van den Anker; W. Baerts; J. M. E. Quak; S. G. F. Robben; M. Meradji

1992-01-01

90

Lamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli  

E-print Network

agent, monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) and a high-magnetic-field (11.7 T) scannerLamina-Specific Functional MRI of Retinal and Choroidal Responses to Visual Stimuli Yen-Yu I. Shih (MRI) of retinal and choroidal responses to visual stimulation of graded luminance, wavelength, and fre

Duong, Timothy Q.

91

Lamina replacement with titanium plate fixation improves spinal stability after total lumbar laminectomy.  

PubMed

Biomechanical experiments and strain analyses were performed to investigate the effects of lamina replacement surgery for intraspinal lesions on postoperative spinal stability. Eight specimens of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T12-L4) were collected from adult cadavers. Stepwise lumbar total laminectomy, and laminoplasty with lamina reduction and replacement was undertaken in combination with titanium-plate fixation to simulate the surgical setting. The effects of thoracic and lumbar vertebral strain, displacement, and rigidity on spinal stability were measured following both single and multiple segment laminectomy. Significant differences in mechanical indices of stability were seen between stepwise laminectomy of lumbar vertebrae and normal specimens (p < 0.05), between lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and laminectomy (p < 0.05), and between single- and multiple-segment laminectomy (p < 0.05). Differences between laminoplasty with lamina replacement in combination with titanium-plate fixation and normal specimens need to be examined for further study. Lumbar laminectomy followed by reduction and replacement, in combination with titanium-plate fixation, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preserving spinal stability and maintaining biomechanical function and spinal loading capability. PMID:25169703

Nong, Luming; Zhou, Dong; Xu, Nanwei; Du, Rui; Jiang, Xijia

2015-12-01

92

Rat trigeminal lamina I neurons that project to thalamic or parabrachial nuclei contain the ?-opioid receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligands of the ?-opioid receptor are known to inhibit nociceptive transmission in the dorsal horn, yet the cellular site(s) of action for this inhibition remain to be fully elucidated. Neurons located in lamina I of the dorsal horn are involved in distinct aspects of nociceptive transmission. Neurons projecting to the thalamus are thought to be involved in sensory-discriminative aspects of

J. L. Mitchell; M. B. Silverman; S. A. Aicher

2004-01-01

93

The role of endolithic cyanobacteria in the formation of lithied laminae in Bahamian stromatolites  

E-print Network

The role of endolithic cyanobacteria in the formation of lithi®ed laminae in Bahamian stromatolites The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of the dominant lithi primarily of ®ne-grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the ®lamentous cyanobacteria

Miami, University of

94

Arthroscopic Lamina-Specific Double-Row Fixation for Large Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears  

PubMed Central

Delamination is a commonly observed finding at the time of rotator cuff repair, but few studies have described the surgical techniques used for delaminated rotator cuff tears (RCTs) or their clinical outcomes. We developed a technique using a combination of a double row and an additional row, which we call lamina-specific double-row fixation, for large delaminated RCTs. The lamina-specific double-row technique is performed using an additional row (lamina-specific lateral row) of suture anchors placed between the typical medial and lateral rows of suture anchors. The technique is performed as follows: (1) medial-row sutures are passed through the inferior (articular-side) and superior (bursal-side) layers in a mattress fashion; (2) lamina-specific lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the inferior layer; and (3) lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the superior layer. We believe that this technique offers the following advantages: (1) creation of a larger area of contact between the inferior layer and the footprint, (2) higher initial fixation strength of the articular-side components of the repaired rotator cuff tendon, and (3) an adaptation between the superficial and inferior layers. This technique represents an alternative option in the operative treatment of large delaminated RCTs.

Mori, Daisuke; Funakoshi, Noboru; Yamashita, Fumiharu

2014-01-01

95

Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-11-01

96

Experimental Determination of the In Situ Transverse Lamina Strength in Graphite\\/Epoxy Laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uniaxial tensile load at which transverse cracking initiated in the 90 deg. laminae of (0 2\\/90n)s, (±30\\/90n) s and (±60\\/90n)s, n =1,2,4,8, T300\\/934 composite laminates was determined experimentally using DIB enhanced x-radiography. \\

Donald L. Flaggs; Murat H. Kural

1982-01-01

97

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in laminae of black walnut extract treated horses correlates with neutrophil abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether a correlation exists between neutrophil infiltration and tissue matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) content in digital laminae collected during the prodromal and acute phases of laminitis in horses treated with an aqueous black walnut heartwood extract (BWE). Hoof laminar tissue was obtained at the onset of leukopenia and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness from

John P. Loftus; James K. Belknap; Samuel J. Black

2006-01-01

98

Invasive Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Fungal Homepage. Invasive Candidiasis Topics Definition What is invasive candidiasis? Symptoms Non-specific fever and chills… Risk & Prevention Who gets it and how it can be prevented… Sources of Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucous ...

99

AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival.  

PubMed

Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major components, collagen IV and laminin. We used this model to demonstrate that antibody targeted blockade of CTLD2, the second of eight C-type lectin-like domains in Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) that can recognize glycosylated collagens, reversed actinomyosin-based contractility [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180(?) (Ex2-6/) (?) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer and other pathologies in which increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25408555

Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia; Zhang, Yu Zhi; Minamidate, Ai; Caley, Matthew P; McCarthy, Afshan; Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T; Gaughan, Luke; Darby, Steven; Robson, Craig; Mauri, Francesco; Waxman, Jonathan; Sturge, Justin

2015-03-01

100

Immediate lamina papyracea reconstruction during endoscopic sinus surgery for surgically managed subperiosteal abscess in children.  

PubMed

The sinonasal area of a child's face is the keystone of facial architecture, and any trauma to this area may result in facial dysplasia. Animal studies have proven facial skeletal growth retardation following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The effect of sinus surgery on facial skeletal growth in humans still needs to be established. Therefore, very conservative surgical resection during functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children is advocated. We present a surgical technique of immediate lamina papyracea reconstruction during endoscopic sinus surgery in children. We have used this technique in endoscopic surgical decompression of subperiosteal abscess secondary to sinusitis in children. We present two cases in which this technique was used in children aged 33 months and 8 years old. The postoperative computed tomography scans showed an intact lamina papyracea. PMID:16652100

Malik, Vikas; Khwaja, Sadie; De Carpentier, John

2006-05-01

101

Effects of therapeutic radiation on colonic mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low to moderate doses of therapeutic irradiation are capable of ; producing bizarre cytologic changes in the mucosal cells of colorectal crypts. ; This may be associated with eosinophilia of the lamina propria and with ; eosinophilic crypt abscesses. The bizarre cells generally line intact crypts and ; do not exhibit invasive behavior. The change subsides within 1 to 2

Irwin M. Weisbrot; Amour F. Liber; Benjamin S. Gordon

1975-01-01

102

Immunohistochemical detectability of cerebrovascular utrophin depends on the condition of basal lamina.  

PubMed

Utrophin is an autosomal homologue of dystrophin. Dystrophin is a member of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which is a cell surface receptor for basal lamina components. In recent opinions utrophin occurs in the cerebrovascular endothelium but not in the perivascular glia. Cerebrovascular laminin immunoreactivity can only be detected in the subpial segments of the vessels, in circumventricular organs lacking blood-brain barrier, in immature vessels and following brain lesions. In our former experience utrophin immunoreactivity showed similar phenomena to that of laminin. The present study investigates the parallel occurrence of vascular utrophin and laminin immunoreactivity in the brain tissue, especially in the circumventricular organs, and during the parallel postnatal regression of both utrophin and laminin immunoreactivity. Their cerebrovascular immunoreactivity observed in frozen sections renders plausible the role of hidden but explorable epitopes, instead of a real absence of laminin and utrophin. The laminin epitopes are supposed to be hidden due to the fusion of the glial (i.e. brain parenchymal) and vascular basal laminae (Krum et al., Exp. Neurol. 111 (1991) 151). In all cases including its post-lesion re-appearance published formerly by us, laminin immunoreactivity may be attributed to the separation of glial and vascular basal laminae. Utrophin is localized, however, intracellularly, therefore a more complex molecular mechanism is to be assumed and it remains to be investigated how structural changes of the basal lamina may indirectly affect the immunoreactivity of utrophin. The results indicate that immunoreactivity may be influenced not only by the presence or absence of macromolecules but also by their functional state. PMID:25281792

Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

2014-11-01

103

Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o?clock and 11.5 o?clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

2014-01-01

104

Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth, Age, and Visual Field Sensitivity in the Portland Progression Project  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the effect of age on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)-detected lamina cribrosa depth while controlling for visual field (VF) status and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in 221 high-risk ocular hypertension and glaucoma patients enrolled in the Portland Progression Project. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, each participant underwent 870-nm SDOCT to obtain high-resolution radial B-scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH) and a standardized ophthalmologic examination, including automated perimetry, on the same day. For each ONH, an anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) parameter was generated as the average perpendicular distance from each anterior lamina cribrosa surface point relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) reference plane within all 24 delineated B-scans. The relative effects of age, age-corrected VF status (mean deviation [MD]), and RNFLT on ALCSD were analyzed. Results. The mean age ± SD of participants was 64 ± 11 years (range, 33–90 years). The relationship between ALCSD and MD was age-dependent. ALCSD = 407.68 ? 67.13 × MD ? 0.08 × Age + 0.89 × MD × Age (MD, P = 0.001; MD × Age, P = 0.004). The relationship between ALCSD and RNFLT may also be age-dependent but did not achieve significance (interaction term, P = 0.067). ALCSD increased with worse VF status in younger eyes but not in older eyes. In older eyes, the anterior lamina was shallower than in younger eyes for the same VF status and RNFLT. Conclusions. These data are consistent with the concept that structure/structure and structure/function relationships change with age. PMID:24474264

Ren, Ruojin; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Fortune, Brad; Hardin, Christy; Demirel, Shaban; Burgoyne, Claude F.

2014-01-01

105

A nuclear mutation blocking initiation of the lamina in leaves of Nicotiana syhestris.  

PubMed

Isolation of a nuclear recessive mutation (lam-1) blocking initiation of the lamina in leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. et Comes is described. Histological analysis of the mutant apex demonstrates a defect in establishment of meristematic activity along the margins of emerging primordia, the earliest cytological event in lamina formation. Mutant leaves grow to their normal length (about 30 cm) but fail to expand. Transverse sections show that mutant leaves are essentially naked midribs, lacking the characteristic cell types of the wild-type mesophyll. In the absence of lateral expansion, all secondary veins develop along the longitudinal axis, producing abnormal parallel venation. The mutant is defective in phase transition and grows indefinitely as a juvenile vegetative rosette. Exogenous gibberellic acid induces rapid stem elongation and flowering, but does not correct the lamina defect, indicating that juvenile arrest is a pleiotropic consequence of a gibberellin deficiency in bladeless leaves. The calyx, corolla and gynoecium in mutant flowers show defects in lateral development, indicating that the lam-1 gene plays a crucial role in development of floral organs as well as leaves. PMID:24186731

McHale, N A

1992-02-01

106

Fission yeast Lem2 and Man1 perform fundamental functions of the animal cell nuclear lamina  

PubMed Central

In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins. PMID:22540024

Gonzalez, Yanira; Saito, Akira; Sazer, Shelley

2012-01-01

107

Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

2005-01-01

108

Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans.  

PubMed

Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of proteoglycan protein cores. In summary, our results provide novel evidence that (1) PTD lacks collagen fibrils, (2) PTD contains an organic scaffold embedded with mineral and (3) the PTD organic matrix is manly composed of glycosaminoglycans, whereas the lamina limitans is primarily made of proteoglycans protein cores. PMID:21890367

Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent

2012-02-01

109

Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

Leach, Natalie R. [Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2010-10-10

110

Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

1992-01-01

111

Harmonic oscillations of a lamina in a viscous fluid near a solid surface: A lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a rigid thickless lamina is immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid and it undergoes transverse finite amplitude harmonic oscillations near a solid surface. The surrounding flow physics is computed through the lattice Boltzmann method. In order to account for the presence of the lamina in the lattice fluid background, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. Several scenarios are investigated by varying the distance between the initial position of the lamina and the solid wall. For a given lamina-solid surface distance, the effect of the Reynolds number is investigated, together with the influence of the Keulegan-Carpenter number. Findings in terms of drag coefficient show that the force exerted by the encompassing fluid upon the lamina is remarkably influenced by the distance from the solid surface, especially for low values of the Reynolds number. Moreover, such results are confirmed by the computation of the hydrodynamic function. In fact, it highlights that the added mass effect and the non-linear damping experienced by the oscillating lamina grow as the above mentioned distance and the Reynolds number reduce.

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-12-01

112

What Is Cancer of the Esophagus?  

MedlinePLUS

... The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue right under the epithelium. The muscularis mucosa is ... lamina propria. Submucosa: This is a layer of connective tissue just below the mucosa that contains blood vessels ...

113

Alien Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will work in teams to investigate the impact of an invasive species on native species, using the six classic steps for solving environmental problems. Teams will research a local invasive species problem, complete an experimental design plan, write clear procedures for experimentation, state expected results and conclusions, and work together to determine the course of action to be taken and future monitoring needs. Teams will present their action plan to a simulated board of review through a formal presentation. While completing this activity students will learn to create a workable experimental design, create clear experimental procedures, and practice peer review.

Maben, Ann

114

Non-peptidergic primary afferents are presynaptic to neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactive lamina I projection neurons in rat spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Background Pain-related (nociceptive) information is carried from the periphery to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord mostly by two populations of small diameter primary afferents, the peptidergic and the non-peptidergic. The peptidergic population expresses neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, while the non-peptidergic fibers are devoid of neuropeptides, express the purinergic receptor P2X3, and bind the isolectin B4 (IB4). Although it has been known for some time that in rat the peptidergic afferents terminate mostly in lamina I and outer lamina II and non-peptidergic afferents in inner lamina II, the extent of the termination of the latter population in lamina I was never investigated as it was considered as very minor. Because our preliminary evidence suggested otherwise, we decided to re-examine the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I, in particular with regards to their innervation of projection neurons expressing substance P receptors (NK-1r). We used retrograde labeling of neurons from the parabrachial nucleus combined with lectin IB4 binding and immunocytochemistry. Samples were examined by confocal and electron microscopy. Results By confocal microscopy, we studied the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I using IB4 binding and P2X3 immunoreactivity as markers, in relation to CGRP immunoreactivy, a marker of peptidergic afferents. The number of IB4 or P2X3-labeled fibers in lamina I was higher than previously thought, although they were less abundant than CGRP-labeled afferents. There were very few fibers double-labeled for CGRP and either P2X3 or IB4. We found a considerable number of IB4-positive fiber varicosities in close apposition to NK-1r-positive lamina I projection neurons, which were distinct from peptidergic varicosities. Furthermore, we confirmed at the ultrastructural level that there were bona fide synapses between P2X3-immunoreactive non-peptidergic boutons and neurokinin-1 receptor-positive lamina I dendrites. Conclusions These results indicate the presence of direct innervation by non-peptidergic nociceptive afferents of lamina I projection neurons expressing NK-1r. Further investigations are needed to better understand the role of these connections in physiological conditions and chronic pain states. PMID:22963197

2012-01-01

115

Minimally Invasive Dentistry  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

116

Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Invasive Species Anthony Ricciardi Glossary Biological invasion The process by which species on its environment. Invasibility The vulnerability of a habitat, community, or ecosystem of biological invasions. Invasional meltdown The phenomenon in which multiple nonnative species facilitate one

Ricciardi, Anthony

117

Automated lamina cribrosa microstructural segmentation in optical coherence tomography scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an automated segmentation method for in-vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the lamina cribrosa (LC). Manual segmentations of coronal slices of the LC were used as a gold standard in parameter selection and evaluation of the automated technique. The method was validated using two prototype OCT devices; each had a subject cohort including both healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Automated segmentation of in-vivo 3D LC OCT microstructure performed comparably to manual segmentation and is useful for investigative research and in clinical quantification of the LC. PMID:24298418

Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Lu, Chen D.; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Schuman, Joel S.

2013-01-01

118

Immunocytochemical localization of the major polypeptides of the nuclear pore complex-lamina fraction. Interphase and mitotic distribution  

PubMed Central

This laboratory has previously isolated a fraction from rat liver nuclei consisting of nuclear pore complexes associated with the proteinaceous lamina which underlies the inner nuclear membrane. Using protein eluted from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels, we have prepared antibodies in chickens to each of the three predominant pore complex- lamina bands. Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis shows that each of these individual bands cross-reacts strongly with all three antisera. In immunofluorescence localization performed on tissue culture cells with these antibodies, we obtain a pattern of intense staining at the periphery of the interphase nucleus, with little or no cytoplasmic reaction. Electron microscope immunoperoxidase staining of rat liver nuclei with these antibodies labels exclusively the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, reaction occurs in areas which contain the lamina, but not at the pore complexes. While our isolation procedure extracts the internal contents of nuclei completely, semiquantitative Ouchterlony analysis shows that it releases negligible amounts of these lamina antigens. Considered together, our results indicate that these three bands represent major components of a peripheral nuclear lamina, and are not structural elements of an internal "nuclear protein matrix." Fluorescence microscopy shows that the perinuclear interphase localization of these lamina proteins undergoes dramatic changes during mitosis. Concomitant with nuclear envelope disassembly in prophase, these antigens assume a diffuse localization throughout the cell. This distribution persists until telophase, when the antigens become progressively and completely localized at the surface of the daughter chromosome masses. We propose that the lamina is a biological polymer which can undergo reversible disassembly during mitosis. PMID:102651

1978-01-01

119

Somatic and visceral inputs to the thoracic spinal cord of the cat: marginal zone (lamina I) of the dorsal horn.  

PubMed Central

1. Single-unit electrical activity has been recorded from fifty-five neurones whose recording sites were located in or immediately adjacent to the marginal zone (lamina I) of the lower thoracic spinal cord (T8-T12) of anaesthetized or decerebrate cats. Their responses to stimulation of somatic and visceral afferent fibres and the sizes of their cutaneous receptive fields have been analysed and compared with the responses and receptive fields of neurones recorded throughout the spinal grey matter. 2. Neurones were classified according to their responses to innocuous stimulation of their somatic receptive fields (i.e. brushing and stroking) or to noxious stimulation (i.e. pinching, squeezing and/or heating above 45 degrees C). 52% of all the neurones recorded in lamina I were driven exclusively by noxious stimulation of the skin (nocireceptive); 33% were driven by both noxious and innocuous stimulation of the skin (multireceptive) and 15% were driven exclusively by innocuous stimulation of the skin (mechanoreceptive). 3. Visceral afferent inputs to these neurones were tested by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral splanchnic nerve (15 V, 0.2 ms, 0.3 Hz). Two types of neurone were distinguished according to their responses to visceral stimulation: (i) somatic neurones, driven only by stimulation of somatic afferent fibres and (ii) viscero-somatic neurones, driven by stimulation of somatic and visceral afferent fibres. Of the neurones recorded in lamina I, 33% were somatic and 67% were viscero-somatic. This proportion was very similar to the percentages of somatic and viscero-somatic neurones recorded throughout the grey matter (37 and 63%, respectively). 4. Viscero-somatic neurones in lamina I had somatic receptive field properties similar to those of viscero-somatic neurones of the entire spinal cord. Half of them were multireceptive, 39% were nocireceptive and 11% were mechanoreceptive. However, somatic neurones in lamina I had receptive field properties different from those of somatic neurones from other laminae: no multireceptive somatic neurones were recorded in lamina I; the vast majority (78%) were nocireceptive and 22% were mechanoreceptive. 5. The majority of somatic and viscero-somatic neurones in lamina I had small somatic receptive fields but, even in this group of cells, viscero-somatic neurones had larger receptive fields than somatic cells. 6. Ascending axonal projections in both dorsolateral funiculi and in the contralateral ventrolateral quadrant were tested in eighteen lamina I neurones. Only one neurone was found to project to the cervical cord.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3450285

Cervero, F; Tattersall, J E

1987-01-01

120

Constitutive nuclear lamina–genome interactions are highly conserved and associated with A/T-rich sequence  

PubMed Central

In metazoans, the nuclear lamina is thought to play an important role in the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes, by providing anchoring sites for large genomic segments named lamina-associated domains (LADs). Some of these LADs are cell-type specific, while many others appear constitutively associated with the lamina. Constitutive LADs (cLADs) may contribute to a basal chromosome architecture. By comparison of mouse and human lamina interaction maps, we find that the sizes and genomic positions of cLADs are strongly conserved. Moreover, cLADs are depleted of synteny breakpoints, pointing to evolutionary selective pressure to keep cLADs intact. Paradoxically, the overall sequence conservation is low for cLADs. Instead, cLADs are universally characterized by long stretches of DNA of high A/T content. Cell-type specific LADs also tend to adhere to this “A/T rule” in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated cells. This suggests that the A/T rule represents a default positioning mechanism that is locally overruled during lineage commitment. Analysis of paralogs suggests that during evolution changes in A/T content have driven the relocation of genes to and from the nuclear lamina, in tight association with changes in expression level. Taken together, these results reveal that the spatial organization of mammalian genomes is highly conserved and tightly linked to local nucleotide composition. PMID:23124521

Meuleman, Wouter; Peric-Hupkes, Daan; Kind, Jop; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Pagie, Ludo; Kellis, Manolis; Reinders, Marcel; Wessels, Lodewyk; van Steensel, Bas

2013-01-01

121

Constitutive nuclear lamina-genome interactions are highly conserved and associated with A/T-rich sequence.  

PubMed

In metazoans, the nuclear lamina is thought to play an important role in the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes, by providing anchoring sites for large genomic segments named lamina-associated domains (LADs). Some of these LADs are cell-type specific, while many others appear constitutively associated with the lamina. Constitutive LADs (cLADs) may contribute to a basal chromosome architecture. By comparison of mouse and human lamina interaction maps, we find that the sizes and genomic positions of cLADs are strongly conserved. Moreover, cLADs are depleted of synteny breakpoints, pointing to evolutionary selective pressure to keep cLADs intact. Paradoxically, the overall sequence conservation is low for cLADs. Instead, cLADs are universally characterized by long stretches of DNA of high A/T content. Cell-type specific LADs also tend to adhere to this "A/T rule" in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated cells. This suggests that the A/T rule represents a default positioning mechanism that is locally overruled during lineage commitment. Analysis of paralogs suggests that during evolution changes in A/T content have driven the relocation of genes to and from the nuclear lamina, in tight association with changes in expression level. Taken together, these results reveal that the spatial organization of mammalian genomes is highly conserved and tightly linked to local nucleotide composition. PMID:23124521

Meuleman, Wouter; Peric-Hupkes, Daan; Kind, Jop; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Pagie, Ludo; Kellis, Manolis; Reinders, Marcel; Wessels, Lodewyk; van Steensel, Bas

2013-02-01

122

A particle image velocimetry study of the flow physics generated by a thin lamina oscillating in a viscous fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the flow physics produced by a thin rigid lamina oscillating in an otherwise quiescent viscous fluid. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract the flow kinematics, which is, in turn, utilized to reconstruct the pressure distribution around the lamina through the integration of Navier-Stokes equations. The hydrodynamic loading experienced by the lamina is ultimately estimated from PIV data to investigate added mass and fluid damping phenomena. Experiments are conducted for varying Reynolds and Keulegan-Carpenter numbers to elucidate the relative weight of inertial, convective, and viscous phenomena on the resulting flow physics. In agreement with prior numerical studies, experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Reynolds and the Keulegan-Carpenter numbers results into the formation of coherent structures that are shed at the edges of the lamina and advected by the flow. This phenomenon is associated with nonlinearities in the hydrodynamic loading, whereby fluid damping is found to increase nonlinearly with the oscillation of the lamina.

