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Sample records for lamina propria invasion

  1. Reexamining treatment of high-grade T1 bladder cancer according to depth of lamina propria invasion: a prospective trial of 200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Orsola, A; Werner, L; de Torres, I; Martin-Doyle, W; Raventos, C X; Lozano, F; Mullane, S A; Leow, J J; Barletta, J A; Bellmunt, J; Morote, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management of high-grade T1 (HGT1) bladder cancer represents a major challenge. We studied a treatment strategy according to substaging by depth of lamina propria invasion. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, patients received initial transurethral resection (TUR), mitomycin-C, and BCG. Subjects with shallower lamina propria invasion (HGT1a) were followed without further surgery, whereas subjects with HGT1b received a second TUR. Association of clinical and histological features with outcomes (primary: progression; secondary: recurrence and cancer-specific survival) was assessed using Cox regression. Results: Median age was 71 years; 89.5% were males, with 89 (44.5%) cases T1a and 111 (55.5%) T1b. At median follow-up of 71 months, disease progression was observed in 31 (15.5%) and in univariate analysis, substaging, carcinoma in situ, tumour size, and tumour pattern predicted progression. On multivariate analysis only substaging, associated carcinoma in situ, and tumour size remained significant for progression. Conclusions: In HGT1 bladder cancer, the strategy of performing a second TUR only in T1b cases results in a global low progression rate of 15.5%. Tumours deeply invading the lamina propria (HGT1b) showed a three-fold increase in risk of progression. Substaging should be routinely evaluated, with HGT1b cases being thoroughly evaluated for cystectomy. Inclusion in the TNM system should also be carefully considered. PMID:25535728

  2. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  3. Disturbances in apoptosis of lamina propria lymphocytes in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Stawczyk-Eder, Kamila; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Majewski, Przemysław; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Zabel, Maciej; Linke, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the potential mechanisms providing resistance to apoptosis of lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) directlyin intestinal tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Material and methods Fifty CD patients were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of healthy patients who underwent surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic polypectomy. Each CD patient underwent colonoscopy with tissue sampling from inflamed areas of the colon with the assessment of immunohistochemical expression of active caspase 3, Fas, tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), Bcl-2, Bax, CD4 and CD8. This was compared with healthy intestinal mucosa. Results The expression of active caspase 3 was significantly lower in LPL in CD (0.4 ±0.3 vs. 2.8 ±1.5; p = 0.0002). A statistically significant increase of CD4 and CD8 positive cells was noted in CD (2.3 ±0.5 vs. 1.2 ±0.2, p < 0.0001; 2.1 ±0.3 vs. 1.1 ±0.3, p < 0.0001, respectively). It was associated with a significant increase of the Bcl-2 (6.7 ±2.7 vs. 2.9 ±0.8; p < 0.0001) and a decrease of the Bax protein expression (3.4 ±2.1 vs. 5.5 ±1.8; p < 0.0001) in CD. The expression of Fas and TNFR1 did not differ between the study groups. Conclusions LPL in CD are resistant to apoptosis when compared with physiological conditions. This is probably due to an imbalance in Bcl-2 family proteins. TNFR1-related pathway is probably not involved in disturbances of LPL apoptosis in CD. PMID:26788091

  4. Vascular and lymphatic properties of the superficial and deep lamina propria in Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hejin P; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Odze, Robert D

    2008-10-01

    A well-known type of mesenchymal/epithelial interaction occurs in Barrett esophagus (BE) characterized by the formation of a new, superficially located, muscularis mucosae (MM), which results in the division of the lamina propria (LP) into a superficial and deep compartment. The vascular and lymphatic properties of these 2 regions of LP are unknown. The risk of metastases of carcinomas that infiltrate these 2 anatomic areas also remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the density of blood vessels and lymphatic spaces within the superficial and deep LP and submucosa in patients with BE, and to compare the results to normal squamous-lined esophagus. Thirty esophago-gastrectomy specimens were stained immunohistochemically with CD31 (stains blood vessel and lymphatic endothelium) and D2-40 (stains lymphatic endothelium only). The density of CD31+ blood and lymphatic vessels (per 20 x field) in BE (superficial LP=37 and deep LP=38) was significantly lower compared with the LP of squamous-lined esophagus (68; P<0.001). However, the total number of blood and lymphatic vessels in the superficial and deep LP in BE was statistically similar to the LP of squamous-lined esophagus. The density of CD31+ blood and lymphatic vessels (per 20x field) in the submucosa of BE (21) was not significantly different from the submucosa of squamous-lined esophagus (23; P>0.05). We conclude that in BE, the "native" LP in squamous-lined esophagus is separated into 2 LP compartments (superficial and deep) by the formation of a new MM. These findings suggest that carcinomas that invade through the superficial MM into the deep LP should be considered "intramucosal" rather than "submucosal." Further outcome studies are needed to evaluate the risk of vascular/lymphatic metastasis in BE patients with different levels of LP invasion. PMID:18685488

  5. Hypermutation, diversity and dissemination of human intestinal lamina propria plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Walters, D K; Boursier, L; Spencer, J

    1997-11-01

    In this work we have microdissected lamina propria plasma cells and used polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to investigate immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements and mutations in human intestine. In addition, specific primers were designed for individual Ig gene rearrangements to analyze the distribution of related B cell and plasma cell clones at different sites along the bowel. Confirming our earlier work, intestinal IgVH genes were highly mutated in plasma cells from older individuals (> 30 years). IgVH genes were significantly less mutated in samples taken from patients aged 11-30 years, and there were fewer mutations again in samples from young children (< 11 years). In age-matched specimens the number of mutations was equivalent in the duodenum and colon. Using complementarity-determining region 3 primers to amplify specific Ig gene rearrangements, evidence was also found for the existence of related lamina propria plasma cells along the small bowel and colon, although these were quite scarce. In addition, analysis of the numbers of related clones in a random sampling from discrete areas of lamina propria indicates that the local population is diverse. These results suggest that the highly mutated IgVH genes in adult intestinal plasma cells are a consequence of chronic antigen exposure with age. Duodenal plasma cells are as highly mutated as colonic plasma cells, despite the fact that the upper bowel has no indigenous microbial flora (the stimulus for intestinal plasma cells). They also show that the plasma cell population is diverse and can be widely disseminated along the bowel. PMID:9394824

  6. Antigen induced suppression in peripheral blood and lamina propria mononuclear cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, H R; Hoang, P; Jewell, D P

    1992-01-01

    Using an autologous system, suppressor cell function to a range of mycobacterial antigens and Kunin antigen of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lamina propria lymphocytes has been investigated in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In the peripheral blood there was reduced antigen induced suppression in patients with Crohn's disease in remission to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, purified protein derivative (PPD), M fortuitum, and Kunin antigens (p less than 0.05). In patients with ulcerative colitis in remission there was reduced antigen induced suppression in the peripheral blood to Kunin antigen (p less than 0.001), M avium (p less than 0.01), M nonchromogenecin, and M fortuitum (p less than 0.05). The phenomenon of antigen induced suppression was largely CD8 dependent, as depleting CD8+ cells reduced the effect and the concentration of soluble CD8 in the culture supernatant was directly related to the suppressor index (r = 0.25, p less than 0.05). These results are likely to be a true reflection of the cell mediated response to antigen as patients with a positive Mantoux skin test have a significantly higher suppressor index to PPD than Mantoux negative subjects (p less than 0.05). These findings may have significance in the aetiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, a similar effect could not be shown in the lamina propria lymphocytes of patients having colectomy for active disease. PMID:1533199

  7. Synergy Between Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria T Cells Drives Intestinal Inflammation During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C. E.; Maurer, K. J.; Cohen, S. B.; Mack, M.; Simpson, K. W.; Denkers, E. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii triggers severe necrosis in the ileum within 7–10 days of infection. Lesion development is mediated by Th-1 cytokines, CD4+ T cells, and sub-epithelial bacterial translocation. As such, these features share similarity to Crohn’s disease. Recently, we uncovered a role for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in mediating pathology after Toxoplasma infection. We show here that αβ and not γδ T cell IELs mediate intestinal damage. By adoptive transfer of mucosal T cells into naive Rag1−/− mice, we demonstrate that IEL do not function alone to cause inflammatory lesions, but act with CD4+ T lymphocytes from the lamina propria. Furthermore, recipient mice pretreated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to eliminate intestinal flora resisted intestinal disease after transfer of IEL and lamina propria lymphocytes. Our data provide valuable new insight into mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, findings that have important implications for understanding human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21796113

  8. Microbiota Controls the Homeostasis of Glial Cells in the Gut Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Kabouridis, PanagiotisS.; Lasrado, Reena; McCallum, Sarah; Chng, SongHui; Snippert, HugoJ.; Clevers, Hans; Pettersson, Sven; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intrinsic neural networks of the gastrointestinal tract are derived from dedicated neural crest progenitors that colonize the gut during embryogenesis and give rise to enteric neurons and glia. Here, we study how an essential subpopulation of enteric glial cells (EGCs) residing within the intestinal mucosa is integrated into the dynamic microenvironment of the alimentary tract. We find that under normal conditions colonization of the lamina propria by glial cells commences during early postnatal stages but reaches steady-state levels after weaning. By employing genetic lineage tracing, we provide evidence that in adult mice the network of mucosal EGCs is continuously renewed by incoming glial cells originating in the plexi of the gut wall. Finally, we demonstrate that both the initial colonization and homeostasis of glial cells in the intestinal mucosa are regulated by the indigenous gut microbiota. PMID:25578362

  9. Empirical Measurements of Biomechanical Anisotropy of the Human Vocal Fold Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Jordan E.; Siegmund, Thomas; Du, Mindy; Naseri, Elhum; Chan, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds are known to be mechanically anisotropic due to the microstructural arrangement of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin in the lamina propria. Even though this has been known for many years, the biomechanical anisotropic properties have rarely been experimentally studied. We propose that an indentation procedure can be used with uniaxial tension in order to obtain an estimate of the biomechanical anisotropy within a single specimen. Experiments were performed on the lamina propria of three male and three female human vocal folds dissected from excised larynges. Two experiments were conducted: each specimen was subjected to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading in the longitudinal (i.e. anterior-posterior) direction, and then to cyclic indentation loading in the transverse (i.e. medial-lateral) direction. The indentation experiment was modeled as contact on a transversely isotropic half-space using the Barnett-Lothe tensors. The longitudinal elastic modulus EL was computed from the tensile test, and the transverse elastic modulus ET and longitudinal shear modulus GL were obtained by inverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement response. It was discovered that the average of EL/ET was 14 for the vocal ligament and 39 for the vocal fold cover specimens. Also, the average of EL/GL, a parameter important for models of phonation, was 28 for the vocal ligament and 54 for the vocal fold cover specimens. These measurements of anisotropy could contribute to more accurate models of fundamental frequency regulation and provide potentially better insights into the mechanics of vocal fold vibration. PMID:22886592

  10. Up-regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in human lamina propria T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, J; Autschbach, F; Giese, T; Lasitschka, F; Heidtmann, A; Sido, B; Funke, B; Reiser, C; Schrder, A J; Nebl, G; Samstag, Y; Meuer, S C

    2008-03-01

    Human intestinal lamina propria T lymphocytes (LPT), when investigated ex vivo, exhibit functional properties profoundly different from those of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBT). One prominent feature represents their enhanced sensitivity to CD2 stimulation when compared to PBT. Given that LPT are hyporesponsive to T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 stimulation, an alternative activation mode, as mimicked by CD2 triggering in vitro, may be functional in mucosal inflammation in vivo. This study provides insight into signalling events associated with the high CD2 responsiveness of LPT. When compared to PBT, LPT show an increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (PI3-kinase/AKT/GSK-3beta) pathway in response to CD2 stimulation. Evidence is provided that up-regulation of this pathway contributes to the enhanced CD2-induced cytokine production in LPT. Given the importance of TCR-independent stimulation for the initiation of intestinal immune responses analysis of signalling pathways induced by 'co-stimulatory' receptors may provide valuable information for therapeutic drug design. PMID:18234058

  11. Postnatal development of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in the intestinal intraepithelium and lamina propria in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lillehoj, H S; Chung, K S

    1992-03-01

    Postnatal development of various T-lymphocyte subpopulations expressing CD3, CD8, CD4, and antigen-specific TCR heterodimers alpha beta (TCR2) or gamma delta (TCR1) was investigated in two different inbred chicken strains, SC and TK. The ratios of jejunum T-cells expressing TCR1 to TCR2 in the intraepithelium of SC and TK strains gradually increased after hatching and were 3.40 and 4.28 by 12 weeks in TK and SC chickens respectively. The ratios of TCR1+ to TCR2(+)-cells in intraepithelium and the lamina propria in SC chickens were 0.96 and 1.23 at 8 weeks and 4.29 and 2.15 at 12 weeks, respectively. Jejunum intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing the CD8 antigen increased gradually until 4-6 weeks of age and subsequently declined as chickens aged. CD4(+)-cells represented a minor subpopulation among the intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations. Therefore, the composition of various T-cell subpopulations in the intestine depended upon host age, the regions of the gut examined and host genetic background. These results suggest that changes in T-cell subpopulations in the intestine may reflect age-related maturation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. PMID:1350386

  12. Unique Lamina Propria Stromal Cells Imprint the Functional Phenotype of Mucosal Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Suarez, Ildefonso; Larange, Alexandre; Reardon, Colin; Matho, Michael; Feau, Sonia; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Park, Yunji; Obata, Yuuki; Gold, Rebecca; Wang-Zhu, Yiran; Lena, Chris; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Schoenberger, Stephen; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Cheroutre, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestine acquire the unique capacity to produce retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite that induces gut tropism and regulates the functional differentiation of the T cells they prime. Here we identified a stromal cell (SC) population in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), which is capable of inducing RA production in DCs in a RA- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent fashion. Unlike DCs, LP SCs constitutively expressed the enzymatic machinery to produce RA even in the absence of dietary vitamin A but were not able to do so in germ-free mice implying regulation by microbiota. Interestingly, DCs promoted GM-CSF production by the SCs indicating a two-way crosstalk between both cell types. Furthermore, RA-producing LP SCs and intestinal DCs localized closely in vivo suggesting that the interactions between both cell types might play an important role on the functional education of migratory DCs and therefore in the regulation of immune responses towards oral and commensal antigens. PMID:24938743

  13. HIV-1 gp120 accelerates Fas-mediated activation-induced human lamina propria T cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boirivant, M; Viora, M; Giordani, L; Luzzati, A L; Pronio, A M; Montesani, C; Pugliese, O

    1998-01-01

    Intestinal mucosa represents an important portal of entry of HIV and a site of virus reservoir and active replication. Recently, in HIV patients, an early depletion of intestinal lamina propria T lymphocytes (LPT) has been described. HIV-1 gp120 has been demonstrated to promote apoptosis in noninfected isolated peripheral blood T cells, therefore we investigated whether gpl20 modulates apoptosis of normal human intestinal lamina propria T cells. Purified T cells were obtained by immunomagnetic negative selection from human lamina propria mononuclear cells isolated from surgical specimens by enzymatic procedure. Cells were incubated with or without recombinant gpl20 (10 microg/ml) and cultured either in the absence of any stimulus or in the presence of plate-bound anti-CD3 Ab (OKT3) or soluble anti-CD2 Ab (T11(2) + T11[3]). Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. We demonstrated that preincubation of normal LPT cells with HIV-1 gpl20 accelerates the apoptosis observed during CD2-pathway stimulation of LPT cells. This process is mediated by Fas/Fas ligand interaction and related to an increased induction of Fas ligand mRNA by gpl20. Therefore HIV-1 gp120 could contribute to the depletion of noninfected LPT cells inducing a premature cell death. PMID:9475352

  14. Initiation of an Inflammatory Response in Resident Intestinal Lamina Propria Cells -Use of a Human Organ Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Schrder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

  15. TLR5 mediates CD172α+ intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell induction of Th17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Chen, Feidi; Wu, Wei; Cao, Anthony T; Xue, Xiaochang; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Li, Yan-Qing; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms exist in regulation of host responses to massive challenges from microbiota to maintain immune homeostasis in the intestines. Among these is the enriched Th17 cells in the intestines, which regulates intestinal homeostasis through induction of antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA among others. However, the means by which Th17 cells develop in response to microbiota is still not completely understood. Although both TLR5 and CD172α+ lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDC) have been shown to promote Th17 cell development, it is still unclear whether TLR5 mediates the CD172α+LPDC induction of Th17 cells. By using a microbiota antigen-specific T cell reporter mouse system, we demonstrated that microbiota antigen-specific T cells developed into Th17 cells in the intestinal LP, but not in the spleen when transferred into TCRβxδ−/− mice. LPDCs expressed high levels of TLR5, and most CD172α+LPDCs also co-expressed TLR5. LPDCs produced high levels of IL-23, IL-6 and TGFβ when stimulated with commensal flagellin and promoted Th17 cell development when cultured with full-length CBir1 flagellin but not CBir1 peptide. Wild-type CD172α+, but not CD172α−, LPDCs induced Th17 cells, whereas TLR5-deficient LPDC did not induce Th17 cells. Our data thereby demonstrated that TLR5 mediates CD172α+LPDC induction of Th17 cells in the intestines. PMID:26907705

  16. Changes in lamina propria dendritic cells on the oral administration of exogenous protein antigens during weaning.

    PubMed

    Ohue, Ryuji; Nakamoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-05-01

    Two critical periods of maximum exposure to antigens occur in young mammals, immediately after birth and at weaning, as a result of colonization by commensal bacteria and the ingestion of new diets. At weaning, active immune responses of antibody production against dietary proteins are known to occur, but simultaneously, oral tolerance is acquired for harmless food proteins. However, regulated mechanisms of the immune system at weaning remain to be elucidated although its immune responses may be somewhat similar to those in adulthood. Considering that tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are likely to be a key factor in the acquisition of oral tolerance, in the present study, we examined the changes of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria (LP) on exposure to food proteins at weaning. C57BL/6 female mice were weaned at the age of 3weeks and orally administered 10mg of ovalbumin (OVA) for ten consecutive days after weaning. The administration led to a decrease in the plasma level of immunoglobulin specific for OVA, suggesting the acquisition of oral tolerance. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled OVA was significantly observed for CD11c(+)LPDCs. When we analyzed the changes of two types of LPDCs, PDCA-1(+) MHC II(+) DCs and CD103(+) MHC II(+) DCs, ten consecutive gavages of OVA marginally, but not significantly, augmented only the frequency of PDCA-1(+) MHC II(+) DCs. Considering that the change of APCs likely appears immediately on the response to antigen intake, we found the statistically significant increase in the frequency of PDCA-1(+) DCs, but not in that of CD103(+) DCs, even after two treatments, indicating PDCA-1(+) DCs to be recruited in the LP within 2days of exposure to food proteins. These results suggest that the behavior of tolerogenic PDCA-1(+) DCs may change at weaning with the removal of the immunoprotective components of maternal milk. PMID:21509613

  17. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, Duane R; Portuguese, Andrew J; Meyers, Robin M; Gallagher, Michael P; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M; Panchakshari, Rohit A; Rodig, Scott J; Kepler, Thomas B; Alt, Frederick W

    2013-09-01

    The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease (RAG) initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH ? and IgL (Ig? or Ig?) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B-cell antigen-binding receptor (BCR). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells, allowing continued Ig? V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial V?J? exon with one that generates a new specificity. This 'receptor editing' process, which can also lead to Ig? V(D)J recombination and expression, provides a mechanism whereby antigen encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B-cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of postnatal B-cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification in mice. Here we report that early B-cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP immunoglobulin repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B-lineage cells that harbour intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different V? repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing bone marrow counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Ig?-expressing versus Ig?-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B-cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extracellular signals from commensal microbes that influence gut immunoglobulin repertoires. PMID:23965619

  18. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Wesemann, Duane R.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Meyers, Robin M.; Gallagher, Michael P.; Cluff-Jones, Kendra; Magee, Jennifer M.; Panchakshari, Rohit A.; Rodig, Scott J.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease ("RAG") initiates the V(D)J recombination reaction that assembles Ig heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain variable region exons from germline gene segments to generate primary antibody repertoires1. IgH V(D)J assembly occurs in progenitor (pro-) B cells followed by that of IgL in precursor (pre-) B cells. Expression of IgH μ and IgL (Igκ or Igλ) chains generates IgM, which is expressed on immature B cells as the B cell antigen-binding receptor ("BCR"). Rag expression can continue in immature B cells2, allowing continued Igκ V(D)J recombination that replaces the initial VκJκ exon with one that generates a new specificity3–5. This “receptor editing” process, which also can lead to Igλ V(D)J recombination and expression3,6,7, provides a mechanism whereby antigen-encounter at the Rag-expressing immature B cell stage helps shape pre-immune BCR repertoires. As the major site of post-natal B cell development, the bone marrow is the principal location of primary Ig repertoire diversification in mice. Here, we report that early B cell development also occurs within the mouse intestinal lamina propria (LP), where the associated V(D)J recombination/receptor editing processes modulate primary LP Ig repertoires. At weanling age in normally housed mice, the LP contains a population of Rag-expressing B lineage cells that harbor intermediates indicative of ongoing V(D)J recombination and which contain cells with pro-B, pre-B, and editing phenotypes. Consistent with LP-specific receptor editing, Rag-expressing LP B-lineage cells have similar VH repertoires, but significantly different Vκ repertoires, compared to those of Rag2-expressing BM counterparts. Moreover, colonization of germ-free mice leads to an increased ratio of Igλ-expressing versus Igκ-expressing B cells specifically in the LP. We conclude that B cell development occurs in the intestinal mucosa, where it is regulated by extra-cellular signals from commensal microbes that influence gut Ig repertoires. PMID:23965619

  19. Morphological and histochemical characteristics of the lamina propria in scrotal and abdominal testes from postpubertal boars: correlation with the appearance of the seminiferous epithelium

    PubMed Central

    PINART, E.; BONET, S.; BRIZ, M.; PASTOR, L. M.; SANCHO, S.; GARCA, N.; BADIA, E.; BASSOLS, J.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the morphological characteristics and lectin affinity of the testicular lamina propria in healthy boars and in unilateral and bilateral abdominal cryptorchid boars. The lamina propria of scrotal testes from healthy boars and unilateral cryptorchid boars was constituted by an innermost noncellular layer, the basal lamina, and by 2 layers of peritubular cells, each separated by a fibrous layer. The noncellular layers contained collagen fibres and glycoconjugates with abundant N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. The inner peritubular cell layer was composed of myoid cells, the outer layer of fibroblasts. In the abdominal testes of unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria of nondegenerating and degenerating seminiferous tubules appeared thickened due to an increased content of collagen fibres and glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates showed decreased amounts of fucose, neuraminic acid and galactose, and increased amounts of N-acetylglucosamine residues. The basal lamina formed infoldings toward the seminiferous epithelium and contained small cells. Both inner and outer peritubular cells were fibroblasts of immature appearance. In degenerated seminiferous tubules of bilateral cryptorchid boars, the lamina propria was composed of a thickened and collagenised basal lamina, without peritubular cells and with a low content of glycoconjugates. In scrotal testes, therefore, the lamina propria was implicated in tubular contractility and in mediating the communication and the substrate diffusion between seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue. Cryptorchidism induced morphological and histochemical alterations in the lamina propria of abdominal testes, which may be linked to evidence from other studies of lack of tubular contractility and defective cellcell communication and substrate diffusion. The severity of these anomalies correlated with the severity of Sertoli cell alterations. PMID:11693304

  20. Specific attachment of mesenteric IgA lymphoblasts to specialized endothelium of intestinal mucosa lamina propria capillaries.