Jalalisendi, Mohammad; Panciroli, Riccardo; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

2014-02-01

123

Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Winter Lower Stratosphere and the Relationship to Lamina and Irreversible Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the high-resolution dynamic limb sounder (HIRDLS) high-vertical resolution ozone profiles in the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere to examine the meridional transport out of the tropics. We focus on February 2005.2007 when there are differences in the dynamical background in the lower stratosphere due to the states of the quasibiennial oscillation and polar vortex. HIRDLS data reveal a large number of low ozone laminae that have the characteristics of tropical air at midlatitudes. More laminae are observed in February in 2006 than in 2005 or 2007. Because laminae can form, move out of the tropics, and return to the tropics without mixing into the midlatitude ozone field, the number of laminae is not directly related to the net transport. We use equivalent latitude coordinates to discriminate between reversible and irreversible laminar transport. The equivalent latitude analysis shows greater irreversible transport between the tropics and lower midlatitudes in both 2005 and 2007 compared to 2006 despite the higher number of laminae observed in 2006. Our conclusion that there was more irreversible transport of tropical air into the lower midlatitudes in 2005 and 2007 is supported by equivalent length analysis of mixing using microwave limb sounder N2O measurements. This study shows that reversibility must be considered in order to infer the importance of lamination to net transport.

Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Yoshida, Yasuko

2010-01-01

124

Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins.  

PubMed

Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to the nuclear periphery. We identify YY1 (Ying-Yang1) binding sites as enriched in relocating sequences. Knockdown of YY1 or lamin A/C, but not lamin A, led to a loss of lamina association. In addition, targeted recruitment of YY1 proteins facilitated ectopic LAD formation dependent on histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and histone H3 lysine di- and trimethylation. Our results also reveal that endogenous loci appear to be dependent on lamin A/C, YY1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2/3 for maintenance of lamina-proximal positioning. PMID:25559185

Harr, Jennifer C; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J; Reddy, Karen L

2015-01-01

125

Distribution of stanniocalcin binding sites in the lamina terminalis of the rat.  

PubMed

Stanniocalcin (STC-1), a 50 kDa glycoprotein hormone that regulates calcium/phosphate homeostasis in bony fish and mammals, has been shown to be expressed in central neurons and choroid plexus, and to exert a protective effect against hypercalcemic and hypoxic damage to neurons. Circumventricular organs are known to function in the regulation of ion and body fluid balance. Therefore, the possibility exists that STC-1 may be involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphate and fluid homeostasis through its actions on these central sites. In the present study, the distribution of STC-1 binding sites in forebrain circumventricular organs of the rat were investigated by in situ ligand binding using a stanniocalcin-alkaline phosphatase (STC-AP) fusion protein. Cells exhibiting STC-1 binding sites were found throughout the lamina terminalis. Dense cytoplasmic staining was observed predominantly within ependymal cells lining the anterior third ventricle region (AV3V), as well as cells of the choroid plexus. Additionally, neurons of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the dorsal and ventral components of the median preoptic nucleus and the rostral aspects of the subfornical organ exhibited dense STC-1 cytoplasmic staining. STC-1 binding sites were also found in cells of the supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and anteroventral preoptic nucleus. These data suggest that STC-1 binding sites localized on the ependymal cells of the AV3V region and neurons of circumventricular organs may be associated with neuronal pathways involved in calcium/phosphate and fluid homeostasis. PMID:18534560

Ratkovic, Srdjana; Wagner, Graham F; Ciriello, John

2008-07-01

126

ARIA is concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina of the developing chick neuromuscular junction  

PubMed Central

ARIA is a member of a family of polypeptide growth and differentiation factors that also includes glial growth factor (GGF), neu differentiation factor, and heregulin. ARIA mRNA is expressed in all cholinergic neurons of the central nervous systems of rats and chicks, including spinal cord motor neurons. In vitro, ARIA elevates the rate of acetylcholine receptor incorporation into the plasma membrane of primary cultures of chick myotubes. To study whether ARIA may regulate the synthesis of junctional synaptic acetylcholine receptors in chick embryos, we have developed riboprobes and polyclonal antibody reagents that recognize isoforms of ARIA that include an amino-terminal immunoglobulin C2 domain and examined the expression and distribution of ARIA in motor neurons and at the neuromuscular junction. We detected significant ARIA mRNA expression in motor neurons as early as embryonic day 5, around the time that motor axons are making initial synaptic contacts with their target muscle cells. In older embryos and postnatal animals, we found ARIA protein concentrated in the synaptic cleft at neuromuscular junctions, consistent with transport down motor axons and release at nerve terminals. At high resolution using immunoelectron microscopy, we detected ARIA immunoreactivity exclusively in the synaptic basal lamina in a pattern consistent with binding to synapse specific components on the presynaptic side of the basal lamina. These results support a role for ARIA as a trophic factor released by motor neuron terminals that may regulate the formation of mature neuromuscular synapses. PMID:7559763

1995-01-01

127

The Insulator Protein SU(HW) Fine-Tunes Nuclear Lamina Interactions of the Drosophila Genome  

PubMed Central

Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL) are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs) in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW) binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW) weakens genome – NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW) as a fine-tuner of genome – NL interactions. PMID:21124834

van Bemmel, Joke G.; Pagie, Ludo; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Brugman, Wim; Meuleman, Wouter; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; van Steensel, Bas

2010-01-01

128

Interhemispheric Endoscopic Fenestration of the Lamina Terminalis through a Single Frontal Burr Hole.  

PubMed

Objective?We evaluate the feasibility and safety of performing a novel interhemispheric endoscopic fenestration of the lamina terminalis (IEFLT) through a single frontal burr hole immediately lateral to the superior sagittal sinus. Methods?Five cadaveric heads underwent IEFLT. Sequential burr holes were made beginning above the glabella and progressed cranially to caudally until the frontal sinus. An endoscope was inserted, and interhemispheric dissection of the arachnoid membranes was completed with endoscopic instruments in a straight direction from the point of entry to the lamina terminalis (LT). Angled optics (0 and 30 degrees) were used to study the neurovascular structures and surgical landmarks. Results?The IEFLTs were successfully completed in all specimens and allowed for good visualization of the inferior portion of the LT. The arachnoid dissections were achieved uneventfully. The endoscope provided good surface control of the LT and excellent stereoscopic visualization of the neurovascular complexes. Improved circumferential visualization of the superior part of the anterior portion of the third ventricle was attained. Conclusion?IEFLT is a potential alternative to the classic endoscopic third ventriculostomy and a simpler alternative to the subfrontal EFLT, although surgical maneuverability is still limited due to the size of the probe in relation to the narrow surgical corridor. PMID:25093150

Beer-Furlan, André; Pinto, Fernando Gomes; Evins, Alexander I; Rigante, Luigi; Anichini, Giulio; Stieg, Philip E; Bernardo, Antonio

2014-08-01

129

Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and nucleoplasmic lamins in adult stem cell regulation and disease?  

PubMed Central

A-type lamins are components of the lamina network at the nuclear envelope, which mediates nuclear stiffness and anchors chromatin to the nuclear periphery. However, A-type lamins are also found in the nuclear interior. Here we review the roles of the chromatin-associated, nucleoplasmic LEM protein, lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) in the regulation of A-type lamins in the nuclear interior. The lamin A/C–LAP2? complex may be involved in the regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-mediated pathway and other signaling pathways balancing proliferation and differentiation, and in the stabilization of higher-order chromatin organization throughout the nucleus. Loss of LAP2? in mice leads to selective depletion of the nucleoplasmic A-type lamin pool, promotes the proliferative stem cell phenotype of tissue progenitor cells, and delays stem cell differentiation. These findings support the hypothesis that LAP2? and nucleoplasmic lamins are regulators of adult stem cell function and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we discuss potential implications of this concept for defining the molecular disease mechanisms of lamin-linked diseases such as muscular dystrophy and premature aging syndromes. PMID:24374133

Gesson, Kevin; Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

2014-01-01

130

Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and other LEM proteins in cancer biology  

PubMed Central

The LEM proteins comprise a heterogeneous family of chromatin-associated proteins that share the LEM domain, a structural motif mediating interaction with the DNA associated protein, Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor (BAF). Most of the LEM proteins are integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane and associate with the nuclear lamina, a structural scaffold of lamin intermediate filament proteins at the nuclear periphery, which is involved in nuclear mechanical functions and (hetero-)chromatin organization. A few LEM proteins, such as Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2? and Ankyrin and LEM domain-containing protein (Ankle)1 lack transmembrane domains and localize throughout the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm, respectively. LAP2? has been reported to regulate cell proliferation by affecting the activity of retinoblastoma protein in tissue progenitor cells and numerous studies showed upregulation of LAP2? in cancer. Ankle1 is a nuclease likely involved in DNA damage repair pathways and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Ankle1 gene have been linked to increased breast and ovarian cancer risk. In this chapter we describe potential mechanisms of the involvement of LEM proteins, particularly of LAP2? and Ankle1 in tumorigenesis and we provide evidence that LAP2? expression may be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker for tumor analyses. PMID:24563347

Brachner, Andreas; Foisner, Roland

2015-01-01

131

Invasive Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive plant species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

132

Invasive Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents this group of documents on invasive species. The materials include a webquest, an informational flyer, service standards, National Science Education Standards, and a guide for creating public service announcements. The materials are supplied in PDF format and would be useful for biology or ecology teachers. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

133

Negative regulation of monocyte adhesion to arterial elastic laminae by signal regulatory protein alpha and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1.  

PubMed

Elastic laminae are extracellular matrix constituents that not only contribute to the stability and elasticity of arteries but also play a role in regulating arterial morphogenesis and pathogenesis. We demonstrate here that an important function of arterial elastic laminae is to prevent monocyte adhesion, which is mediated by the inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein (SIRP) alpha and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1. In a matrix-based arterial reconstruction model in vivo, elastic laminae were resistant to leukocyte adhesion and transmigration compared with the collagen-dominant arterial adventitia. The density of leukocytes within the elastic lamina-dominant media was about 58-70-fold lower than that within the adventitia from 1 to 30 days. An in vitro assay confirmed the inhibitory effect of elastic laminae on monocyte adhesion. The exposure of monocytes to elastic laminae induced activation of SIRP alpha, which in turn activated SHP-1. Elastic lamina degradation peptides extracted from arterial specimens could also activate SIRP alpha and SHP-1. The knockdown of SIRP alpha and SHP-1 by specific small interfering RNA diminished the inhibitory effect of elastic laminae, resulting in a significant increase in monocyte adhesion. These observations suggest that SIRP alpha and SHP-1 potentially mediate the inhibitory effect of elastic laminae on monocyte adhesion. PMID:16159885

Liu, Shu Q; Alkema, Paul K; Tieché, Christopher; Tefft, Brandon J; Liu, Diana Z; Li, Yan Chun; Sumpio, Bauer E; Caprini, Joseph A; Paniagua, Mary

2005-11-25

134

Combined light and electron microscopy of Golgi-labelled neurons in lamina III of the feline spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

Golgi-impregnated neurons in lamina III of the cat spinal cord were examined using light microscopy and combined light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed that the neurons formed a variety of dendrite configurations. The majority of neurons arborised in the rostrocaudal plane and were confined to the lamina of origin. However, some arborised dorsoventrally and had dendrites that penetrated lamina II. Electron microscopy of the neurons revealed that they were associated with many different types of bouton, thus suggesting that they received synaptic input from various sources. Some of the boutons were postsynaptic to other axon terminals indicating that they are under presynaptic control. One of the neurons participated in synaptic triads which consisted of two axo-axonically coupled boutons that were presynaptic to the cell. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:4077713

Maxwell, D J

1985-01-01

135

Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

Holstege, Gert

1988-01-01

136

Multiscale Finite Element Modeling of the Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in the Eye  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe a new method for constructing macro-scale models of the posterior pole of the eye to investigate the role of intraocular pressure in the development and progression of glaucoma. We also describe a method and present results from micro-scale finite element models of the lamina cribrosa microarchitecture that are derived from parent macro-scale continuum models using a novel multiscale substructuring approach. The laminar micro-scale models capture the biomechanical behavior of the laminar trabeculae in a way that cannot be estimated using macro-scale techniques, and predict much higher stresses and strains than those calculated within macro-scale models of the coincident region in the same eye. PMID:19963817

Downs, J. Crawford; Roberts, Michael D.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Hart, Richard T.

2012-01-01

137

Measurement of Basilar Membrane, Reticular Lamina, and Tectorial Membrane Vibrations in the Intact Mouse Cochlea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scanning low-coherence heterodyne interferometer (SLHI) was developed for measuring the microstructural vibration inside the cochlear partition of the intact living cochlea of mice. The sensitivity, frequency response, and dynamic range of the SLHI are comparable with those of a sensitive laser interferometer but the SLHI has a higher spatial resolution along the optical axis. The magnitude and phase of sound-induced vibrations were measured as a function of the focal position along the optical axis. Our data show that the SLHI has sufficient sensitivity, dynamic range, and temporal and spatial resolution to measure sub-nanometer vibrations of the basilar membrane, reticular lamina, and tectorial membrane in the intact living mouse cochlea. High spatial and temporal resolution, compact heterodyne design, and scanning capability make this interferometer an ideal tool to study molecular mechanisms of hearing in normal and genetically-modified mice.

Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

2011-11-01

138

[An intraosseous hemangioma in the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid bone].  

PubMed

The incidence of intraosseous hemangiomas is very low. Most of them occur in adult females. The mandible,the zygoma,the maxilla, and the frontal and nasal bones are the areas of most frequent localization in the facial region. The intraosseous hemangioma is a benign, slowly growing,bony hard tumor causing facial deformity. It is diagnosed histologically. We report a case of an 18-year-old male with an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma located in the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid bone. Intraosseous hemangioma often has characteristic signs on a CT scan, with either coarsened trabeculae lying adjacent to the vascular channels or multifocal lytic areas creating a honeycomb pattern. Because of the age of the patient we considered a midline granuloma and a chondrosarcoma. The therapy of choice is surgical excision; radiation is done in exceptional cases only. PMID:12589420

Graumüller, S; Terpe, H; Hingst, V; Dommerich, S; Pau, H W

2003-02-01

139

Transethmoidal meningoencephalocele involving the olfactory bulb with enlarged foramina of the lamina cribrosa--case report.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old girl presented with a transethmoidal meningoencephalocele manifesting as recurrent rhinorrhea. Initially, she developed meningitis, but after treatment she experienced rhinorrhea. Two months later, she again presented with rhinorrhea. Neuroimaging studies revealed a small protrusion (15 mm x 10 mm) at the roof of the ethmoidal sinus. Nasal endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of meningoencephalocele. The operative findings revealed a small hole in the left olfactory bulb, which had descended into an enlarged foramen along with the arachnoid membrane. The left olfactory bulb was removed, and the enlarged foramina of the lamina cribrosa were covered with a frontal pericranial flap. The defect in the bone was very small, but contributed to the development of meningitis and leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid. Basal cephalocele should be considered in a patient with recurrent rhinorrhea and intracranial infections, even in the absence of any apparent anomaly. PMID:19556738

Habu, Mika; Niiro, Masaki; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Matsune, Shoji; Arita, Kazunori

2009-06-01

140

Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray  

PubMed Central

The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and following a one week recovery period, they were subjected to either, hypertonic saline administration (0.5M NaCl, 1ml/100g-i.p.), 24hrs water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating AngII; 50?g/kg-s.c.), heat exposure (39°C for 60 mins) or permitted 180 minutes spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labelled neurons from the vlPAG and double labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG projecting neurons and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J.

2010-01-01

141

Disruption of Basal Lamina Components in Neuromotor Synapses of Children with Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ?80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE) relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), synaptic laminin ?2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin ?2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups. Thus, NMJ disruption in CP was found to principally involve components of the synaptic basal lamina and subtle ultra-structural modifications but appeared unrelated to neuromotor maturational status. PMID:23976945

Militar, Jaimee L.; Theroux, Mary C.; Dabney, Kirk W.; Shah, Suken A.; Miller, Freeman; Akins, Robert E.

2013-01-01

142

Ventral lamina terminalis mediates enhanced cardiovascular responses of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons during increased dietary salt.  

PubMed

Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurons of the forebrain lamina terminalis (LT) mediated these changes in the RVLM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without LT lesions were fed normal chow and given access to water or 0.9% NaCl for 14 to 15 days. Unilateral injection of l-glutamate into the RVLM produced significantly larger increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure of sham rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl versus water. However, these differences were not observed between ventral LT-lesioned rats drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water. Similar findings were observed when angiotensin II or gamma-aminobutyric acid was injected into the RVLM. Interestingly, a subset of animals drinking 0.9% but with damage restricted to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis did not show enhanced responses to l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid. In marked contrast, RVLM injection of l-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid produced exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses in animals drinking 0.9% NaCl versus water after an acute ventral LT lesion or chronic lesion of the subfornical organ. Additional experiments demonstrated that plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were increased at night in rats ingesting 0.9% NaCl. These findings suggest that neurons of the ventral LT mediate the ability of increased dietary salt to enhance the responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic neurons. PMID:19506102

Adams, Julye M; Bardgett, Megan E; Stocker, Sean D

2009-08-01

143

COMBATE DE LA PUDRICION PEDU.NCULAR DEL MANGO CAUSADA POR Botryodiplodia theobromae PAT. MEDIANTE EL MANTENIMIENTO DE LOS PEDICELOS Y EL DESLECHADO SOBRE LAMINAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se detennino el efecto de hacer el desle- Cultural practices to control of mango chado de frutos de mango en el suelo y sobre una stem-end rot caused by Botryodiplodia theo- lamina de hierro galvanizado (lamina de zinc), bromaes Pat. The following practices were eva- eliminando 0 dejando el pedunculo para ambos luated for the control of stem-end rot of

Eugenia Gonzalez; Gerardina Umana; Luis Felipe Arauz

144

Effect of locally increased zinc contents on zinc transport from the flag leaf lamina to the maturing grains of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

From previous experiments, it was evident that the accumulation of zinc in maturing wheat grains is highly regulated, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not yet identified. In this study, we determined the transfer of radiolabelled zinc (fed directly into a leaf flap) from the flag leaf lamina to the grains. We also determined how this zinc transfer was affected

T. Herren; U. Feller

1996-01-01

145

Degradation products of the process of thermal recovery of copper from lamina scraps in lab-scale fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results dealing with a process for recovering copper in the scrap composite materials issued from electronic laminas industry. This environment-friendly process consists in the thermal treatment of scrap in a fluidized bed whose particles fix the harmful gases emitted by the organic glue gasification. A series of experiments was carried out in a thermobalance coupled to

P Antonetti; Y Flitris; G Flamant; H Hellio; D Gauthier; B Granier

2004-01-01

146

Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

2013-12-01

147

Cortical lamina-dependent blood volume changes in human brain at 7T.  

PubMed

Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to large draining veins reduces its local specificity and can render the interpretation of the underlying laminar neural activity impossible. The application of the more spatially specific cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based fMRI in humans has been hindered by the low sensitivity of the noninvasive modalities available. Here, a vascular space occupancy (VASO) variant, adapted for use at high field, is further optimized to capture layer-dependent activity changes in human motor cortex at sub-millimeter resolution. Acquired activation maps and cortical profiles show that the VASO signal peaks in gray matter at 0.8-1.6mm depth, and deeper compared to the superficial and vein-dominated GE-BOLD responses. Validation of the VASO signal change versus well-established iron-oxide contrast agent based fMRI methods in animals showed the same cortical profiles of CBV change, after normalization for lamina-dependent baseline CBV. In order to evaluate its potential of revealing small lamina-dependent signal differences due to modulations of the input-output characteristics, layer-dependent VASO responses were investigated in the ipsilateral hemisphere during unilateral finger tapping. Positive activation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex and negative activation in ipsilateral primary sensory cortex were observed. This feature is only visible in high-resolution fMRI where opposing sides of a sulcus can be investigated independently because of a lack of partial volume effects. Based on the results presented here, we conclude that VASO offers good reproducibility, high sensitivity and lower sensitivity than GE-BOLD to changes in larger vessels, making it a valuable tool for layer-dependent fMRI studies in humans. PMID:25479018

Huber, Laurentius; Goense, Jozien; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Trampel, Robert; Guidi, Maria; Reimer, Enrico; Ivanov, Dimo; Neef, Nicole; Gauthier, Claudine J; Turner, Robert; Möller, Harald E

2015-02-15

148

Membrane properties of nociceptive neurones in lamina II of lumbar spinal cord in the cat.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord of the cat, and the electrotonic responses to brief rectangular current pulses of up to 0.5 nA passed through the recording microelectrode measured. 2. The majority of penetrations were associated with input resistances lower than 70 M omega, low resting potentials (-25 to -45 mV) and frequent firing of action potentials. Stable resting potentials of -50 to -75 mV were recorded in twenty neurones which exhibited continuous ongoing synaptic activity without action potentials. The threshold for action potential initiation was around -42 mV. The current-voltage relationships were linear over most of the range of currents used; with depolarizing currents rectification became apparent close to the firing threshold. Input resistances ranged from 80 to 150 M omega. 3. The time course of the decay of the electrotonic response was exponential with a time constant of 0.8-2.0 ms. The morphology of the cells--small soma with a small number of fine processes--and these short time constants suggest that axial current flow is limited and that the charge is dissipated locally within the soma through the membrane capacitance. 4. Effective membrane capacities were calculated from the estimated soma surface area of typical neurones in lamina II stained with HRP, and assuming a specific membrane conductance of 1.0 microF cm-2 they ranged from 3.1 to 15.7 pF. Membrane capacities were calculated for the twenty neurones in this study from measurement of input resistance and time constants (6.4-15.0 pF) and lay within this range. 5. Three neurones which had their electrical properties measured were also stained with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Their specific membrane capacitances (1.1-1.2 microF cm-2) and specific resistances (0.9-1.1 k omega cm2) were within the range of values measured for other neurones in the CNS. 6. The short time constants found for these neurones suggests that temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials evoked by short-acting neurotransmitters will be limited. This may help to explain why action potentials arise singly from discrete, short-lived EPSPs. There is anatomical evidence for multiple connections from terminal branches of A delta and C afferent fibres within the superficial dorsal horn; this suggests that spatial summation of EPSPs is a major factor in synaptic integration of some of the primary afferent inputs to these neurones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3418530

Iggo, A; Molony, V; Steedman, W M

1988-01-01

149

The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

150

An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

1991-01-01

151

Intrahaemocoelic infection of Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus does not induce tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling.  

PubMed

Infection of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni with the baculovirus Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) by the oral route stimulates activation of host matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and effector caspases, a process dependent on expression of the viral fibroblast growth factor (vFGF). This pathway leads to tracheal cell basal lamina remodelling, enabling virus escape from the primary site of infection, the midgut epithelium, and establishment of efficient systemic infection. In this study, we asked whether the MMP-caspase pathway was also activated following infection by intrahaemocoelic injection. We found that intrahaemocoelic infection did not lead to any observable tracheal cell or midgut epithelium basal lamina remodelling. MMP and caspase activities were not significantly stimulated. We conclude that the main role of the AcMNPV vFGF is in facilitating virus midgut escape. PMID:24300553

Means, John C; Passarelli, A Lorena

2014-03-01

152

Three-dimensional lamina architecture alters light-harvesting efficiency in Fagus: a leaf-scale analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modification of foliage exposition and morphol- ogy by seasonal average integrated quantum flux density (Qint) was investigated in the canopies of the shade-tolerant late- successional deciduous tree species Fagus orientalis Lipsky and Fagus sylvatica L. Because the leaves were not entirely flat anywhere in the canopy, the leaf lamina was considered to be three-dimensional and characterized by the cross-sectional

STEFAN FLECK; ÜLO NIINEMETS; ALESSANDRO CESCATTI

153

Selective innervation of NK1 receptor–lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors in the rat  

PubMed Central

Fine myelinated (A?) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to A? nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r+ and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by A? nociceptive afferents. PMID:25168670

Baseer, Najma; Al-Baloushi, Abdullah S.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shehab, Safa A.S.; Todd, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

154

Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization  

SciTech Connect

We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

Broers, Jos L.V. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Oestlund, C. [Departments of Medicine and of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Worman, H.J. [Departments of Medicine and of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Endert, J. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ramaekers, F.C.S. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Box 17, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL-6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

2005-04-01

155

Predictable Imaging Signs of Cauda Equina Entrapment in Thoracolumbar and Lumbar Burst Fractures with Greenstick Lamina Fractures  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The aim of present study was to investigate imaging findings suggestive of cauda equina entrapment in thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures. Overview of Literature Burst fractures with cauda equina entrapment can cause neurologic deterioration during surgery. However, dural tears and cauda equina entrapment are very difficult to diagnose clinically or radiographically before surgery. Methods Twenty-three patients who underwent spinal surgery for thoracolumbar or lumbar burst fractures were enrolled in this study. In magnetic resonance imaging T2-weighted images of the transverse plane, we defined cauda equina notch sign (CENS) as a v-shaped image that entrapped cauda equina gathers between lamina fractures. We evaluated the fractured spine by using CENS and lamina fractures and the rate of available space for the spinal canal at the narrowest portion of the burst fracture level. We classified patients into entrapment group or non-entrapment group, based on whether cauda equina entrapment existed. Results Lamina fractures were detected in 18 (78.3%) and CENS were detected in 6 (26.1%) of 23 burst-fracture patients. Cauda equina entrapment existed in all the patients with CENS. In addition, the rate of available space for the spinal canal increased according to logistic regression. The size of the retropulsed fragment in the spinal canal was the most reliable of all the factors, suggesting cauda equina entrapment. Conclusions CENS was the most predictable sign of cauda equina entrapment associated with burst fractures. PMID:24967048

Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Kodera, Ryuzo; Kawano, Masanori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

156

Tissue concentrations of 4-HNE in the black walnut extract model of laminitis: indication of oxidant stress in affected laminae.  

PubMed

In the septic horse prone to laminitis, a similar activation of the innate immune system appears to occur as reported in the septic human prone to organ failure. Because oxidant injury plays a central role in organ failure occurring due to an overzealous innate immune response in human sepsis, this study was performed to determine whether there was evidence of oxidant stress in the laminar tissue in the early stages of laminitis. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a lipid aldehyde that forms due to lipid peroxidation occurring during episodes of oxidant stress, readily forms adducts with cellular proteins; these adducts can be assessed as a marker of oxidant stress in the form of lipid peroxidation. In this study, a slot blot technique was used to assess 4-HNE adduct concentrations in the laminae, lung, liver, and intestinal tract in the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis. Significant increases in laminar 4-HNE adduct concentrations were identified at two early stages in the BWE model, in the absence of such changes in the other tissues. These data indicate that oxidant stress may play an important role in the laminar failure in laminitis, and further support the concept that a poor antioxidant response in the laminae relative to other equine tissues may be responsible for failure of the laminae in the septic horse. In contrast, tissues such as the lung and liver that undergo oxidant injury in human sepsis appear to be relatively protected in horses. PMID:19118907

Yin, C; Pettigrew, A; Loftus, J P; Black, S J; Belknap, J K

2009-06-15

157

Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22(-/-) fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

2014-01-01

158

Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

2012-04-01

159

Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based) approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC), the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel) can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM) vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC) of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to eliminate the random 3D influence of multiple-ply laminates and to favor computational model validation. Specimens with different loading directions with respect to the material principal directions were prepared and tested in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Specimen surface preparation consisted in a speckle pattern generation to allow the application of the DIC tecnique. During the tensile experiment, the speckle pattern is recorded (frame rate of 0.1 picture/second) using a CCD camera equipped with a microscopic lens and adjustable light sources. In-house DIC software was used for in-plane displacement and strain determination and mapping. For brevity only the case of loading in the tow yarn direction is considered here. Fig. 1b shows a tipical strain map obtained with the DIC technique at an applied macroscopic strain of 0.9%. The strains are small but the DIC dechnique is sensitive enough and suitable filtering reduce the noise level of the strain maps. Strong local strain gradients are determined and referred to the yarn architecture in Fig. 1c. The DIC measurements were validated by averaging the strain over the field of view and comparing it with the macroscopic strain given by a high-sensitivity MTS extensometer. The mesoscopic srain data obtained with DIC are used to assess and validate parallel material model development by direct FEM vs experimental strain correlation. Fig. 2a shows the FEM model of the unit cell for the twill-weave architecture with a detail of the yarn geometry and finite element discretization. Suitable boundary conditions are applied to the UC model contours before the analysis, [1]. Fig. 2b shows and example of the comparison of the local longitudinal FEM/DIC strain distribution along a transverse line of Fig. 1c. The comparison shows the excellent correlation achieved both in terms of gradients and absolute strain values, [3].

Anzelotti, G.; Nicoletto, G.; Riva, E.

2010-06-01

160

Sensitization of sodium appetite: evidence for sustained molecular changes in the lamina terminalis.  

PubMed

Animals with a history of sodium depletions exhibit increases in salt intake, a phenomenon described as the sensitization of sodium appetite. Using a novel experimental design, the present experiments investigated whether putative molecular markers of neural plasticity and changes in the message for components of the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) accompany the sensitization of sodium appetite. An initial set of experiments examined whether the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 would attenuate sodium appetite sensitization and prevent changes in mRNA expression associated with sensitization. Rats with repeated sodium depletions exhibited enhanced sodium appetite and mRNA expression for components of the RAAS in areas along the lamina terminalis (LT), a region of the brain that is important for the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, and these effects were significantly attenuated by MK-801 pretreatment. A second set of experiments investigated whether successive sodium depletions would elevate sodium intake and induce a pattern of fos-B staining consistent with the ?fos-B isoform in areas along the LT. The pattern of fos-B staining in the subfornical organ was consistent with the characteristics of ?fos-B expression. Specifically, fos-B/?fos-B expression was increased 4 days after the last of a series of sodium depletions, fos-B/?fos-B expression was nearly absent in control rats, and the quantity of fos-B/?fos-B staining was directly associated with a history of sodium depletions. These findings demonstrate that the sensitization of sodium appetite is associated with sustained molecular alterations in the LT that are indicative of neural plasticity and upregulation of the central RAAS. PMID:25354727

Hurley, Seth W; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan Kim

2014-12-15

161

Lamina Cribrosa Thickening in Early Glaucoma Predicted by a Microstructure Motivated Growth and Remodeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is among the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The ocular disease is characterized by irreversible damage of the retinal ganglion cell axons at the level of the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a porous, connective tissue structure whose function is believed to provide mechanical support to the axons as they exit the eye on their path from the retina to the brain. Early experimental glaucoma studies have shown that the LC remodels into a thicker, more posterior structure which incorporates more connective tissue after intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. The process by which this occurs is unknown. Here we present a microstructure motivated growth and remodeling (G&R) formulation to explore a potential mechanism of these structural changes. We hypothesize that the mechanical strain experienced by the collagen fibrils in the LC stimulates the G&R response at the micro-scale. The proposed G&R algorithm controls collagen fibril synthesis/degradation and adapts the residual strains between collagen fibrils and the surrounding tissue to achieve biomechanical homeostasis. The G&R algorithm was applied to a generic finite element model of the human eye subjected to normal and elevated IOP. The G&R simulation underscores the biomechanical need for a LC at normal IOP. The numerical results suggest that IOP elevation leads to LC thickening due to an increase in collagen fibril mass, which is in good agreement with experimental observations in early glaucoma monkey eyes. This is the first study to demonstrate that a biomechanically-driven G&R mechanism can lead to the LC thickening observed in early experimental glaucoma. PMID:22389541

Grytz, Rafael; Sigal, Ian A.; Ruberti, Jeffrey W.; Meschke, Günther; Downs, J. Crawford

2011-01-01

162

Remodeling of the Connective Tissue Microarchitecture of the Lamina Cribrosa in Early Experimental Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the trabeculated connective tissue microarchitecture of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in terms of total connective tissue volume (CTV), connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), predominant beam orientation, and material anisotropy in monkeys with early experimental glaucoma (EG). Methods The optic nerve heads from three monkeys with unilateral EG and four bilaterally normal monkeys were three dimensionally reconstructed from tissues perfusion fixed at an intraocular pressure of 10 mm Hg. A three-dimensional segmentation algorithm was used to extract a binary, voxel-based representation of the porous LC connective tissue microstructure that was regionalized into 45 subvolumes, and the following quantities were calculated: total CTV within the LC, mean and regional CTVF, regional predominant beam orientation, and mean and regional material anisotropy. Results Regional variation within the laminar microstructure was considerable within the normal eyes of all monkeys. The laminar connective tissue was generally most dense in the central and superior regions for the paired normal eyes, and laminar beams were radially oriented at the periphery for all eyes considered. CTV increased substantially in EG eyes compared with contralateral normal eyes (82%, 44%, 45% increases; P < 0.05), but average CTVF changed little (?7%, 1%, and ?2% in the EG eyes). There were more laminar beams through the thickness of the LC in the EG eyes than in the normal controls (46%, 18%, 17% increases). Conclusions The substantial increase in laminar CTV with little change in CTVF suggests that significant alterations in connective and nonconnective tissue components in the laminar region occur in the early stages of glaucomatous damage. PMID:18806292

Roberts, Michael D.; Grau, Vicente; Grimm, Jonathan; Reynaud, Juan; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

2009-01-01

163

Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure ?-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P?=?0.01) and control eyes (P?=?0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P?=?0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P?=?0.01), and transverse diameter (P?=?0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2014-01-01

164

Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.  

PubMed

The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the LT (OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions, including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and, following a 1-week recovery period, they were subjected to either hypertonic saline administration (0.5 M NaCl, 1 mL/100 g i.p.), 24-h water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating angiotensin II; 50 microg/kg s.c.), heat exposure (39 degrees C for 60 min) or permitted 180 min spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the vlPAG and double-labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration, and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG-projecting neurons, and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J

2009-12-01

165

INVASIVE ANTS Invasive species, those species that demonstrate  

E-print Network

PART IV INVASIVE ANTS Invasive species, those species that demonstrate ecological, environmental own right. Though invasive ants currently comprise ant species, the contribution of these species to understanding ant ecology is dis- proportional to their number. Invasive ants represent

Suarez, Andrew V.

166

Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection in treating gastric subepithelial tumors originating in the muscularis propria layer: a single-center study of 144 cases.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Subepithelial tumors (SETs) in the stomach are usually considered benign. However, some do have potential for malignant transformation, especially when originating in the muscularis propria (MP). Our study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric SETs originating in MP. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 145 gastric MP SETs in 144 patients were treated by ESD between September 2008 and December 2012. Characteristics of patients and SETs, therapeutic outcomes, pathologic characteristics, complications and follow-up outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS. Among the 144 patients, 104 were female (72.22%) and 40 were male (27.78%), and the mean age was 55.75 ± 11.29 years (range 18-78 years). The mean size of the tumors determined by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was 15.14 ± 9.70 mm (range 3-50 mm). En bloc complete resection was achieved in 134 of 145 tumors, giving a complete resection rate of 92.41%. The final histopathologic diagnoses included 52 leiomyomas, 89 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 3 neurogenic tumors and 1 lipoma. Perforations occurred in 21 patients (14.48%) and were endoscopically repaired with clips or nylon bands. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in seven patients (4.83%) and was corrected with argon plasma coagulation (APC) or hot biopsy forceps. No local recurrence or distant metastasis was detected during a mean follow-up of 19.14 ± 10.29 months (range 3-51 months). CONCLUSIONS. ESD appears to be an effective and safe treatment for gastric SETs originating in MP. PMID:24131359

He, Zhankun; Sun, Chao; Wang, Jiang; Zheng, Zhongqing; Yu, Qingxiang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Xin; Liu, Wentian; Wang, Bangmao

2013-12-01

167

Minimally Invasive Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... incisions made. Benefits of minimally invasive surgery Fewer scars on the outside Scars from minimally invasive surgery ... womb) from the vagina into the uterus. Fewer scars on the inside In general, all surgery can ...

168

SFRSF: Invasive Exotic Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) site discusses the problem of invasive exotic species in southern Florida. Topics covered include what invasive species are, where they come from, where they exist at this time, what controls them, their effect on restoration, the use of natural enemies to tame some invasive plants, and what can be done about other invasive animals and plants. There are links provided for additional information.

169

Invasive species in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

170

Invasive Species: Lightning Round!  

E-print Network

Invasive Species: Lightning Round! Dan Gullickson, MnDOT Peter Leete, MN DNR;#12;#12;Metro Ash Tree Inventory Research Project #12;#12;AquaCc Invasive Species Peter Leete #12;AquaFc Invasive Species Minnesota has several state laws intended

Minnesota, University of

171

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

172

Muscle invasive bladder cancer: closing the gap between practice and evidence.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the United States, and will lead to an estimated 15,580 deaths in 2014. Prompted by physical symptoms and signs, most patients will initially present with clinically localized disease. Once bladder cancer invades beyond the muscularis propria, the likelihood of development of metastatic disease increases substantially. Radical cystectomy is potentially curative for muscle-invasive bladder cancer though approximately 50% of patients will develop metastatic recurrence. Two large randomized studies have demonstrated that the use of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy prior to cystectomy improves survival. However, despite the existing level 1 evidence, this approach has been largely underutilized in practice. In this review, we will focus on this disconnect between efficacy and effectiveness and explore possible solutions in an effort to bridge this existing gap. PMID:25424386

Tsao, C K; Liaw, B C; Oh, W K; Galsky, M D

2015-03-01

173

A quantitative study of spinothalamic neurons in laminae I, III, and IV in lumbar and cervical segments of the rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

The major ascending outputs from superficial spinal dorsal horn consist of projection neurons in lamina I, together with neurons in laminae III-IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Some neurons in each of these populations belong to the spinothalamic tract, which conveys nociceptive information via the thalamus to cortical areas involved in pain. A projection from the cervical superficial dorsal horn to the posterior triangular nucleus (PoT) has recently been identified. PoT is at the caudal end of the thalamus and was not included in injection sites in many previous retrograde tracing studies. We have injected various tracers (cholera toxin B subunit, Fluoro-Gold, and fluorescent latex microspheres) into the thalamus to estimate the number of spinothalamic neurons in each of these two populations, and to investigate their projection targets. Most lamina I and lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive spinothalamic neurons in cervical and lumbar segments could be labeled from injections centered on PoT. Our results suggest that there are 90 lamina I spinothalamic neurons per side in C7 and 15 in L4 and that some of those in C7 only project to PoT. We found that 85% of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons in C6 and 17% of those in L5 belong to the spinothalamic tract, and these apparently project exclusively to the caudal thalamus, including PoT. Because PoT projects to second somatosensory and insular cortices, our results suggest that these are major targets for information conveyed by both these populations of spinothalamic neurons. PMID:18720412

Al-Khater, Khulood M; Kerr, Robert; Todd, Andrew J

2008-11-01

174

The interhaemal barrier in the chorioallantoic placenta of the greater mustache bat, Pteronotus parnellii, with observations on amplification of its intrasyncytial lamina.  

PubMed

Chorioallantoic placentae were obtained from a reproductively synchronized wild population of greater mustache bats for ultrastructural and immunocytochemical examination. The single discoidal placenta was always located in a lateral to mesometrial position on the right side of the uterus, which in the non-pregnant state is partially bicornuate. The placenta was labyrinthine and haemodichorial in advanced pregnancy. The interhaemal barrier included syncytiotrophoblast that lined the maternal vascular spaces and an underlying, continuous layer of cytotrophoblast. The barrier also contained a discontinuous extracellular layer, the intrasyncytial lamina, that was usually completely surrounded by syncytiotrophoblast. Two lines of evidence suggest that the intrasyncytial lamina may serve, in part, to strengthen the interhaemal barrier: (1) the lamina became significantly thicker as the maternal vascular channels became larger; and (2) the syncytiotrophoblast in the walls of the smallest vascular tubules expressed only very limited amounts of cytokeratins, normally a major component of the cytoskeleton of cells of epithelial origin, while the cytokeratin-rich cytotrophoblast was often highly attenuated. It was not uncommon to see gaps between the ectoplasmic processes of syncytiotrophoblast which exposed portions of the intrasyncytial lamina to the maternal vascular space. As platelet adhesion was never observed in such areas, the intrasyncytial lamina may be augmented in part by material that is non-thrombogenic. PMID:9699960

Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J

1998-01-01

175

Loss of Function of a Rice brassinosteroid insensitive1 Homolog Prevents Internode Elongation and Bending of the Lamina Joint  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant growth–promoting natural products required for plant growth and development. Physiological studies have demonstrated that exogenous BR, alone or in combination with auxin, enhance bending of the lamina joint of rice. However, little is known about the function of endogenous BR in rice or other grass species. We report here the phenotypical and molecular characterization of a rice dwarf mutant, d61, that is less sensitive to BR compared to the wild type. We cloned a rice gene, OsBRI1, with extensive sequence similarity to that of the Arabidopsis BRI gene, which encodes a putative BR receptor kinase. Linkage analysis showed that the OsBRI1 gene is closely linked to the d61 locus. Single nucleotide substitutions found at different sites of the d61 alleles would give rise to amino acid changes in the corresponding polypeptides. Furthermore, introduction of the entire OsBRI1 coding region, including the 5? and 3? flanking sequences, into d61 plants complemented the mutation to display the wild-type phenotype. Transgenic plants carrying the antisense strand of the OsBRI1 transcript showed similar or even more severe phenotypes than those of the d61 mutants. Our results show that OsBRI1 functions in various growth and developmental processes in rice, including (1) internode elongation, by inducing the formation of the intercalary meristem and the longitudinal elongation of internode cells; (2) bending of the lamina joint; and (3) skotomorphogenesis. PMID:11006334

Yamamuro, Chizuko; Ihara, Yoshihisa; Wu, Xiong; Noguchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

2000-01-01

176

INVASION NOTE Invasion of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in a southern  

E-print Network

of coastal marine habitats and to take early and aggressive action to combat any incipient invasion. Keywords California have been relatively free from the invasion of habitat-altering plants. The invasion of tamariskINVASION NOTE Invasion of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in a southern California salt marsh Christine R

Whitcraft, Christine

177

What is an Invasive Species? Invasion Ecology's terminology problem  

E-print Network

What is an Invasive Species? #12;Invasion Ecology's terminology problem Lockwood text #12;What is an Invasive Species? · Non-native · Capable of surviving without direct help from people (naturalized consequences #12;Why are Invasive Species here? #12;Why are Invasive Species here? · We brought them here

Schweik, Charles M.

178

Invasive Species Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website contains information about Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) projects concerning invasive species in the Pacific Southwest. Native ecosystems in this region are being threatened by invasion of non-native plant and animal species. This project is to detect, monitor, and predict the effect and threat of invasive species on the region. Case studies of particular ecosystems include the Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, Sierra Nevada Mountains, and San Joaquin Valley.

179

A silent invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions mediated by humans have been reported from around the world, and ships’ ballast water has been recognized as the\\u000a main source of marine invaders worldwide. Some invasions have dramatic economic and ecological consequences. On the other\\u000a hand, many invasions especially in the marine realm, can go unnoticed. Here we identify a human mediated, worldwide introduction\\u000a of the hydrozoan species

Maria Pia Miglietta; Harilaos A. Lessios

2009-01-01

180

Invasion of the Whiteflies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As invasive alien species spread, they often displace indigenous species, thus altering ecological communities and adversely affecting agricultural pest management, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. Despite the importance of invasive species, the processes enabling them to become estab...

181

Minimally invasive osteotomies.  

PubMed

As orthopedic surgery continues to head in the direction of less invasive surgical techniques, this article explores the application and evolution of minimally invasive/percutaneous techniques in the surgical correction of hallux valgus deformities. Modern techniques are described and available literature is reviewed. PMID:24878408

Redfern, David; Perera, Anthony Michael

2014-06-01

182

Repeatability of in vivo 3D lamina cribrosa microarchitecture using adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the repeatability of lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture for in vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of healthy, glaucoma suspects, and glaucomatous eyes. Eyes underwent two scans using a prototype adaptive optics spectral domain OCT (AO-SDOCT) device from which LC microarchitecture was semi-automatically segmented. LC segmentations were used to quantify pore and beam structure through several global microarchitecture parameters. Repeatability of LC microarchitecture was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating parameter imprecision. For all but one parameters (pore volume) measurement imprecision was <4.7% of the mean value, indicating good measurement reproducibility. Imprecision ranged between 27.3% and 54.5% of the population standard deviation for each parameter, while there was not a significant effect on imprecision due to disease status, indicating utility in testing for LC structural trends. PMID:24761293

Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X.; Schuman, Joel S.

2014-01-01

183

Development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for glaucoma through understanding and modification of scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissue  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence that the state of ocular connective tissues and their response in glaucomatous disease affects the degree of glaucoma damage. Both experimental and clinical data suggest that improved diagnostic and prognostic information could be derived from assessment of the mechanical responsiveness of the sclera and lamina cribrosa to intraocular pressure (IOP). Controlled mutagenesis of the sclera has produced a mouse strain that is relatively resistant to increased IOP. Alteration of the baseline scleral state could be accomplished through either increased cross-linking of fibrillar components or their reduction. The sclera is a dynamic structure, altering its structure and behavior in response to IOP change. The biochemical pathways that control these responses are fertile areas for new glaucoma treatments. PMID:23535950

Quigley, Harry A.; Cone, Frances E.

2013-01-01

184

Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR) to determine whether lamina dura (LD) and periodontal ligament (PDL) space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16) and in posteriors with sagittal section (17). Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25) and sagittal section (21), while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors.

Prakash, Nimish; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sonawane, Heena V.; Bansal, Neha; Arwade, Reena

2015-01-01

185

Lamina 3D display: projection-type depth-fused display using polarization-encoded depth information.  

PubMed

In order to realize three-dimensional (3D) displays, various multiplexing methods have been proposed to add the depth dimension to two-dimensional scenes. However, most of these methods have faced challenges such as the degradation of viewing qualities, the requirement of complicated equipment, and large amounts of data. In this paper, we further developed our previous concept, polarization distributed depth map, to propose the Lamina 3D display as a method for encoding and reconstructing depth information using the polarization status. By adopting projection optics to the depth encoding system, reconstructed 3D images can be scaled like images of 2D projection displays. 3D reconstruction characteristics of the polarization-encoded images are analyzed with simulation and experiment. The experimental system is also demonstrated to show feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:25401648

Park, Soon-gi; Yoon, Sangcheol; Yeom, Jiwoon; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

2014-10-20

186

Roles of semaphorin-6B and plexin-A2 in lamina-restricted projection of hippocampal mossy fibers.  

PubMed

Hippocampal mossy fibers project preferentially to the proximal-most lamina of the suprapyramidal region of CA3, the stratum lucidum, and proximal-most parts of the infrapyrmidal region of CA3c. Molecular mechanisms that govern the lamina-restricted projection of mossy fibers, however, have not been fully understood. We previously studied functions of neural repellent Semaphorin-6A (Sema6A), a class 6 transmembrane semaphorin, and its receptors, plexin-A2 (PlxnA2) and PlxnA4, in mossy fiber projection and have proposed that PlxnA4-expressing mossy fibers are principally prevented from entering the Sema6A-expressing suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal regions of CA3 but are permitted to grow into proximal parts of the regions, where repulsive activity of Sema6A is competitively suppressed by PlxnA2 (Suto et al., 2007). In the present study we demonstrate that Sema6B, another class 6 transmembrane semaphorin, is expressed in CA3 and repels mossy fibers in a PlxnA4-dependent manner in vitro. In Sema6B-deficient mice several mossy fibers aberrantly project to the stratum radiatum and the stratum oriens. The number of aberrant mossy fibers is increased in Sema6A;Sema6B double knock-out mice, indicating that Sema6A and Sema6B function additively to regulate proper projection of mossy fibers. PlxnA2 does not suppress the Sema6B response, but itself promotes growth of mossy fibers. Based on these results, we propose that the balance between mossy fiber repulsion by Sema6A and Sema6B and attraction by PlxnA2 and unknown molecule(s) prescribes the areas permissive for mossy fibers to innervate. PMID:20484647

Tawarayama, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Suto, Fumikazu; Mitchell, Kevin J; Fujisawa, Hajime

2010-05-19

187

Heterogeneity of silica and glycan-epitope distribution in epidermal idioblast cell walls in Adiantum raddianum laminae.  