    PubMed

    Weisz-Carrington, P; Emancipator, S; Kelemen, P R

    1991-02-01

    The bulk of IgA secreted in the gut is mostly contributed by locally dwelling plasma cells derived from B cells originating in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). These IgA cells originate in Peyer's patches and recirculate, returning to the gut upon maturity. The precise mechanism of homing to secretory mucosae is to date not fully understood. It has been demonstrated, however, that specialized endothelium of small vascular spaces in peripheral nodes (PN) and endothelia of mucosal vessels are the site of receptor recognition for B and T cells. In their sojourn, IgA blasts have been shown to stop momentarily in mesenteric nodes (MN) before proceeding to their final destination, the lamina propria (LP) of the gut mucosa. They then develop into IgA-secreting plasma cells. In the present work, we show that IgA MN lymphoblasts, when compared to PN lymphoblasts, attach preferentially to LP venule and capillary endothelium, The B-cell maturation in the mesenteric lymph nodes, where IgA is the sole membrane-bound immunoglobulin, allows attachment of most of these cells. Our work suggests that the site of exit of IgA cells from the circulation are these specialized lamina propria venules and capillaries. PMID:1988164

  1. Effector Th-1 cells with cytotoxic function in the intestinal lamina propria of patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mariani, P; Bachetoni, A; D'Alessandro, M; Lomanto, D; Mazzocchi, P; Speranza, V

    2000-10-01

    A large body of evidence points to a pivotal relationship between Th-1 cells and mucosal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of the present study was to assess whether CD is associated with specific functional activity of lamina propria T lymphocytes (LPT), particularly purified CD4, such as cytotoxic activity and specific cytokine-secreted profile. The results showed that CD4 LPT in patients displayed a chronically activated memory-like surface phenotype and, when compared to controls, had a significantly enhanced antibody-redirected cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the ratio of perforin expression in CD4 LPT was higher compared to controls, and a redirected lysis of human RBC mediated by a CD4 subset of intestinal lamina propria was evident, suggesting a cytolytic pore-forming mechanism. Moreover, a unique Th-1 cytokine profile pattern in the CD4 cells from CD was defined. These effector cells produced 12 times more IFN-gamma, two times more TNF-alpha, and three times less IL-4 than controls. In contrast, no increase in IL-2 was detected, while IL-5 was undetectable. Our studies suggest that these preexisting in vivo activated CD4 LPT may play an important role in the inflammatory process in CD, thus directly contributing to the intestinal lesions. PMID:11117579

  2. Oral Mucosal Lamina Propria-Progenitor Cells Exert Antibacterial Properties via the Secretion of Osteoprotegerin and Haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Board-Davies, Emma; Moses, Rachael; Sloan, Alastair; Stephens, Phil

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity possesses a diverse microflora, yet recurrent infections within healthy individuals are rare. Wound healing within the buccal mucosa is preferential, potentially because of the presence of oral mucosal lamina propria-progenitor cells (OMLP-PCs). In addition to their multipotency, OMLP-PCs demonstrate potent immunosuppressive properties. The present study investigated whether OMLP-PCs possess antibacterial properties, directly interacting with microorganisms and contributing to the maintenance of a balanced oral microflora. Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were cocultured with OMLP-PCs, buccal mucosal fibroblasts, or their respective conditioned media (CM). Bacterial growth was significantly inhibited when cocultured with OMLP-PCs or their CM. No antibacterial activity was apparent within the fibroblasts. Analysis of the OMLP-PC CM indicated constitutive secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and haptoglobin (Hp). Exposure of the bacteria to OPG or Hp demonstrated their differential antibacterial properties, with neutralization/blocking studies confirming that the growth of Gram-positive bacteria was partially restored by neutralizing OPG within OMLP-PC CM; blocking Hp restored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the broad-spectrum antibacterial properties of OMLP-PCs. We report the direct and constitutive antibacterial nature of OMLP-PCs, with retention of this effect within the CM suggesting a role for soluble factors such as OPG and Hp. Knowledge of the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of these cells could potentially be exploited in the development of novel cell- or soluble factor-based therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases such as pneumonia or ailments such as chronic nonhealing wounds. Significance Oral mucosal lamina propria-progenitor cells (OMLP-PCs) are a cell source with known immunomodulatory properties. The present report demonstrates the novel finding that OMLP-PCs possess potent antibacterial properties, halting the growth of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria through the secretion of soluble factors. OMLP-PCs constitutively secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG) and haptoglobin (Hp) at levels high enough to exert antibacterial action. OPG, a glycoprotein not previously known to be antibacterial, can suppress Gram-positive bacterial growth. Hp is only active against Gram-negative microorganisms. These findings indicate that OMLP-PCs could offer great potential in the development of novel cell- or soluble factor-based therapies for the treatment of infectious illness, such as bacterial pneumonia, through systemic infusion and of chronic wounds through local administration. PMID:26378260

  3. Impaired Accumulation of Antigen-Specific CD8 Lymphocytes in Chemokine CCL25-Deficient Intestinal Epithelium and Lamina Propria1

    PubMed Central

    Wurbel, Marc-Andr; Malissen, Marie; Guy-Grand, Delphine; Malissen, Bernard; Campbell, James J.

    2008-01-01

    CCL25 and CCR9 constitute a chemokine/receptor pair involved in T cell development and in gut-associated immune responses. In this study, we generated CCL25?/? mice to answer questions that could not be addressed with existing CCR9?/? mice. Similar phenotypes were observed for both CCL25?/? and CCR9?/? mice, consistent with the notion that CCL25 and CCR9 interact with each other exclusively. We assessed the requirement for CCL25 in generating CCR9high CD8 intestinal memory-phenotype T cells and the subsequent accumulation of these cells within effector sites. TCR-transgenic naive CD8 T cells were transferred into wild-type or CCL25-deficient hosts. Oral sensitization with Ag allowed these naive donor cells to efficiently differentiate into CCR9high memory-phenotype cells within the mesenteric lymph nodes of wild-type hosts. This differentiation event occurred with equal efficiency in the MLN of CCL25-deficient hosts, demonstrating that CCL25 is not required to induce the CCR9high memory phenotype in vivo. However, we found that CCL25 deficiency severely impaired the Ag-dependent accumulation of donor-derived CD8 T cells within both lamina propria and epithelium of the small intestine. Thus, although CCL25 is not necessary for generating memory-phenotype CD8 T cells with gut-homing properties, this chemokine is indispensable for their trafficking to the small intestine. PMID:17548595

  4. Responsive population dynamics and wide seeding into the duodenal lamina propria of transglutaminase-2-specific plasma cells in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Niro, R; Snir, O; Kaukinen, K; Yaari, G; Lundin, K E A; Gupta, N T; Kleinstein, S H; Cols, M; Cerutti, A; Mäki, M; Shlomchik, M J; Sollid, L M

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of celiac disease is autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). By visualizing TG2-specific antibodies by antigen staining of affected gut tissue, we identified TG2-specific plasma cells in the lamina propria as well as antibodies in the subepithelial layer, inside the epithelium, and at the brush border. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells were found not to correlate with serum antibody titers, suggesting that antibody production at other sites may contribute to serum antibody levels. Upon commencement of a gluten-free diet, the frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the lesion dropped dramatically within 6 months, yet some cells remained. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the celiac lesion is thus dynamically regulated in response to gluten exposure. Laser microdissection of plasma cell patches, followed by antibody gene sequencing, demonstrated that clonal cells were seeded in distinct areas of the mucosa. This was confirmed by immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoire analysis of plasma cells isolated from individual biopsies of two untreated patients, both for TG2-specific and non-TG2-specific cells. Our results shed new light on the processes underlying the B-cell response in celiac disease, and the approach of staining for antigen-specific antibodies should be applicable to other antibody-mediated diseases. PMID:26153762

  5. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)? and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4+T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis. PMID:26161006

  6. Responsive population dynamics and wide seeding into the duodenal lamina propria of transglutaminase-2-specific plasma cells in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Di Niro, R; Snir, O; Kaukinen, K; Yaari, G; Lundin, K E A; Gupta, N T; Kleinstein, S H; Cols, M; Cerutti, A; Mäki, M; Shlomchik, M J; Sollid, L M

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of celiac disease is autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). By visualizing TG2-specific antibodies by antigen staining of affected gut tissue, we identified TG2-specific plasma cells in the lamina propria as well as antibodies in the subepithelial layer, inside the epithelium, and at the brush border. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells were found not to correlate with serum antibody titers, suggesting that antibody production at other sites may contribute to serum antibody levels. Upon commencement of a gluten-free diet, the frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the lesion dropped dramatically within 6 months, yet some cells remained. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the celiac lesion is thus dynamically regulated in response to gluten exposure. Laser microdissection of plasma cell patches, followed by antibody gene sequencing, demonstrated that clonal cells were seeded in distinct areas of the mucosa. This was confirmed by immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoire analysis of plasma cells isolated from individual biopsies of two untreated patients, both for TG2-specific and non-TG2-specific cells. Our results shed new light on the processes underlying the B-cell response in celiac disease, and the approach of staining for antigen-specific antibodies should be applicable to other antibody-mediated diseases. PMID:26153762

  7. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the Murine Lamina Propria Requires Retinoic Acid-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Patrycja; Ferstl, Ruth; Ziegler, Mario; Frei, Remo; Nehrbass, Dirk; Lauener, Roger P.; Akdis, Cezmi A.; O'Mahony, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103+RALDH+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103+RALDH+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation. PMID:23704880

  8. Oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with intestinal bacterin stimulates lamina propria T lymphocytes to produce Th1-biased cytokines in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk "Sustaina") on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-? and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-? and IFN-? increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice. PMID:24686517

  9. Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk Sustaina) on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-? and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-? and IFN-? increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice. PMID:24686517

  10. Characterization of upper lamina propria interstitial cells in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity and bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Thomas; De Vos, Rita; Everaerts, Wouter; Libbrecht, Louis; Van Der Aa, Frank; van den Oord, Joost; Roskams, Tania; De Ridder, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The upper lamina propria (ULP) area of interstitial cells (IC) in bladder has been studied for more than a decade in several species including human beings. Nevertheless there is still lack of uniformity in terminology of this cell layer. The aim of the present study was to add new data to the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of these cells and to find out whether this phenotype is changed in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS). Bladder tissue was obtained from a control group and from patients with NDO and BPS. Samples were processed for morphology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. A morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype for the ULP IC was assessed and changes in this phenotype were looked for in samples from patients with NDO and BPS. The ULP IC were characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of actin filaments with densifications, many caveolae and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER); on immunohistochemistry ULP IC were immunoreactive for ?-sma, vimentin, CD10 and podoplanin and categorized as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). In NDO and BPS bladders we found a phenotypical shift towards a fibroblastic phenotype which was even more pronounced in the NDO group. In both groups there was also an increased presence in ULP lymphocytes. The ULP area in the human bladder contains a population of ICLC with distinct ultrastructural morphology and immunohistochemical phenotype. Their unique ?-sma+/desmin/CD34 phenotype allows studying this population in various bladder disorders. In bladders form patients with BPS and NDO, we observed these ULP ICLC to shift towards a fibroblast phenotype. PMID:21251216

  11. Soluble galectin?3 is a strong, colonic epithelial?cell?derived, lamina propria fibroblast?stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, E; Falk, W; Bataille, F; Kaehne, T; Naumann, M; Goeke, M; Herfarth, H; Schoelmerich, J; Rogler, G

    2007-01-01

    Background Colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPFs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis and strictures in Crohn's disease. Aim To identify colonic epithelial cell (CEC)?derived factors that activate CLPFs. Methods Primary human CECs and CLPFs were isolated from control mucosa and interleukin 8 (IL8) of CLPF cultures was quantified by ELISA. Activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF??B) was shown, and translocation of NF??B was inhibited by a dominant?negative I?B?expressing adenovirus. The major CLPF?activating and IL8 inducing protein was purified using fast?performance liquid chromatography (HiPrep 16/60 Sephacryl S?200 High Resolution Column) and sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis. Results A considerable increase in IL8 secretion by CLPFs cultured in CEC?conditioned media compared with that in unconditioned media (155.00 (10.00)?pg/g v 1.434 (0.695)?pg/g) was found. The effect of CEC?conditioned media on CLPF IL8 secretion was NF??B dependent. A protein or DNA array confirmed the involvement of NF??B and activator protein?1. Purification of a candidate band isolated with the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate?polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing showed soluble galectin?3 to be a strong CLPF?activating factor. Depletion of galectin?3 from conditioned media by immunoprecipitation abolished the CLPF stimulatory effect. Conclusions Using a classical biochemical approach, soluble galectin?3 was identified as a strong activator of CLPFs produced by CEC. Galectin?3 induced NF??B activation and IL8 secretion in these cells and may be a target for future therapeutic approaches to reduce or avoid stricture formation. PMID:16709662

  12. Secretory effects of kinins on colonic epithelium in relation to prostaglandins released from cells of the lamina propria.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. A.; Hoult, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Sheets of muscle-stripped rat and rabbit colon with epithelium intact or removed were mounted in Ussing-type chambers for recording of transepithelial p.d., resistance and short circuit current (Isc), and measurement by radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the release of prostaglandins into serosal and mucosal bathing solutions. 2. In epithelial-intact preparations prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGE1, PGF2 alpha, U46619 and prostacyclin (10(-7)-10(-6) M) caused increases in Isc and transepithelial p.d., in (approximate) descending order of potency. Epithelial-removed preparations did not exhibit any transepithelial p.d. 3. In epithelial-intact preparations, lysyl-bradykinin (LBk) applied serosally but not mucosally caused increased p.d. and release of PGE2 (and to a lesser extent other prostaglandins) into serosal but not mucosal bathing solutions. In epithelial-removed tissues, responsiveness to LBk was maintained, but it did not exhibit 'sidedness', i.e. LBk was effective when applied on either side and PGE2 release occurred into both compartments. 4. Indomethacin and other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) abolished the LBk-induced p.d. and reduced PGE2 release if applied serosally but not mucosally in epithelial-intact preparations. In epithelial-removed tissues, indomethacin added to either side abolished prostaglandin release into both compartments. 5. Calcium removal from serosal but not mucosal bathing solution (Ca2+-free EGTA Krebs) abolished p.d. generation by LBk in epithelial-intact preparations, and reduced PGE2 release in rabbit but not rat colon. Similarly, in epithelial-removed preparations, calcium removal did not affect kinin-induced PGE2 generation in rat but strongly attenuated it in rabbit colon. 6. We conclude that (i) kinins activate the arachidonate cascade principally by interactions with cells in the subepithelial (lamina propria) layer, rather than with the epithelial cells themselves, (ii) PGE2 contributes substantially to the kinin-induced increase of transepithelial p.d. as a messenger released from kinin-responsive subepithelial cells and acting on the basolateral pole of the epithelial cells, (iii) the apparent sidedness of colonic epithelium in terms of responses to kinins, NSAIDs and calcium removal is due to the barrier properties of the epithelial cell layer, and (iv) there are differences in calcium sequestration and apparent calcium dependence of prostaglandin biosynthesis between rat and rabbit colonic subepithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 1 PMID:3207989

  13. Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, K; Halstensen, T S; Jahnsen, F; Pulford, K; Brandtzaeg, P

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by monoclonal antibody EG2. Virtually all CD68+ macrophages in normal lamina propria and Peyer's patches were L1- and the same was true for most extravasated macrophages in normal peripheral lymph nodes. Some mesenteric lymph nodes, however, and all peripheral lymph nodes with overt pathological processes (malignant lymphoma) contained many CD68+L1+ macrophages. Numerous L1+ cells were also localised to the crypt region and to some extent beneath the villous epithelium in normal lamina propria, but they were mainly identified as EG2+ eosinophils. Such cells were remarkably scarce or absent beneath the follicle associated epithelium in the dome region of Peyer's patches, where CD68+L1- macrophages were abundant. Also subepithelial and interfollicular CD68- interdigitating dendritic cells in Peyer's patches (recognised by antibody to S-100 protein) were usually unreactive with L1 antibody. The L1 protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities in vitro, and its putative antiproliferative properties are interesting in relation to the immunosuppression postulated to take place in lamina propria. The virtual absence of L1 producing cells beneath the follicle associated epithelium in Peyer's patches may support the immunostimulatory function of these macrophage rich structures, which are held to be crucial for induction of specific mucosal immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8244101

  14. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ojcius, David M.; Hu, Wei-Lin; Ge, Yu-Mei; Lin, Xu’ai; Li, Lan-Juan; Pan, Jian-Ping; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP) that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB) eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA. PMID:26587591

  15. A novel population of human CD56+ human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR+) colonic lamina propria cells is associated with inflammation in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, S C; Plamondon, S; Al-Hassi, H O; English, N; Gellatly, N; Kamm, M A; Knight, S C; Stagg, A J

    2009-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) involves inappropriate mucosal immune responses to intestinal microbiota. Gut dendritic cells (DC) are central immunoregulators of the response to commensal bacteria, and the subset of CD11c+ cells within the human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR+) lineage (lin)–/dim population are activated in inflammatory bowel disease. We hypothesized that CD11c− cells within this population may also be involved in intestinal inflammation. HLA-DR+ lin–/dim cells were identified in freshly isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells by multi-colour flow cytometry in 54 UC patients and 22 controls. Proportion and number of CD11c+ and CD11c− cells, and surface expression of activation markers CD40, CD86, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, and CD56+[natural killer (NK) marker], were determined. Cytokine production was assessed by intracellular staining. Lamina propria colonic CD11c− HLA-DR+ lin–/dim cells were increased significantly in inflamed and ‘non-inflamed’ UC tissue, compared with control tissue. CD11c+ HLA-DR+ lin–/dim cells were unchanged. Fewer CD11c− cells expressed activation markers and produced intracellular cytokines than their CD11c+ counterparts, and they were weakly stimulatory in mixed leucocyte reactions. Few CD11c− cells expressed blood plasmacytoid DC markers, but a major subset expressed high levels of CD56. CD11c− cells decreased after inflammation resolved. Intestinal inflammation in UC is associated with the presence of cells that share phenotypic features of both DC and NK cells. This novel population of human colonic CD56+ HLA-DR+ cells may play a role in immune regulation or tissue repair. Their increase in quiescent UC may be a marker of subclinical inflammation. PMID:19737136