PubMed

Laminae of Adiantum raddianum Presl., a fern belonging to the family Pteridaceae, are characterised by the presence of epidermal fibre-like cells under the vascular bundles. These cells were thought to contain silica bodies, but their thickened walls leave no space for intracellular silica suggesting it may actually be deposited within their walls. Using advanced electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis we showed the presence of silica in the cell walls of the fibre-like idioblasts. However, it was specifically localised to the outer layers of the periclinal wall facing the leaf surface, with the thick secondary wall being devoid of silica. Immunocytochemical experiments were performed to ascertain the respective localisation of silica deposition and glycan polymers. Epitopes characteristic for pectic homogalacturonan and the hemicelluloses xyloglucan and mannan were detected in most epidermal walls, including the silica-rich cell wall layers. The monoclonal antibody, LM6, raised against pectic arabinan, labelled the silica-rich primary wall of the epidermal fibre-like cells and the guard cell walls, which were also shown to contain silica. We hypothesise that the silicified outer wall layers of the epidermal fibre-like cells support the lamina during cell expansion prior to secondary wall formation. This implies that silicification does not impede cell elongation. Although our results suggest that pectic arabinan may be implicated in silica deposition, further detailed analyses are needed to confirm this. The combinatorial approach presented here, which allows correlative screening and in situ localisation of silicon and cell wall polysaccharide distribution, shows great potential for future studies. PMID:23430352

Leroux, Olivier; Leroux, Frederic; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; Santos-Silva, Fernanda; Van Loo, Denis; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Bals, Sara; Popper, Zoë A; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto

2013-06-01

188

Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

1991-09-01

189

INVASION NOTE Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book  

E-print Network

influential contributions, however, was his book The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, first and actual rates and scales of marine invasions), fresh waters (Anthony Ricciardi and Hugh MacINVASION NOTE Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book Emili Garci´a-Berthou Received: 13

García-Berthou, Emili

190

ANCHORING FILAMENTS OF THE AMPHIBIAN EPIDERMAL-DERMAL JUNCTION TRAVERSE THE BASAL LAMINA ENTIRELY FROM THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF HEMIDESMOSOMES TO THE DERMIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An electron microscopical study of the epidermal-dermal junction in the axolotl and adult Rana pipiens has been carried out. This shows that filaments of about 12 nm in diameter, known as anchoring filaments, pass from the hemidesmosomes at the base of the epidermal cells across the basal lamina to the dermis. There they may unite to form broader fibres,

JANICE ELLISON; D. R. GARROD

191

Compartments in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis of the rat and their delineation against the outer cerebrospinal fluid-containing space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as tracer, we demonstrate, that — in contrast to other neurohemal regions — the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) is composed of two functionally different divisions. Both parts of the OVLT are endowed with fenestrated capillaries which, however, obviously differ in their permeability for HRP. In one of these portions the neurohemal region remains

Brigitte Krisch; Helmut Leonhardt; Andreas Oksche

1987-01-01

192

The irre cell recognition module (IRM) protein Kirre is required to form the reciprocal synaptic network of L4 neurons in the Drosophila lamina.  

PubMed

Each neuropil module, or cartridge, in the fly's lamina has a fixed complement of cells. Of five types of monopolar cell interneurons, only L4 has collaterals that invade neighboring cartridges. In the proximal lamina, these collaterals form reciprocal synapses with both the L2 of their own cartridge and the L4 collateral branches from two other neighboring cartridges. During synaptogenesis, L4 collaterals strongly express the cell adhesion protein Kirre, a member of the irre cell recognition module (IRM) group of proteins ( Fischbach et al., 2009 , J Neurogenet, 23, 48-67). The authors show by mutant analysis and gene knockdown techniques that L4 neurons develop their lamina collaterals in the absence of this cell adhesion protein. Using electron microscopy (EM), the authors demonstrate, however, that without Kirre protein these L4 collaterals selectively form fewer synapses. The collaterals of L4 neurons of various genotypes reconstructed from serial-section EM revealed that the number of postsynaptic sites was dramatically reduced in the absence of Kirre, almost eliminating any synaptic input to L4 neurons. A significant reduction of presynaptic sites was also detected in kirre(0) mutants and gene knockdown flies using RNA interference. L4 neuron reciprocal synapses are thus almost eliminated. A presynaptic marker, Brp-short(GFP) confirmed these data using confocal microscopy. This study reveals that removing Kirre protein specifically disrupts the functional L4 synaptic network in the Drosophila lamina. PMID:24697410

Lüthy, Kevin; Ahrens, Birgit; Rawal, Shilpa; Lu, Zhiyuan; Tarnogorska, Dorota; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich

2014-01-01

193

The functional and structural border between the CSF-and blood-milieu in the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, subfornical organ, area postrema) of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study continues a previous investigation on the median eminence (EM) (Krisch et al., 1978). In rats with high levels of neurohormones (LHRH, vasopressin) a limited immunohistochemical labeling of perivascular tanycyte processes can be observed surrounding capillaries in the marginal region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and in the inner part of the subfornical organ (SFO). This

B. Krisch; H. Leonhardt; W. Buchheim

1978-01-01

194

Invasive Lionfish Removal  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A scientist from the North Carolina Aquarium removes an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found in coastal North Carolina's hard bottom habitat, to prevent ecological impacts due to its predation and competition with native fishes....

195

Invasion Ecology (Student Edition)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a guide to learning skills for investigating the behaviors on non-native and native species. Studying invaders such as zebra mussels, chestnut blight, purple loosestrife, and Phragmites, you will explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. This Student Edition has three sections: (1) Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species (2) Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies (3) A series of helpful worksheets to guide you through your own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show you how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

196

Invasive and Exotic Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information needed to help identify and control invasive species. Specifically, each species listed has an accompanying photo, information concerning identification, biology, control and management resources. This is an outstanding resource.

0002-11-30

197

Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis  

E-print Network

Invasion Biology Mark A. Davis 2 biology 2 MarkA.DavisInvasionBiology2 1 With the exception of climate change, biological invasions have probably received more attention during the past ten years than on the subject, Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological

Davis, Mark A.

198

The economics of biological invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions are an economic problem. Invasions are typically the intended or unintended consequence of economic activity. They impose real costs on society, and the risk of invasion depends on human behaviour. Effective control of invasions depends on using the right economic instruments and developing the right institutions. The problem has two special features. The first is that the risks

Charles Perrings

2001-01-01

199

Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery.  

PubMed

More surgeons are performing unilateral exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) than ever before. This article reviews the factors that have led to the trend toward less invasive surgery. Discussion includes the history of unilateral exploration for HPT, the advent of magnetic resonance sestamibi imaging, and the development of intraoperative assays for parathyroid hormone. Results of minimally invasive techniques, including radio-guided parathyroidectomy, endoscopic parathyroidectomy, and outpatient parathyroidectomy, also are presented. PMID:11059711

Howe, J R

2000-10-01

200

Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion  

PubMed Central

Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

2011-01-01

201

Quantification of Apoplastic Potassium Content by Elution Analysis of Leaf Lamina Tissue from Pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Argenteum) 1  

PubMed Central

K+ content and concentration within the apoplast of mesophyll tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Argenteum) leaflets were determined using an elution procedure. Following removal of the epidermis, a 1 centimeter (inside diameter) glass cylinder was attached to the exposed mesophyll tissue and filled with 5 millimolar CaCl2 solution (1°C). From time-course curves of cumulative K+ diffusion from the tissue, the amount of K+ of extracellular origin was estimated. Apoplastic K+ contents for leaves from plants cultured in nutrient solution containing 2 or 10 millimolar K+ were found to range from 1 to 4.5 micromoles per gram fresh weight, comprising less than 3% of the total K+ content within the lamina tissue. Assuming an apoplastic solution volume of 0.04 to 0.1 milliliters per gram fresh weight and a Donnan cation exchange capacity of 2.63 micromoles per gram fresh weight (experimentally determined), the K+ concentration within apoplastic solution was estimated at 2.4 to 11.8 millimolar. Net movement of Rb+ label from the extracellular compartment within mesophyll tissue into the symplast was demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments. It was concluded that the mesophyll apoplast in pea has a relatively low capacitance as an ion reservoir. Apoplastic K+ content was found to be highly sensitive to changes in xylem solution concentration. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667794

Long, Jean M.; Widders, Irvin E.

1990-01-01

202

Regions of focal DNA hypermethylation and long-range hypomethylation in colorectal cancer coincide with nuclear lamina–associated domains  

PubMed Central

Extensive changes in DNA methylation are common in cancer and may contribute to oncogenesis through transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes1. Genome-scale studies have yielded important insights into these changes2, 3, 4, 5 but have focused on CpG islands or gene promoters. We used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (bisulfite-seq) to comprehensively profile a primary human colorectal tumor and adjacent normal colon tissue at single-basepair resolution. Regions of focal hypermethylation in the tumor were located primarily at CpG islands and were concentrated within regions of long-range (>100 kb) hypomethylation. These hypomethylated domains covered nearly half of the genome and coincided with late replication and attachment to the nuclear lamina in human cell lines. We confirmed the confluence of hypermethylation and hypomethylation within these domains in 25 diverse colorectal tumors and matched adjacent tissue. We propose that widespread DNA methylation changes in cancer are linked to silencing programs orchestrated by the three-dimensional organization of chromatin within the nucleus. PMID:22120008

Berman, Benjamin P; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Aman, Joseph F; Hinoue, Toshinori; Ramjan, Zachary; Liu, Yaping; Noushmehr, Houtan; Lange, Christopher P E; van Dijk, Cornelis M; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van Den Berg, David; Laird, Peter W

2015-01-01

203

Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

1998-03-01

204

Coastal Ecosystem Science: Alien Invasion!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the broad concept of invasive species. Students prepare a written case study on an invasive aquatic species, followed by an oral presentation. They will define, compare, and contrast invasive species, alien species, and native species, describe at least three problems that may be associated with invasive species, and describe at least three invasive species, explain how they came to be invasive, and discuss what can be done about them. The lesson plan provides a list of possible species to choose from, and information about their introduction, impact, and control. Suggestions for extensions are also provided.

205

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Efforts to minimize the incision, extent of exploration, length of hospital stay, and cost associated with parathyroidectomy have resulted in the development of a number of new surgical techniques, including minimally invasive, "concise," radio-guided, and endoscopic parathyroid exploration. With minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, a small incision is used in combination with a cervical block and sedation to perform a unilateral neck exploration. In so doing, risks of bilateral neck exploration are avoided, and the procedure can be done on an outpatient basis. This minimally invasive strategy has been shown to maintain the outstanding success of conventional bilateral neck exploration. All of the new surgical techniques necessitate pre-operative localization, which allows for unilateral neck exploration, and are facilitated by use of the intra-operative parathyroid hormone assay, which provides surgeons with feedback in the operating room regarding whether the patient has undergone adequate resection. PMID:12946483

Sosa, Julie Ann; Udelsman, Robert

2003-08-01

206

Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery.  

PubMed

Several minimally invasive procedures have been described over the past 3 years for the treatment of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These techniques (totally endoscopic, video assisted and radio guided) have been demonstrated to be feasible and safe, but the surgeon should be well trained to obtain the best results with these approaches. Not all patients are eligible for minimally invasive procedures. The results are comparable to those of conventional surgery with advantages in terms of cosmetic result and reduced post-operative pain. These procedures should be considered to be a valid option by surgeons dealing with patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:11472030

Miccoli, P; Berti, P

2001-06-01

207

Elec 331 -Minimally Invasive Surgery Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 1 Minimally Invasive Surgery · Small incision ­ Low risk surgery ­ Laparoscopic surgery ­ Arthroscopic surgery Instruments Laparoscope / Arthroscope Trocar Forceps / Scissors Elevator / Retractor Stapler #12;Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 2 Instrument Types · Trocar

Pulfrey, David L.

208

Four cell types with distinctive membrane properties and morphologies in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn of the adult rat  

PubMed Central

Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in the processing and relay of nociceptive information. Signal processing depends, in part, on neuronal membrane properties. Intrinsic membrane properties of lamina I neurons were therefore investigated using whole cell patch clamp recordings in a slice preparation of adult rat spinal cord. Based on responses to somatic current injection, four cell types were identified: tonic, which fire comparatively slowly but continuously throughout stimulation; phasic, which fire a high frequency burst of variable duration; delayed onset, which fire irregularly and with a marked delay to the first spike; and single spike, which typically fire only one action potential even when strongly depolarised. Classification by spiking pattern was further refined by identification of characteristic stimulus-response curves and quantification of several response parameters. Objectivity of the classification was confirmed by cluster analysis. Responses to stimulus trains and synaptic input as well as the kinetics of spontaneous synaptic events revealed differences in the signal processing characteristics of the cell types: tonic and delayed onset cells appeared to act predominantly as integrators whereas phasic and single spike cells acted as coincidence detectors. Intracellular labelling revealed a significant correlation between morphological and physiological cell types: tonic cells were typically fusiform, phasic cells were pyramidal, and delayed onset and single spike cells were multipolar. Thus, there are multiple physiological cells types in lamina I with specific morphological correlates and distinctive signal processing characteristics that confer significant differences in the transduction of input into spike trains. PMID:11897852

Prescott, Steven A; Koninck, Yves De

2002-01-01

209

INTRODUCTION Weed invasion hypotheses  

E-print Network

) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus STEEN OLE HANSEN1 , JAN HATTENDORF1 the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became an invasive weed which created major hogweed (Caucasus) and were compared to those found on plants in

Richner, Heinz

210

Plants & Animals Invasive Species  

E-print Network

See Also: Plants & Animals Invasive Species Insects (and Butterflies) Evolutionary Biology Earth) for S. invicta; and Garret Suen and Cameron Currie (University of Wisconsin-Madison) for A. cephalotes, guaranteed results! SwissFrenchSchool.ch AFM Tips by NanoAndMore AFM Tips For Any Application. Fast Delivery

Alvarez, Nadir

211

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

212

Invasive Spiny Water Flea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An invasive species, the spiny water flea, is likely a primary driver of changes in Lake Huron's food web over the past decade. Recent USGS research suggests that consumption of prey by invertebrates is outweighing consumption by fish in Lake Huron, and one invertebrate in particular – the in...

213

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

Christine P. Villano

2011-01-01

214

Global Invasive Species Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Invasive Species Database was developed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), an international group of 100+ scientific and policy experts with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The entry page of the Website offers background information on invasive species and instructions on how to use the database. A section entitled 100 of the worst (ranging from Rat to Purple Loosestrife) gives viewers an idea of the type of information that will be included in the database, both in terms of expected detail and organizational structure of the database. Types of information provided for each species include Ecology, Distribution, Habitat Matches, References, and Contacts. In addition, a Predictive feature allows viewers to predict the expansion of invasive species, and the Early Warning System matches habitats that the species has already invaded with "other similar habitats around the world." Although still under construction, this database should be a powerful tool for researchers and educators, once completed.

215

Invasive Lionfish Removal  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Research divers rest at 20 feet as they ascend with a dive bag containing invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans). The bag is clipped to a line to prevent them being stung by the lionfish as its bladder fills with air during the ascent. These lionfish were removed from hard bottom habitat, about 10...

216

Aquatic invasive species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

Thorsteinson, Lyman

2005-01-01

217

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: ? Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species ? Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies ? A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Marianne E. Krasny

2003-01-01

218

Invasive Species Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

species · What is the difference between exotic, non-indigenous, non-native, alien, nuisance, and invasive (plant, animal, microbe) living beyond historic native range · ­ Any species including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species that is not native

Gottgens, Hans

219

Spine: Minimally Invasive Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive spine surgery decompression, arthrodesis, and instrumentation techniques are now being applied in a wide variety of percutaneous, laparoscopic and minimal access procedures. There is currently little longitudinal long-term data on these procedures to document their efficacy, indications, limitations or complications as compared to standard open techniques. Further complicating such direct comparisons is that widely used spine outcomes instruments

P. Gerszten; W. Welch

2006-01-01

220

National Invasive Species Management Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.

2000-01-01

221

Invasive Species Impacts Exam Review  

E-print Network

is in the eye of the beholder #12;Plant competition experiments #12;Invasive plants are good competitors Based on a meta-analysis of plant competition experiments: ­ Competition from native plants reduces invasive plant biomass by ~18% ­ Competition from invasive plants reduces native plant biomass by ~47% Vila & Weiner

Schweik, Charles M.

222

Risk Assessment for Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although estimates vary, there is a broad agreement that invasive species impose major costs on the U.S. economy, as well as posing risks to nonmarket environmental goods and services and to public health. The domestic effort to manage risks associated with invasive species is coordinated by the National Invasive Species Council (NISC), which is charged with devel- oping a science-based

Mark C. Andersen; Heather Adams; Bruce Hope; Mark Powell

2004-01-01

223

Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.

2006-01-01

224

Evolutionary genetics of invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary genetics of invasive species has been relatively unexplored, but could offer insights into mechanisms of invasions. Recent studies suggest that the invasion success of many species might depend more heavily on their ability to respond to natural selection than on broad physiological tolerance or plasticity. Thus, these studies stress the importance of genetic architecture, selection upon which could

Carol Eunmi Lee

2002-01-01

225

Correlation between Local Stress and Strain and Lamina Cribrosa Connective Tissue Volume Fraction in Normal Monkey Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the biomechanical response to IOP elevation of normal monkey eyes using eye-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) models of the ONH that incorporate lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitectural information. Methods. A serial sectioning and episcopic imaging technique was used to reconstruct the ONH and peripapillary sclera of four pairs of eyes fixed at 10 mm Hg. FE models were generated with local LC material properties representing the connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) and predominant LC beam orientation and used to simulate an increase in IOP from 10 to 45 mm Hg. An LC material stiffness constant was varied to assess its influence on biomechanical response. Results. Strains and stresses within contralateral eyes were remarkably similar in both magnitude and distribution. Strain correlated inversely, and nonlinearly, with CTVF (median, r 2 = 0.73), with tensile strains largest in the temporal region. Stress correlated linearly with CTVF (median r2 = 0.63), with the central and superior regions bearing the highest stresses. Net average LC displacement was either posterior or anterior, depending on whether the laminar material properties were compliant or stiff. Conclusions. The results show that contralateral eyes exhibit similar mechanical behavior and suggest that local mechanical stress and strain within the LC are correlate highly with local laminar CTVF. These simulations emphasize the importance of developing both high-resolution imaging of the LC microarchitecture and next-generation, deep-scanning OCT techniques to clarify the relationships between IOP-related LC displacement and CTVF-related stress and strain in the LC. Such imaging may predict sites of IOP-related damage in glaucoma. PMID:19696175

Roberts, Michael D.; Liang, Yi; Sigal, Ian A.; Grimm, Jonathan; Reynaud, Juan; Bellezza, Anthony; Burgoyne, Claude F.

2010-01-01

226

Correlation between Lamina Cribrosa Tilt Angles, Myopia and Glaucoma Using OCT with a Wide Bandwidth Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser  

PubMed Central

Purpose To measure horizontal and vertical lamina cribrosa (LC) tilt angles and investigate associated factors using prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a broad wavelength laser light source. Design Cross sectional study. Methods Twenty-eight no glaucoma eyes (from 15 subjects) and 25 glaucoma eyes (from 14 patients) were enrolled. A total of 300 optic nerve head B-scans were obtained in 10 µm steps and the inner edge of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) was identified as the reference plane. The vertical and horizontal angles between BMO line and approximate the best-fitting line for the surface of the LC were measured and potential associated factors were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The median (interquartile range) horizontal and vertical tilt angles were 7.10 (2.43–11.45) degrees and 4.15 (2.60–6.85) degrees in eyes without glaucoma and 8.50 (4.40–14.10) degrees and 9.30 (6.90–14.15) degrees in glaucoma eyes, respectively. The refractive errors had a statistically significant association with horizontal LC tilt angles (coefficients, ?1.53 per diopter) and glaucoma had a significant correlation with vertical tilt angles (coefficients, 6.56) using multiple logistic regression analysis (p<0.001). Conclusions OCT allowed evaluation of the internal tilting of the LC compared with the BMO. The horizontal internal LC tilt angle was correlated with refractive errors, corresponding to myopic physiological changes, and vertical internal LC tilt was correlated with glaucoma, corresponding to glaucomatous pathological changes. These parameters have important implications for investigation of the correlation between myopia, glaucoma and LC morphological features. PMID:25551632

Shoji, Takuhei; Kuroda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Masayuki; Baba, Motoyoshi; Hangai, Masanori; Araie, Makoto; Yoneya, Shin

2014-01-01

227

The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the Opitz syndrome gene, madd-2/Mid1, regulates anchor cell invasion during vulval development.  

PubMed

Mutations in the human Mid1 gene cause Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which is characterized by various midline closure defects. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Mid1, madd-2, positively regulates signaling by the unc-40 Netrin receptor during the extension of muscle arms to the midline and in axon guidance and branching. During uterine development, a specialized cell called anchor cell (AC) breaches the basal laminae separating the uterus from the epidermis and invades the underlying vulval tissue. AC invasion is guided by an UNC-6 Netrin signal from the ventral nerve cord and an unknown guidance signal from the vulval cells. Using genetic epistasis analysis, we show that madd-2 regulates AC invasion downstream of or in parallel with the Netrin signaling pathway. Measurements of AC shape, polarity and dynamics indicate that MADD-2 prevents the formation of ectopic AC protrusions in the absence of guidance signals. We propose that MADD-2 represses the intrinsic invasive capacity of the AC, while the Netrin and vulval guidance cues locally overcome this inhibitory activity of MADD-2 to guide the AC ventrally into the vulval tissue. Therefore, developmental cell invasion depends on a precise balance between pro- and anti-invasive factors. PMID:23201576

Morf, Matthias K; Rimann, Ivo; Alexander, Mariam; Roy, Peter; Hajnal, Alex

2013-02-01

228

Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects bee (Apis mellifera: Apidae), an invasive species which has become naturalized on all of the main

Silver, Whendee

229

Understanding Invasion Ecology: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a single species of insect pose a threat to millions of acres of forests, orchards, and street trees? What can we do about the Asian longhorned beetle and other plants and animals that invade our farms, cities, and forests? The study of ecology helps us to find answers to these questions. Through applying ecological principles and conducting research, scientists are learning to manage invasive species. Students can learn alongside the scientists and, in some cases, help them. This chapter defines the term invasive species using a variety of examples--such as the Asian longhorned beetle and Chestnut Blight--and discusses their ecological implications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

230

USGS invasive species solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

Simpson, Annie

2011-01-01

231

One-Stage Resection of Giant Invasive Thoracic Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Schwannomas comprise approximately 25% of all spinal tumors, being the third most frequent soft-tissue tumor after hemangiomas and lipomas. Grade 5 invasive giant schwannomas erode the vertebral bodies, involve 2 or more levels, and invade the myofascial planes. Because 3 compartments are involved, these tumors represent a surgical challenge and frequently require staged surgeries with a multidisciplinary surgical team. Case Report We report the case of a 62-year-old female who presented with intermittent upper back pain for 3 years. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thoracic spine showed a mass invading the vertebral body, pedicle, and lamina of T4 and part of T3 and T5. Needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient underwent surgery using a parascapular extracavitary costotransversectomy approach. Conclusion Giant invasive spinal schwannomas are rare in the thoracic spine, and surgical approaches usually have entailed multiple-stage surgeries with the assistance of other surgical specialties. Our 1-stage complete surgical resection of a giant invasive spinal schwannoma used a parascapular costotransversectomy approach that maintained spinal stability and thus avoided the need for instrumentation. PMID:24688347

Valle-Giler, Edison P.; Garces, Juanita; Smith, Roger D.; Sulaiman, Wale A. R.

2014-01-01

232

Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests  

EPA Science Inventory

On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

233

Sox9 and Sox8 are required for basal lamina integrity of testis cords and for suppression of FOXL2 during embryonic testis development in mice.  

PubMed

The sex-determining gene Sry and its target gene Sox9 initiate the early steps of testis development in mammals. Of the related Sox genes Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10, all expressed during Sertoli cell differentiation, only inactivation of Sox9 before the sex determination stage at Embryonic Day 11.5 (E11.5) causes XY sex reversal, while Sox9 inactivation after this stage has no effect on testis cord differentiation. We have previously shown that both Sox9 and Sox8 are essential for maintaining testicular function in post-E14.0 Sertoli cells. To gain insight into the molecular and cellular processes underlying the abnormal development of Sox9 and Sox8 mutant testes, we performed a detailed developmental study of embryonic and neonatal stages. We observe a progressive disruption of the basal lamina surrounding the testis cords that starts at E17.5 and already at E15.5 reduced expression levels of collagen IV, collagen IXa3 and testatin, structural components of the basal lamina, and the extracellular matrix transcriptional regulator Scleraxis. Lineage tracing reveals that mutant Sertoli cells delaminate from testis cords and are present as isolated cells between remaining cords. Also, Sox10 expression is strongly reduced in the absence of Sox9 and/or Sox8. Finally, we document increasing expression of the ovarian marker FOXL2 in mutant cords starting at E15.5, indicating progressive transdifferentiation of mutant Sertoli cells. This study shows that Sox9 and Sox8 maintain integrity of the basal lamina to prevent testis cord disintegration and that both factors actively suppress the ovarian program during early testis development. PMID:22837482

Georg, Ina; Barrionuevo, Francisco; Wiech, Thorsten; Scherer, Gerd

2012-10-01

234

Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate a massive lamina reticularis.  

PubMed

In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10 ?m) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an ?6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23834951

Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C

2013-09-01

235

Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT. PMID:21747851

Starker, Lee F.; Fonseca, Annabelle L.; Carling, Tobias; Udelsman, Robert

2011-01-01

236

Invasive hemodynamic monitoring.  

PubMed

Although invasive hemodynamic monitoring requires considerable skill, studies have shown a striking lack of knowledge of the measurements obtained with the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). This article reviews monitoring using a PAC. Issues addressed include basic physiology that determines cardiac output and blood pressure; methodology in the measurement of data obtained from a PAC; use of the PAC in making a diagnosis and for patient management, with emphasis on a responsive approach to management; and uses of the PAC that are not indications by themselves for placing the catheter, but can provide useful information when a PAC is in place. PMID:25435479

Magder, Sheldon

2015-01-01

237

EXOTIC INVASIVE PLANTS IN KENTUCKY.  

E-print Network

??Invasion of exotic species is a significant problem in natural ecosystems, reaching epidemic proportions and resulting in significant economic losses. However, insufficient knowledge of explicit… (more)

Liang, Yu

2010-01-01

238

Malignant cancer and invasive placentation  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

2014-01-01

239

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade?  

E-print Network

Why do Invasive Species Successfully Establish & Invade? #12;Many are introduced, few become invasive #12;Hypotheses about why invaders succeed: 1. Invasive species have traits that favor establishment and spread 2. Invasive species are released from enemies 3. Invasive species exploit empty niches

Schweik, Charles M.

240

Global Patterns of Plant Invasions and the Concept of Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a simple model, I show that comparisons of invasibility between regions are impossible to make unless one can control for all of the variables besides invasibility that influence exotic richness, including the rates of immigration of species and the char- acteristics of the invading species themselves. Using data from the literature for 184 sites around the world, I found

W. M. Lonsdale

1999-01-01

241

Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

242

Managing the invasive species risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not mea...

243

A keratoacanthoma with venous invasion  

PubMed Central

Keratoacanthomas are variously regarded as a self-limiting variant of squamous cell carcinoma or as a distinct benign lesion and they very seldom show attributes normally associated with malignant behaviour, such as perineural invasion. Herein we report the case of a keratoacanthoma with venous invasion proven by immunoperoxidase and elastic tissue stains. PMID:23785617

Tschandl, Philipp; Rosendahl, Cliff; Williamson, Richard; Weedon, David

2012-01-01

244

MEDUSAHEAD INVASION, IMPLICATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medusahead invasion of western rangelands is at a cross-road, either an aggressive effort to prevent its invasion of new areas is initiated, or millions of acres will be lost. Medusahead is an aggressive, exotic, annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. The rapid spread of me...

245

Contents________________________________________________ Chapter 1: Fire and Nonnative Invasive  

E-print Network

Invasive Plants--Introduction ................................................1 by Jane Kapler Smith of This Volume..........................5 Chapter 2: Effects of Fire on Nonnative Invasive Plants........................................18 Influence of Fire Season and Plant Phenology on Postfire Invasions.............................18

246

78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The...

2013-11-25

247

75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

2010-05-25

248

75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

2010-11-15

249

78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document...45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

2013-02-20

250

76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

2011-11-07

251

Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess our outcomes after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE). Summary Background Data: Esophagectomy has traditionally been performed by open methods. Results from most series include mortality rates in excess of 5% and hospital stays frequently greater than 10 days. MIE has the potential to improve these results, but only a few small series have been reported. This report summarizes our experience of 222 cases. Methods: From 1996 to 2002, MIE was performed in 222 patients. Indications for operation included high-grade dysplasia (n = 47) and cancer (n = 175). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used in 78 (35.1%) and radiation in 36 (16.2%). Initially, a laparoscopic transhiatal approach was used (n = 8), but subsequently our approach evolved to include thoracoscopic mobilization (n = 214). Results: There were 186 men and 36 women. Median age was 66.5 years (range, 39–89). Nonemergent conversion to open procedure was required in 16 patients (7.2%). MIE was successfully completed in 206 (92.8%) patients. The median intensive care unit stay was 1 day (range, 1–30); hospital stay was 7 days (range, 3–75). Operative mortality was 1.4% (n = 3). Anastomotic leak rate was 11.7% (n = 26). At a mean follow-up of 19 months (range, 1–68), quality of life scores were similar to preoperative values and population norms. Stage specific survival was similar to open series Conclusions: MIE offers results as good as or better than open operation in our center with extensive minimally invasive and open experience. In this single institution experience, we observed a lower mortality rate (1.4%) and shorter hospital stay (7 days) than most open series. Given these results, we are now developing an intergroup trial (ECOG 2202) to assess MIE in a multicenter setting. PMID:14530720

Luketich, James D.; Alvelo-Rivera, Miguel; Buenaventura, Percival O.; Christie, Neil A.; McCaughan, James S.; Litle, Virginia R.; Schauer, Philip R.; Close, John M.; Fernando, Hiran C.

2003-01-01

252

Mechanisms of local invasion in enteroendocrine tumors: Identification of novel candidate cytoskeleton-associated proteins in an experimental mouse model by a proteomic approach and validation in human tumors.  

PubMed

Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are defined as locally invasive only after extension to the muscularis propria. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms, we applied a proteomic approach to an orthotopic xenograft model to identify candidate proteins evaluable in human SI-NETs. After grafting STC-1 neuroendocrine tumor cells on the caecum of nude mice, comparative proteomic studies were performed between the pre-invasive and the invasive stages, respectively 2 and 8 weeks after grafting. We identified 24 proteins displaying at least a 1.5-fold differential expression between 2 and 8 week-stages. Most were cytoskeleton-associated proteins, among which five showed decreasing expression levels (CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2, vimentin, desmin) and two increasing expression levels (14-3-3?, CK8). Changes for CRMP2, TCP1?, TPM2 and 14-3-3? were confirmed in experimental tumors and in a series of 28 human SI-NETs. In conclusion, our results underline the relevance of proteomics to identify novel biomarkers of tissue invasion. PMID:25224486

Couderc, Christophe; Bollard, Julien; Couté, Yohann; Massoma, Patrick; Poncet, Gilles; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Gadot, Nicolas; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Roche, Colette

2015-01-01

253

Integrated assessment of biological invasions.  

PubMed

As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions. PMID:24640532

Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

2014-01-01

254

Invasive meningococcal disease.  

PubMed

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both) and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT) in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected. PMID:24141498

Strelow, Vanessa L; Vidal, Jose E

2013-09-01

255

Invasion of the zebra mussel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zebra mussels were brought to North America in the ballast water of ships. Since 1988, the zebra mussels have pushed native freshwater mussels to near-extinction. The zebra mussel invasion is a great example of time delays.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-08

256

Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

257

Invasion of Nile Perch in  

E-print Network

Invasion of Nile Perch in Lake Victoria #12;Lake Victoria Haplochromine cichlids !800 species !Lake Victoria !Lake Malawi !Fast radiation... #12;Nile perch (Lates niloticus) #12;Nile perch (introduced

Gottgens, Hans

258

Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils. PMID:22444727

Chapman, E Emily V; Hedrei Helmer, Stephanie; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

2012-06-01

259

Biological Invasions by Marine Jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparatively little research has been conducted on the ecology of invasive organisms in marine ecosystems when balanced against\\u000a their terrestrial counterparts (Carlton and Geller 1993). Perhaps rates of invasions in marine systems are simply lower than\\u000a in other systems, but more likely lack of scrutiny, difficulty with taxonomic resolution, and unusual life-history characters\\u000a of marine organisms cause the vast majority

William M. Graham; Keith M. Bayha

260

Integrins anchor the invasive machinery.  

PubMed

Cell invasion through the basement membrane, a process important for both development and disease pathogenesis, depends on an interplay of adhesive, force transducing, proteolytic, and chemotactic machineries. The mechanisms whereby these different processes are integrated on the cellular level have remained elusive. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Sherwood and coworkers now identify integrins as integration platforms for a specialized invasive membrane domain in C. elegans. PMID:19686676

Wickström, Sara A; Fässler, Reinhard

2009-08-01

261

Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species  

E-print Network

character- istics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species. ­ Preslia inva- sive and naturalized non-invasive neophytes. Species were sampled and seed collected in the field or in the laboratory. Invasive species significantly differ from naturalized non-invasive species in propagule length

Kratochvíl, Lukas

262

Wet-dry seasonal variations of hydrochemistry and carbonate precipitation rates in a travertine-depositing canal at Baishuitai, Yunnan, SW China: Implications for the formation of biannual laminae in travertine and for climatic reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biannually laminated freshwater carbonate deposits (tufas and travertines) are potential sources of high-resolution terrestrial paleoclimate data. In order to understand the processes of carbonate precipitation, the formation of the biannual laminae in endogenic (thermogene) travertine, and the characteristics of the climate information recorded in them, the seasonal variations of hydrochemistry and carbonate precipitation rates in a travertine-depositing canal at Baishuitai,

Zaihua Liu; Hailong Sun; Lu Baoying; Liu Xiangling; Ye Wenbing; Zeng Cheng

2010-01-01

263

Increased Leaf Angle1, a Raf-Like MAPKKK That Interacts with a Nuclear Protein Family, Regulates Mechanical Tissue Formation in the Lamina Joint of Rice[C][W  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), which function at the top level of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, are clustered into three groups. However, no Group C Raf-like MAPKKKs have yet been functionally identified. We report here the characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, increased leaf angle1 (ila1), resulting from a T-DNA insertion in a Group C MAPKKK gene. The increased leaf angle in ila1 is caused by abnormal vascular bundle formation and cell wall composition in the leaf lamina joint, as distinct from the mechanism observed in brassinosteroid-related mutants. Phosphorylation assays revealed that ILA1 is a functional kinase with Ser/Thr kinase activity. ILA1 is predominantly resident in the nucleus and expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf lamina joints. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified six closely related ILA1 interacting proteins (IIPs) of unknown function. Using representative IIPs, the interaction of ILA1 and IIPs was confirmed in vivo. IIPs were localized in the nucleus and showed transactivation activity. Furthermore, ILA1 could phosphorylate IIP4, indicating that IIPs may be the downstream substrates of ILA1. Microarray analyses of leaf lamina joints provided additional evidence for alterations in mechanical strength in ila1. ILA1 is thus a key factor regulating mechanical tissue formation at the leaf lamina joint. PMID:22207574

Ning, Jing; Zhang, Baocai; Wang, Nili; Zhou, Yihua; Xiong, Lizhong

2011-01-01

264

Minimally-invasive parathyroid surgery.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, several techniques for minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy have been developed, including open approaches (open minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy - OMI P), minimally-invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MI-RP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy through a lateral approach (VAP-LA) and purely endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP). We have reviewed the pertinent literature, analyzing the indications, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques. Even if the field of minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy is heterogeneous, there is some evidence that minimally-invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy (MIVAP) should be preferred over OMIP for better cosmetic outcomes, improved visualization of neck structures and control of pain. There is also low-level evidence that MIVAP has some advantages over other purely endoscopic procedures for parathyroidectomy and VAP-LA, in terms of technical difficulties, in addition to the possibility to perform bilateral exploration and associated procedures on the thyroid gland. While the data on medium-term results are encouraging, longer follow-up times are still needed to confirm its safety and rate of cure with respect to conventional surgery. It has been demonstrated that MIVAP is also feasible in secondary and familial hyperparathyroidism, although no conclusive data are available. PMID:22065831

Bellantone, R; Raffaelli, M; DE Crea, C; Traini, E; Lombardi, C P

2011-08-01

265

Intravital imaging and cell invasion.  

PubMed

The main cause of cancer treatment failure is the invasion of normal tissues by cancer cells that have migrated from a primary tumor. An important obstacle to understanding cancer invasion has been the inability to acquire detailed, direct observations of the process over time in a living system. Intravital imaging, and the rodent dorsal skinfold window chamber in particular, were developed several decades ago to address this need. However, it is just recently, with the advent of sophisticated new imaging systems such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy together with the development of a wide range of fluorescent cellular and intracellular markers, that intravital methods and the window chamber have acquired powerful new potential for the study of cancer cell invasion. Moreover, the interaction of various cell signaling pathways with the integrin class of cell surface receptors has increasingly been shown to play a key role in cancer invasion. The window chamber in combination with integrin-knockout rodent models, integrin-deficient tumor cell lines, and integrin antagonists, allows real-time observation of integrin-mediated cancer invasion and angiogenesis. The present review outlines the history, uses, and recent methods of the rodent dorsal skinfold window chamber. The introduction of labeled tumor cells into the chamber is described, and imaging of tumors and angiogenic vessels within chambers using standard brightfield, confocal, and multiphoton microscopy is discussed in detail, along with the presentation of sample images. PMID:17697892

Makale, Milan

2007-01-01

266

Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

2014-05-01

267

Mastering temporary invasive cardiac pacing.  

PubMed

Competent management of patients with an invasive temporary pacemaker is an important skill for nurses who provide care for critically ill patients with cardiac disease. Such management requires familiarity with normal cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, conduction system defects, and rhythm interpretation. With an understanding of the basic concepts of rate, output, chambers, sensitivity, and capture, pacing can be done with ease. Care of patients with a temporary invasive pacemaker requires monitoring cardiac tissue and hemodynamic status, observing for changes that would indicate the need for modifications in the pacemaker settings. Nursing interventions include physical assessment, care of the insertion site, routine threshold testing, and management of the pulse generator. PMID:15206293

Overbay, Devorah; Criddle, Laura

2004-06-01

268

A functional trait perspective on plant invasion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

269

77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause...Northwest. A ``systems thinking'' approach to this meeting in both ecological and...invasive species issues at the community and ecosystem level; or that, (2)...

2012-04-20

270

Desmosomal Adhesion Inhibits Invasive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of human disease and transgenic animal experiments have clearly demonstrated the importance of desmosomes in normal tissue architecture. Furthermore, desmosomal components are down-regulated in certain types of carcinomas, suggesting a possible role for desmosomes in suppression of invasion and metastasis. However, there is no functional evidence to support such a hypothesis. To obtain such evidence, we needed to

Chris Tselepis; Martyn Chidgey; Alison North; David Garrod

1998-01-01

271

Non-invasive Wet Electrocochleography  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect electrocochleographic (ECochG) potentials generated by the cochlea in response to auditory stimuli, either transtympanic or tympanic\\/extratympanic electrodes are currently used. The first are invasive, while the second are arranged in contact or very close to the tympanic membrane (TM). To avoid the discomfort and the risks inherent to the application of such conventional electrodes, this Letter presents an

Serena Migliorini

2009-01-01

272

ORIGINAL PAPER A silent invasion  

E-print Network

.V. 2008 Abstract Invasions mediated by humans have been reported from around the world, and ships' ballast survive through long journeys in cargo ships and ballast waters. We have identified a clade reported from around the world, and ships' ballast water has been recognized as the main source of marine

Bermingham, Eldredge

273

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

274

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

275

Locally Invasive Primary Splenic Angiosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is a very rare vascular neoplasm, but it represents the most common non-hematolymphoid malignant tumor of the spleen. In this report, we present the case of a 48-year-old man with primary splenic angiosarcoma with local invasion to the left diaphragm and the radiological imaging findings for this cancer.

Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik; Metin, Duygu Yegul; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Havan, Nuri

2010-01-01

276

Water use by invasive eastern  

E-print Network

Water use by invasive eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the Nebraska Sandhills David Wedin semi-arid regions (GLACE et al. 2004). #12;Research by Awada/Wedin group on physiology and water use and season of water uptake by trees and grasses (stable isotopes) 3. Tree and stand-level transpiration

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

277

Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Plant Invasions  

E-print Network

. Parrent,4 Matthias C. Rillig,5 and John N. Klironomos6 1 Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and this symbiosis deserves more attention in plant invasion biology. 699 Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst.2009. However, to craft an effective management plan, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved

Pringle, Anne

278

Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success  

PubMed Central

Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.?sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.?× bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F.?sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F.?sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F.?japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

2014-01-01

279

Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

280

Minimally invasive surgery in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been one of the most important developments in surgery in the last century. By reducing the incision to small puncture wounds, morbidity, pain, adhesions and scarring are reduced. Due to their small size, neonates have not benefited from the advances in endoscopic surgery as rapidly as their adult counterparts. In the last 5 years, miniaturization

Keith Georgeson

2003-01-01

281

Non-Invasive Intracranial Pulse Wave Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive physiological monitors are important subsystems of intensive care infor- matic systems. New innovative information methods and technology are presented for non-invasive human brain volumetric pulse wave physiological monitoring. Experimental study of a new, non-invasive ultrasonic intracranial pulse wave monitoring tech- nology show the reactions of non-invasively recorded intracranial blood volume pulse waves (IB- VPW) on healthy volunteers in different

Arminas Ragauskas; Gediminas Daubaris; Vytautas Petkus; Romanas Chomskis; Renaldas Raisutis; Vytautas Deksnys; Jonas Guzaitis; Gintautas Lengvinas; Vaidas Matijosaitis

2008-01-01

282

Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Research Station  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Working GroupRocky Mountain Research Station Contents RMRS Invasive Species Research Program.......................................2 Common themes of RMRS invasive species research ...................3 RMRS Invasive Species Research Priorities and Future Direction....3 Summary of Taxa

283

Phenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by Altering Fitness Surface  

E-print Network

Phenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by Altering Fitness Surface Scott D. Peacor1, Michigan, United States of America Understanding species invasion is a central problem in ecology because invasions of exotic species severely impact ecosystems, and because invasions underlie fundamental

284

Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may contribute to favourable conditions for heightened plant invasion

D. Lemke; C. J. Schweitzer; I. A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J. A. Brown

2012-01-01

285

center for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE)  

E-print Network

, educational programs and treatment activities with a goal of eradicating noxious non-native plant speciescenter for invasive species eradication The Center for Invasive Species Eradication (CISE invasive species threats to Texas' aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Invasive species are affecting aquatic

286

Influence of Lamina Terminalis Fenestration on the Occurrence of the Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:16479076

Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

2006-01-01

287

Cholinergic Partition Cells and Lamina X Neurons Induce a Muscarinic-Dependent Short-Term Potentiation of Commissural Glutamatergic Inputs in Lumbar Motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine and the activation of muscarinic receptors influence the activity of neural networks generating locomotor behavior in the mammalian spinal cord. Using electrical stimulations of the ventral commissure, we show that commissural muscarinic (CM) depolarizations could be induced in lumbar motoneurons. We provide a detailed electrophysiological characterization of the muscarinic receptors and the membrane conductance involved in these responses. Activation of the CM terminals, originating from lamina X neurons and partition cells, induced a pathway-specific short-term potentiation (STP) of commissural glutamatergic inputs in motoneurons. This STP is occluded in the presence of the muscarinic antagonist atropine. During fictive locomotion, the activation of the commissural pathways transiently enhanced the motor output in a muscarinic-dependent manner. This study describes for the first time a novel regulatory mechanism of synaptic strength in spinal locomotor networks. Such cellular mechanisms would endow the locomotor central pattern generators with adaptive processes needed to generate appropriate synaptic inputs to motoneurons during different motor tasks. PMID:22069380

Bertrand, Sandrine S.; Cazalets, Jean-René

2011-01-01

288

SPATIAL PRIORITIZATION FOR INVASIVE PLANT MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive exotic plant species have been recognized as serious threats to ecosystems. Extensive research on invasive exotic plant species has primarily focused on the impacts, characteristics, and potential treatments. Decision tools and management models that incorporate these findings often lack input from managers and have limited use in differing invasion scenarios. Therefore, in this study, I created a scientifically-driven framework

Abraham Michael Levin-Nielsen

2012-01-01

289

CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

290

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Contributions from the field of population biology hold promise for understanding and managing invasiveness; invasive species also offer excellent oppor- tunities to study basic processes in population biology. Life history studies and demo- graphic models may be valuable for examining the introduction of invasive species and identifying life history stages where management will be most effective. Evolution- ary

Ann K. Sakai; Fred W. Allendorf; Jodie S. Holt; David M. Lodge; Jane Molofsky; Syndallas Baughman; Robert J. Cabin; Joel E. Cohen; Norman C. Ellstrand; David E. McCauley; Pamela O'Neil; Ingrid M. Parker; John N. Thompson; Stephen G. Weller

2001-01-01

291

Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions are a pervasive and costly environmental problem that has been the focus of intense management and research activities over the past half century. Yet accurate predictions of community susceptibility to invasion remain elusive. The diversity resistance hypothesis, which argues that diverse communities are highly competitive and readily resist invasion, is supported by both theory and experimental studies conducted

Theodore A. Kennedy; Shahid Naeem; Katherine M. Howe; Johannes M. H. Knops; David Tilman; Peter Reich

2002-01-01

292

Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Biological invasion can permanently alter ecosystem structure and function. In- vasive species are difficult to eradicate, so methods for constraining invasions would be ecologically valuable. We examined the potential of ecological restoration to constrain invasion of an old field by Agropyron cristatum , an introduced C 3 grass. 2. A field experiment was conducted in the northern Great

JONATHAN D. BAKKER; SCOTT D. WILSON

293

BIODIVERSITY Invasive plants as drivers of regime  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW Invasive plants as drivers of regime shifts: identifying high-priority invaders synthesized changes to ecosystems caused by 173 invasive plant species. For the systems analysis, we examined published studies of impacts of invasive plants to determine which presented evidence consistent

Molofsky, Jane

294

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities  

E-print Network

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 #12;A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 United States Department Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 iii We thank Carlos

295

The Landscape Ecology of Invasive Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although habitat loss, fragmentation, and invasive species collectively pose the greatest threats to biodiversity, little theoretical or empirical research has addressed the effects of landscape structure—or spa- tial pattern more generally—on the spread of invasive species. Landscape ecology is the study of how spatial pattern affects ecological process. Thus, a landscape ecology of invasive spread involves understanding how spatial pattern,

2002-01-01

296

In this issue: Florida Invasive Species Partnership  

E-print Network

in Wildland Weeds, Winter 2008. Chances are good that if you work with invasive non-native species issues to focus efforts on the prevention and control of invasive non-native species. The action planIn this issue: · Florida Invasive Species Partnership · Mulching: A New Forest Management Tool

Watson, Craig A.