  16. Nectin-4-dependent measles virus spread to the cynomolgus monkey tracheal epithelium: role of infected immune cells infiltrating the lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Frenzke, Marie; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao X; Delpeut, Sébastien; Mateo, Mathieu; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2013-03-01

    After the contagion measles virus (MV) crosses the respiratory epithelium within myeloid cells that express the primary receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), it replicates briskly in SLAM-expressing cells in lymphatic organs. Later, the infection spreads to epithelia expressing nectin-4, an adherens junction protein expressed preferentially in the trachea, but how it gets there is not understood. To characterize the mechanisms of spread, we infected groups of 5 or 6 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with either a wild-type MV or its "N4-blind" derivative, which is unable to enter nectin-4-expressing cells because of the targeted mutation of two hemagglutinin residues. As expected, both viruses caused similar levels of immunosuppression, as monitored by reductions in white blood cell counts and lymphocyte proliferation activity. However, monkeys infected with the N4-blind MV cleared infection more rapidly. Wild-type virus-infected monkeys secreted virus, while marginal virus titers were detected in tracheal lavage fluid cells of N4-blind MV-infected hosts. Analyses of tracheal rings obtained at necropsy (day 12) documented widespread infection of individual cells or small cell clusters in the subepithelial lamina propria of monkeys infected with either virus. However, only wild-type MV spread to the epithelium, forming numerous infectious centers comprised of many contiguous columnar cells. Infected CD11c(+) myeloid (macrophage or dendritic) cells were frequently observed in the lamina propria below epithelial infectious centers. Thus, MV may use myeloid cells as vehicles not only immediately after contagion but also to infect epithelia of tissues expressing nectin-4, including the trachea. PMID:23255790

  17. Induction of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts by lipopolysaccharide: possible involvement of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Chakravortty, D; Kumar, K S

    1997-11-17

    Recent studies suggest that tissue specific fibroblasts respond to inflammatory stimuli leading to the onset of inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we investigated cell kinetics, collagen synthesis, and nitric oxide (NO) level in cultured human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts (HSILPF, n = 45) in response to LPS of enteropathogenic E. coli. LPS treatment enhanced the 3[H] TdR uptake, increased the percentage of 'S' phase cells as early as 4 hrs, and decreased the population doubling time of HSILPF in a dose and time dependent manner. Collagen synthesis in HSILPF was also elevated by LPS. The LPS induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis were inhibited by polymyxin B (10 micrograms/ml). LPS was found to suppress the NO production in these cells, whereas combination of LPS (10 micrograms/ml) and IFN gamma (100 U/ml) enhanced NO output and concurrently decreased the cell proliferation and collagen production in HSILPF. Inhibitors of NO, L-NG-monomethyl L-arginine, and aminoguanidine partially restored cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in cells exposed to LPS and IFN gamma. These findings suggest that LPS induces increased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in HSILPF and these could be related to the suppression of NO production. PMID:9388501

  18. Reappraisal of Serosal Invasion in Patients With T3 Colorectal Cancer by Elastic Stain: Clinicopathologic Study of 139 Surgical Cases With Special Reference to Peritoneal Elastic Lamina Invasion.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yukihiro; LeVea, Charles; Dibaj, Shiva; Habib, Fadi; Cheney, Richard; Kanehira, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (PELI) has been reported to be an important adverse prognostic factor in pT3 colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the data supporting this contention are limited. Objective .- To clarify the associations between PELI of pT3 CRC and prognostic significance, 139 consecutive surgical cases of pT3 CRC were examined. Design .- One hundred thirty-nine consecutive in-house surgical cases of pT3 CRC between 1993 and 2011 were examined. Thirty consecutive surgical cases of pT4a CRC resected during the same period were examined for comparison. Case selections were restricted to pT3 CRCs with the sections containing the deepest adenocarcinoma invasion partially or entirely covered with the peritoneum. Elastic staining was performed on one section containing the deepest tumor invasion partially or entirely covered with the peritoneum. The associations between the presence of PELI and clinicopathologic factors including prognosis of the patients were examined. Results .- Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion was identified in 23.0% (32 of 139) of the pT3 CRCs. PELI was associated with primary site (P = .006), lymph node metastasis (P < .001), lymphovascular invasion (P < .001), recurrence (P = .007), and patient's age (P = .002). The proportions of patients with a 4-year recurrence-free period in those with negative PELI, positive PELI, and pT4a tumor were 90.3%, 66.7%, and 28.9%, respectively (P < .001). Conclusions .- Elastic staining is useful to evaluate the serosal invasion of CRC. Positive PELI is a significant predictive factor for lymph node metastasis and recurrence-free survival in patients with pT3 CRC. This indicates that pT3 tumors with PELI should be treated like pT4a tumors. PMID:26717059

  19. Restructuring the Vocal Fold Lamina Propria with Endoscopic Microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Dailey, Seth H.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Klemuk, Sarah A.; Askeland, Ryan W.; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S.; Heaford, Andrew C.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke’s space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Study Design Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Methods Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. Results MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. Conclusions MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke’s space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. PMID:23959803

  20. Organelle rearrangement and cell volume changes during squeezing invasion of peritoneal elastic lamina by targeted murine breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Parsons, D F; Marko, M; Leith, A

    1991-01-01

    Murine breast cancer cell lines were developed to selectively invade the peritoneum while they proliferated in ascites form in the abdominal cavity. In a dominant form of invasion, tumor cells showed special affinity for elastin fibers and squeezed through narrow gaps in the elastic fiber meshwork of the stroma. Even in fixed tissue, such cells could be recognized as being in the process of invasive migration because of their dumbbell shape. This appearance was similar to that of diapedetic blood cells traversing bone marrow sinus endothelium. Three-dimensional STERECON graphics reconstruction from serial thick sections of 44 such cells was carried out. The reconstructions showed that, in mid-penetration, the cells spread extensively over the exterior surface of the elastic fiber meshwork. The cell surface contact of these forward projections was mainly with the elastic fiber outer coat of microfibrils, but small areas of the cell surface also fused directly to inner-core elastin. The morphological rearrangement of the cytoskeleton was minimal in both types of attachment areas. The location of these forward facing attachments is consistent with mechanisms for pulling the invasive cell through the gap. Lamellopodia formation and clustering of cytoplasmic organelles occurred more commonly at the forward-facing part of the cell. Morphometry of the reconstructions showed that a contraction of the whole cell occurred during the squeezing/migration process suggestive of an additional pushing process. However, our invasive cell lines showed marked differences in the degree of cell shrinkage. The process of adhesion and squeezing of tumor cells through elastin meshworks in vivo is clearly a complex phenomenon. Changes in cell surface activity appear to play a significant role in establishing the necessary 'foothold' component of invasion and, possibly, in the generation of tractive force as well. PMID:1887432

  1. Infliximab treatment induces apoptosis of lamina propria T lymphocytes in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    ten Hove, T; van Montfrans, C; Peppelenbosch, M P; van Deventer, S J H

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Treatment with infliximab induces remission in about 70% of patients with steroid refractory Crohn's disease. Because Crohn's disease is considered to be mediated by uncontrolled activation of mucosal T lymphocytes, we hypothesised that infliximab could induce apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Methods: Induction of apoptosis in vivo was studied in 10 patients with therapy refractory Crohn's disease. In vitro, resting or stimulated Jurkat T cells were incubated with infliximab. Results: Infusion of infliximab (5 mg/kg) in steroid refractory patients with Crohn's disease induced a clinical response in 9/10 patients but did not influence expression of activation markers, homing receptors, memory cells, Fas expression, or Bax/Bcl-2 expression on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. In contrast, a significant increase in CD3 and TUNEL positive cells within colonic biopsies was detected 24 hours after infusion of infliximab, suggesting that infliximab stimulates apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes but not of resting T cells. To test this hypothesis, the effects of infliximab on Jurkat T cells were investigated. We observed that infliximab induced apoptosis and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of CD3/CD28 stimulated Jurkat T cells but not of unstimulated Jurkat cells. Conclusions: Our data indicate that infliximab treatment causes a rapid and specific increase in apoptosis of T lymphocytes in the gut mucosa. These findings may explain the rapid and sustained therapeutic effects of infliximab in Crohn's disease. PMID:11788561

  2. Isolation and cytokine analysis of lamina propria lymphocytes from mucosal biopsies of the human colon

    PubMed Central

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Malter, Lisa B; Chen, Lea Ann; Wolff, Martin J; Robertson, Ian; Rifkin, Daniel B; Poles, Michael; Cho, Ilseug; Loke, Png

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of gut-microbial interactions has come from mouse models. Intestinal immunity is complex and a combination of host genetics and environmental factors play a significant role in regulating intestinal immunity. Due to this complexity, no mouse model to date gives a complete and accurate representation of human intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. However, intestinal tissue from patients undergoing bowel resection reflects a condition of severe disease that has failed treatment, hence a more dynamic perspective of varying inflammatory states in IBD could be obtained through the analyses of pinch biopsy material. Here we describe our protocol for analyzing mucosal pinch biopsies collected predominantly during colonoscopies. We have optimized flow cytometry panels to analyze up to 8 cytokines produced by CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as for characterizing nuclear proteins and transcription factors such as Ki67 and Foxp3. Furthermore, we have optimized approaches to analyze the production of cytokines, including TGF-beta from direct ex vivo cultures of pinch biopsies and LPMCs isolated from biopsies. These approaches are part of our workflow to try and understand the role of the gut microbiota in complex and dynamic human intestinal diseases. PMID:25769417

  3. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

  4. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?) regulates the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestinal lamina propria

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Charlotte L; TFP, Zangerle Murray; Beckham, Katherine S H; Douce, Gillian; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?/CD172a) is a conserved transmembrane protein thought to play an inhibitory role in immune function by binding the ubiquitous ligand CD47. SIRP? expression has been used to identify dendritic cell subsets across species and here we examined its expression and function on intestinal DCs in mice. Normal mucosa contains four subsets of DCs based on their expression of CD103 and CD11b and three of these express SIRP?. However, loss of SIRP? signaling in mice leads to a selective reduction in the CD103+CD11b+ subset of DCs in the small intestine, colon, and among migratory DCs in the mesenteric lymph node. In parallel, these mice have reduced numbers of TH17 cells in steady-state intestinal mucosa, and a defective TH17 response to Citrobacter infection. Identical results were obtained in CD47KO mice. DC precursors from SIRP? mutant mice had an enhanced ability to generate CD103+CD11b+ DCs in vivo, but CD103+CD11b+ DCs from mutant mice were more prone to die by apoptosis. These data show a previously unappreciated and crucial role for SIRP? in the homeostasis of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the intestine, as well as providing further evidence that this subset of DCs is critical for the development of mucosal TH17 responses. PMID:25236797

  5. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Konety, Badrinath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) comprises about 70% of all newly diagnosed bladder cancer, and includes tumors with stage Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS.) Since, NMIBC patients with progression to muscle-invasive disease tend to have worse prognosis than with patients with primary muscle-invasive disease, there is a need to significantly improve risk stratification and earlier definitive treatment for high-risk NMIBC. Materials and Methods: A detailed Medline search was performed to identify all publications on the topic of prognostic factors and risk predictions for superficial bladder cancer/NMIBC. The manuscripts were reviewed to identify variables that could predict recurrence and progression. Results: The most important prognostic factor for progression is grade of tumor. T category, tumor size, number of tumors, concurrent CIS, intravesical therapy, response to bacillus CalmetteGuerin at 3- or 6-month follow-up, prior recurrence rate, age, gender, lymphovascular invasion and depth of lamina propria invasion are other important clinical and pathological parameters to predict recurrence and progression in patients with NMIBC. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Spanish Club UrolgicoEspaol de Tratamiento Oncolgico (CUETO) risk tables are the two best-established predictive models for recurrence and progression risk calculation, although they tend to overestimate risk and have poor discrimination for prognostic outcomes in external validation. Molecular biomarkers such as Ki-67, FGFR3 and p53 appear to be promising in predicting recurrence and progression but need further validation prior to using them in clinical practice. Conclusion: EORTC and CUETO risk tables are the two best-established models to predict recurrence and progression in patients with NMIBC though they tend to overestimate risk and have poor discrimination for prognostic outcomes in external validation. Future research should focus on enhancing the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools by incorporating additional prognostic factors such as depth of lamina propria invasion and molecular biomarkers after rigorous validation in multi-institutional cohorts. PMID:26604439

  6. Endoscopic treatments for small gastric subepithelial tumors originating from muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-Ping; Mao, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic resection has become an increasingly popular method for patients with small (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Currently, the main endoscopic therapies for patients with such tumors are endoscopic muscularis excavation, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. Although these endoscopic techniques can be used for complete resection of the tumor and provide an accurate pathological diagnosis, these techniques have been associated with several negative events, such as incomplete resection, perforation, and bleeding. This review provides detailed information on the technical details, likely treatment outcomes, and complications associated with each endoscopic method for treating/removing small gastric SETs that originate from the MP layer. PMID:26327758

  7. Endoscopic treatments for small gastric subepithelial tumors originating from muscularis propria layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-Ping; Mao, Xin-Li

    2015-08-28

    Minimally invasive endoscopic resection has become an increasingly popular method for patients with small (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Currently, the main endoscopic therapies for patients with such tumors are endoscopic muscularis excavation, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. Although these endoscopic techniques can be used for complete resection of the tumor and provide an accurate pathological diagnosis, these techniques have been associated with several negative events, such as incomplete resection, perforation, and bleeding. This review provides detailed information on the technical details, likely treatment outcomes, and complications associated with each endoscopic method for treating/removing small gastric SETs that originate from the MP layer. PMID:26327758

  8. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase.

    PubMed

    Zhironkina, Oxana A; Kurchashova, Svetlana Yu; Pozharskaia, Vasilisa A; Cherepanynets, Varvara D; Strelkova, Olga S; Hozak, Pavel; Kireev, Igor I

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear lamina represents a multifunctional platform involved in such diverse yet interconnected processes as spatial organization of the genome, maintenance of mechanical stability of the nucleus, regulation of transcription and replication. Most of lamina activities are exerted through tethering of lamina-associated chromatin domains (LADs) to the nuclear periphery. Yet, the lamina is a dynamic structure demonstrating considerable expansion during the cell cycle to accommodate increased number of LADs formed during DNA replication. We analyzed dynamics of nuclear growth during interphase and changes in lamina structure as a function of cell cycle progression. The nuclear lamina demonstrates steady growth from G1 till G2, while quantitative analysis of lamina meshwork by super-resolution microscopy revealed that microdomain organization of the lamina is maintained, with lamin A and lamin B microdomain periodicity and interdomain gap sizes unchanged. FRAP analysis, in contrast, demonstrated differences in lamin A and B1 exchange rates; the latter showing higher recovery rate in S-phase cells. In order to further analyze the mechanism of lamina growth in interphase, we generated a lamina-free nuclear envelope in living interphase cells by reversible hypotonic shock. The nuclear envelope in nuclear buds formed after such a treatment initially lacked lamins, and analysis of lamina formation revealed striking difference in lamin A and B1 assembly: lamin A reassembled within 30 min post-treatment, whereas lamin B1 did not incorporate into the newly formed lamina at all. We suggest that in somatic cells lamin B1 meshwork growth is coordinated with replication of LADs, and lamin A meshwork assembly seems to be chromatin-independent process. PMID:26883443

  9. Lamina I, but not lamina V, spinothalamic neurons exhibit responses that correspond with burning pain.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D

    2004-10-01

    Single-unit recordings from monkey spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons reveal that the responses of polymodal nociceptive lamina I STT neurons correspond with the profile of burning pain elicited in human subjects by repeated brief-contact heat. In contrast, lamina V wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neurons show a significantly different response pattern. This finding indicates that burning pain is signaled by modality-selective lamina I neurons and not convergent lamina V WDR neurons. PMID:15163673

  10. Size dependence of ozone lamina characteristics and their correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter; Lastovicka, Jan; Kozubek, Michal

    2015-09-01

    Ozone profiles contain narrow layers of substantially enhanced or reduced ozone, called positive and negative laminae, respectively. They reflect both evolutions of stratospheric ozone content and stratospheric dynamics. Here we deal only with positive laminae. The following lamina characteristics are investigated in dependence on lamina size: the number of laminae per profile, the overall ozone amount in laminae per profile and the ozone amount in one lamina at the European ozonosonde stations. An important role of the vertical resolution of ozonesonde measurements is specified. Lamina characteristics for Legionowo and Lindenberg, and small lamina (<2 mPa) characteristics for all stations suffer with effects of vertical resolution of measurements. For this reason they are not used here for long-term trend investigations. The long-term evolution of the ozone amount in one lamina does not display a trend. The results for the three remaining stations, Hohenpeissenberg, Payerne and Uccle, are largely consistent with our previous results on lamina behaviour, which means that our previous results on trends in laminae (e.g., Križan and Laštovička, 2005; Laštovička et al., 2014) are basically correct. The number of laminae per profile and the overall ozone amount in laminae per profile show negative trends before (1979-1995) and rather positive trends after (1996-2011) the reversal of trends in total columnar ozone over Europe. Both parameters reach the highest values for small laminae and with increasing size they decrease. Correlations between characteristics of laminae of different size ranges at individual stations are better for neighbour lamina ranges than for distant lamina ranges. The number of statistically significant correlations of laminae of the same size between pairs of stations is much higher for large laminae above 4 mPa, probably due to processes responsible for their formation and their expected larger horizontal size.

  11. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  12. Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhixun; Xu, Caiyue; Donahue, Greg; Shimi, Takeshi; Pan, Ji-An; Zhu, Jiajun; Ivanov, Andrejs; Capell, Brian C; Drake, Adam M; Shah, Parisha P; Catanzaro, Joseph M; Ricketts, M Daniel; Lamark, Trond; Adam, Stephen A; Marmorstein, Ronen; Zong, Wei-Xing; Johansen, Terje; Goldman, Robert D; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2015-11-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic membrane trafficking process that degrades a variety of cellular constituents and is associated with human diseases. Although extensive studies have focused on autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic materials, little is known about the role of autophagy in degrading nuclear components. Here we report that the autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals. The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery, is present in the nucleus and directly interacts with the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1, and binds to lamin-associated domains on chromatin. This LC3-lamin B1 interaction does not downregulate lamin B1 during starvation, but mediates its degradation upon oncogenic insults, such as by activated RAS. Lamin B1 degradation is achieved by nucleus-to-cytoplasm transport that delivers lamin B1 to the lysosome. Inhibiting autophagy or the LC3-lamin B1 interaction prevents activated RAS-induced lamin B1 loss and attenuates oncogene-induced senescence in primary human cells. Our study suggests that this new function of autophagy acts as a guarding mechanism protecting cells from tumorigenesis. PMID:26524528

  13. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG

    PubMed Central

    Troebinger, Luzia; Lpez, Jos David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2mm translation and 2 rotation at SNR>11dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. PMID:25038441

  14. Isolation of nuclear pore complexes in association with a lamina.

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, R P; Blobel, G

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes have been isolated in association with a 150 A thick lamina by detergent and salt fractionation of nuclear envelopes from rat liver. The pore complexes exhibit characteristic morphology and appear to be attached in a highly specific orientation to the lamina, which extends over relatively large areas. The pore complex-lamina fraction is composed of three major and several minor polypeptides with little or no DNA, RNA, or phospholipid. It is suggested that the association of the pore complexes and the lamina reflects the structural arrangement of the nuclear periphery in vivo. Images PMID:1055359

  15. Studies of immunity and bacterial invasiveness in mice given a recombinant salmonella vector encoding murine interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, S J; Ramsay, A J; Strugnell, R A

    1996-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was expressed in Salmonella typhimurium in an attempt to increase the mucosal immune response against the bacterium. Murine IL-6 was PCR amplified from cDNA, cloned, sequenced, and found to be functionally active when expressed in S. typhimurium BRD509, the (delta)aroA (delta)aroD vaccine strain. Expression of murine IL-6 did not appear to adversely affect the growth of salmonellae, as the construct was retained in the absence of antibiotic selection and the growth rate was unaffected compared with that of the parent strain in vitro. However, IL-6 expression led to a significant reduction in bacterial invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes and small intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes were isolated from mice orally immunized with BRD509 expressing IL-6 (pKK233-2/IL-6), and the number of antibody-secreting cells was determined by the ELISPOT technique. No differences were observed between mice immunized with BRD509(pKK.233-2/IL-6) and those immunized with BRD509(pKK233-2) with respect to the antibody subclass-specific responses elicited despite the markedly reduced invasiveness of the former. Serum antibody responses were also examined by a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and equivalent levels of antibody response were detected in mice given BRD509(pKK233-2/IL-6) and those given BRD509(pKK233-2). The humoral immune response against bacterial lipopolysaccharides was also examined in transgenic IL-6-deficient mice given oral inocula of BRD509. Equivalent numbers of antibody-secreting cells (ELISPOTs) were observed in the spleens and laminae propriae of both IL-6-deficient (-/-) mice and control (+/+) mice harboring an intact IL-6 gene, whereas small, yet significant differences in the serum immunoglobulin A ELISA titers were observed. These data suggest that the immunoglobulin A response against Salmonella lipopolysaccharides is largely IL-6 independent. PMID:8698502

  16. Nuclear lamina at the crossroads of the cytoplasm and nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork that lines the nuclear envelope in metazoan cells. It is composed largely of a polymeric assembly of lamins, which comprise a distinct sequence homology class of the intermediate filament protein family. On the basis of its structural properties, the lamina originally was proposed to provide scaffolding for the nuclear envelope and to promote anchoring of chromatin and nuclear pore complexes at the nuclear surface. This viewpoint has expanded greatly during the past 25 years, with a host of surprising new insights on lamina structure, molecular composition and functional attributes. It has been established that the self-assembly properties of lamins are very similar to those of cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins, and that the lamin polymer is physically associated with components of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton and with a multitude of chromatin and inner nuclear membrane proteins. Cumulative evidence points to an important role for the lamina in regulating signaling and gene activity, and in mechanically coupling the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton to the nucleus. The significance of the lamina has been vaulted to the forefront by the discovery that mutations in lamins and lamina-associated polypeptides lead to an array of human diseases. A key future challenge is to understand how the lamina integrates pathways for mechanics and signaling at the molecular level. Understanding the structure of the lamina from the atomic to supramolecular levels will be essential for achieving this goal. PMID:22126840

  17. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  18. Autophagy Devours the Nuclear Lamina to Thwart Oncogenic Stress.