297

Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

Palpation Instrument for Augmented Minimally Invasive Surgery Maria Vatshaug Ottermo Department-- A preliminary design of a remote palpation in- strument for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is given. The lack mm * 18 mm * 45 mm. I. INTRODUCTION Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is one of the meth- ods

Johansen, Tor Arne

298

Soil biota and exotic plant invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote `exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare

Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Alex Rodriguez; William E. Holben

2004-01-01

299

Müllerianosis and endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder: report of two cases with review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare benign condition, characterized by the presence of a mixture of at least two müllerian-derived components, and endosalpingiosis is also an extremely rare condition, characterized by the presence of tubal-type epithelium. In this report, we describe the 17th case of müllerianosis and 5th case of endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder. A 39-year-old Japanese female presented with menstrual hematuria and was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. Histopathological study demonstrated variably-sized dilated tubular glands in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. These dilated glands were covered by ciliated cuboidal cells, and some of them were covered by columnar cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Moreover, a tiny focus of endometrial tissues was also present. Immunohistochemically, these glandular cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of müllerianosis was made. The second case was a 37-year-old Japanese female, who was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the bladder. Dilated tubular glands were covered by ciliated cells in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. Neither endocervical nor endometrial tissues were observed. Immunohistochemically, these ciliated cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of endosalpingiosis was made. Our analysis revealed that these two conditions mainly affect premenopausal females and occur exclusively in the posterior wall. Although the pathogenesis remains completely unresolved, a metaplastic theory is favored. The recognition of these two conditions is important because they can mimic invasive adenocarcinoma. PMID:25120826

Maeda, Koki; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Kagotani, Akiko; Kawauchi, Akihiro

2014-01-01

300

Cardiac Output Assessed by Invasive and Minimally Invasive Techniques  

PubMed Central

Cardiac output (CO) measurement has long been considered essential to the assessment and guidance of therapeutic decisions in critically ill patients and for patients undergoing certain high-risk surgeries. Despite controversies, complications and inherent errors in measurement, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) continuous and intermittent bolus techniques of CO measurement continue to be the gold standard. Newer techniques provide less invasive alternatives; however, currently available monitors are unable to provide central circulation pressures or true mixed venous saturations. Esophageal Doppler and pulse contour monitors can predict fluid responsiveness and have been shown to decrease postoperative morbidity. Many minimally invasive techniques continue to suffer from decreased accuracy and reliability under periods of hemodynamic instability, and so few have reached the level of interchangeability with the PAC. PMID:21776254

Lee, Allison J.; Cohn, Jennifer Hochman; Ranasinghe, J. Sudharma

2011-01-01

301

Large projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that lack the neurokinin 1 receptor are densely innervated by VGLUT2-containing axons and possess GluR4-containing AMPA receptors.  

PubMed

Although most projection neurons in lamina I express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), we have identified a population of large multipolar projection cells that lack the NK1r, are characterized by the high density of gephyrin puncta that coat their cell bodies and dendrites, and express the transcription factor Fos in response to noxious chemical stimulation. Here we show that these cells have a very high density of glutamatergic input from axons with strong immunoreactivity for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 that are likely to originate from excitatory interneurons. However, they receive few contacts from peptidergic primary afferents or transganglionically labeled Adelta nociceptors. Unlike most glutamatergic synapses in superficial laminas, those on the gephyrin-coated cells contain the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor. A noxious heat stimulus caused Fos expression in 38% of the gephyrin-coated cells but in 85% of multipolar NK1r-immunoreactive cells. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that there is a correlation between function and morphology for lamina I neurons but indicate that there are at least two populations of multipolar neurons that differ in receptor expression, excitatory inputs, and responses to noxious stimulation. Although there are only approximately 10 gephyrin-coated cells on each side per segment in the lumbar enlargement, they constitute approximately 18% of the lamina I component of the spinothalamic tract at this level, which suggests that they play an important role in transmission of nociceptive information to the cerebral cortex. Our results also provide the first evidence that postsynaptic GluR4-containing AMPA receptors are involved in spinal nociceptive transmission. PMID:19052206

Polgár, Erika; Al-Khater, Khulood M; Shehab, Safa; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

2008-12-01

302

Advances and refinements in phonosurgery.  

PubMed

Scientific discovery, technological advances, and improved outcomes assessment have resulted in advances and refinements in phonosurgery. Three areas of substantial evolution are phonomicrosurgery, laryngeal framework surgery, and the use of implantable materials in vocal folds. Discovery of the importance of the superficial layers of the lamina propria has led to increased use of more limited medial microflap approaches and less frequent use of the classic lateral cordotomy flap approach. Alternative approaches to managing vocal fold scarring defects have addressed the separation of body and cover and provided suitable lamina propria replacement. Approaches to sulcus vocalis have been refined to address type II (linear vergeture) and type III (focal invasive pit) sulcus, where there is loss of lamina propria, while still recognizing the common nonpathological type I (physiological) sulcus. Technological advancements such as photodynamic therapy, tuned dye lasers, and laryngeal microdebridement have augmented the armamentarium for mechanical removal of laryngeal papillomata. Careful infusion-assisted microexcision and adjunctive medical management have been refined and made more effective. Laryngeal framework surgery has embraced the development of Silastic, hydroxylapatite, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, and titanium shims. Anatomical studies have helped to improve operative precision and safety, and have led to inventive variations in arytenoid repositioning that improve closure of the posterior subunit. Vocal fold augmentation by injection has been facilitated by innovative use of the rigid telescope and intraoperative videostroboscopy. Anatomical studies have focused on the infrafold region and rheological studies have attempted to match viscoelastic properties of injectable substances to those of vocal fold tissues. Alloplastic materials such as Teflon have been largely supplanted by newer bioimplantables such as fat, collagen, and fascia. PMID:10591344

Ford, C N

1999-12-01

303

Will climate change promote future invasions?  

PubMed Central

Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

2013-01-01

304

Immunohistochemical characterization of brain-invasive meningiomas.  

PubMed

Brain-invasive meningiomas have an adverse prognosis, so it is important to detect and correctly evaluate brain invasion by light microscopy. Furthermore, the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for brain-invasive growth are incompletely understood. The primary aim of this study was to identify immunohistochemical markers that could improve identification and evaluation of brain invasion in meningiomas. A second aim was to investigate the process of brain invasion using immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, extracellular matrix modulation, and cell adhesion. From a series of 196 human meningiomas, 67 cases were selected for analysis because of the presence of brain tissue in tumor specimens. Fourteen of these 67 meningiomas were brain-invasive. Invasiveness was determined primarily by evaluation of hematoxylin-erytrosin-saffron- (HES-) stained specimens, although glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), anti-collagen IV, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) markers provided additional information. It was important to examine microscopic sections from various levels of the paraffin-embedded tissue block to adequately assess invasiveness. Sections stained using antibodies against Ki-67/MIB-1, phospohistone-H3 (PHH3), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin D, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and E-cadherin antigens were used to characterize brain-invasive meningiomas and to investigate the process of brain invasion. Only increased expression of the extracellular matrix modulator MMP-9 correlated with brain-invasive growth (p=0.025). Examination of HES-stained sections identified brain invasion. Use of relevant immunohistochemical markers did not contribute substantially to this evaluation. Evaluation of stepwise sections should be considered when brain-invasive growth is suspected. MMP-9 may be an important mediator of brain-invasive growth. PMID:25400818

Backer-Grøndahl, Thomas; Moen, Bjørnar H; Arnli, Magnus B; Torseth, Kathrin; Torp, Sverre H

2014-01-01

305

Invasive procedures with questionable indications  

PubMed Central

Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible. PMID:25568799

Jargin, Sergei V.

2014-01-01

306

National Invasive Species Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's an invasive species? It's a great question and one that is much more complex than one might think. The United States Department of Agriculture has created the online National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC) to bring together key resources on these types of species in the United States as well as other corners of the world. On the site, visitors can Browse by Subject to find Aquatic Species, Plants, Animals, and Microbes. In each of these areas, visitors can read the legal definitions of these species and also use the search feature to look for additional resources. The Spotlights area also contains a useful interactive learning module, a calendar of related conferences, government bills, and funding resources.

307

Why Ecology of Invasive Species?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your students may think of ecologists as people who pick up trash and protest for a cleaner environment. In this manual, the term ecologist is used to refer to scientists who study ecology--that is, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment. Through the readings, exercises, protocols, and research projects in Invasion Ecology, students will learn not only abut important ecological concepts, but also about how ecologists conduct research. Furthermore, they will learn how ecological science and research can be applied to solving a real-life environmental problem--the control of invasive species. This free selection also includes a bonus section--Inquiry and Ecology, the Table of Contents, and Introduction.

Marianne E. Krasny

2003-01-01

308

Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFI) relies on the critical assessment of clinical presentation, associated risk\\u000a factors, and careful interpretation of the appropriate diagnostic tests. Frequently, clinicians have to initiate antifungal\\u000a therapy based on their clinical suspicion and without having made a definitive diagnosis, particularly in cancer or other\\u000a critically ill patients. To complicate diagnosis, isolation of fungal organisms

Dionissios Neofytos; Kieren Marr

309

Ecological Factors Affecting Community Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a community invasible? For over a century ecologists have sought to understand the relative importance of biotic\\u000a and abiotic factors that determine community composition. The fact that we are still exploring this topic today hints at both\\u000a its importance and complexity. As the impacts from harmful non-native species accumulate, it has become increasingly urgent\\u000a to find answers to

Suzanne V. Olyarnik; Matthew E. S. Bracken; Jarrett E. Byrnes; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; John J. Stachowicz

310

Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.  

PubMed Central

The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776

Wickham, J. E.

1994-01-01

311

Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.  

PubMed Central

Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

1995-01-01

312

Coupled molecular and 14C studies of microbial carbonate laminae formation and growth rates in dolomite stromatolites from Lagoa Salgada, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the application of radiocarbon (14C) measurements for age determination of the growth rate of modern dolomite stromalites from Lagoa Salgada, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Improved estimation of growth rates related with microbial processes during stromatolite formation may provide insights into ancient microbial carbonate sedimentation processes. Radiocarbon dating is frequently used to determine the age of carbonate materials, however, lagoonal carbonates often contain significant 14C content anomalies due to the "hard water effect." Lagoonal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) may sometimes achieve isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, and, in such cases, a coherent 14C chronology for paleo-carbonate precipitates may be established. However, more frequently, DIC does not show complete equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 due to major inputs of groundwater carbon. As a consequence, paleo-lagoonal carbonates often yield 14C ages which, after isotopic normalization, are older than those obtained, for instance, for time-equivalent terrestrial organic matter. Located on the Rio de Janeiro coastline, Lagoa Salgada is a unique environment, which has been studied for its particular carbonate sedimentation and development of dolomite stromatolites. This milieu provides an opportunity to test how Earth surface processes can change from normal carbonate sedimentation to the formation of microbialite structures (e.g., stromatolites, oncolites). In Lagoa Salgada, the formation of laminated structures involves diverse groups of microorganisms, which leads to the trapping of distinctive biomarkers or organic molecules as intracrystalline organic matter within the stromatolite laminae. We report on our research into the characterization of this trapped organic matter and the potential to utilize it to radiometrically determine the growth rate of these modern stromatolites. We also report 14C measurements of DIC from Lagoa Salgada.

Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Montluçon, D.; Eglinton, T. I.; Matsuda, N.; França, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

2011-12-01

313

IOP-Induced Lamina Cribrosa Displacement and Scleral Canal Expansion: An Analysis of Factor Interactions Using Parameterized Eye-Specific Models  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the anterior–posterior lamina cribrosa deformation (LCD) and the scleral canal expansion (SCE) produced by an increase in IOP and identify the main factors and interactions that determine these responses in the monkey. Methods. Eye-specific baseline models of the LC and sclera of both eyes of three normal monkeys were constructed. Morphing techniques were used to generate 888 models with controlled variations in LC thickness, position and modulus (stiffness), scleral thickness and modulus, and scleral canal size and eccentricity. Finite element modeling was used to simulate an increase in IOP from 10 to 15 mm Hg. A two-level, full-factorial experimental design was used to select factor combinations and to determine the sensitivity of LCD and SCE to the eight factors, independently and in interaction. Results. LCD was between 53.6 ?m (posteriorly) and ?12.9 ?m (anteriorly), whereas SCE was between 0.5 and 15.2 ?m (all expansions). LCD was most sensitive to laminar modulus and position (24% and 21% of the variance in LCD, respectively), whereas SCE was most sensitive to scleral modulus and thickness (46% and 36% of the variance in SCE, respectively). There were also strong interactions between factors (35% and 7% of the variance in LCD and SCE, respectively). Conclusions. IOP-related LCD and SCE result from a complex combination of factors, including geometry and material properties of the LC and sclera. This work lays the foundation for interpreting the range of individual sensitivities to IOP and illustrates that predicting individual ONH response to IOP will require the measurement of multiple factors. PMID:20881292

Sigal, Ian A.; Yang, Hongli; Roberts, Michael D.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

2011-01-01

314

Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla depends on spatial position within the leaf lamina  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The large distance between peripheral leaf regions and the petiole in large leaves is expected to cause stronger negative water potentials at the leaf apex and marginal zones compared with more central or basal leaf regions. Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves. Methods The diurnal course of stomatal conductance, gs, was monitored at defined lamina zones during two consecutive vegetation periods in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla that has large leaves. Local climate and stem water potential were also monitored to include parameters involved in stomatal response. Additionally, leaf zonal vein densities were measured to assess possible trends in local hydraulic supply. Key Results It was found that the diurnal pattern of gs depends on the position within a leaf in A. macrophylla. The highest values during the early morning were shown by the apical region, with subsequent decline later in the morning and a further gradual decline towards the evening. The diurnal pattern of gs at the marginal regions was similar to that of the leaf tip but showed a time lag of about 1 h. At the leaf base, the diurnal pattern of gs was similar to that of the margins but with lower maximum gs. At the the leaf centre regions, gs tended to show quite constant moderate values during most of the day. Densities of minor veins were lower at the margin and tip compared with the centre and base. Conclusions Gas exchange regulation appears to be zone specific in A. macrophylla leaves. It is suggested that the spatial–diurnal pattern of gs expressed by A. macrophylla leaves represents a strategy to prevent leaf zonal water stress and subsequent vein embolism. PMID:23606681

Miranda, Tatiana; Ebner, Martin; Traiser, Christopher; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

2013-01-01

315

Role of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis for the chronic cardiovascular effects produced by endogenous and exogenous ANG II in conscious rats.  

PubMed

Endogenous and exogenous circulating ANG II acts at one of the central circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO), to modulate chronic blood pressure regulation. However, at the forebrain, another important CVO is the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the OVLT mediates the hypertension or the hypotension produced by chronic infusion of ANG II or losartan (AT1 antagonist), respectively. Six days after sham or OVLT electrolytic lesion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (280-320 g, n = 6 per group) were instrumented with intravenous catheters and radiotelemetric blood pressure transducers. Following another week of recovery, rats were given 3 days of saline control infusion (7 ml/day) and were then infused with ANG II (10 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or losartan (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 days, followed by 3 recovery days. Twenty-four hour average measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were made during this protocol. Hydromineral balance (HB) responses were measured during the experimental protocol. By day 9 of ANG II treatment, MAP had increased 16 ± 4 mmHg in sham rats but only 4 ± 1 mmHg in OVLT lesioned rats without changes in HR or HB. However, the hypotension produced by 10 days of losartan infusion was not modified in OVLT lesioned rats. These results suggest that the OVLT might play an important role during elevation of plasma ANG II, facilitating increases of blood pressure but is not involved with baseline effects of endogenous ANG II. PMID:20861280

Vieira, Alexandre A; Nahey, David B; Collister, John P

2010-12-01

316

Alien Invasion: Invasive Species (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the example of the Eastern United States continental shelf, this lesson helps students understand how alien species enter non-native habitats, what problems are associated with these species, and what can be done about them. Students will be able to compare and contrast "alien species" and "invasive species," explain positive and negative impacts associated with the introduction of non-native species, and give a specific example of species that produces these impacts. They will also describe at least three ways in which species may be introduced into non-native environments and discuss actions that can be taken to mitigate negative impacts caused by non-native species.

317

Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) provides research and technical assistance relating to invasive species management concerns, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, FORT scientists are developing the Invasive Species Information Node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a comprehensive, Web-accessible database of invasive plant and animal species and disease agents. From these data, and in partnership with Colorado State University, the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), and others, FORT scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species behavior for more effective management. FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

Stohlgren, Tom

2004-01-01

318

Community disassembly by an invasive species  

PubMed Central

Invasive species pose serious threats to community structure and ecosystem function worldwide. The impacts of invasive species can be more pervasive than simple reduction of species numbers. By using 7 years of data in a biological preserve in northern California, we documented the disassembly of native ant communities during an invasion by the Argentine ant. In sites without the Argentine ant, native ant communities exhibit significant species segregation, consistent with competitive dynamics. In sites with the Argentine ant, native ant communities appear random or weakly aggregated in species co-occurrence. Comparisons of the same sites before and after invasion indicate that the shift from a structured to a random community is rapid and occurs within a year of invasion. Our results show that invasive species not only reduce biodiversity but rapidly disassemble communities and, as a result, alter community organization among the species that persist. PMID:12604772

Sanders, Nathan J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Heller, Nicole E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

2003-01-01

319

Inhibition of medulloblastoma cell invasion by Slit  

PubMed Central

Invasion of brain tumor cells has made primary malignant brain neoplasms among the most recalcitrant to therapeutic strategies. We tested whether the secreted protein Slit2, which guides the projection of axons and developing neurons, could modulate brain tumor cell invasion. Slit2 inhibited the invasion of medulloblastoma cells in a variety of in vitro models. The effect of Slit2 was inhibited by the Robo ectodomain. Time-lapse videomicroscopy indicated that Slit2 reduced medulloblastoma invasion rate without affecting cell direction or proliferation. Both medulloblastoma and glioma tumors express Robo1 and Slit2, but only medulloblastoma invasion is inhibited by recombinant Slit2 protein. Downregulation of activated Cdc42 may contribute to this differential response. Our findings reinforce the concept that neurodevelopmental cues such as Slit2 may provide insights into brain tumor invasion. PMID:16636676

Werbowetski-Ogilvie, TE; Sadr, M Seyed; Jabado, N; Angers-Loustau, A; Agar, NYR; Wu, J; Bjerkvig, R; Antel, JP; Faury, D; Rao, Y; Maestro, RF Del

2007-01-01

320

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services have attracted worldwide attention. Despite the overwhelming evidence\\u000a of these impacts and a growing appreciation for ecosystem services, however, researchers and policymakers rarely directly\\u000a address the connection between invasions and ecosystem services.Various attempts have been made to address the ecosystem processes\\u000a that are affected by invasive species (e.g., Levine et al. 2003;

Heather Charles; Jeffrey S. Dukes

321

Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

322

Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these\\u000a invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches\\u000a for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil removal, and biomass\\u000a removal, as well as a less frequently proposed management approach

Laura G. Perry; Dana M. Blumenthal; Thomas A. Monaco; Mark W. Paschke; Edward F. Redente

2010-01-01

323

Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

324

The Invasive Species Forecasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these features enable a degree of decentralization and distributed ownership that have helped other types of scientific information services succeed in recent years.

Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

2011-01-01

325

Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants  

PubMed Central

We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level and herbivory was weak. We suggest that invasive plants may possess novel phytochemicals with anti-herbivore properties in addition to allelopathic and anti-microbial characteristics. Herbivory could be employed as an easily measured predictor of the likelihood that recently introduced exotic plants may become invasive. PMID:17148226

Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

2005-01-01

326

The Invasion of Exotic Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a news announcement last week, US Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt stated "the invasion of noxious weeds has created a level of destruction to America's environment and economy that is matched only by the damage caused by floods, earthquakes, wildfire, hurricanes and mudslides." Given recent media attention to the loss of native species, this week's In The News focuses on the spread of exotic plants across the globe, considered by some experts to be "the second-most important threat" behind habitat destruction. The eight resources discussed offer information on exotics, from local case studies to international examples, with comprehensive discussions of the topic.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

327

Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

2014-01-01

328

Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis.  

PubMed

Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K Rungmei S K; Gurjar, Mohan

2014-10-01

329

Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.  

PubMed

Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success. PMID:24989502

Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

2014-07-22

330

National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species communitya?|

Stohlgren, Tom

2006-01-01

331

Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:22082636

Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

332

Soil modification by invasive plants: effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive\\u000a species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America:\\u000a leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group

Nicholas R. Jordan; Diane L. Larson; Sheri C. Huerd

2008-01-01

333

SEPARATING HABITAT INVASIBILITY BY ALIEN PLANTS FROM THE ACTUAL LEVEL OF INVASION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Habitats vary considerably,in the level of invasion (number,or proportion,of alien plant species they contain), which depends on local habitat properties, propagule pressure, and climate. To determine the invasibility (susceptibility to invasions) of different habitats, it is necessary to factor out the effects of any confounding variables such as propagule,pressure and climate on the level of invasion. We used 20

Milan Chytrý; Vojte?ch Jaros?ík; Petr Pys?ek; Ondr?ej Hájek; Ilona Knollová; Lubomír Tichý; Jir?í Danihelka

2008-01-01

334

Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion.  Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive

D. Blumenthal; R. A. Chimner; J. M. Welker; J. A. Morgan

2008-01-01

335

Invasive Plant Control Travel Team Technician OPENINGS AVAILABLE!  

E-print Network

Invasive Plant Control Travel Team Technician OPENINGS AVAILABLE! Positions are available 2014 with an emphasis on invasive plant management. Invasive Plant Control, Inc. will provide you with the opportunity in invasive plant management. IPC is a privately owned company considered one of the leaders in the invasive

Mazzotti, Frank

336

Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility  

E-print Network

FORUM Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility MARK A. DAVIS, J, Sheeld S10 2TN, UK Summary 1 The invasion of habitats by non-native plant and animal species is a global in invasion, must coincide with availability of invading propagules. Key-words: plant invasions, invasibility

Davis, Mark A.

337

Aquatic Invasive Species funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative  

E-print Network

Aquatic Invasive Species funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Progress toward restoring, and terrestrial invasive species. More than 180 aquatic nuisance species (ANS) now exist in the Great Lakes effectively respond to current invasions or prevent future invasions. NOAA's Aquatic Invasive Species efforts

338

Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions  

E-print Network

Global Change Impacts: Non-native species invasions #12;Invasive Species as Predators Towns et al., 2006 #12;Invasive Species as Competitors #12;Invasive species impacts on ecosystem function Vila et al;Invasive species impacts on biodiversity Vila et al., 2011 #12;Abundance Declines in Concord Willis et al

Schweik, Charles M.

339

Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

2007-01-01

340

Invasive species Invasive species have been described as the second-greatest  

E-print Network

, these snakes had caused the extirpation (localized extinction) of 12 of the 22 native bird species. For similar····· Invasive species Invasive species have been described as the second-greatest extinction species a major cause of animal extinctions, or has the extinction threat of invasive species been

Davis, Mark A.

341

Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two little words, when taken together have great implications: ``What IF'' In the US alone, there are millions who are burdened with diabetes and who must maintain their glucose levels by taking blood samples and having it analyzed. Even though this procedure has improved over time, still it is very intrusive and is a burden to many that must live with it. What if it were not necessary? Although it is current practice to measure glucose levels invasively (using blood samples), it may be possible to measure glucose non-invasively. Although several companies around the world have invested millions of dollars to address this problem, none have been successful thus far. However, there are many methods that hold a potential and many approaches that have not yet been explored. We are working on a review of what has been approached thus far and are entertaining proposals for a combined interdisciplinary approach which combines expertise from bioengineering, physics, and biology. We hope to learn from the unsuccessful attempts of others whilst employing innovative new approaches to this problem.

Blakley, Daniel

2010-10-01

342

A functional trait perspective on plant invasion  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

2012-01-01

343

Ventricular–arterial coupling: Invasive and non-invasive assessment  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the left ventricle (LV) and the arterial system, (ventricular–arterial coupling) are key determinants of cardiovascular function. Ventricularearterial coupling is most frequently assessed in the pressure–volume plane using the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA) to LV end-systolic elastance (EES). EA (usually interpreted as a lumped index of arterial load) can be computed as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume, whereas EES (a load-independent measure of LV chamber systolic stiffness and contractility) is ideally assessed invasively using data from a family of pressure–volume loops obtained during an acute preload alteration. Single-beat methods have also been proposed, allowing for non-invasive estimations of EES using simple echocardiographic measurements. The EA/EES ratio is useful because it provides information regarding the operating mechanical efficiency and performance of the ventricular–arterial system. However, it should be recognized that analyses in the pressure–volume plane have several limitations and that “ventricular–arterial coupling” encompasses multiple physiologic aspects, many of which are not captured in the pressure–volume plane. Therefore, additional assessments provide important incremental physiologic information about the cardiovascular system and should be more widely used. In particular, it should be recognized that: (1) comprehensive analyses of arterial load are important because EA poorly characterizes pulsatile LV load and does not depend exclusively on arterial properties; (2) The systolic loading sequence, an important aspect of ventricular–arterial coupling, is neglected by pressure–volume analyses, and can profoundly impact LV function, remodeling and progression to heart failure. This brief review summarizes methods for the assessment of ventricular–arterial interactions, as discussed at the Artery 12 meeting (October 2012). PMID:24179554

Chirinos, Julio A.

2013-01-01

344

Conservation Implications of Invasion by Plant Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of invasive exotic plant species in many regions and the continuing alteration of natural ecosystems by humans promote hybridization between previously allopatric species; among both native as well as between native and introduced species. We review the ecological factors and mechanisms that promote such hybridization events and their negative consequences on biological diversity. Plant invasions through hybridization

Montserrat Vilà; Ewald Weber; Carla M. D Antonio

2000-01-01

345

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Acer platanoides Common Name: Norway maple Physical Description: Growth Type: Acer platanoides is a medium to large shade tree, typically 40' to 60' tall, but can reach furrows. #12;Invasive nature: Acer platanoides has invaded understory forest areas. Its dense canopy

Hayden, Nancy J.

346

Indirect effects of parasites in invasions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

347

The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

2010-01-01

348

Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land managers long have identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework to guide the implementation of successful restoration, especially where invasive plants dominate the ecosystem. A holistic, ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosy...

349

Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547  

E-print Network

1 23 Biological Invasions ISSN 1387-3547 Volume 13 Number 1 Biol Invasions (2010) 13:177-187 DOI 10.1007/ s10530-010-9800-1 Do non-native earthworms in Southeast Alaska use streams as invasional corridors it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;ORIGINAL PAPER Do non-native earthworms

Tiegs, Scott

350

Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work on the mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis has identified matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key players in the events that underlie tumor dissemination. Studies using natural and synthetic MMP inhibitors, as well as tumor cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the MMPs characterized thus far have provided compelling evidence that MMP activity can induce or enhance tumor survival, invasion

Ivan Stamenkovic

2000-01-01

351

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Robinia pseudoacacia  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Taxonomic Name: Robinia pseudoacacia Common Name: Black locust Physical Description: Growth Type: Robinia pseudoacacia is a tree growing anywhere from 40-100 feet with a straight ridges can reach several inches on a mature tree. #12;Invasive Nature: The root system on Robinia

Hayden, Nancy J.

352

Options for Managing Invasive Marine Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biological invasions are increasingly recognised as a threat to biodiversity and coastal industry, including fisheries. Globally, efforts are underway to contain, if not eradicate, several high-impact marine invasive species. However, working in a marine environment places unique social, political and technical constraints on options for pest control, which we explored in a series of stakeholder workshops. Results suggest that

Ronald E. Thresher; Armand M. Kuris

2004-01-01

353

Reduced competitive ability in an invasive plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for successful plant invaders is that they evolved to be more competitive. An intuitive prediction of this Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis never previously tested is that invasive populations should outcompete their native ancestors in a common environment. We tested this idea in a diallel competition experiment with Alliaria petiolata where offspring from native and invasive

Oliver Bossdorf; Daniel Prati; Harald Auge; Bernhard Schmid

2004-01-01

354

How trade politics affect invasive species control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade has become the main mode of transport for many invasive species, including diseases and agricultural pests. Most species are brought to their new homes unintentionally, which constitutes a market failure rooted in international trade. Unless it is practical to drive invasion risk to zero, the external costs may justify a tariff. In this paper, we analyze the political process

Michael Margolis; Jason F. Shogren; Carolyn Fischer

2005-01-01

355

The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS

Jean D'Angelo

2010-04-01

356

Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Increased soil nitrogen (N) availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might be expected to reduce those invasions and favor native species. Numerous studies have examined effects of low N availability on specific invaders, but a synthesis of these stu...

357

The Effect of the Invasive Species Caulerpa  

E-print Network

The Effect of the Invasive Species Caulerpa taxifolia among Native Species Lena Collins IROP 2007://www.tourismwollongong.com/regions/wollongong_map.asp #12;Study Site: St. George's Basin #12;Species of Interest Anadara trapezia Caulerpa taxifolia #12;Invasive Species · One the of largest environmental crises that we face today · Exotic species

New Hampshire, University of

358

Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of invasive exotic plant species in many regions and the continuing alteration of natural ecosystems by humans promote hybridization between previously allopatric species; among both native as well as between native and introduced species. We review the ecological factors and mechanisms that promote such hybridization events and their negative consequences on biological diversity. Plant invasions through hybridization

Montserrat Vila; Ewald Weber; Carla M. D'Antonio

2000-01-01

359

Minimally invasive 360° instrumented lumbar fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective preliminary study was undertaken of combined minimally invasive instrumented lumbar fusion utilizing the BERG (balloon-assisted endoscopic retroperitoneal gasless) approach ¶anteriorly, and a posterior small-incision approach with translaminar screw fixation and posterolateral ¶fusion. The study aimed to quantify the clinical and radiological results using this combined technique. The traditional minimally invasive approach to the anterior lumbar spine involves gas

John S. Thalgott; Albert K. Chin; John A. Ameriks; Frank T. Jordan; James M. Giuffre; Kay Fritts; Marcus Timlin

2000-01-01

360

Alien invasive species and international trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

361

Less invasive techniques for mitral valve surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Minimally invasive surgical techniques aim at reducing the consequences of currently used large incisions, such as bleeding, pain, and risk of infection. Although this new approach developed rapidly in coronary surgery, it remains questionable in mitral valve surgery. This article reports the longest experience with minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, with particular attention to approach and techniques. Methods: From

Didier F. Loulmet; Alain Carpentier; Peter W. Cho; Alain Berrebi; Nicola d'Attellis; Conal B. Austin; Jean-Paul Couëtil; Paul Lajos

1998-01-01

362

Feral Hogs: invasive Species or nature's Bounty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species have been identified as an international conservation crisis. Federal land managers have been mandated to control invasive species on their lands and to restore native species. Such action can have consequences for local communities that have incorporated the non-native species into their culture and economy. Previously managed by local stockmen as free- ranging livestock, feral hogs are now

Jane Packard

363

Hybridization between Invasive Populations of Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)  

E-print Network

* Although there is evidence that interspecific hybridization can initiate invasion by nonnative plants exhibiting invasive behavior. We conducted morphometric and molecular analyses of toadflax plants; yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris P. Mill. LINVU. Key words: Hybridization, invasive plant, ISSR

364

Invasive Plant Species and the Ornamental Horticulture Industry  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Invasive Plant Species and the Ornamental Horticulture Industry Alex X. Niemiera the various fundamental biological factors of plant invasion, as well as the environmental impacts to mitigate its role in dispersing invasive, nonnative plant species. Keywords Ornamental horticulture

Von Holle, Betsy

365

Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species  

E-print Network

27 Managing Landscapes for Vulnerable, Invasive and Disease Species Erika Zavaleta and Jae Ryan, invasive species and threatened species simultaneously. We summarize recommendations from land- scape- nerable species' protection. Many, but not all, broad strategies for controlling invasive and disease

Zavaleta, Erika

366

Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities  

E-print Network

Species evenness and invasion resistance of experimental grassland communities W. Brett Mattingly provoked much interest in assessing how native plant species diversity affects invasibility. Although common exotic invasive species. In this study, niche complementarity provides a potential mechanism

Damschen, Ellen

367

78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings...Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

2013-02-11

368

Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.  

PubMed

Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity. PMID:20545732

Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

2010-08-01

369

Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. PMID:24332601

Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

2014-02-01

370

The population biology of fungal invasions.  

PubMed

Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life-history traits are particularly unfavorable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25469955

Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

2014-12-01

371

A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition  

SciTech Connect

A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-03-10

372

Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

2012-01-01

373

Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

2009-01-01

374

Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest  

PubMed Central

Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

2013-01-01

375

Non-invasive glucose monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

376

Contributed Paper Effects of Climate Change, Invasive Species, and  

E-print Network

boundaries, and the spread of invasive crayfishes, which transmit the crayfish plague, a lethal disease inaccessible relative to native and current distributions. Overlap with invasive crayfish plague

Childress, Michael J.

377

Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.  

PubMed

Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants. PMID:24352844

Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

2014-03-01

378

Invasion and Intracellular Survival of Burkholderia cepacia  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pulmonary pathogen in immunocompromised patients and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of B. cepacia, although the persistent and sometimes invasive infections caused by B. cepacia suggest that the organism possesses mechanisms for both cellular invasion and evasion of the host immune response. In this study, cultured human cells were used to analyze the invasion and intracellular survival of B. cepacia J2315, a highly transmissible clinical isolate responsible for morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Quantitative invasion and intracellular growth assays demonstrated that B. cepacia J2315 was able to enter, survive, and replicate intracellularly in U937-derived macrophages and A549 pulmonary epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy of infected macrophages confirmed the presence of intracellular B. cepacia and showed that intracellular bacteria were contained within membrane-bound vacuoles. An environmental isolate of B. cepacia, strain J2540, was also examined for its ability to invade and survive intracellularly in cultured human cells. J2540 entered cultured macrophages with an invasion frequency similar to that of the clinical strain, but it was less invasive than the clinical strain in epithelial cells. In marked contrast to the clinical strain, the environmental isolate was unable to survive or replicate intracellularly in either cultured macrophages or epithelial cells. Invasion and intracellular survival may play important roles in the ability of virulent strains of B. cepacia to evade the host immune response and cause persistent infections in CF patients. PMID:10603364

Martin, Daniel W.; Mohr, Christian D.

2000-01-01

379

Roles of LAP2 Proteins in Nuclear Assembly and DNA Replication: Truncated LAP2? Proteins Alter Lamina Assembly, Envelope Formation, Nuclear Size, and DNA Replication Efficiency in Xenopus laevis Extracts  

PubMed Central

Humans express three major splicing isoforms of LAP2, a lamin- and chromatin-binding nuclear protein. LAP2? and ? are integral membrane proteins, whereas ? is intranuclear. When truncated recombinant human LAP2? proteins were added to cell-free Xenopus laevis nuclear assembly reactions at high concentrations, a domain common to all LAP2 isoforms (residues 1–187) inhibited membrane binding to chromatin, whereas the chromatin- and lamin-binding region (residues 1–408) inhibited chromatin expansion. At lower concentrations of the common domain, membranes attached to chromatin with a unique scalloped morphology, but these nuclei neither accumulated lamins nor replicated. At lower concentrations of the chromatin- and lamin-binding region, nuclear envelopes and lamins assembled, but nuclei failed to enlarge and replicated on average 2.5-fold better than controls. This enhancement was not due to rereplication, as shown by density substitution experiments, suggesting the hypothesis that LAP2? is a downstream effector of lamina assembly in promoting replication competence. Overall, our findings suggest that LAP2 proteins mediate membrane–chromatin attachment and lamina assembly, and may promote replication by influencing chromatin structure. PMID:10087255

Gant, Tracey Michele; Harris, Crafford A.; Wilson, Katherine L.

1999-01-01

380

Molecular regulation of ovarian cancer cell invasion.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanism underlying ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastasis remains unclear. Since significant downregulation in microRNA 200 (miRNA200) family (miR200a, miR200b, and miR200c) has been reported in the invasive ovarian cancer cells, here, we used two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR3 and SKOV3, to study the molecular basis of miR200, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) activation, and cancer invasiveness. We found that overexpression of either miR200 family member in OVCAR3 or SKOV3 cells significantly inhibited production and secretion of MMP3 and cancer invasiveness. Moreover, forced MMP3 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cell invasiveness via downregulating MMP3. Furthermore, ZEB1, a major target of miR200, was inhibited by miR200 overexpression. Forced ZEB1 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that ZEB1 is a direct target of miR200 for inhibiting ovarian cell invasiveness. Finally, phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a major partner of ZEB1, was efficiently inhibited by miR200, which could be restored by forced expression of ZEB1, but not by forced expression of MMP3, suggesting that ZEB1/pSMAD3 is signaling cascade upstream of MMP3 in this model. Taken together, our data suggest that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis by downregulating MMP3, possibly through ZEB1/pSMAD3. PMID:25119590

Sun, Ningxia; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Qian; Ma, Yan; Lu, Xinmei; Wang, Liang; Li, Wen

2014-11-01

381

National Institute of Invasive Species Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS) supports a database with extensive information on invasive species around the United States. The data on individual species can be searched by scientific name, common name or National Resource Convervation Service (NRCS) Code. There is also a geographic search that allows users to locate invasives by state, county, National Park Service unit, Fish and Wildlife Service refuge, or by state parks. A query/search/browse function permits browsing by organization, location, species, project, or map. The front page features links to news articles and information on new products.

382

The United States National Arboretum: Invasive Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Arboretum offers this straightforward guide to invasive plants that gardeners and property owners in general should watch for. The Web site begins with an explanation of what the term "invasive" really means, followed by photos and descriptions of species to avoid planting altogether (such as purple loosestrife), and those that are less problematic if managed wisely (like English ivy). The site also describes the origin and current distribution of some of the most commonly encountered invasive plants, and provides Web links for further information.

2002-01-01

383

Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

2013-01-01

384

Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2014-01-01

385

San Francisco Estuary: Invasive Spartina Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Invasive Spartina Project was developed by the California State Coastal Conservancy to determine the extent and address the problem of invasive Spartina in the San Francisco Estuary. This Web site describes the efforts of the Invasive Spartina Project and the risk that Spartina poses. A variety of maps and photos are used to describe the results of the 2000-2001 survey of Spartina populations within the estuary. A host of other documents regarding Spartina and this project are also available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

2002-01-01

386

SYNTHESIS Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems  

E-print Network

, invasive species, invasiveness, microbial biogeography, protists, symbiotic, traits. Ecology Letters (2010REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic on invasive plants and animals has risen exponentially, little is known about invasive microbes, especially

387

Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.  

PubMed

To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA. Galactomannan, ?-D glucan test, and DNA detection in IA are available only in a few centers. Mortality of the patients with IA is very high due to delays in diagnosis and therapy. Antifungal use is largely restricted to amphotericin B deoxycholate and itraconazole, though other anti-Aspergillus antifungal agents are available in those countries. Clinicians are aware of good outcome after use of voriconazole/liposomal amphotericin B/caspofungin, but they are forced to use amphotericin B deoxycholate or itraconazole in public-sector hospitals due to economic reasons. PMID:20718613

Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

2011-04-01

388

[CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

CD147 is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein involved in tumor invasion, and is overexpressed in many solid tumors. However, the role of CD147 in breast cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive ductal carcinomas. We recruited 156 breast cancer patients who underwent radical operations at our hospital up until 2002. We performed immunohistochemistry on their tumor specimens, and compared these data with clinicopathological factors. We divided the patients into two groups: group A was comprised of non-invasive ductal carcinomas and group B, invasive ductal carcinomas. The CD147-positive rate was 62.8% for all patients and was higher in group B than group A. In all cases, the CD147-positive rate correlated with clinical stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor size. These results implied that CD147 may be involved in the process of breast cancer invasion. PMID:25335713

Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Hirano, Tomohisa; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

2014-10-01

389

Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern, process and scale in invasion ecology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion ecology has made rapid progress in recent years through synergies with landscape ecology, niche theory, evolutionary\\u000a ecology and the ecology of climate change. The palaeo-record of Holocene invasions provides a rich but presently underexploited\\u000a resource in exploring the pattern and process of invasions through time. In this paper, examples from the palaeo-literature\\u000a are used to illustrate the spread of

Lindsey Gillson; Anneli Ekblom; Katherine J. Willis; Cynthia Froyd

2008-01-01

390

Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

2008-01-01

391

Multiple-well invasion percolation.  

PubMed

When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

2008-04-01

392

Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.  

PubMed

This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility.Eye advance online publication, 28 November 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.281. PMID:25431106

Mojon, D S

2014-11-28

393

Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547

Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

394

Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

395

Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

396

Recent Trends in Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolving technologies have resulted in an increase in minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Currently, robotic systems allow surgeons to perform a variety of procedures through small incisions. This changing paradigm is reviewed.

Alan P. Kypson

2007-01-01

397

Mechanobiology of tumor invasion: engineering meets oncology  

PubMed Central

The physical sciences and engineering have introduced novel perspectives into the study of cancer through model systems, tools, and metrics that enable integration of basic science observations with clinical data. These methods have contributed to the identification of several overarching mechanisms that drive processes during cancer progression including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. During tumor cell invasion – the first clinically observable step of metastasis – cells demonstrate diverse and evolving physical phenotypes that cannot typically be defined by any single molecular mechanism, and mechanobiology has been used to study the physical cell behaviors that comprise the “invasive phenotype”. In this review, we discuss the continually evolving pathological characterization and in vitro mechanobiological characterization of tumor invasion, with emphasis on emerging physical biology and mechanobiology strategies that have contributed to a more robust mechanistic understanding of tumor cell invasion. These physical approaches may ultimately help to better predict and identify tumor metastasis. PMID:22178415

Carey, Shawn P.; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Shin, Sandra J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

398

Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

399

Plant Polyphenolics as Anti-Invasive Cancer Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because invasion is, either directly or via metastasis formation, the main cause of death in cancer patients, development of ef- ficient anti-invasive agents is an important research challenge. We have established a screening program for potentially anti-invasive compounds. The assay is based on organotypic confronting cultures between human invasive cancer cells and a fragment of normal tissue in three dimensions.

V. S. Parmar; M. E. Bracke; B. W. A. Vanhoecke; L. Derycke; S. Bolca; S. Possemiers; A. Heyerick; C. V. Stevens; D. D. Keukeleire; H. T. Depypere; W. Verstraete; C. A. Williams; S. T. McKenna; S. Tomar; D. Sharma; A. K. Prasad; A. L. DePass

2008-01-01

400

Animal behavior: an essential component of invasion biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge of invasion biology lies in the development of a predictive understanding of invasion processes. Attempts to identify the proximate causes of invasion success or to predict rates of spread seldom emphasize behavioral characteristics. Recent experimental work, however, illustrates that insight into the proximate causes of animal invasions often hinges on a careful assessment of behavioral mechanisms. For

David A Holway; Andrew V Suarez

1999-01-01

401

ORIGINAL PAPER Distribution models of invasive plants over-estimate  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Distribution models of invasive plants over-estimate potential impact Bethany A to test to what extent this assumption is true by comparing commonly-used invasive plant distribution 300 invasive plant experts for 9 invasive species in the western U.S. I also created habitat

Bradley, Bethany

402

Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change  

E-print Network

Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change Bethany A. Bradley1,2 , Dana M. Blumenthal3 The relationship between plant invasions and global change is complex. Whereas some components of global change, can help or hinder plant invasion. Additionally, experimental studies and models suggest that invasive

Schweik, Charles M.

403

206 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America Invasion Terminology  

E-print Network

- ing species. The primary practical reason is that, outside of the discipline of ecology, "invasive of "invasive species" in Presi- dent Clinton's recent Executive Or- der on Invasive Species (Order 13112, February 3, 1999): "`Invasive species' means an alien species whose intro- duction does or is likely

Davis, Mark A.

404

Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds By Annabel Major  

E-print Network

Nebraska Invasive Species Project Builds Awareness By Annabel Major Nebraska Invasive Species, with support from the Nebraska Environmental Trust, kicked off the first Nebraska Invasive Species Conference in Lincoln. The event attracted invasive species managers from across Nebraska. Speakers were from a variety

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

405

Chemical defense of an exotic coral as invasion strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion success of exotic species has been frequently correlated to abiotic and biotic features of the receptor region and to the biological aspects of the invasive organism. There is, however, no information about defensive chemicals found in invasive species as strategy that could promote or facilitate an invasion in a marine environment. We conducted experimental field assays to verify

Bruno G. Lages; Beatriz G. Fleury; Carlos E. L. Ferreira; Renato C. Pereira

2006-01-01

406

Variability in the phenolic content of invasive and non-invasive emergent wetland plants.  

E-print Network

?? The colonization of wetlands by invasive plant species negatively impacts vegetation structure, nutrient and organic matter cycling, and ultimately alters native wetland ecosystem functions… (more)

Maurer, Melissa M

2014-01-01

407

Genetics of Invasive Species in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic effects following the colonization and invasion of New Zealand have been studied in relatively few cases for a variety\\u000a of reasons. The outcomes of these studies have shown that there are ranges of genetic effects that do occur after colonization,\\u000a although it is often difficult to attribute genetics as a factor in the success or failure of invasive species.

D. Gleeson; H. Harman; T. Armstrong

408

Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

Pearl, Christopher; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

2011-01-01

409

Will Climate Change Promote Alien Plant Invasions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien plant species pose significant challenges to managing and maintaining indigenous biodiversity in natural ecosystems.\\u000a Invasive plants can transform ecosystems by establishing viable populations with growth rates high enough to displace elements\\u000a of the native biota (Rejmánek 1999) or to modify disturbance regimes (Brooks et al. 2004), thereby potentially transforming\\u000a ecosystem structure and functioning (Dukes and Mooney 2004). Because

Wilfried Thuiller; David M. Richardson; Guy F. Midgley

410

2. New frontiers: Invasive nonsurgical interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shah RV, Ericksen JJ, Lacerte M. Interventions in chronic pain management. 2. New frontiers: invasive nonsurgical interventions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84 Suppl 1:S39-44. Invasive nonsurgical techniques have a central role in the management of patients suffering from acute and chronic pain. This article surveys common percutaneous pain procedures: trigger point injections, intra-articular injections, spinal injections, nerve blocks, radiofrequency lesioning

Rinoo V. Shah; Jeffery J. Ericksen; Michel Lacerte

2003-01-01

411

Minnesota horticultural industry survey on invasive plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Horticultural commerce of ornamental plants has been the source of many of our most troublesome plant invaders worldwide.\\u000a The purpose of this research was to document the knowledge gap of industry perspectives and knowledge of invasive ornamental\\u000a crops by surveying industry professionals in the Midwest region of the U.S. (primarily in the state of Minnesota). An invasive\\u000a plant survey was

William L. Peters; Mary Hockenberry Meyer; Neil O. Anderson

2006-01-01

412

Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis  

PubMed Central

Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis.

Cebulski, W?odzimierz; S?odkowski, Maciej; Krasnod?bski, Ireneusz W.

2014-01-01

413

Does consumer injury modify invasion impact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting the impacts of an invasive species solely by its abundance is common, yet it ignores other potentially important\\u000a moderating factors. One such factor is injury. Severe injury can lead to mortality, which can directly reduce the abundance\\u000a of the invader. However, more moderate, sublethal injury can also temper the impact of invasive species. Therefore, to predict\\u000a impacts, it may

David G. DelaneyBlaine; Blaine D. Griffen; Brian Leung

414

Understanding the genetic basis of invasiveness.  