    PubMed

    Leidal, Andrew M; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-12-01

    A recent study by Dou etal. (2015) in Nature extends the functions of autophagy to the nucleus, where it mediates the degradation of the nuclear lamina upon oncogenic insults to reinforce cellular senescence. PMID:26651287

  19. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosed?lov, Hana; Dumkov, Jana; Lesot, Herv; Glocov, Kristna; Kunov, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Vesel, Iva; Krej?, Pavel; Tich, Frantiek; Hampl, Ale; Buchtov, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  20. A biomathematical model for pressure-dependent lamina cribrosa behavior.

    PubMed

    Dongqi, H; Zeqin, R

    1999-06-01

    Investigating the relationship between intraocular pressure and the behavior of the lamina cribrosa (the primary site of the optic nerve damage in glaucoma) is important to insight into the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In most previous studies, unsuitable approaches were used since the lamina cribrosa was not taken as the main target. In the present study, a linear model of elastic mechanics theory on the bending of thin circular plate was developed for this purpose. The structural features of the lamina cribrosa and the forces acting on the lamina cribrosa were analyzed, and the constitutive equation was formulated. The general solution on a class of Krmn Equation and the analytic solution on fixed boundary conditions were obtained, and from them, the morphological changes and the mechanical properties such as retrodisplacement and force distributions of the lamina cribrosa under pressure were derived. Some of the clinical phenomena occurring in glaucoma damage were explained with the results. Theoretical values were compared with the experimental data obtained by other investigators. The effects of structural parameters on susceptibilities to glaucoma damage were discussed. The biomathematical model, serving as formalistic expressions of the well-known hypothesis of pressure-dependent optic nerve damage in glaucoma, should make it possible for us to further understand and manage this disease. PMID:10332621

  1. Immunocytochemistry of skeletal muscle basal lamina grafts in nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bryan, D J; Miller, R A; Costas, P D; Wang, K K; Seckel, B R

    1993-10-01

    The influence on nerve regeneration of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein laminin was studied after sciatic nerve transection in 90 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Nerve regeneration through basal lamina grafts was comparable with regeneration through traditional nerve grafts across gaps up to 2.0 cm in length. True axonal regeneration rather than axonal branching was demonstrated by retrograde horseradish peroxidase labeling of nerve cables. Pretreatment of basal lamina grafts with antilaminin antibodies reduced the total number of regenerated axons by 90 percent with a significant decrease of nerve conduction velocity and a significant impairment of walking track patterns. The basement membrane glycoprotein laminin serves a critical role in the regeneration of peripheral nerves through basal lamina grafts. PMID:8415975

  2. Ozone laminae near the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, S. J.; Vaughan, Geraint

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of ozonesonde data collected at high northern latitudes in winter and spring shows that laminae of enhanced and depleted ozone are associated with the polar vortex. In January and February, they are most common at all latitudes in the potential temperature range 370-430 K, but are abundant up to 500 K between 60 and 70 deg N. In March and April they occur most frequently northward of 75 deg N, and are abundant up to 520 K, whereas they are largely confined to the range 320-440 K at lower latitudes. Analysis of ozone lidar data obtained during AASE-1 depicts clearly the extrusion of laminae of enhanced ozone concentration from the polar regions in the altitude range 13-15 km. These extrusions form a class of laminae which transport ozone equatorward in the lowest levels of the stratosphere.

  3. Neurons innervating the lamina in the butterfly, Papilio xuthus.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Shibasaki, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The butterfly Papilio xuthus has compound eyes with three types of ommatidia. Each type houses nine spectrally heterogeneous photoreceptors (R1-R9) that are divided into six spectral classes: ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red, and broad-band. Analysis of color discrimination has shown that P. xuthus uses the ultraviolet, blue, green, and red receptors for foraging. The ultraviolet and blue receptors are long visual fibers terminating in the medulla, whereas the green and red receptors are short visual fibers terminating in the lamina. This suggests that processing of wavelength information begins in the lamina in P. xuthus, unlike in flies. To establish the anatomical basis of color discrimination mechanisms, we examined neurons innervating the lamina by injecting neurobiotin into this neuropil. We found that in addition to photoreceptors and lamina monopolar cells, three distinct groups of cells project fibers into the lamina. Their cell bodies are located (1) at the anterior rim of the medulla, (2) between the proximal surface of the medulla and lobula plate, and (3) in the medulla cell body rind. Neurobiotin injection also labeled distinct terminals in medulla layers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Terminals in layer 4 belong to the long visual fibers (R1, 2 and 9), while arbors in layers 1, 2 and 3 probably correspond to terminals of three subtypes of lamina monopolar cells, respectively. Immunocytochemistry coupled with neurobiotin injection revealed their transmitter candidates; neurons in (1) and a subset of neurons in (2) are immunoreactive to anti-serotonin and anti-γ-aminobutyric acid, respectively. PMID:23407865

  4. [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].

    PubMed

    Ruoppolo, M; Gozo, M; Milesi, R; Spina, R; Fragapane, G

    2010-01-01

    CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma. It is considered a precursor of invasive bladder cancer. CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm. BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%. BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases. Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy. Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign. CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma. Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa. 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement. In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts. Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment. Two patients died for disseminated disease. 1 patient is alive at 60-month's follow-up. In the last patient cancer relapsed at 36-month's follow-up. We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment with BCG in CIS represents a high risk of developing invasive and incontrolled cancer. A careful watch is recommended in these patients. PMID:21308679

  5. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  6. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2nd to 4th middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26078585

  7. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1) or high grade of dysplasia are at "high risk" of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI) is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. Methods To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with "high-risk" non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical) resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years). We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes) in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays). Results Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a "high-risk" tumor). However, about 25% of the "high-risk" tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Conclusion Chromosomal instability (CI) was associated with "high risk" tumors (stage T1 or high-grade), but did not predict subsequent progression. Recurrences after "high-risk" tumors had fewer chromosomal alterations, but there was no association with the risk of progression in this group either. Thus, the prediction of progression of "high risk" non-muscle invasive bladder tumors using chromosomal changes is difficult. Loss of chromosome 8p11 may play a role in the progression process. About 25% of the "high risk" tumors were chromosomal stable. PMID:19445696

  8. Statistical characterization of the fatigue behavior of composite lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict statistically the effects of constant and variable amplitude fatigue loadings on the residual strength and fatigue life of composite lamina. The parameters in the model were established from the results of a series of static tensile tests and a fatigue scan and a number of verification tests were performed. Abstracts for two other papers on the effect of load sequence on the statistical fatigue of composites are also presented.

  9. Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

  10. Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina.

    PubMed

    Stckl, Anna L; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths with considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology-the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. The overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:160-175, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100612

  11. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Saudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  12. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in a transverse MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Both mechanical behavior and microstructural evaluation were undertaken at room temperature, 538 and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics are significantly different in monotonic tension and compression. The inelastic deformation mechanisms in compression are controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture is a new damage mode observed for metal-matrix composites (MMC).

  13. Extracting paleoclimate signals from sediment laminae: An automated 2-D image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Stoney Q.; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2013-03-01

    Lake sediments commonly contain laminations and the occurrence and quantitative attributes of these microstrata contain signals of their depositional environment, limnological conditions, and past climate. However, the identification and measurement of laminae and their attributes remains a largely semi-manual process that is tedious, labor intensive, but subject to human error. Here, we present a method to automatically measure and accurately extract lamina properties from sediment core images. This method is comprised of four major components: (1) image enhancement that includes noise reduction and contrast enhancement to improve signal-to-background ratio and resolution of laminae; (2) identification of 1-D laminae for a user-chosen area in an image; (3) laminae connectivity analyses on the 1-D laminae to obtain a lamina stratigraphy; and (4) extraction and retrieval of the primary and derived lamination stratigraphic data. Sediment core images from Lake Hitchcock and Lake Bosumtwi were used for algorithm development and testing. Our experiments show a complete match between laminae produced by the software and manual process for images from Lake Hitchcock. Quantitative comparisons reveal an insignificant discrepancy in the number of laminae identified automatically by the software and manually by researchers, and in over 90% of the cases the position mismatch of individual laminae is less than one pixel between the software and the manual method for the experimental images from Lake Bosumtwi.

  14. Neurohumoral Integration of Cardiovascular Function by the Lamina Terminalis.

    PubMed

    Cancelliere, Nicole M; Black, Emily A E; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation, such as vascular tone, fluid volume and blood osmolarity, are quite often mediated by signals circulating in the periphery, such as angiotensin II and sodium concentration. Research has identified areas within the lamina terminalis (LT), specifically the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, as playing crucial roles detecting and integrating information derived from these circulating signals. The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) is a third integrative structure within the LT that influences cardiovascular homeostasis, although to date, its role is not as clearly elucidated. More recent studies have demonstrated that the CVOs are not only essential in the detection of traditional cardiovascular signals but also signals primarily considered to be important in the regulation of metabolic, reproductive and inflammatory processes that have now also been implicated in cardiovascular regulation. In this review, we highlight the critical roles played by the LT in the detection and integration of circulating signals that provide critical feedback control information contributing to cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26531751

  15. Modified endoscopic submucosal dissection with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric subepithelial tumors are usually asymptomatic and observed incidentally during endoscopic examination. Although most of these tumors are considered benign, some have a potential for malignant transformation, particularly those originating from the muscularis propria layer. For this type of tumor, surgical resection is the standard treatment of choice. With recent advent of endoscopic resection techniques and devices, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been considered as an alternative way of treatment. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified ESD technique with enucleation for removal of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer, and to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods From November 2009 to May 2011, a total of 16 patients received a modified ESD with enucleation for their subepithelial tumors. All tumors were smaller than 5?cm and originated from the muscularis propria layer of the stomach, as shown by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The procedure was conducted with an insulated-tip knife 2. Patients demographics, tumor size and pathological diagnosis, procedure time, procedure-related complication, and treatment outcome were reviewed. Results Fifteen of the sixteen tumors were successful complete resection. The mean tumor size measured by EUS was 26.1?mm (range: 2042?mm). The mean procedure time was 52?minutes (range: 30120?minutes). Endoscopic features of the 4 tumors were pedunculated and 12 were sessile. Their immunohistochemical diagnosis was c-kit (+) stromal tumor in 14 patients and leiomyoma in 2 patients. There was no procedure-related perforation or overt bleeding. During a mean follow up duration of 14.8?months (range: 622?months), there was no tumor recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions Using a modified ESD with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer and larger than 2?cm, complete resection can be successfully performed without serious complication. It is a safe and effective alternative to surgical therapy for these tumors of 2 to 5?cm in size. PMID:22978826

  16. Definition and determination of ozone laminae using Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guanyu; Newchurch, M. J.; Kuang, Shi; Buckley, Patrick I.; Cantrell, Wesley; Wang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    Ozone laminae result from complex chemical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there is no accepted definition of ozone laminae due to limited knowledge of the science determining their formation and evolution. Current methods to define ozone laminae are based on a reference profile that results from smoothing or linearly-regressing the original profile. These definitions are likely to underestimate the number of ozone laminae in the troposphere because the production of reference profiles reduces the information content in the original profiles. We present a method using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) with a two-threshold technique to define ozone laminae number and magnitude without requiring a reference profile. Our method encompasses an efficient and robust capability for identifying ozone laminae in the 15-year ozone profiles observed by ozonesondes in Huntsville, AL.

  17. Distinct antinociceptive actions mediated by different opioid receptors in the region of lamina I and laminae III-V of the dorsal horn of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hope, P. J.; Fleetwood-Walker, S. M.; Mitchell, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. In view of the presence of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn and their apparent involvement in behavioural analgesia, the present experiments addressed the action of selective agonists ionophoresed in the vicinity of rat dorsal horn neurones which were located either in lamina I or in laminae III-V. 2. In laminae III-V, kappa agonists (U50488H and dynorphin A) caused a selective inhibition of the nociceptive responses of multireceptive cells, whilst mu and delta agonists [( D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol]enkephalin and [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin respectively) failed to alter either the spontaneous activity or the response to noxious and innocuous cutaneous stimuli and to D,L-homocysteic acid or glutamate. Nocispecific neurones were encountered too rarely in laminae III-V to study their properties. 3. In lamina I, agonists had no effects on either nocispecific or multireceptive neurones. In contrast, the mu agonist [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol]enkephalin consistently inhibited nociceptive responses of both multireceptive and nocispecific lamina I cells. The delta agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin consistently caused selective inhibition of the nociceptive responses of multireceptive cells but had a mixed profile of action on nocispecific cells. 4. These results suggest that mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors mediate different antinociceptive actions in both laminae III-V and lamina I. The study reveals a distinct physiological role for delta receptors in modulating nociceptive inputs to lamina I neurones. In contrast to mu and kappa receptor actions, delta receptors heterogeneously influence subpopulations of neurones. PMID:2175238

  18. Composition and Origin of Laminae in Holocene Sediments From the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2005-12-01

    The sediment sequence of Alfonso Basin in the southern Gulf of California spanning the last 8000 years is characterized by a laminated structure. In contrast to sediments from basins in the central part of the Gulf, the Alfonso Basin laminae are non-annual sediments. To characterize the sediments and investigate on its genesis, X-ray, scanning electron microscopy, microfossil, geochemical and magnetic mineral analyses have been conducted on dark and light laminae. The laminated sediments consist of alternating millimeter to sub-millimeters bands of different shades of olive gray. On average, dark laminae are thicker than light laminae, resulting in a dominant dark color of the sequence. Sediment rate is about 0.3 +/- 0.04 mm/yr, which results in an average 11.2 years for the dark-light laminae. Light laminae contain more radiolarian microfossils (up to 45 percent) and less terrigenous and organic material; they predominantly contain quartz and calcite minerals. The dark laminae contain more terrigenous material, dominated by clay and quartz. In general, almost all chemical elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, S) analyzed, except Ca, are always higher in the dark laminae and show positive correlation to organic carbon. Ca is higher in the light laminae and mostly represents biogenic input and shows a negative correlation to organic carbon. Si correlate with typical terrigenous elements (Al, Fe, K and Mg), this suggests that most of Si has terigenous origin, which can be related to the volcanic rocks, particularly siliceous tuffs, surround Bay of La Paz. Smectite and illite are present in dark and light laminae in similar proportions. In dark laminae magnetic hysteresis loops show saturation at low fields and relatively high saturation magnetization values, which suggest contribution of very fine-grained superparamagnetic minerals. The laminated slope sediments of the Alfonso Basin are an example of nearshore depositational system dominated by sedimentation of terrigenous. Basin receives an episodic pulse of biogenic material which results in light laminae.

  19. A conserved transcriptional network regulates lamina development in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Pieiro, Cristina; Lopes, Carla S; Casares, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The visual system of insects is a multilayered structure composed externally by the compound eye and internally by the three ganglia of the optic lobe: lamina, medulla and the lobula complex. The differentiation of lamina neurons depends heavily on Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is delivered by the incoming photoreceptor axons, and occurs in a wave-like fashion. Despite the primary role of lamina neurons in visual perception, it is still unclear how these neurons are specified from neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors. Here we show that a homothorax (hth)-eyes absent (eya)-sine oculis (so)-dachshund (dac) gene regulatory cassette is involved in this specification. Lamina neurons differentiate from NE progenitors that express hth, eya and so. One of the first events in the differentiation of lamina neurons is the upregulation of dac expression in response to Hh signaling. We show that this dac upregulation, which marks the transition from NE progenitors into lamina precursors, also requires Eya/So, the expression of which is locked in by mutual feedback. dac expression is crucial for lamina differentiation because it ensures repression of hth, a negative regulator of single-minded, and thus dac allows further lamina neuron differentiation. Therefore, the specification of lamina neurons is controlled by coupling the cell-autonomous hth-eya-so-dac regulatory cassette to Hh signaling. PMID:24924198

  20. How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Brian A; Demircioglu, F Esra; Chen, James Z; Ingram, Jessica; Ploegh, Hidde L; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2014-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) resides at the nuclear envelope and interacts with Torsins, poorly understood endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized AAA+ ATPases, through a conserved, perinuclear domain. We determined the crystal structure of the perinuclear domain of human LAP1. LAP1 possesses an atypical AAA+ fold. While LAP1 lacks canonical nucleotide binding motifs, its strictly conserved arginine 563 is positioned exactly where the arginine finger of canonical AAA+ ATPases is found. Based on modeling and electron microscopic analysis, we propose that LAP1 targets Torsin to the nuclear envelope by forming an alternating, heterohexameric (LAP1-Torsin)3 ring, in which LAP1 acts as the Torsin activator. The experimental data show that mutation of arginine 563 in LAP1 reduces its ability to stimulate TorsinA ATPase hydrolysis. This knowledge may help scientists understand the etiology of DYT1 primary dystonia, a movement disorder caused by a single glutamate deletion in TorsinA. PMID:25149450

  1. Evolution of centrosomes and the nuclear lamina: Amoebozoan assets.

    PubMed

    Grf, Ralph; Batsios, Petros; Meyer, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The current eukaryotic tree of life groups most eukaryotes into one of five supergroups, the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Excavata and SAR (Stramenopile, Alveolata, Rhizaria). Molecular and comparative morphological analyses revealed that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) already contained a rather sophisticated equipment of organelles including a mitochondrion, an endomembrane system, a nucleus with a lamina, a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and a flagellar apparatus. Recent studies of MTOCs, basal bodies/centrioles, and nuclear envelope organization of organisms in different supergroups have clarified our picture of how the nucleus and MTOCs co-evolved from LECA to extant eukaryotes. In this review we summarize these findings with special emphasis on valuable contributions of research on a lamin-like protein, nuclear envelope proteins, and the MTOC in the amoebozoan model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. PMID:25952183

  2. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (< 0. 1 mm), and 17 healthy and six atretic antral follicles (0.5-12 mm in diameter) were processed for light and electron microscopy to investigate the relationship the between follicular basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually < 1 microm long and had vesicles (20-30 nm) attached to the inner aspect. Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  3. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  4. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.C.; Carlson, B.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined.

  5. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasa, I Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells' growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, "IKVAV", and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, "RGD", into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  6. Ubiquitous presence of laminae in altered layers of glass artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentaz, L.; Lombardo, T.; Verney-Carron, A.; Chabas, A.; Loisel, C.; Neff, D.; Gin, S.; Leroy, E.