PubMed

Invasive species provide excellent study systems to evaluate the ecological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the colonization of novel environments. While the ecological processes that contribute to the successful establishment of invasive plants have been studied in detail, investigation of the evolutionary processes involved in successful invasions has only recently received attention. In particular, studies investigating the genomic and gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of invasive species are just beginning and are required if we are to understand how plants become invasive. In the current issue of Molecular Ecology, Hodgins et al. (2013) tackle this unresolved question, by examining gene expression differences between native and introduced populations of annual ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The study identifies a number of potential candidate genes based on gene expression differences that may be responsible for the success of annual ragweed in its introduced range. Furthermore, genes involved in stress response are over-represented in the differentially expressed gene set. Future experiments could use functional studies to test whether changes in gene expression at these candidate genes do in fact underlie changes in growth characteristics and reproductive output observed in this and other invasive species. PMID:23738371

Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

2013-05-01

415

Fhit regulates invasion of lung tumor cells.  

PubMed

In many types of cancers, the fragile histidine triad (Fhit) gene is frequently targeted by genomic alterations leading to a decrease or loss of gene and protein expression. Fhit has been described as a tumor suppressor gene because of its ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. Moreover, several studies have shown a correlation between the lack of Fhit expression and tumor aggressiveness, thus suggesting that Fhit could be involved in tumor progression. In this study, we explored the potential role of Fhit during tumor cell invasion. We first showed that a low Fhit expression is associated with in vivo and in vitro invasiveness of tumor cells. Then, we showed that Fhit overexpression in Fhit-negative highly invasive NCI-H1299 cells by transfection of Fhit cDNA and Fhit inhibition in Fhit-positive poorly invasive HBE4-E6/E7 cells by transfection of Fhit small interfering RNA induce, respectively, a decrease and an increase in migratory/invasive capacities. These changes in cell behavior were associated with a reorganization of tight and adherens junction molecules and a regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and vimentin expression. These results show that Fhit controls the invasive phenotype of lung tumor cells by regulating the expression of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:19935706

Joannes, A; Bonnomet, A; Bindels, S; Polette, M; Gilles, C; Burlet, H; Cutrona, J; Zahm, J-M; Birembaut, P; Nawrocki-Raby, B

2010-02-25

416

Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion.  

PubMed

Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil removal, and biomass removal, as well as a less frequently proposed management approach for lowering N availability, establishment of plant species adapted to low N availability. We conclude that many of these approaches may be promising for lowering N availability by stimulating N immobilization, even though most are generally ineffective for removing N from ecosystems (excepting topsoil removal). C addition and topsoil removal are the most reliable approaches for lowering N availability, and often favor desired species over invasive species, but are too expensive or destructive, respectively, for most management applications. Less intensive approaches, such as establishing low-N plant species, burning, grazing and biomass removal, are less expensive than C addition and may lower N availability if they favor plant species that are adapted to low N availability, produce high C:N tissue, and thus stimulate N immobilization. Regardless of the method used, lowering N availability sufficiently to reduce invasion will be difficult, particularly in sites with high atmospheric N deposition or agricultural runoff. Therefore, where feasible, the disturbances that result in high N availability should be limited in order to reduce invasions by nitrophilic weeds. PMID:20387033

Perry, Laura G; Blumenthal, Dana M; Monaco, Thomas A; Paschke, Mark W; Redente, Edward F

2010-05-01

417

In Vivo Assay for Tumor Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe an in vivo invasion assay that enables the collection of invasive cells from the primary tumor. In addition to determination of the endogenous, unstimulated invasive properties of cells in vivo, the assay can take advantage of the chemotactic properties of cancer cells. Microneedles are filled with a mixture of extracellular matrix components such as Matrigel with or without a chemoattractant such as EGF, and then introduced into the primary tumor of a rat or mouse that is generated either by orthotopic injection of carcinoma cell lines or by a transgene such as polyoma Middle T. Over the course of 4 h the invasive cell population enters the needles while the animal is kept under anesthesia. At the end of the collection time, the invasive cells are extruded from the microneedles and can be analyzed in terms of the number and type of cells that invade in response to defined stimuli. By including pharmacological inhibitors in the needle, signaling pathways contributing to in vivo invasion can also be identified. This assay leads to a better understanding of the cell types and signaling involved in the tumor microenvironment, and has the potential to be applied to a variety of in vivo models. PMID:19763970

Hernandez, Lorena; Smirnova, Tatiana; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

2010-01-01

418

General guidelines for invasive plant management based on comparative demography of invasive and native plant populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. General guidelines for invasive plant management are currently lacking. Population declines may be achieved by focusing control on demographic processes (survival, growth, fecundity) with the greatest impact on population growth rate. However, we often have little demographic information on populations in the early stages of an invasion when control can be most effective. Here we determine whether synthesis

Satu Ramula; Tiffany M. Knight; Jean H. Burns; Yvonne M. Buckley

2008-01-01

419

60 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species SYMBIONTS OF INVASIVE INSECTS: CHARACTERIZATION,  

E-print Network

60 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species SYMBIONTS OF INVASIVE INSECTS: CHARACTERIZATION are critical to the success of various insects, yet we know very little about the symbiotic associations of relationships, insect vectors of plant pathogens and entomopathogens. Yet these reflect only a subset

420

Characterizing The Landscape Dynamics Of An Invasive Plant And Risk Of Invasion Using Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the spatial dynamics of invasive plant species may lead to more effective land management and reduced future invasion. Here, we identified the spatial extents of nonnative cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the north central Great Basin using remotely sensed data from Landsat MSS, TM, and ETMþ. We compared cheatgrass extents in 1973 and 2001 to six spatially explicit

Bethany A. Bradley; John F. Mustard

2006-01-01

421

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 43 Terrestrial Animals as Invasive  

E-print Network

species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic effects of invasive exotic species on native animals. National forests and grass- lands provide diverse

422

The Invasive Species Forecasting System: A Space-Based Decision Support Infrastructure for Managing Biological Invasions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being addressed by NASA's Science Mission Directorate through a national application partnership with the US Geological Survey. NASA and USGS are working together to develop a National Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) for the management and control of invasive species on Department of Interior and adjacent lands. As part of this effort, we are using NASA's EOS Clearing House (ECHO) framework to create an Invasive Species Data Service (ISDS). The ISDS will be a networked service that integrates a suite of NASA remote sensing data providers with the ecological field data resources of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII). Aggregated ISDS data will feed directly into ISFS analysis routines to produce landscape-scale predictive maps of species distributions. ISDS and the ECHO framework thus provide an efficient interface between existing NASA data systems and decision support systems that are the province of federal agencies and other national organizations. The effort significantly broadens the use of NASA data in managing the Nation's invasive species threat. In this talk, we will describe the NASA/USGS invasive species partnership, provide an overview of the Invasive Species Forecasting System, and show how we are using ECHO technologies as the middle-ware framework for a comprehensive Invasive Species Data Service.

Most, N. N.; Kendig, D.; Wichman, K.; Pollack, N.; Ilagan, A.; Morisette, J. T.; Pedelty, J. A.; Tilmes, C.; Smith, J. A.; Pfister, R.; Schnase, J. L.; Stohgren, T. J.; Crosier, C.; Graham, J.; Newman, G.; Kalkhan, M. A.; Reich, R.

2004-12-01

423

The difference in miR-21 expression levels between invasive and non-invasive breast cancers emphasizes its role in breast cancer invasion.  

PubMed

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is characteristic for various types of tumors, but it is still unknown whether its expression levels differ between invasive and non-invasive breast carcinomas. The main goal of the study was to determine the difference in miR-21 expression among normal tissue, non-invasive, invasive with non-invasive component, and pure invasive breast cancer samples, to explain its potential role and significance in breast cancer invasiveness. The second goal was to propose miR-21 as molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis. In order to reveal the role of miR-21 in breast cancer invasiveness, we measured miR-21 expression levels in 44 breast cancer and four normal samples by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR using TaqMan technology. Relative expression levels of miR-21 were significantly higher in invasive than in other groups (P=0.002) and significantly higher in invasive compared with invasive with non-invasive component group in histological (P=0.043) and nuclear grade 2 (P=0.036), estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) (P=0.006), progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) (P=0.008), ER+PR+ (P=0.007), and proliferation index (Ki-67)?20% (P=0.036) tumors. Our findings suggest that miR-21 could be independent molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis. PMID:24488617

Petrovi?, Nina; Manduši?, Vesna; Stanojevi?, Boban; Luki?, Silvana; Todorovi?, Lidija; Roganovi?, Jelena; Dimitrijevi?, Bogomir

2014-03-01

424

Enzyme electrophoretic polymorphism differentiates invasive from non-invasive Chlamydia psittaci ruminant isolates.  

PubMed

A group of 24 Chlamydia psittaci strains isolated from ruminants, belonging to serotype 1 and previously classified as invasive in a mouse model of virulence, was compared to a group of 10 non-invasive strains belonging to serotype 2 by using determination of glucose-6-phosphate and L-malate dehydrogenase zymotypes resulting of the infection of cells by these strains. The serotype 1 or invasive isolates represent a homogeneous group by sharing a unique zymotype which was not observed in the non-invasive strains. On the contrary, the serotype 2 or non-invasive isolates constitute a heterogeneous group in generating 2 different zymotypes. Zymotyping clearly distinguishes the ruminant strains from an avian C. psittaci and two C. trachomatis isolates studied for comparison. Our results suggest the usefulness of the studied molecular approach for chlamydiae typing. Furthermore, it can be used as marker of virulence within the C. psittaci strains isolated from ruminants. PMID:1448629

Picard, B; Denamur, E; Souriau, A; Orfila, J; Rodolakis, A; Goullet, P

1992-06-01

425

Remote sensing of species invasion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invasion of the Western United States of America by Bromus tectorum, also known as "cheatgrass" is mapped using techniques of remote sensing. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance using the MODTRAN4 atmospheric simulation model. The results of the radiometric processing were checked against ground reflectances with a portable ASD spectrometer. Landsat TM imagery covering portions of Utah State, USA were obtained at two times for each scene, one in the spring and one in the summer. The imagery was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance. Field data on cheatgrass abundance were collected at the same time period of the Landsat imagery. A variety of regression models were tested for predicting cheatgrass abundance. Prediction variables included the extracted ground reflectance from the multi-temporal imagery and ancillary topographic data. A meta-prediction framework was devised for compositing the results of an ensemble of regression models. Using cross-validation, the method was found to predict cheatgrass abundance (as percent) with approximately 15% Root Mean Square Error. The Landsat based prediction maps were used to scale reference data to 250 meter resolution, for prediction over larger spatial areas using the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps, at 250 meter spatial resolution and bi-monthly data frequency, were assembled over a five year time period spanning 2001-2005. PRISM monthly total precipitation data, a spatially interpolated (4 kilometer) resolution data product, were compiled over the same time period and the same spatial coverage as the MODIS data. Thin plate (Duchon) splines were fit to the time series of precipitation data and MODIS NDVI in order to generate time series of precipitation and NDVI (with an arbitrary number of data points) over the study area. Metrics designed to quantify ecosystem response to precipitation were developed and tested on the time series. The metrics were tested to efficacy in prediction of cheatgrass abundance, at a 250 meter resolution. Multiple data mining algorithms (classifiers) were tested, using cross validation to compare accuracy and aid in model selection. In a presence/absence context, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to have approximately 90% overall accuracy on the training data. In a four class context (none, low, moderate, high levels of infestation), a different SVM was found to have approximately 71% accuracy. Throughout the analysis, open source and/or free software written in Java was used when possible.

Clinton, Nicholas Etienne

426

Tactile allodynia can occur in the spared nerve injury model in the rat without selective loss of GABA or GABA(A) receptors from synapses in laminae I-II of the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence that reduced inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain, the mechanisms that underlie this are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that there is no loss of neurons from laminae I-III in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model [Polgár E, Hughes DI, Arham AZ, Todd AJ (2005) Loss of neurons from laminas I-III of the spinal dorsal horn is not required for development of tactile allodynia in the SNI model of neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 25:6658-6666]. In this study we investigated whether there was a difference between ipsilateral and contralateral sides in the levels of GABA, the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), or the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor at synapses in the medial part of the superficial dorsal horn in this model. Tissue from rats that had undergone SNI 4 weeks previously was examined with an electron microscopic immunogold method to reveal GABA, following pre-embedding detection of GABA(A) beta3 to allow identification of GABAergic terminals. Assessment of labeling for the GABA(A) beta3 subunit and VGAT was performed by using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We found no difference in the intensity of immunolabeling for any of these markers on the two sides of the superficial dorsal horn. These results suggest that there is no significant loss of GABAergic boutons from the denervated area after SNI (which is consistent with the finding that neuronal death does not occur in this model) and that there is no depletion of GABA or GABA(A) receptors at GABAergic synapses within this region. An alternative explanation for disinhibition after nerve injury is that it results from reduced excitatory drive to GABAergic dorsal horn neurons following loss of primary afferent input to these cells. PMID:18675320

Polgár, E; Todd, A J

2008-09-22

427

Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. ?? 2006, The International Biometric Society.

Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J.A.

2007-01-01

428

Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J.A.

2007-01-01

429

Biological invasions, climate change and genomics  

PubMed Central

The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species’ geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved.

Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

2015-01-01

430

Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

Ortensi, Barbara; Setti, Matteo; Osti, Daniela; Pelicci, Giuliana

2013-01-01

431

Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

2013-01-01

432

Tumor suppressive microRNA-218 inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion through targeting laminin-332 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Recent our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature revealed that expression of microRNA-218 (miR-218) was reduced in cancer tissues, suggesting a candidate of tumor suppressor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-218 and its mediated moleculer pathways in HNSCC. Restoration of miR-218 in cancer cells led to significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion activities in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu and SAS). Genome-wide gene expression analysis of miR-218 transfectants and in silico database analysis showed that focal adhesion pathway was a promising candidate of miR-218 target pathways. The laminins are an important and biologically active part of the basal lamina, the function of that are various such as influencing cell differentiation, migration and adhesion as well as proliferation and cell survival. Interestingly, all components of laminin-332 (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) are listed on the candidate genes in focal adhesion pathway. Furthermore, we focused on LAMB3 which has a miR-218 target site and gene expression studies and luciferase reporter assays showed that LAMB3 was directly regulated by miR-218. Silencing study of LAMB3 demonstrated significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion. In clinical specimens with HNSCC, the expression levels of laminin-332 were significantly upregulated in cancer tissues compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Our analysis data showed that tumor suppressive miR-218 contributes to cancer cell migration and invasion through regulating focal adhesion pathway, especially laminin-332. Tumor suppressive miRNA-mediated novel cancer pathways provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of HNSCC oncogenesis. PMID:23159910

Kinoshita, Takashi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Nohata, Nijiro; Kikkawa, Naoko; Enokida, Hideki; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Hidaka, Hideo; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Seki, Naohiko

2012-01-01

433

Cervids with different vocal behavior demonstrate different viscoelastic properties of their vocal folds.  

PubMed

The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (epithelium, lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle). The vocal fold epithelium and the lamina propria were investigated in two sets of tensile tests. First, creep rupture tests demonstrated that ultimate stress in mule deer lamina propria is of the same magnitude as in elk. Second, cyclic loading tests revealed similar elastic moduli for the vocal fold epithelium in mule deer and elk. The elastic modulus of the lamina propria is also similar between the two species in the low-strain region, but differs at strains larger than 0.3. Sex differences in the stress-strain response, which have been reported for elk and human vocal folds, were not found for mule deer vocal folds. The laminae propriae in mule deer and elk vocal folds are comparatively large. In general, a thick and uniformly stiff lamina propria does not self-oscillate well, even when high subglottic pressure is applied. If the less stiff vocal fold seen in elk is associated with a differentiated lamina propria it would allow the vocal fold to vibrate at high tension and high subglottic pressure. The results of this study support the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of vocal folds varies with function and vocal behavior. PMID:19603411

Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

2010-01-01

434

Cervids With Different Vocal Behavior Demonstrate Different Viscoelastic Properties of Their Vocal Folds  

PubMed Central

The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (epithelium, lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle). The vocal fold epithelium and the lamina propria were investigated in two sets of tensile tests. First, creep rupture tests demonstrated that ultimate stress in mule deer lamina propria is of the same magnitude as in elk. Second, cyclic loading tests revealed similar elastic moduli for the vocal fold epithelium in mule deer and elk. The elastic modulus of the lamina propria is also similar between the two species in the low-strain region, but differs at strains larger than 0.3. Sex differences in the stress–strain response, which have been reported for elk and human vocal folds, were not found for mule deer vocal folds. The laminae propriae in mule deer and elk vocal folds are comparatively large. In general, a thick and uniformly stiff lamina propria does not self-oscillate well, even when high subglottic pressure is applied. If the less stiff vocal fold seen in elk is associated with a differentiated lamina propria it would allow the vocal fold to vibrate at high tension and high subglottic pressure. The results of this study support the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of vocal folds varies with function and vocal behavior. PMID:19603411

Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

2014-01-01

435

76 FR 18575 - Nominations of New Members to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nominations of New Members to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC...of the Secretary, National Invasive Species Council. ACTION: Request for Nominations for the Invasive Species Advisory...

2011-04-04

436

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many persons have grown increasingly concerned about various invasive species, and despite the scientific debates about what constitutes such a species, ecologists and others will find this site quite helpful. Drawing on support from the USDA, this project was developed by the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department of the University of Connecticut, the New England Wildflower Society, and several other participating organizations. This site includes a Web-accessible atlas that contains images and descriptive information for the invasive and potentially invasive plants in New England. Visitors can create their customized maps that document these species by utilizing the online records database, and also just search the species by geographic species. As a way of introduction, visitors can also browse a current list of species for which data has been collected thus far. Persons interested in volunteering for the project may also want to take a look at the volunteers section which lists the times of upcoming training sessions.

437

Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy  

PubMed Central

Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation. PMID:25110661

Caversaccio, Marco; Proops, David; Brett, Peter

2014-01-01

438

Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.  

PubMed

The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin. PMID:16599964

May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

2006-04-01

439

Non-Invasive markers for hepatic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

With great advancements in the therapeutic modalities used for the treatment of chronic liver diseases, the accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is a vital need for successful individualized management of disease activity in patients. The lack of accurate, reproducible and easily applied methods for fibrosis assessment has been the major limitation in both the clinical management and for research in liver diseases. However, the problem of the development of biomarkers capable of non-invasive staging of fibrosis in the liver is difficult due to the fact that the process of fibrogenesis is a component of the normal healing response to injury, invasion by pathogens, and many other etiologic factors. Current non-invasive methods range from serum biomarker assays to advanced imaging techniques such as transient elastography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among non-invasive methods that gain strongest clinical foothold are FibroScan elastometry and serum-based APRI and FibroTest. There are many other tests that are not yet widely validated, but are none the less, promising. The rate of adoption of non-invasive diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis differs from country to country, but remains limited. At the present time, use of non-invasive procedures could be recommended as pre-screening that may allow physicians to narrow down the patients' population before definitive testing of liver fibrosis by biopsy of the liver. This review provides a systematic overview of these techniques, as well as both direct and indirect biomarkers based approaches used to stage fibrosis and covers recent developments in this rapidly advancing area. PMID:21849046

2011-01-01

440

Riparian invasive alters stream nitrogen dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species may be most likely to have strong effects on the ecosystem they invade when they contribute a new function such as nitrogen (N) fixation. Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia) is a non-native invasive tree which is rapidly spreading along riparian corridors in the American West. Russian olive is a nitrogen fixing plant due to a symbiotic relationship with Actinomycetes and is invading systems that frequently lack a strong native N fixer. The contribution of reactive N by these invasive riparian plants to soils may also be altering N cycling and processing in the adjacent streams. We measured nutrient limitation via periphyton growth on nutrient diffusing substrates and nitrate uptake using short term nitrate additions in Deep Creek, ID. Measurements were made in three reaches along a Russian olive invasion gradient, with an upstream reference reach that has no Russian olive and two downstream invaded reaches, one with moderate density and one with high density. Periphyton growth in Deep Creek was significantly N limited in the reference reach while the moderately invaded reach showed no significant limitation and the highly invaded reach was significantly P limited. The nitrate uptake velocity (Vf) for both of the invaded reaches was an order of magnitude less than the reference reach, implying that biological demand for nitrate is significantly less in the invaded reaches than the reference. Considering the current extent of Russian olive invasion and its continued rapid spread, possible alteration of N cycling in waterways may have important implications for the management of both this invasive species and management of nutrient pollution in waters of the western U.S.

Mineau, M.; Baxter, C.; Marcarelli, A.; Minshall, G.

2008-12-01

441

A neurocentric perspective on glioma invasion.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas are devastating tumours that frequently kill patients within 1 year of diagnosis. The major obstacle to a cure is diffuse invasion, which enables tumours to escape complete surgical resection and chemo- and radiation therapy. Gliomas use the same tortuous extracellular routes of migration that are travelled by immature neurons and stem cells, frequently using blood vessels as guides. They repurpose ion channels to dynamically adjust their cell volume to accommodate to narrow spaces and breach the blood-brain barrier through disruption of astrocytic endfeet, which envelop blood vessels. The unique biology of glioma invasion provides hitherto unexplored brain-specific therapeutic targets for this devastating disease. PMID:24946761

Cuddapah, Vishnu Anand; Robel, Stefanie; Watkins, Stacey; Sontheimer, Harald

2014-07-01

442

Asiatic clam invasion: causes and effects  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction and subsequent invasion of the Asiatic clam has offered a new problem of infestation in power plant intake systems that conventional intermittent chlorination procedures may not resolve. These clam invasions adversely affect intake systems and irrigation works by clogging the systems and causing erosion of pipes. Heated power plant discharges were found to be a source of thermal enrichment for the clams. Methods of temperature control followed by chlorination appear to offer short-term solutions; harvesting of the clams for protein and calcium contents present an additional solution.

Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.; Graney, R.L.

1980-01-01

443

Invasive cervical resorption: report on two cases.  

PubMed

Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption that may lead to tooth loss. This article presents the clinical and radiologic diagnoses and treatment modalities of invasive cervical resorption in 2 patients. In the first case, we did a slow orthodontic forced eruption to make the bone grow coronally. After 6 months, the tooth was extracted and an immediate implant was placed. Eight months later a zirconia crown was cemented. In the second case, we performed root canal treatment followed by a composite reconstruction of the defect. These 2 cases illustrate different approaches based on the extent of the defect. PMID:20580285

Roig, Miguel; Morelló, Sergio; Mercadé, Montse; Durán-Sindreu, Fernando

2010-10-01

444

INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

445

Effects of Simvastatin and Fluvastatin on Endothelial Invasion  

E-print Network

Endothelial invasion is a crucial step in angiogenic blood vessel formation and has ramifications in wound healing, tumor growth, and may have implications in heart disease. During invasion quiescent endothelial cells (ECs) proteolyze their basement...

Cherry, Evan

2011-08-04

446

Do invasive species perform better in their new ranges?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that successful invaders exhibit enhanced vigor following introductions to new ranges, including larger size, greater fecundity, and denser populations. This assumption of ‘increased vigour’ underlies most empirical and theoretical studies of invasion ...

447

Plum pox virus Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Plum pox virus Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M, nectarines, peaches, and plums) in Europe. Other hosts include almond and ornamental Prunus species. Michigan most "unwanted" invasive pests. Illinois Cooperative Agriculture Survey program. (http

448

Predicting the geography of species' invasions via ecological niche modeling  

E-print Network

Species’ invasions have long been regarded as enormously complex processes, so complex as to defy predictivity. Phases of this process, however, are emerging as highly predictable: the potential geographic course of an invasion can be anticipated...

Peterson, A. Townsend

2003-12-01

449

Invasion Ecology and School Biology--Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that invasion biology can supply subject matter for teaching evolution, genetics, ecological relationships, and conservation. Describes flowering and non-flowering plant invaders, vertebrates and invertebrates, and two ecological inva