    Whatever the chemical composition and the origin (natural or man-made) or the surrounding environment is, glass materials undergo alteration processes leading to the modification of their structure and chemical composition. Similar alteration patterns can be observed in different historical glass types, especially alteration layers characterized by a laminated structure. The study of medieval stained glass windows (14th century AD, from Northern France) and Roman glass blocks (2nd century AD, from a shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea) with several centuries of exposure in atmospheric and marine conditions, respectively, show that laminated features, commonly described at micro-scale (e.g. lamination), can also be found at the nano-scale (laminae) using TEM analysis on FIB ultra-thin section. These features develop on different alteration layers - in the gel layer for medieval glass and in crystalline secondary phases (smectites) for Roman glass - showing that the formation mechanisms vary according to the exposure environment and the chemical composition of the glass.

  7. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  8. Methyl jasmonate inhibits lamina joint inclination by repressing brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling in rice.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lijun; Wu, Hong; Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Zhanfang; Guo, Zhengfei; Yang, Na; Xia, Kai; Zhou, Xie; Oh, Keimei; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ng, Denny; Zhu, Changhua

    2015-12-01

    Lamina joint inclination or leaf angle (the angle between the leaf blade and vertical culm) is a major trait of rice plant architecture. The plant hormone brassinosteroid (BR) is the main regulator of this trait, while other plant hormones, including ethylene, gibberellin, and auxin, also influence leaf angle. In this study, we found that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) also participates in regulating lamina joint inclination. MeJA decreased lamina joint inclination and inhibited the BR-induced increase in lamina joint inclination. Furthermore, addition of a BR synthesis inhibitor increased the extent of change in lamina joint inclination in response to treatment with a low concentration of MeJA (0.05 or 0.5mgL(-1)), but it did not alter the lamina joint inclination of plants treated with a high concentration of MeJA (5mgL(-1)). Further studies showed that MeJA treatment significantly repressed the expression of BR biosynthesis-related genes and decreased endogenous BRs levels. In addition, the lamina joint inclination in the OsBRI1 mutant d61-1 was less sensitive to MeJA compared with its wild type counterpart, and lithium chloride-induced inactivation of GSK3-like kinase, a negative regulator of BR signaling, partly rescued the MeJA-induced reduction in lamina joint inclination. Further studies showed that MeJA treatment reduced the mRNA levels of BR signaling and target genes. These results indicate that MeJA-inhibition of lamina joint inclination may depend on BR biosynthesis and the BR signaling pathway. PMID:26706074

  9. Transverse harmonic oscillations of laminae in viscous fluids: a lattice Boltzmann study.

    PubMed

    Falcucci, Giacomo; Aureli, Matteo; Ubertini, Stefano; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2011-06-28

    In this paper, we use the lattice Boltzmann method with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook linear collision operator to study the flow physics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing moderately large harmonic oscillations in a viscous fluid. We propose a refill procedure for the hydrodynamic quantities in the lattice sites that are in the vicinity of the oscillating lamina. The numerically estimated flow field is used to compute the complex hydrodynamic function that describes the added mass and hydrodynamic damping experienced by the lamina. Results of the numerical simulations are validated against theoretical predictions for small amplitude vibrations and experimental and numerical findings for moderately large oscillations. PMID:21576160

  10. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa

    PubMed Central

    Vilupuru, Abhiram S.; Rangaswamy, Nalini V.; Frishman, Laura J.; Smith, Earl L.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa has been postulated from in vitro studies as an early site of damage in glaucoma. Prior in vivo measures of laminar morphology have been confounded by ocular aberrations. In this study the lamina cribrosa was imaged after correcting for ocular aberrations using the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) in normal and glaucomatous eyes of rhesus monkeys. All measured laminar morphological parameters showed increased magnitudes in glaucomatous eyes relative to fellow control eyes, indicating altered structure. The AOSLO provides high-quality images of the lamina cribrosa and may have potential as a tool for early identification of glaucoma. PMID:17429488

  11. Occurrence of ozone laminae near the boundary of the stratospheric polar vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, S.J.; Vaughan, G. ); Kyro, E. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors report on observations of laminae in ozone distributions observed at high northern latitudes near the polar vortex. Regions of enhanced and depleted ozone density are observed. Data from ozonesonde collections and lidar measurements during the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Expedition (AASE) are analyzed, and compared with earlier work. The ozonesonde archives of the World Meteorological Organization are also examined in this analysis. The laminae are observed to distribute differently as a function of season, and with the potential temperature. Transport of ozone equatorward is also found with a class of these laminae.

  12. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive

  13. Anatomical organization of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis.

    PubMed

    Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Bourque, Charles W

    2015-08-15

    The organum vasculosum of the laminae terminalis (OVLT) is a circumventricular organ located along the ventral part of the anterior wall of the third ventricle. Because it lacks a complete blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-borne signals detected in the OVLT provide the brain with information from the periphery and contribute to the generation of centrally mediated responses to humoral feedback and physiological stressors. Experimental studies on the rat OVLT are hindered by a poor understanding of its precise anatomical dimensions and cellular organization. In this study, we use histological techniques to characterize the spatial outline of the rat OVLT and to examine the location of neurons, astrocytes, tanycytes, and ependymocytes within its confines. Our data reveal that OVLT neurons are embedded in a dense network of tanycyte processes. Immunostaining against the neuronal marker NeuN revealed that neurons are distributed throughout the OVLT, except for a thick midline septum, which comprises densely packed cells of unknown function or lineage. Moreover, the most ventral aspect of the OVLT is devoid of neurons and is occupied by a dense network of glial cell processes that form a thick layer between the neurons and the pial surface on the ventral aspect of the nucleus. Lastly, combined detection of NeuN and c-Fos protein following systemic injection of hypertonic NaCl revealed that neurons responsive to this stimulus are located along the entire midline core of the OVLT, extending from its most anterior ventral aspect to the more caudally located "dorsal cap" region. PMID:26017494

  14. Changes in lamina cribrosa and prelaminar tissue after deep sclerectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barrancos, C; Rebolleda, G; Oblanca, N; Cabarga, C; Muoz-Negrete, F J

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the response of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue to a reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) after nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A total of 28 eyes from 28 patients presenting with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent NPDS were studied. SD-OCT scans using EDI technology were obtained before surgery and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. The OCT device was set to image a 15 10 vertical rectangle centred on the optic disc. The scan closest to the optic nerve head (ONH) centre was selected for analysis. The vertical distances from three equidistant points on the reference line (Bruch's membrane opening) to the anterior prelaminar tissue surface and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the LC were measured. Results The IOP decreased from 18.74.3 to 9.14.0 at the first week, 11.43.7 at 1 month, and 13.13.6?mm?Hg at 3 months postoperatively (P<0.001). There was a significant reduction of the ONH cupping at 1 week (22.3%, P<0.001), 1 month (13.7%, P<0.001), and 3 months (9.8%, P=0.001) after surgery. Anterior displacement of the LC was slight but statistically significant at 1 week (4.5%, P=0.003), 1 month (3.8%, P=0.014), and 3 months postoperatively (3.3%, P=0.010). IOP reduction was significantly correlated with a reduction of ONH cupping and anterior displacement of LC at the first week and first month (P<0.05). Conclusions Cupping reversal after NPDS is mainly due to changes in prelaminar tissue thickness, whereas the LC changes in position are less pronounced. PMID:24232316

  15. Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abuelfoutouh, N.M.; Verrilli, M.J.; Halford, G.R.

    1989-06-01

    A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms. The effect of the fiber orientation on loading direction is accounted for while predicting composite life. The application is currently limited to isothermal cases where the internal thermal stresses that might arise from thermal strain mismatch between fibers and matrix are negligible. The theory is formulated to predict the fatigue life of a composite lamina under either load or strain control. It is applied currently to predict the life of tungsten-copper composite lamina at 260 C under tension-tension load control. The calculated life of the lamina is in good agreement with available composite low cycle fatigue data.

  16. Isothermal life prediction of composite lamina using a damage mechanics approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abuelfoutouh, Nader M.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A method for predicting isothermal plastic fatigue life of a composite lamina is presented in which both fibers and matrix are isotropic materials. In general, the fatigue resistances of the matrix, fibers, and interfacial material must be known in order to predict composite fatigue life. Composite fatigue life is predicted using only the matrix fatigue resistance due to inelasticity micromechanisms. The effect of the fiber orientation on loading direction is accounted for while predicting composite life. The application is currently limited to isothermal cases where the internal thermal stresses that might arise from thermal strain mismatch between fibers and matrix are negligible. The theory is formulated to predict the fatigue life of a composite lamina under either load or strain control. It is applied currently to predict the life of tungsten-copper composite lamina at 260 C under tension-tension load control. The calculated life of the lamina is in good agreement with available composite low cycle fatigue data.

  17. Partial chemical characterization of the anionic sites in the basal lamina of fenestrated capillaries.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, M; Simionescu, N; Palade, G E

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of anionic sites in the basal laminae of the blood capillaries of the murine pancreas was studied in specimens fixed in ruthenium red (RR)-glutaraldehyde mixtures. The sites appeared as discrete, small (6 to 18 nm) particles distributed throughout the three laminae but concentrated primarily in the lamina rara externa, in which--spaced 80-100 nm apart--they formed a planar, partially ordered lattice comparable to that revealed by cationized ferritin in previous studies (M. Simionescu, N. Simionescu, and G. E. Palade, 1982, J. Cell Biol. 95, 425-434). The chemical nature of the anionic sites was explored by incubating fresh tissue specimens in solutions of selected enzymes before fixation in RR-glutaraldehyde mixtures. Pronase P and papain removed completely the anionic sites and left behind an extensively degraded and disorganized basal lamina. Trypsin caused the removal of anionic sites only, did not degrade the rest of the basal lamina, but detached it completely from the endothelium. Chondroitinase ABC reduced slightly the size and the surface density of RR-stainable particles, and detached focally the rest of the basal lamina from the endothelium and pericytes. Crude heparinase caused a nearly complete removal of anionic sites, and pure heparitinase gave comparable but less extensive results. Similar effects were recorded on the basal laminae of smooth muscle fibers and pancreatic acini and ducts. The results indicate that the anionic sites of all basal laminae examined are contributed primarily by heparin sulfate proteoglycans and trace amounts of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. PMID:6521660

  18. A novel method for quantification of the folding of elastic laminae in elastic arteries.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Bo; Gktrk, Camilla

    2008-07-01

    A transgenic mouse overexpressing the human form of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is known to have an abnormal structure of the elastic laminae and the elastic fibres in the aorta. Compared to the non-transgenic littermates, the elastic laminae are less folded. In order to quantify the undulation of this structure, an image analysis program that identified the elastic laminae was developed. The program measures the area fraction in different sectors from a plane parallel to the aorta wall. Images were taken from unstained aorta specimens where the elastic laminae were visualised with phase contrast microscopy. A contextual operation of the images produced a local orientation estimation for every linear structure. The image was then thresholded in eight sectors from 0 degrees to 180 degrees , with different orientation angles. The results show that the area fraction of the elastic laminae was significantly lower for the transgenic mouse in all sectors measured except for two. At 0-25 degrees , no difference was seen. In the sector at 160-180 degrees , parallel to the aorta wall, the area fraction of elastic laminae was instead significantly higher in the transgenic mouse. A novel method is presented, developed for detection and quantification of pathological changes in the elastic laminae in the aorta wall. The method gave reliable results and is considered to be a useful tool for morphometric studies of aorta with this kind of altered morphology concerning the elastic laminae. When compared with tangent count, the control group had a significantly larger mean curvature. PMID:17485215

  19. Synaptic input of rat spinal lamina I projection and unidentified neurones in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dahlhaus, Anne; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Sandkhler, Jrgen

    2005-01-01

    Spinal lamina I projection neurones that transmit nociceptive information to the brain play a pivotal role in hyperalgesia in various animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Consistently, activity-dependent long-term potentiation can be induced at synapses between primary afferent C-fibres and lamina I projection neurones but not unidentified neurones in lamina I. The specific properties that enable projection neurones to undergo long-term potentiation and mediate hyperalgesia are not fully understood. Here, we have tested whether lamina I projection neurones differ from unidentified neurones in types or strength of primary afferent input and/or action potential-independent excitatory and inhibitory input. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record synaptic currents in projection and unidentified lamina I neurones in a transverse lumbar spinal cord slice preparation from rats between postnatal day 18 and 37. Lamina I neurones with a projection to the parabrachial area or the periaqueductal grey were identified by retrograde labelling with a fluorescent tracer. The relative contribution of NMDA receptors versus AMPA/kainate receptors to C-fibre-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents of lamina I neurones significantly decreased with age between postnatal day 18 and 27, but was independent of the supraspinal projection of the neurones. We did not find a significant contribution of kainate receptors to C-fibre-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. Lamina I projection and unidentified neurones possessed functional GABAA and glycine receptors but received scarce action potential-independent spontaneous GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input as measured by miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequencies were five times higher in projection than in unidentified neurones. The predominance of excitatory synaptic input to projection neurones, taken together with the previous finding that their membranes are more easily excitable than those of unidentified neurones, may facilitate the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation. PMID:15878938

  20. Synaptic input of rat spinal lamina I projection and unidentified neurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dahlhaus, Anne; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2005-07-15

    Spinal lamina I projection neurones that transmit nociceptive information to the brain play a pivotal role in hyperalgesia in various animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Consistently, activity-dependent long-term potentiation can be induced at synapses between primary afferent C-fibres and lamina I projection neurones but not unidentified neurones in lamina I. The specific properties that enable projection neurones to undergo long-term potentiation and mediate hyperalgesia are not fully understood. Here, we have tested whether lamina I projection neurones differ from unidentified neurones in types or strength of primary afferent input and/or action potential-independent excitatory and inhibitory input. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record synaptic currents in projection and unidentified lamina I neurones in a transverse lumbar spinal cord slice preparation from rats between postnatal day 18 and 37. Lamina I neurones with a projection to the parabrachial area or the periaqueductal grey were identified by retrograde labelling with a fluorescent tracer. The relative contribution of NMDA receptors versus AMPA/kainate receptors to C-fibre-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents of lamina I neurones significantly decreased with age between postnatal day 18 and 27, but was independent of the supraspinal projection of the neurones. We did not find a significant contribution of kainate receptors to C-fibre-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. Lamina I projection and unidentified neurones possessed functional GABAA and glycine receptors but received scarce action potential-independent spontaneous GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input as measured by miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequencies were five times higher in projection than in unidentified neurones. The predominance of excitatory synaptic input to projection neurones, taken together with the previous finding that their membranes are more easily excitable than those of unidentified neurones, may facilitate the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation. PMID:15878938

  1. Analysis of Isentropic Transport in the Lower Tropical Stratosphere from Laminae Observed in Shadoz Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, T.; Bencherif, H.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Begue, N.; Culot, A.

    2014-12-01

    The subtropical dynamical barrier located in the lower stratosphere on the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir (TSR), controls and limits exchanges between tropical and extratropical lower stratosphere. The geographical position of stations located near from the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir is interesting since they are regularly interested by air-mass filaments originated from TSR or mid-latitudes. During such filamentary events, profiles of chemical species are modified according to the origin and the height of the air mass. These perturbations called "laminae" are generally associated to quasi-horizontal transport events. Many SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) stations from all around the southern tropics were selected in order to study the variability of laminae. Profiles from ozonesondes were analyzed to detect laminae using a statistical standard deviation method from the climatology. Time series of laminae were investigated by a multilinear regression model in order to estimate the influence of several proxy on laminae variability from 1998 to 2013. Different forcings such as QBO, ENSO or IOD were applied. The first objective is to better quantify isentropic transport as function of the station location and the influence of the QBO on the laminae occurrences. Finally, cases studies were conducted from high-resolution advection model MIMOSA. These allow us to identify the air mass origin and to highlight privileged roads where meridional transport occurs between tropics and midlatitudes.

  2. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  3. Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) for the treatment of a case of huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wei, Li-Li; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Sha, Qi-Mei; Huang, Ya; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic Interventional Treatment is of little trauma and less complications in the treatment of esophageal tumor and leads to faster recovery and fewer days of hospitalization. This study was aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic interventional therapy for huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria. Methods: The patient was treated by submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER). Results: The huge esophageal tumor was resected completely by STER technique, with little trauma and less complications. The size of the resected tumor was 5.5×3.5×3.0 cm. Conclusion: Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection is a safe and efficient technique for treating Huge Esophageal Tumor originating from muscularis propria layer. PMID:26629086

  4. The nuclear lamina promotes telomere aggregation and centromere peripheral localization during senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Raz, Vered; Vermolen, Bart J; Garini, Yuval; Onderwater, Jos J M; Mommaas-Kienhuis, Mieke A; Koster, Abraham J; Young, Ian T; Tanke, Hans; Dirks, Roeland W

    2008-12-15

    Ex vivo, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) undergo spontaneous cellular senescence after a limited number of cell divisions. Intranuclear structures of the nuclear lamina were formed in senescent hMSCs, which are identified by the presence of Hayflick-senescence-associated factors. Notably, spatial changes in lamina shape were observed before the Hayflick senescence-associated factors, suggesting that the lamina morphology can be used as an early marker to identify senescent cells. Here, we applied quantitative image-processing tools to study the changes in nuclear architecture during cell senescence. We found that centromeres and telomeres colocalised with lamina intranuclear structures, which resulted in a preferred peripheral distribution in senescent cells. In addition, telomere aggregates were progressively formed during cell senescence. Once formed, telomere aggregates showed colocalization with gamma-H2AX but not with TERT, suggesting that telomere aggregates are sites of DNA damage. We also show that telomere aggregation is associated with lamina intranuclear structures, and increased telomere binding to lamina proteins is found in cells expressing lamina mutants that lead to increases in lamina intranuclear structures. Moreover, three-dimensional image processing revealed spatial overlap between telomere aggregates and lamina intranuclear structures. Altogether, our data suggest a mechanical link between changes in lamina spatial organization and the formation of telomere aggregates during senescence of hMSCs, which can possibly contribute to changes in nuclear activity during cell senescence. PMID:19056671

  5. Application of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation in thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, DONG; NONG, LU-MING; GAO, GONG-MIN; JIANG, YU-QIN; XU, NAN-WEI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation on patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, following laminectomy. Thirteen patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors underwent total lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation and repair of the supraspinous ligaments, following laminectomy and tumor enucleation. To investigate the clinical effect of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were determined, and pre- and postoperative X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were conducted. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were also included in the follow-up. No complications were observed pre- or postoperatively. The VAS and ODI results 2 weeks following surgery and at the final follow-up examination demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the corresponding preoperative results. The X-ray examination results indicated a satisfactory internal fixation location, without any characteristics of a fracture, lumbar scoliosis, kyphosis or instability. Following the surgery, the CT and MRI examination results demonstrated that healing of the lamina bone and repair of the supraspinous ligament had occurred without tumor recurrence or spinal epidural scar recompression. Two of the 13 cases were lost to follow-up. The results indicated that in patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation following total laminectomy is effective and provides thoracolumbar stability. Furthermore, this has been identified to be an effective technique for preventing intraspinal scar proliferation. PMID:24137233

  6. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-12-01

    Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

  7. Distinct structural and mechanical properties of the nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kris Noel; Scaffidi, Paola; Islam, Mohammad F; Yodh, Arjun G; Wilson, Katherine L; Misteli, Tom

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear lamina is a network of structural filaments, the A and B type lamins, located at the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleus. Lamin filaments provide the nucleus with mechanical stability and support many basic activities, including gene regulation. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding A type lamins, cause numerous human diseases, including the segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Here we show that structural and mechanical properties of the lamina are altered in HGPS cells. We demonstrate by live-cell imaging and biochemical analysis that lamins A and C become trapped at the nuclear periphery in HGPS patient cells. Using micropipette aspiration, we show that the lamina in HGPS cells has a significantly reduced ability to rearrange under mechanical stress. Based on polarization microscopy results, we suggest that the lamins are disordered in the healthy nuclei, whereas the lamins in HGPS nuclei form orientationally ordered microdomains. The reduced deformability of the HGPS nuclear lamina possibly could be due to the inability of these orientationally ordered microdomains to dissipate mechanical stress. Surprisingly, intact HGPS cells exhibited a degree of resistance to acute mechanical stress similar to that of cells from healthy individuals. Thus, in contrast to the nuclear fragility seen in lmna null cells, the lamina network in HGPS cells has unique mechanical properties that might contribute to disease phenotypes by affecting responses to mechanical force and misregulation of mechanosensitive gene expression. PMID:16801550

  8. Subfrontal trans-lamina terminalis approach to a third ventricular craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Chang, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign, partly cystic epithelial tumors that can rarely occur in a retrochiasmatic location with involvement of the third ventricle. The lamina terminalis is an important neurosurgical corridor to these craniopharyngiomas in the anterior portion of the third ventricle. We present a video case of a large midline suprasellar and third ventricular craniopharyngioma in a 32-year-old male with visual disturbances. The tumor was approached with a subfrontal translamina terminalis exposure, and a gross-total resection of the tumor was achieved. This surgery involved working through a lamina terminalis fenestration around the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tracts, and the anterior communicating artery complex. This video illustrates the techniques employed in performing a transbasal anterior skull base approach to the third ventricle and demonstrates vivid surgical anatomy of neurovascular structures around the lamina terminalis. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/fCYMgx8SnKs . PMID:26722678

  9. Seasonal Evolution of Rossby and Gravity Wave Induced Laminae in Ozonesonde Data Obtained from Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grant, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for evaluating the seasonal evolution of ozone laminae using ozonesonde data is discussed. The method uses the correlation between small-scale ozone and potential temperature variations to distinguish between laminae generated by quasi-isentropic filamentation by Rossby waves and by vertical displacements of material surfaces by gravity waves. Data from Wallops Island, Virginia show that Rossby wave induced ozone laminae are most frequently encountered at Wallops during the winter months near 15 km while statistically significant gravity wave induced laminae occur above 15 km during the early winter and at the tropopause from late winter through early spring.

  10. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  11. Emergence of Lamina-Specific Retinal Ganglion Cell Connectivity by Axon Arbor Retraction and Synapse Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Faulkner, Regina L.; Stephan, Alexander H.; Barres, Ben A.; Huberman, Andrew D.; Cheng, Hwai-Jong

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the nervous system, neurons restrict their connections to specific depths or layers of their targets in order to constrain the type and number of synapses they make. Despite the importance of lamina-specific synaptic connectivity, the mechanisms that give rise to this feature in mammals remain poorly understood. Here we examined the cellular events underlying the formation of lamina-specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal projections to the superior colliculus (SC) of the mouse. By combining a genetically encoded marker of a defined RGC subtype (OFF-?RGCs) with serial immuno-electron microscopy, we resolved the ultrastructure of axon terminals fated for laminar stabilization versus those fated for removal. We found that OFF-?RGCs form synapses across the full depth of the retinorecipient SC before undergoing lamina-specific arbor retraction and synapse elimination to arrive at their mature, restricted pattern of connectivity. Interestingly, we did not observe evidence of axon degeneration or glia-induced synapse engulfment during this process. These findings indicate that lamina-specific visual connections are generated through the selective stabilization of correctly targeted axon arbors and suggest that the decision to maintain or eliminate an axonal projection reflects the molecular compatibility of pre- and postsynaptic neurons at a given laminar depth. PMID:21123583

  12. Harmonic oscillations of laminae in non-Newtonian fluids: A lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.

  13. Arthroscopic Lamina-Specific Double-Row Fixation for Large Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Funakoshi, Noboru; Yamashita, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    Delamination is a commonly observed finding at the time of rotator cuff repair, but few studies have described the surgical techniques used for delaminated rotator cuff tears (RCTs) or their clinical outcomes. We developed a technique using a combination of a double row and an additional row, which we call lamina-specific double-row fixation, for large delaminated RCTs. The lamina-specific double-row technique is performed using an additional row (lamina-specific lateral row) of suture anchors placed between the typical medial and lateral rows of suture anchors. The technique is performed as follows: (1) medial-row sutures are passed through the inferior (articular-side) and superior (bursal-side) layers in a mattress fashion; (2) lamina-specific lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the inferior layer; and (3) lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the superior layer. We believe that this technique offers the following advantages: (1) creation of a larger area of contact between the inferior layer and the footprint, (2) higher initial fixation strength of the articular-side components of the repaired rotator cuff tendon, and (3) an adaptation between the superficial and inferior layers. This technique represents an alternative option in the operative treatment of large delaminated RCTs. PMID:25685671

  14. Integrative role of the lamina terminalis in the regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Cunningham, J T; Thunhorst, R L

    1996-02-01

    1. Cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis depends upon the activation and co-ordination of reflexes and behavioural responses. In order to accomplish this, the brain receives and processes both neural and chemical input. Once in the brain, information from sources signalling the status of the cardiovascular system and body fluid balance travels, and is integrated, throughout a widely distributed neural network. Recent studies using neuroanatomical and functional techniques have identified several key areas within this neural network. One major processing node is comprised of structures located along the lamina terminalis. 2. Structures associated with the lamina terminalis include the median preoptic nucleus (MePO) and two sensory circumventricular organs (SCVO), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Current evidence indicates that blood-borne signals, such as angiotensin II (AngII), reach SCVO (e.g. SFO) where they are transduced. This information is then carried via neural pathways to brain nuclei (e.g. MePO) where it is integrated with other inputs, such as those derived from systemic arterial blood pressure and volume receptors. 3. Because of their receptive and integrative functions, lamina terminalis structures are essential for the normal control of hormone release (e.g. vasopressin), sympathetic activation and behaviours (thirst and salt appetite), which collectively contribute to maintenance of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis. PMID:8819650

  15. Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Lacy J.; Wilmington, Shameika R.; Martin, Melinda J.; Skopec, Hannah M.; Lovander, Kaylee E.; Pinto, Belinda S.; Geyer, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. LEM domain (LAP2, emerin, MAN1 domain, LEM-D) proteins are components of the nuclear lamina, identified by a shared ?45-amino-acid motif that binds Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a chromatin-interacting protein. Drosophila melanogaster has three nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, named Otefin (Ote), Bocksbeutel (Bocks), and dMAN1. Although these LEM-D proteins are globally expressed, loss of either Ote or dMAN1 causes tissue-specific defects in adult flies that differ from each other. The reason for such distinct tissue-restricted defects is unknown. Here, we generated null alleles of bocks, finding that loss of Bocks causes no overt adult phenotypes. Next, we defined phenotypes associated with lem-d double mutants. Although the absence of individual LEM-D proteins does not affect viability, loss of any two proteins causes lethality. Mutant phenotypes displayed by lem-d double mutants differ from baf mutants, suggesting that BAF function is retained in animals with a single nuclear lamina LEM-D protein. Interestingly, lem-d double mutants displayed distinct developmental and cellular mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Drosophila LEM-D proteins have developmental functions that are differentially shared with other LEM-D family members. This conclusion is supported by studies showing that ectopically produced LEM-D proteins have distinct capacities to rescue the tissue-specific phenotypes found in single lem-d mutants. Our findings predict that cell-specific mutant phenotypes caused by loss of LEM-D proteins reflect both the constellation of LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of functional compensation of the remaining LEM-D proteins. PMID:24700158

  16. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Popken, Jens; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Schmid, Volker J.; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA) at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs) without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA. PMID:25932910

  17. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future. PMID:26907769

  18. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future. PMID:26907769

  19. Active Outer Hair Cells Affect the Sound-Evoked Vibration of the Reticular Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Stefan; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that the organ of Corti uses active mechanisms to enhance its sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Two possible mechanisms have been identified, both capable of producing mechanical forces, which can alter the sound-evoked vibration of the hearing organ. However, little is known about the effect of these forces on the sound-evoked vibration pattern of the reticular lamina. Current injections into scala media were used to alter the amplitude of the active mechanisms in the apex of the guinea pig temporal bone. We used time-resolved confocal imaging to access the vibration pattern of individual outer hair cells. During positive current injection the the sound-evoked vibration of outer hair cell row three increased while row one showed a small decrease. Negative currents reversed the observed effect. We conclude that the outer hair cell mediated modification of reticular lamina vibration patterns could contribute to the inner hair cell stimulation.

  20. The lateral enamel lamina--component of tooth primordia in selected mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Witter, K; Matulov, P; Msek, I

    2002-01-01

    The lateral enamel lamina (LEL) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. It represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. We detected the LEL in the sheep (Ovis aries), the dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and the vole (Microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The LEL could be found in cap to bell stage tooth primordia, most clearly in slowly developing tooth germs. LEL-like structures have been furthermore described or depicted in tooth germs of the mouse, the elk (Alces alces), the dugong (Dugong dugong), the elephant (Loxodonta africana), and the human. Probably it is a part of all mammalian tooth primordia that undergoes regression during morphogenesis of the enamel organ. As a reducing structure, it should be considered in studies of tooth development. PMID:12494916

  1. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth, Age, and Visual Field Sensitivity in the Portland Progression Project

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ruojin; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Fortune, Brad; Hardin, Christy; Demirel, Shaban; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effect of age on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)-detected lamina cribrosa depth while controlling for visual field (VF) status and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in 221 high-risk ocular hypertension and glaucoma patients enrolled in the Portland Progression Project. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, each participant underwent 870-nm SDOCT to obtain high-resolution radial B-scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH) and a standardized ophthalmologic examination, including automated perimetry, on the same day. For each ONH, an anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) parameter was generated as the average perpendicular distance from each anterior lamina cribrosa surface point relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) reference plane within all 24 delineated B-scans. The relative effects of age, age-corrected VF status (mean deviation [MD]), and RNFLT on ALCSD were analyzed. Results. The mean age ± SD of participants was 64 ± 11 years (range, 33–90 years). The relationship between ALCSD and MD was age-dependent. ALCSD = 407.68 − 67.13 × MD − 0.08 × Age + 0.89 × MD × Age (MD, P = 0.001; MD × Age, P = 0.004). The relationship between ALCSD and RNFLT may also be age-dependent but did not achieve significance (interaction term, P = 0.067). ALCSD increased with worse VF status in younger eyes but not in older eyes. In older eyes, the anterior lamina was shallower than in younger eyes for the same VF status and RNFLT. Conclusions. These data are consistent with the concept that structure/structure and structure/function relationships change with age. PMID:24474264

  2. The influence of microtextured basal lamina analog topography on keratinocyte function and epidermal organization.

    PubMed

    Downing, Brett R; Cornwell, Kevin; Toner, Mehmet; Pins, George D

    2005-01-01

    The rational design of future bioengineered skin substitutes requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which the three-dimensional microarchitecture of tissue scaffolds modulates keratinocyte function. Microtextured basal lamina analogs were developed to investigate the relationship between the characteristic topography at the dermal-epidermal interface of native skin and keratinocyte function. Microfabrication techniques were used to create master patterns, negative replicates, and collagen membranes with ridges and channels of length scales (e.g., grooves of 50-200 microm in depth and width) similar to the invaginations found in basal lamina at the dermal-epidermal junction of native skin. Keratinocytes were seeded on the surfaces of basal lamina analogs, and histological analyses were performed after 7 days of tissue culture at the air-liquid interface. The keratinocytes formed a differentiated and stratified epidermis that conformed to the features of the microtextured membranes. Morphometric analyses of immunostained skin equivalents suggest that keratinocyte stratification and differentiation increases as channel depth increases and channel width decreases. This trend was most pronounced in channels with the highest depth-to-width ratios (i.e., 200 microm deep, 50 microm wide). It is anticipated that the findings from these studies will elucidate design parameters to enhance the performance of future bioengineered skin substitutes. PMID:15543632

  3. [Invasive amebiasis].

    PubMed

    Dobi, S; Horvth, A; Szunyogh, I; Jzsa, T; Antny, A; Vrnai, F; Abdul Latif, K

    1994-05-15

    There has only a small number of invasive amoebiasis cases occurred in Hungary up to now. Introducing two of our cases we would like to call attention on these cases coming mainly from tropical countries or having been just transiently there invasive amoebiasis should also be considered. Modern diagnostic imaging technics are of importance in differential diagnosis in showing antibodies against amoebas (!) because amoebas frequently cannot be directly shown from the patients in the invasive stage. Both ulcerous amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscesses can be treated with drugs affecting amoebas in deep tissues (metronidazole, emetine, and its derivates, etc.). PMID:8052495

  4. Invasive Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Heck, Carey

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology have resulted in a plethora of invasive neuromonitoring options for practitioners to manage while caring for the complex needs of the critical care patient. Although many types of invasive neuromonitoring are available to the practitioner, intraparenchymal monitors and external ventricular devices are used most frequently in the clinical setting and are the focus of this article. In addition, multimodality monitoring has been noted to confer a survival benefit in patients with this complex type of invasive neuromonitoring and is discussed as well. PMID:26873760

  5. Responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurons to maintained noxious mechanical stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D; Craig, A D

    2002-04-01

    Noxious mechanical stimuli that are maintained for minutes produce a continuous sensation of pain in humans that augments during the stimulus. It has recently been shown with systematic force-controlled stimuli that, while all mechanically responsive nociceptors adapt to these stimuli, the basis for such pain can be ascribed to A-fiber rather than C-fiber nociceptors, based on distinctions in their respective response profiles and stimulus-response functions. The present experiments investigated whether similar distinctions could be made in subsets of nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons using similar maintained stimuli. Twenty-eight lamina I STT neurons in the lumbosacral dorsal horn of barbiturate-anesthetized cats were tested with noxious mechanical stimuli applied with a probe of 0.1 mm(2) contact area at forces of 25, 50, and 100 g for 2 min. The neurons were classified as nociceptive-specific (NS, n = 14) or polymodal nociceptive (HPC, n = 14) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli. The NS neurons had greater responses and showed less adaptation than the HPC neurons in response to these stimuli, and they encoded stimulus intensity better. Comparison of the normalized response profiles of all 28 nociceptive lamina I STT neurons, independent of cell classification, revealed 2 subgroups that differed significantly: "Maintained" cells with responses that remained above 50% of the initial peak rate during stimulation and "Adapting" cells with responses that quickly declined to <50%. The Maintained neurons encoded the intensity of the mechanical stimuli better than the Adapting neurons, based on ratiometric functions. A k-means cluster analysis of all 28 cells distinguished the identical two subgroups. These categories corresponded closely to the NS and HPC categories: Maintained cells were mostly NS neurons (10 NS, 3 HPC), and Adapting cells were mostly HPC neurons (4 NS, 11 HPC). Thus the present data are consistent with the distinctions between A-fiber and C-fiber nociceptors observed previously, because A-fiber nociceptors are the predominant input to NS lamina I STT neurons and C-fiber nociceptors are the predominant input to HPC neurons. These findings support the view that NS, but perhaps not HPC, lamina I STT neurons have a role in the pain caused by maintained mechanical stimuli and contribute to the sensations of "first" pain and "sharpness." Nonetheless, none of the units studied showed increasing responses during the stimuli, suggesting a role for other ascending neurons or forebrain integration in the augmenting pain produced by maintained mechanical stimulation. PMID:11929909

  6. Influences of Biogenic Gas Production on Lamina-Scale Microbial Microfabrics in Modern and Ancient Stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, C. L.; Eilers, K. G.; Mata, S. A.; Stork, N. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.; International Geobiology Course 2010

    2010-12-01

    Stromatolites provide a record of Earths earliest ecosystems, yet attributing stromatolite characteristics to uniquely biogenic processes is often difficult. Siliceous stromatolites growing at the rim of Obsidian Prime Pool, Yellowstone National Park, USA, resemble finely laminated stromatolites common in Precambrian rocks. Because they consist of well-preserved silicified filaments, they provide a unique opportunity to examine biogenic structures that are analogous ancient stromatolites where biogenicity can be ambiguous. Alternating light-dark laminae couplets in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites reflect variability in density and orientation of silicified filaments. The thinner, dark laminae (10-80 ?m) are comprised of dense networks of silicified filaments, generally oriented parallel to the lamination. The thicker light laminae (40-220 ?m) consist of an open, more porous network of filaments with variable orientation, and include dense hourglass-shaped bundles of filaments surrounding mm-scale, spherical to vertically-elongate pores. These pores are interpreted to have formed from gas bubbles on the lamina surface that were colonized by filamentous cyanobacteria that rapidly silicified, preserving the bubble morphology. Quantitative analysis of filament orientation reveals that filament meshes in light laminae are preferentially oriented normal to the lamination surface rather than vertically. However, dense bundles of filaments surrounding bubble pores are often vertically oriented, likely reflecting the influence of vertically migrating gas bubbles. Experiments with living microbial mats confirmed that filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of colonizing gas bubbles, and that variability in gas bubble production produces different microstructures, including some that are similar to those in the Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites. Thicker filament bundles, which commonly occur around gas bubbles, may be more robust than filament meshes, and therefore have greater preservation potential. Thus, vertically oriented structures may be preferentially preserved in the geologic record. Indeed, comparisons of fabrics in Obsidian Prime Pool stromatolites with stromatolite fabrics in the Neoproterozoic Beck Spring Dolomite reveal similar vertical structures surrounding round pores, which likely indicate the presence of photosynthetic microbes and very rapid lithification. In summary, results indicate that biogenic gas production can distinctly influence lamination characteristics in stromatolites and that fabrics with rounded pores may be good indicators of microbial metabolic activity and motility. Furthermore, vertical fabrics in ancient stromatolites may reflect gas bubble production rather than phototaxis.

  7. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  8. A new source of structural autograft for ACDF surgery: cervical laminae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaming; Xiong, Xu; Long, Xinhua; Shu, Yong; Huang, Shanhu; Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Study design: A prospective study and a technical note. Background: Autograft is considered to be the gold standard in achieving optimal fusion in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). In patients with combined postero-anterior cervical procedure, whether the cervical laminae harvested from laminectomy can be used as astructural bone graft in ACDF? Few studies have reported about this. Objective: To describe the clinical and radio graphic outcomes in patients undergoing combined postero-anterior cervical surgery using autologous laminae as bone graft in ACDF. Methods: Twenty-two patients (13 males, 9 females) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy underwent one-level combined postero-anterior procedure with anterior plate fixation from January 2010 to January 2014. All the patients received computed tomography scan before surgery and the heights of the target laminae and the middle intervertebral space were measured. Then, patients underwent combined postero-anterior surgery with laminectomy and ACDF. The structural laminae obtained from laminectomy were used as bone graft in ACDF. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of the patients were analyzed and the effectiveness and safety of the surgery was evaluated. Results: The average heights of the target laminae and the middle intervertebral space were 11.181.05 mm and 5.750.58 mm, respectively. Statistical significant difference was found between the heights of the laminae and the space (P<0.001). The mean operative time was 19237 minutes with an average blood loss volume of 23571 ml. All patients were followed up and the average follow-up period was 17.53.1 months. All patients had immediate postoperative resolution of symptoms and radiographic evidence of solid fusion 3 months later. Postoperatively, excellent results were reported in 62.5%, good results in 18.8%, and fair results in 18.8% of the patients according to Odoms criteria. Visual analog scale score of the neck and extremities pain was significantly decreased after the surgery (P=0.014). The average preoperative and postoperative lordosis angles of the cervical spine were24.4213.84 and 32.917.79, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). Little loss of the angle was noted at final follow-up (32.917.79 VS 29.307.88, P=0.51). Anterior intervertebral space height was significantly increased (P<0.001) after the surgery and a little declined at final follow-up (P=0.43). No intraoperative complication was noted in the patients and three patients got self-limiting dysphagia postoperatively, who recovered spontaneously. Conclusion: In patients undergoing combined postero-anterior cervical surgery, structural autograft harvested from the laminae provides an alternative to anterior iliac crest grafting. PMID:26309564

  9. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-10-10

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  10. MacroH2A1 associates with nuclear lamina and maintains chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuhua; Lv, Pin; Yan, Guoquan; Fan, Hui; Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Feng; Dang, Yongjun; Wu, Hao; Wen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the interphase nucleus, chromatin is organized into three-dimensional conformation to coordinate genome functions. The lamina-chromatin association is important to facilitate higher-order chromatin in mammalian cells, but its biological significances and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One obstacle is that the list of lamina-associated proteins remains limited, presumably due to the inherent insolubility of lamina proteins. In this report, we identified 182 proteins associated with lamin B1 (a constitutive component of lamina) in mouse hepatocytes, by adopting virus-based proximity-dependent biotin identification. These proteins are functionally related to biological processes such as chromatin organization. As an example, we validated the association between lamin B1 and core histone macroH2A1, a histone associated with repressive chromatin. Furthermore, we mapped Lamina-associated domains (LADs) in mouse liver cells and found that boundaries of LADs are enriched for macroH2A. More interestingly, knocking-down of macroH2A1 resulted in the release of heterochromatin foci marked by histone lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and the decondensation of global chromatin structure. However, down-regulation of lamin B1 led to redistribution of macroH2A1. Taken together, our data indicated that macroH2A1 is associated with lamina and is required to maintain chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells. PMID:26603343

  11. Harmonic oscillations of a lamina in a viscous fluid near a solid surface: A lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a rigid thickless lamina is immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid and it undergoes transverse finite amplitude harmonic oscillations near a solid surface. The surrounding flow physics is computed through the lattice Boltzmann method. In order to account for the presence of the lamina in the lattice fluid background, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. Several scenarios are investigated by varying the distance between the initial position of the lamina and the solid wall. For a given lamina-solid surface distance, the effect of the Reynolds number is investigated, together with the influence of the Keulegan-Carpenter number. Findings in terms of drag coefficient show that the force exerted by the encompassing fluid upon the lamina is remarkably influenced by the distance from the solid surface, especially for low values of the Reynolds number. Moreover, such results are confirmed by the computation of the hydrodynamic function. In fact, it highlights that the added mass effect and the non-linear damping experienced by the oscillating lamina grow as the above mentioned distance and the Reynolds number reduce.

  12. MacroH2A1 associates with nuclear lamina and maintains chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuhua; Lv, Pin; Yan, Guoquan; Fan, Hui; Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Feng; Dang, Yongjun; Wu, Hao; Wen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the interphase nucleus, chromatin is organized into three-dimensional conformation to coordinate genome functions. The lamina-chromatin association is important to facilitate higher-order chromatin in mammalian cells, but its biological significances and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One obstacle is that the list of lamina-associated proteins remains limited, presumably due to the inherent insolubility of lamina proteins. In this report, we identified 182 proteins associated with lamin B1 (a constitutive component of lamina) in mouse hepatocytes, by adopting virus-based proximity-dependent biotin identification. These proteins are functionally related to biological processes such as chromatin organization. As an example, we validated the association between lamin B1 and core histone macroH2A1, a histone associated with repressive chromatin. Furthermore, we mapped Lamina-associated domains (LADs) in mouse liver cells and found that boundaries of LADs are enriched for macroH2A. More interestingly, knocking-down of macroH2A1 resulted in the release of heterochromatin foci marked by histone lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and the decondensation of global chromatin structure. However, down-regulation of lamin B1 led to redistribution of macroH2A1. Taken together, our data indicated that macroH2A1 is associated with lamina and is required to maintain chromatin architecture in mouse liver cells. PMID:26603343

  13. Vibration Measurement on Reticular Lamina and Basilar Membrane at Multiple Longitudinal Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Choudhury, Niloy; Fridberger, Anders; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the organ of Corti vibration is important for both understanding the energy delivery and the timing of the cochlear amplification. Recent development on low coherence interferomtry technique allows measuring vibration inside the cochlea. The reticular lamina (RL) vibration spectrum demonstrates that RL vibration leads the basilar membrane (BM). This phase lead is consistent with the idea that the active process may lead the BM vibration. In this study, measurements on multiple longitudinal locations demonstrated similar phase lead. Results on this study suggests that there may be another longitudinal coupling mechanism inside the cochlea other than the traveling wave on BM.

  14. Differential projections of thermoreceptive and nociceptive lamina I trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D; Dostrovsky, J O

    2001-08-01

    The projections of 40 trigeminothalamic or spinothalamic (TSTT) lamina I neurons were mapped using antidromic activation from a mobile electrode array in barbiturate anesthetized cats. Single units were identified as projection cells from the initial array position and characterized with natural cutaneous stimuli as nociceptive-specific (NS, n = 9), polymodal nociceptive (HPC, n = 8), or thermoreceptive-specific (COOL, n = 22; WARM, n = 1) cells. Thresholds for antidromic activation were measured from each electrode in the mediolateral array at vertical steps of 250 microm over a 7-mm dorsoventral extent in two to eight (median = 6.0) anteroposterior planes. Histological reconstructions showed that the maps encompassed all three of the main lamina I projection targets observed in prior anatomical work, i.e., the ventral aspect of the ventroposterior complex (vVP), the dorsomedial aspect of the ventroposterior medial nucleus (dmVPM), and the submedial nucleus (Sm). The antidromic activation foci were localized to these sites (and occasional projections to other sites were also observed, such as the parafascicular nucleus and zona incerta). The projections of thermoreceptive and nociceptive cells differed. The projections of the thermoreceptive-specific cells were 20/23 to dmVPM, 21/23 to vVP, and 17/23 to Sm, whereas the projections of the NS cells were 1/9 to dmVPM, 9/9 to vVP, and 9/9 to Sm and the projections of the HPC cells were 0/8 to dmVPM, 7/8 to vVP, and 6/8 to Sm. Thus nearly all thermoreceptive cells projected to dmVPM, but almost no nociceptive cells did. Further, thermoreceptive cells projected medially within vVP (including the basal ventral medial nucleus), while nociceptive cells projected both medially and more laterally, and the ascending axons of thermoreceptive cells were concentrated in the medial mesencephalon, while the axons of nociceptive cells ascended in the lateral mesencephalon. These findings provide evidence for anatomical differences between these physiological classes of lamina I cells, and they corroborate prior anatomical localization of the lamina I TSTT projection targets in the cat. These results support evidence indicating that the ventral aspect of the basal ventral medial nucleus is important for thermosensory behavior in cats, consistent with the view that this region is a primordial homologue of the posterior ventral medial nucleus in primates. PMID:11495956

  15. Responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurons to repeated brief contact heat stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D; Andrew, D

    2002-04-01

    It was recently shown that repeated heat stimulation, using brief contacts (<1 s) with a preheated thermode at sufficiently short interstimulus intervals (ISIs <5 s) and high temperatures (> or =51 degrees C), will elicit in humans a sensation of rapidly augmenting "second" (burning) pain with only a weak "first" (sharp) pain sensation. Most strikingly, at short intertrial intervals (ITIs >5 s) such summation will reset, or begin again at baseline. In the present experiments, the responses of nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic (STT) neurons in the lumbosacral dorsal horn of barbiturate-anesthetized cats were examined using this repeated brief contact heat paradigm. The neurons were classified as nociceptive-specific (NS, n = 8) or polymodal nociceptive (HPC, n = 8) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli; all had receptive fields on the glabrous ventral hindpaw. A pneumatic piston was used to apply a thermode preheated to 34, 46, 49, 53, or 58 degrees C with a contact dwell time of approximately 0.7 s to the ventral hindpaw repeatedly (15 times) at ISIs of 2, 3, and 5 s, with 3-5 min between trials. The mean responses of the 16 nociceptive lamina I STT cells showed rapid temporal summation that was directly dependent on temperature and inversely dependent on ISI, with the greatest increases occurring between the 3rd and 10th contacts. The temporal profiles of this family of curves correspond with the psychophysical data on human sensation. Further analysis showed that this summation was due to the HPC cells, which all showed strong summation; in contrast, the NS cells showed little, if any. The HPC responses to the repeated heat stimuli lagged each contact by approximately 1 s, consistent with the strong, monosynaptic C-fiber input that is characteristic of HPC cells and also with the dependence of second pain on C-fiber nociceptors. HPC cells also displayed the reset phenomenon at short ITIs, again in correspondence with the psychophysical data. The summation and the reset displayed by HPC cells were not related to skin temperature. Thus the results presented in this study, together with those in the preceding article, demonstrate a double dissociation indicating that NS and HPC lamina I STT cells can subserve the qualitatively distinct sensations of first (sharp) and second (burning) pain, respectively. These findings support the concept that the lamina I STT projection comprises several discrete sensory channels that are integrated in the forebrain to generate distinct sensations. PMID:11929910

  16. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A.; Ihalainen, Teemu O.

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  17. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  18. Invasive Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Todd P; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a collective term that refers to a group of infectious syndromes caused by a variety of species of Candida, 5 of which cause most cases. Candidemia is the most commonly recognized syndrome associated with invasive candidiasis. Certain conditions may influence the likelihood for one species versus another in a specific clinical scenario, and this can have important implications for selection of antifungal therapy and the duration of treatment. Molecular diagnostic technology plays an ever-increasing role as an adjunct to traditional culture-based diagnostics, offering significant potential toward improvement in patient care. PMID:26739610

  19. Diverse firing properties and Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs of small local circuit neurons in spinal lamina I.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elisabete C; Luz, Liliana L; Mytakhir, Oleh; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2016-02-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system, which integrates primary afferent input and relays it to supraspinal areas. More than 90% of neurons in this layer are local circuit neurons, whose role in the signal processing is poorly understood. We performed whole-cell recordings in a spinal cord preparation with attached dorsal roots to examine morphological features and physiological properties of small local circuit neurons (n = 47) in lamina I. Cells successfully filled with biocytin (n = 17) had fusiform (n = 10), flattened (n = 4), and multipolar (n = 3) somatodendritic morphology; their axons branched extensively and terminated in laminae I-III. Intrinsic firing properties were diverse; in addition to standard tonic (n = 16), adapting (n = 7), and delayed (n = 6) patterns, small local circuit neurons also generated rhythmic discharges (n = 6) and plateau potentials (n = 10), the latter were suppressed by the L-type Ca-channel blocker nifedipine. The neurons received monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C afferents and could generate bursts of spikes on the root stimulation. In addition, we identified lamina I neurons (n = 7) with direct inputs from the low-threshold Aβ afferents, which could be picked up by ventral dendrites protruding to lamina III. Stimulation of afferents also evoked a disynaptic inhibition of neurons. Thus, small local circuit neurons exhibit diverse firing properties, can generate rhythmic discharges and plateau potentials, and their dendrites extending into several laminae allow broad integration of Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs. These properties are required for processing diverse modalities of nociceptive inputs in lamina I and may underlie spinal sensitization to pain. PMID:26797505

  20. Incidence and Significance of Muscle Capillary Basal Lamina Thickness in Juvenile Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Victoriano; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Alzamora, David B.; Cleveland, William W.

    1972-01-01

    The mean minimal and average basal lamina thickness (MBLT and ABLT) of 17 to 20 muscle capillaries were measured in 26 overt juvenile diabetics and in 26 nondiabetic patients of similar age. The mean MBLT was significantly increased in diabetics although 17 of the individual values in diabetics overlapped those obtained in nondiabetics. Segmental and focal fluctuations in basement membrane width appeared to be the most important cause of variance, particularly in thick walled vessels, although multiple instrumental and technical sources of error were also present. As a result, in diabetics there was a mean variability of 25% when measurements from two different sets of capillaries in the same subject were compared. Patients older than 12 years and diabetics with longer duration of the disease or abnormal findings on ophthalmoscopic examination exhibited a significant increase in capillary basal lamina. The mean ABLT averaged 1.8 times the mean MBLT, but the relative individual measurements as well as statistical correlations with clinical parameters were similar. Muscle capillary basement membrane hypertrophy, as quantitated by the present methods, does not seem to be an early, sensitive or consistent finding to identify individual diabetics. ImagesFig 1Fig 2 PMID:5080699

  1. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-06-15

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  2. Heterosynaptic long-term potentiation at GABAergic synapses of spinal lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Fenselau, Henning; Heinke, Bernhard; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2011-11-30

    Neurons in spinal dorsal horn lamina I play a pivotal role for nociception that critically depends on a proper balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Any modification in synaptic strength may challenge this delicate balance. Long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses between nociceptive C-fibers and lamina I neurons is an intensively studied cellular model of pain amplification. In contrast, nothing is presently known about long-term changes of synaptic strength at inhibitory synapses in the spinal dorsal horn. Using a spinal cord-dorsal root slice preparation from rats, we show that conditioning stimulation of primary afferent fibers with a stimulating protocol that induces LTP at C-fiber synapses also triggered LTP at GABAergic synapses (LTP(GABA)). This LTP(GABA) was heterosynaptic in nature and was mediated by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Opening of ionotropic glutamate receptor channels of the AMPA/KA or NMDA subtype was not required for LTP(GABA). Paired-pulse ratio, coefficient of variation, and miniature IPSCs analysis revealed that LTP(GABA) was expressed presynaptically. Nitric oxide as a retrograde messenger signal mediated this increase of GABA release at spinal inhibitory synapses. This novel form of synaptic plasticity in spinal nociceptive circuits may be an essential mechanism to maintain the relative balance between excitation and inhibition and to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in nociceptive pathways. PMID:22131400

  3. Genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina interactions in single human cells.

    PubMed

    Kind, Jop; Pagie, Ludo; de Vries, Sandra S; Nahidiazar, Leila; Dey, Siddharth S; Bienko, Magda; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan; de Graaf, Carolyn A; Amendola, Mario; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A; Jalink, Kees; Dekker, Job; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; van Steensel, Bas

    2015-09-24

    Mammalian interphase chromosomes interact with the nuclear lamina (NL) through hundreds of large lamina-associated domains (LADs). We report a method to map NL contacts genome-wide in single human cells. Analysis of nearly 400 maps reveals a core architecture consisting of gene-poor LADs that contact the NL with high cell-to-cell consistency, interspersed by LADs with more variable NL interactions. The variable contacts tend to be cell-type specific and are more sensitive to changes in genome ploidy than the consistent contacts. Single-cell maps indicate that NL contacts involve multivalent interactions over hundreds of kilobases. Moreover, we observe extensive intra-chromosomal coordination of NL contacts, even over tens of megabases. Such coordinated loci exhibit preferential interactions as detected by Hi-C. Finally, the consistency of NL contacts is inversely linked to gene activity in single cells and correlates positively with the heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3. These results highlight fundamental principles of single-cell chromatin organization. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26365489

  4. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  5. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jennifer C.; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to the nuclear periphery. We identify YY1 (Ying-Yang1) binding sites as enriched in relocating sequences. Knockdown of YY1 or lamin A/C, but not lamin A, led to a loss of lamina association. In addition, targeted recruitment of YY1 proteins facilitated ectopic LAD formation dependent on histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and histone H3 lysine di- and trimethylation. Our results also reveal that endogenous loci appear to be dependent on lamin A/C, YY1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me2/3 for maintenance of lamina-proximal positioning. PMID:25559185

  6. Maintenance of Glia in the Optic Lamina Is Mediated by EGFR Signaling by Photoreceptors in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Sun, Y. Henry

    2015-01-01

    The late onset of neurodegeneration in humans indicates that the survival and function of cells in the nervous system must be maintained throughout adulthood. In the optic lamina of the adult Drosophila, the photoreceptor axons are surrounded by multiple types of glia. We demonstrated that the adult photoreceptors actively contribute to glia maintenance in their target field within the optic lamina. This effect is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands produced by the R1-6 photoreceptors and transported to the optic lamina to act on EGFR in the lamina glia. EGFR signaling is necessary and sufficient to act in a cell-autonomous manner in the lamina glia. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the trafficking of the autophagosome/endosome to the lysosome. The loss of EGFR signaling results in cell degeneration most likely because of the accumulation of autophagosomes. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for the role of adult neurons in the maintenance of glia and a novel role for EGFR signaling in the autophagic flux. PMID:25909451

  7. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Winter Lower Stratosphere and the Relationship to Lamina and Irreversible Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    We use the high-resolution dynamic limb sounder (HIRDLS) high-vertical resolution ozone profiles in the northern hemisphere lower stratosphere to examine the meridional transport out of the tropics. We focus on February 2005.2007 when there are differences in the dynamical background in the lower stratosphere due to the states of the quasibiennial oscillation and polar vortex. HIRDLS data reveal a large number of low ozone laminae that have the characteristics of tropical air at midlatitudes. More laminae are observed in February in 2006 than in 2005 or 2007. Because laminae can form, move out of the tropics, and return to the tropics without mixing into the midlatitude ozone field, the number of laminae is not directly related to the net transport. We use equivalent latitude coordinates to discriminate between reversible and irreversible laminar transport. The equivalent latitude analysis shows greater irreversible transport between the tropics and lower midlatitudes in both 2005 and 2007 compared to 2006 despite the higher number of laminae observed in 2006. Our conclusion that there was more irreversible transport of tropical air into the lower midlatitudes in 2005 and 2007 is supported by equivalent length analysis of mixing using microwave limb sounder N2O measurements. This study shows that reversibility must be considered in order to infer the importance of lamination to net transport.

  8. Anteroventral wall of the third ventricle and dorsal lamina terminalis: headquarters for control of body fluid homeostasis?

    PubMed

    McKinley, M J; Pennington, G L; Oldfield, B J

    1996-04-01

    1. The subfornical organ, median preoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) are a series of structures situated in the anterior wall of the third ventricle and form the lamina terminalis. The OVLT and ventral part of the median preoptic nucleus are part of a region known as the anteroventral third ventricle region. 2. Data from many laboratories, using techniques ranging from lesions, electrophysiology, neuropharmacology, Fos expression, immunohistochemistry and receptor localization, indicate that the tissue in the lamina terminalis plays a major role in many aspects of body fluid and electrolyte balance. 3. The subfornical organ and OVLT lack the blood-brain barrier and detect alterations in plasma tonicity and the concentrations of circulating hormones such as angiotensin II and possibly atrial natriuretic peptide and relaxin. 4. This information is then integrated within the lamina terminalis (probably in the median preoptic nucleus) with neural signals from other brain regions. The neural output from the lamina terminalis is distributed to a number of effector sites including the paraventricular (both parvo- and magno-cellular parts) and supraoptic nuclei and influences vasopressin secretion, water drinking, salt intake, renin secretion, renal sodium excretion and cardiovascular regulation. PMID:8717061

  9. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  10. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  11. A P2X receptor-mediated nociceptive afferent pathway to lamina I of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Gu, Jianguo G

    2005-01-01

    Of the six lamina regions in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, lamina I is a major sensory region involved in nociceptive transmission under both physiological and pathological conditions. While P2X receptors have been shown to be involved in nociception, it remains unknown if P2X receptors are involved in nociceptive transmission to lamina I neurons. Using rat spinal cord slice preparations and patch-clamp recordings, we have demonstrated that the excitatory synaptic transmission between primary afferent fibers and lamina I neurons is significantly affected by ATP and alpha,beta-methylene-ATP. The synaptic effects of them include the increases of the frequency of both miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), and decreases of evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs). These effects were blocked by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 10 microM) and suramin (30 microM). In the neurons for which ATP and alpha,beta-methylene-ATP had effects on mEPSCs, sEPSCs and eEPSCs, capsaicin produced similar synaptic effects. Our results indicate that P2X receptors are expressed on many afferent fibers that directly synapse to lamina I neurons. Furthermore, these P2X receptor-expressing afferent fibers are capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive afferents. Thus, this study reveals a P2X receptor-mediated nociceptive afferent pathway to lamina I of the spinal cord and provides a new insight into the nociceptive functions of P2X receptors. PMID:15813988

  12. Quantitative response characteristics of thermoreceptive and nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Craig, A D; Krout, K; Andrew, D

    2001-09-01

    The physiological characteristics of antidromically identified lamina I spinothalamic (STT) neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord were examined using quantitative thermal and mechanical stimuli in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. Cells belonging to the three main recognized classes were included based on categorization with natural cutaneous stimulation of the hindpaw: nociceptive-specific (NS), polymodal nociceptive (HPC), or thermoreceptive-specific (COOL) cells. The mean central conduction latencies of these classes differed significantly; NS = 130.8 +/- 55.5 (SD) ms (n = 100), HPC = 72.1 +/- 28.0 ms (n = 128), and COOL = 58.6 +/- 25.3 ms (n = 136), which correspond to conduction velocities of 2.5, 4.6, and 5.6 m/s. Based on recordings made prior to any noxious stimulation, the mean spontaneous discharge rates of these classes also differed: NS = 0.5 +/- 0.7 imp/s (n = 47), HPC = 0.9 +/- 0.7 imp/s (n = 59), and COOL = 3.3 +/- 2.6 imp/s (n = 107). Standard, quantitative, thermal stimulus sequences applied with a Peltier thermode were used to characterize the stimulus-response functions of 76 COOL cells, 47 HPC cells, and 37 NS cells. The COOL cells showed a very linear output from 34 degrees C down to approximately 15 degrees C and a maintained plateau thereafter. The HPC cells showed a fairly linear but accelerating response to cold below a median threshold of approximately 24 degrees C and down to 9 degrees C (measured at the skin-thermode interface with a thermode temperature of 2 degrees C). The HPC cells and the NS cells both showed rapidly increasing, sigmoidal response functions to noxious heat with a fairly linear response between 45 and 53 degrees C, but they had significantly different thresholds; half of the HPC cells were activated at ~45.5 degrees C and half of the NS cells at approximately 43 degrees C. The 20 HPC lamina I STT cells and 10 NS cells tested with quantitative pinch stimuli showed fairly linear responses above a threshold of approximately 130 g/mm(2) for HPC cells and a threshold of approximately 100 g/mm(2) for NS cells. All of these response functions compare well (across species) with the available data on the characteristics of thermoreceptive and nociceptive primary afferent fibers and the appropriate psychophysics in humans. Together these results support the concept that these classes of lamina I STT cells provide discrete sensory channels for the sensations of temperature and pain. PMID:11535691

  13. Imaging of the Lamina Cribrosa using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nuyen, Brenda; N Weinreb, Robert

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lamina cribrosa (LC) is the presumed site of axonal injury in glaucoma. Its deformation has been suggested to contribute to optic neuropathy by impeding axoplasmic flow within the optic nerve fibers, leading to apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. To visualize the LC in vivo, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied. Spectral domain (SD)-OCT, used in conjunction with recently introduced enhanced depth imaging (EDI)-OCT, has improved visualization of deeper ocular layers, but in many individuals it is still limited by inadequate resolution, poor image contrast and insufficient depth penetrance. The posterior laminar surface especially is not viewed clearly using these methods. New generation high-penetration (HP)-OCTs, also known as swept-source (SS)-OCT, are capable to evaluate the choroid in vivo to a remarkable level of detail. SS-OCTs use a longer wavelength (1,050 nm instead of 840 nm) compared to the conventional techniques. We review current knowledge of the LC, findings from trials that use SD-OCT and EDI-OCT, and our experience with a prototype SS-OCT to visualize the LC in its entirety. Key Points What is known? •     The LC is the presumed site of axonal injury in glaucoma •     Compared to spectral domain-OCT, enhanced depth imaging-OCT improves imaging of the LC •     Even so, currently used SD-OCT techniques are restricted by poor wavelength penetrance of the deeper ocular layers What our findings add? •    SS-OCT may be a superior imaging modality for deep ocular structures •    Prior studies used SS-OCT to evaluate choroidal thickness in both healthy and ‘normal tension glaucoma’ eyes •    SS-OCT enables good evaluation of three-dimension (3D) lamina cribrosa morphology. How to cite this article: Nuyen B, Mansouri K, Weinreb RN. Imaging of the Lamina Cribrosa using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography. J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3): 113-119.

  14. The effect of tenascin and embryonic basal lamina on the behavior and morphology of neural crest cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Halfter, W; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R; Tucker, R P

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the morphology and migratory behavior of quail neural crest cells on isolated embryonic basal laminae or substrata coated with fibronectin or tenascin. Each of these substrata have been implicated in directing neural crest cell migration in situ. We also observed the altered behavior of cells in response to the addition of tenascin to the culture medium independent of its effect as a migratory substratum. On tenascin-coated substrata, the rate of neural crest cell migration from neural tube explants was significantly greater than on uncoated tissue culture plastic, on fibronectin-coated plastic, or on basal lamina isolated from embryonic chick retinae. Neural crest cells on tenascin were rounded and lacked lamellipodia, in contrast to the flattened cells seen on basal lamina and fibronectin-coated plastic. In contrast, when tenascin was added to the culture medium of neural crest cells migrating on isolated basal lamina, a significant reduction in the rate of cell migration was observed. To study the nature of this effect, we used human melanoma cells, which have a number of characteristics in common with quail neural crest cells though they would be expected to have a distinct family of integrin receptors. A dose-dependent reduction in the rate of translocation was observed when tenascin was added to the culture medium of the human melanoma cell line plated on isolated basal laminae, indicating that the inhibitory effect of tenascin bound to the quail neural crest surface is probably not solely the result of competitive inhibition by tenascin for the integrin receptor. Our results show that tenascin can be used as a migratory substratum by avian neural crest cells and that tenascin as a substratum can stimulate neural crest cell migration, probably by permitting rapid detachment. Tenascin in the medium, on the other hand, inhibits both the migration rates and spreading of motile cells on basal lamina because it binds only the cell surface and not the underlying basal lamina. Cell surface-bound tenascin may decrease cell-substratum interactions and thus weaken the tractional forces generated by migrating cells. This is in contrast to the action of fibronectin, which when added to the medium stimulates cell migration by binding both to neural crest cells and the basal lamina, thus providing a bridge between the motile cells and the substratum. PMID:2465193

  15. Measurement of Basilar Membrane, Reticular Lamina, and Tectorial Membrane Vibrations in the Intact Mouse Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2011-11-01

    A scanning low-coherence heterodyne interferometer (SLHI) was developed for measuring the microstructural vibration inside the cochlear partition of the intact living cochlea of mice. The sensitivity, frequency response, and dynamic range of the SLHI are comparable with those of a sensitive laser interferometer but the SLHI has a higher spatial resolution along the optical axis. The magnitude and phase of sound-induced vibrations were measured as a function of the focal position along the optical axis. Our data show that the SLHI has sufficient sensitivity, dynamic range, and temporal and spatial resolution to measure sub-nanometer vibrations of the basilar membrane, reticular lamina, and tectorial membrane in the intact living mouse cochlea. High spatial and temporal resolution, compact heterodyne design, and scanning capability make this interferometer an ideal tool to study molecular mechanisms of hearing in normal and genetically-modified mice.

  16. The biophysical properties of Basal lamina gels depend on the biochemical composition of the gel.

    PubMed

    Arends, Fabienna; Nowald, Constantin; Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  17. The Biophysical Properties of Basal Lamina Gels Depend on the Biochemical Composition of the Gel

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition. PMID:25689062

  18. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, ?, without the need for caustic staining.

  19. The role of lamina cribrosa cells in optic nerve head fibrosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Deborah M; O'Brien, Colm J

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy. There are extracellular matrix (ECM) changes associated with optic disc cupping in the optic nerve head (ONH) and subsequent visual field defects. The primary risk factor for onset and progression of glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP causes deformation at the ONH specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also deposition of ECM causing the LC to initially undergo thickening and posterior migration with eventual shearing and collapse of the LC plates leading to a thin fibrotic connective tissue structure/scar. Cells that populate the LC region of the ONH are those cells that are positive for GFAP (the astrocytes) and those negative for GFAP (the LC cells). The LC cell plays an integral role in ECM remodelling producing ECM when exposed to high level mechanical stretch, TGF- ?1 and ahypoxic environment. PMID:26675406

  20. Functional coupling between the extracellular matrix and nuclear lamina by Wnt signaling in Progeria

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lidia; Roux, Kyle J.; Wong, Esther Sook Min; Mounkes, Leslie C.; Mutalif, Rafidah; Navasankari, Raju; Rai, Bina; Cool, Simon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Wang, Honghe; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kozlov, Serguei; Grunert, Martin; Keeble, Thomas; Jones, C. Michael; Meta, Margarita D.; Young, Stephen G.; Daar, Ira O.; Burke, Brian; Perantoni, Alan O.; Stewart, Colin L.

    2010-01-01

    The segmental premature aging disease, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A. In a mouse model for HGPS, a similar Lamin A variant causes the proliferative arrest and death of post-natal but not embryonic fibroblasts. Arrest is due to an inability to produce a functional extracellular matrix (ECM), as growth on normal ECM rescues proliferation. The defects are associated with inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling, due to reduced nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Lef1, but not Tcf4, in both mouse and human progeric cells. Defective Wnt signaling, affecting ECM synthesis, maybe critical to the etiology of HGPS as mice exhibit skeletal defects and apoptosis in major blood vessels proximal to the heart. These results establish a functional link between the nuclear envelope/lamina and the cell surface/ECM and may provide insights into the role of Wnt signaling and the ECM in aging. PMID:20833363

  1. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Normal Monkey Eyes Part 1: Methods and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Howard; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart; Grimm, Jonathan; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, J. Crawford; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce quantitative postmortem lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture (LMA) assessment and characterize beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), and connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF) in 21 normal monkey eyes. Methods. Optic nerve heads (ONHs) underwent digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to one of twelve 30 sectors in a common cylinder. Mean BD, PD, and CTVF within 12 central and 12 peripheral subsectors and within inner, middle, and outer LC depths were assessed for sector, subsector, and depth effects by analysis of variance using general estimating equations. Eye-specific LMA discordance (the pattern of lowest connective tissue density) was plotted for each parameter. Results. The ranges of mean BD, PD, and CTVF were 14.0 to 23.1 ?m, 20.0 to 35.6 ?m, and 0.247 to 0.638, respectively. Sector, subsector, and depth effects were significant (P < 0.01) for all parameters except subsector on CTVF. Beam diameter and CTVF were smaller and PD was larger within the superior-temporal (ST) and inferior-temporal (IT) sectors (P < 0.05). These differences were enhanced within the central versus peripheral subsectors. Beam diameter and CTVF were larger and PD was smaller (P < 0.05) within the middle LC layer. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture discordance most commonly occurred within the ST and IT sectors, varied by eye, and generally diminished as CTVF increased. Conclusions. Our data support previous characterizations of diminished connective tissue density within the ST and IT ONH regions. The clinical importance of eye-specific LMA discordance warrants further study. PMID:25650423

  2. Quantitative responses of spinothalamic lamina I neurones to graded mechanical stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David; Craig, A D Bud

    2002-12-15

    Nociceptive spinothalamic tract (STT) neurones in lamina I of the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats were characterized by recording their responses to graded mechanical stimulation with controlled forces of 10-120 g and probes of 5.0, 0.5 and 0.1 mm(2) contact area. Neurones were identified by antidromic activation from the contralateral thalamus, and cells that responded to noxious stimulation were categorized as either nociceptive specific (NS, n = 20) or as polymodal nociceptive (HPC, responsive to heat, pinch and cold, n = 19) based on their responses to quantitative thermal stimuli. The mean responses of the 39 units increased linearly as stimulus intensity increased, and the population stimulus-response curves evoked by each of the three probes were all significantly different from each other. Thresholds were 45 g for the 5.0 mm(2) probe, 30 g for the 0.5 mm(2) probe and 20 g for the 0.1 mm(2) probe. Further analysis showed that the NS neurones encoded both stimulus intensity and area (probe size) significantly better than HPC neurones in terms of their thresholds to individual probes, their peak discharge rates, their suprathreshold responsiveness and their ability to discriminate the three different probe sizes. These differences are consistent with the known differences between the mechanical encoding properties of A-fibre nociceptors, which provide the dominant inputs to NS neurones, and C-fibre nociceptors, which are the dominant inputs to HPC cells. Comparison of the stimulus-response curves of NS and HPC neurones indicated that the discharge of NS neurones better match the psychophysics of mechanical pain sensations in humans than the discharge of the HPC neurones do. Our findings support the view that NS neurones have a prominent role in mechanical pain and sharpness, and they corroborate the concept that the lamina I STT projection comprises several discrete channels that are integrated in the forebrain to generate qualitatively distinct sensations. PMID:12482896

  3. BDNF sensitizes the response of lamina II neurons to high threshold primary afferent inputs.

    PubMed

    Garraway, Sandra M; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Mendell, Lorne M

    2003-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is up-regulated and released in the dorsal horn following peripheral inflammation and has therefore been implicated in spinal mechanisms of sensitization. Despite these observations, the mechanisms associated with such a role for BDNF are not yet fully determined. Here, we investigate the effect of BDNF on dorsal root-evoked synaptic transmission in lamina II neurons. In a transverse spinal cord slice preparation from neonatal rats (P1-15), the whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to record from these neurons. Brief application of BDNF (50-200 ng/mL) facilitated the evoked synaptic currents; they remained enhanced even after BDNF was washed out. A significant minority of cells was minimally affected by BDNF and consistent with this, not all neurons in lamina II were immunoreactive for the tyrosine kinase (trk) B receptor. No facilitation was elicited when N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were blocked with D-APV, when the postsynaptic NMDA receptors were selectively blocked with intracellular MK-801, or when postsynaptic neurons were loaded with BAPTA. Additionally, inhibiting phospholipase C (PLC) or protein kinase C (PKC) prior to BDNF application completely blocked facilitation. However, once synaptic current underwent BDNF-induced facilitation, the PKC inhibitors failed to reverse the effect, suggesting that PKC is needed for initiation, but not maintenance of BDNF-induced facilitation. These results demonstrate that BDNF functions at the spinal level to enhance synaptic efficacy in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner and requires the action of the PLC/PKC pathway. This action of BDNF may contribute to central sensitization and exaggerated pain states. PMID:14622147

  4. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Kevin M.; Sredar, Nripun; Patel, Nimesh B.; Rajagopalan, Lakshmi; Queener, Hope M.; Twa, Michael D.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Porter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1) better understand optic nerve head (ONH) structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2) characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND) were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD) was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW) simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes. PMID:26230993

  5. PARP1- and CTCF-Mediated Interactions between Active and Repressed Chromatin at the Lamina Promote Oscillating Transcription.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honglei; Sifakis, Emmanouil G; Sumida, Noriyuki; Milln-Ario, Llus; Scholz, Barbara A; Svensson, J Peter; Chen, Xingqi; Ronnegren, Anna L; Mallet de Lima, Carolina Diettrich; Varnoosfaderani, Farzaneh Shahin; Shi, Chengxi; Loseva, Olga; Yammine, Samer; Israelsson, Maria; Rathje, Li-Sophie; Nmeti, Balzs; Fredlund, Erik; Helleday, Thomas; Imreh, Mrta P; Gndr, Anita

    2015-09-17

    Transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains tend to segregate into separate sub-nuclear compartments to maintain stable expression patterns. However, here we uncovered an inter-chromosomal network connecting active loci enriched in circadian genes to repressed lamina-associated domains (LADs). The interactome is regulated by PARP1 and its co-factor CTCF. They not only mediate chromatin fiber interactions but also promote the recruitment of circadian genes to the lamina. Synchronization of the circadian rhythm by serum shock induces oscillations in PARP1-CTCF interactions, which is accompanied by oscillating recruitment of circadian loci to the lamina, followed by the acquisition of repressive H3K9me2 marks and transcriptional attenuation. Furthermore, depletion of H3K9me2/3, inhibition of PARP activity by olaparib, or downregulation of PARP1 or CTCF expression counteracts both recruitment to the envelope and circadian transcription. PARP1- and CTCF-regulated contacts between circadian loci and the repressive chromatin environment at the lamina therefore mediate circadian transcriptional plasticity. PMID:26321255

  6. Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

    2013-12-01

    Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

  7. Stromatolitic knobs in Storr's Lake (San Salvador, Bahamas): a model system for formation and alteration of laminae.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, C; Fowler, A; Tobias, C; Visscher, P T

    2013-11-01

    The initial lamination in young, metabolically active Scytonema knobs developing in Storr's Lake (Bahamas) results from the iterative succession of two different stages of microbial growth at the top of this microbialite. Stage 1 is dominated by vertically oriented cyanobacterial filaments and is characterized by a high porosity of the fabric. Stage 2 shows a higher microbial density with the filaments oriented horizontally and with higher carbonate content. The more developed, dense microbial community associated with Stage 2 of the Scytonema knobs rapidly degrades extracellular organic matter (EOM) and coupled to this, precipitates carbonate. The initial nucleation forms high-Mg calcite nanospheroids that progressively replace the EOM. No precipitation is observed within the thick sheath of the Scytonema filaments, possibly because of strong cross-linking of calcium and EOM (forming EOM-Ca-EOM complexes), which renders Ca unavailable for carbonate nucleation (inhibition process). Eventually, organominerals precipitate and form an initial lamina through physicochemical and microbial processes, including high rates of photosynthetic activity that lead to (13) C-enriched DIC available for initial nucleation. As this lamina moves downward by the iterative production of new laminae at the top of the microbialite, increased heterotrophic activity further alters the initial mineral product at depth. Although some rare relic preservation of 'Stage 1-Stage 2' laminae in subfossil knobs exists, the very fine primary lamination is considerably altered and almost completely lost when the knobs develop into larger and more complex morphologies due to the increased accommodation space and related physicochemical and/or biological alteration. Despite considerable differences in microstructure, the emerging ecological model of community succession leading to laminae formation described here for the Scytonema knobs can be applied to the formation of coarse-grained, open marine stromatolites. Therefore, both fine- and coarse-grained extant stromatolites can be used as model systems to understand the formation of microbialites in the fossil record. PMID:24118887

  8. Cortical lamina-dependent blood volume changes in human brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Huber, Laurentius; Goense, Jozien; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Trampel, Robert; Guidi, Maria; Reimer, Enrico; Ivanov, Dimo; Neef, Nicole; Gauthier, Claudine J; Turner, Robert; Mller, Harald E

    2015-02-15

    Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to large draining veins reduces its local specificity and can render the interpretation of the underlying laminar neural activity impossible. The application of the more spatially specific cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based fMRI in humans has been hindered by the low sensitivity of the noninvasive modalities available. Here, a vascular space occupancy (VASO) variant, adapted for use at high field, is further optimized to capture layer-dependent activity changes in human motor cortex at sub-millimeter resolution. Acquired activation maps and cortical profiles show that the VASO signal peaks in gray matter at 0.8-1.6mm depth, and deeper compared to the superficial and vein-dominated GE-BOLD responses. Validation of the VASO signal change versus well-established iron-oxide contrast agent based fMRI methods in animals showed the same cortical profiles of CBV change, after normalization for lamina-dependent baseline CBV. In order to evaluate its potential of revealing small lamina-dependent signal differences due to modulations of the input-output characteristics, layer-dependent VASO responses were investigated in the ipsilateral hemisphere during unilateral finger tapping. Positive activation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex and negative activation in ipsilateral primary sensory cortex were observed. This feature is only visible in high-resolution fMRI where opposing sides of a sulcus can be investigated independently because of a lack of partial volume effects. Based on the results presented here, we conclude that VASO offers good reproducibility, high sensitivity and lower sensitivity than GE-BOLD to changes in larger vessels, making it a valuable tool for layer-dependent fMRI studies in humans. PMID:25479018

  9. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  10. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bealer, Steven L.; Metcalf, Cameron; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3–5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for two hrs. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII. PMID:17214984

  11. Cortical Lamina Binding of PET Amyloid and Tau Tracers in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Tsui, Wai; Rusinek, Henry; Butler, Tracy; Mosconi, Lisa; Pirraglia, Elizabeth.; Mozley, David; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Harada, Ryuichi; Furumoto, Shozo; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Okamura, Nobuyuki; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid beta (A?) plaques, characteristic lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), show different neocortical laminar distributions. NFT-tau pathology tends to be located closer to the gray-white-matter boundary (G-WB) whereas A? is dispersed throughout the width of the cortical ribbon. Methods Using PET radiotracers for tau and A? lesions, we developed an image analysis tool to measure the distance of tracer-positive voxels to the G-WB. We studied 5 AD and 5 healthy subjects with both 18F-THK5117 (tau) and 11C-PiB (A?) PET. Results We observed that on average tau positive-voxels were closer to the white matter than the A? positive voxels. This effect was found for all AD subjects and for all regions, both before and after regionally adjusting for the non-specific white matter binding of both tracers. The differential laminar pattern was validated at post mortem. Conclusion Within cortical lamina distance measures may be of value in testing PET tracers for their anatomical selectivity. PMID:25572087

  12. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  13. Lamina Associated Polypeptide 1 (LAP1) Interactome and Its Functional Features.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Joana B; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B; Rebelo, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) is a type II transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane encoded by the human gene TOR1AIP1. LAP1 is involved in maintaining the nuclear envelope structure and appears be involved in the positioning of lamins and chromatin. To date, LAP1's precise function has not been fully elucidated but analysis of its interacting proteins will permit unraveling putative associations to specific cellular pathways and cellular processes. By assessing public databases it was possible to identify the LAP1 interactome, and this was curated. In total, 41 interactions were identified. Several functionally relevant proteins, such as TRF2, TERF2IP, RIF1, ATM, MAD2L1 and MAD2L1BP were identified and these support the putative functions proposed for LAP1. Furthermore, by making use of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis tool and submitting the LAP1 interactors, the top two canonical pathways were "Telomerase signalling" and "Telomere Extension by Telomerase" and the top functions "Cell Morphology", "Cellular Assembly and Organization" and "DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair". Once again, putative LAP1 functions are reinforced but novel functions are emerging. PMID:26784240

  14. Computer simulation of wound closure in epithelial tissues: Cell-basal-lamina adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of wound closure in epithelial tissues, i.e., cell monolayer sheets, is investigated through computer simulations. A wound means an area in which some cells have been removed from the normal tissue. The vertex dynamics cell model [T. Nagai and H. Honda, Philos. Mag. B 81, 699 (2001)], which describes morphogenesis of epithelial tissues using the concepts of statistical physics, is modified and applied to the closure of small wounds without mitosis. It is shown that cell-basal-lamina adhesion governs the wound closure competing with cell-cell adhesion and cell elasticity. The simulation results reproduce the actual wound closure process qualitatively and partly quantitatively. The closing proceeds with the translation of the edges of wound polygons toward the wound center and the intermittent reduction in the number of polygon edges. Over time, the process leads to an exponential decrease in the wound area. A shape factor is introduced to describe the wound shape quantitatively and is used to examine the time variation thereof. A method for determining model parameters by comparison with the experiments is given.

  15. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  16. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior. Final technical report, December 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, D.J.; Buesking, K.W.

    1986-09-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  17. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fabbretti, Fabiana; Iannetti, Ilaria; Guglielmi, Loredana; Perconti, Susanna; Evangelistella, Chiara; Proietti De Santis, Luca; Bongiorni, Silvia; Prantera, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL), underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL. PMID:26963718

  18. Fos immunoreactivity in the lamina terminalis of adrenalectomized rats and effects of angiotension II type 1 receptor blockade or deoxycorticosterone.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, R S; Burns, P; Colvill, L M; Davern, P; Giles, M E; Oldfield, B J; McKinley, M J

    2000-01-01

    Neural activity, as measured immunohistochemically by the presence of Fos protein, was determined in the lamina terminalis, a thin strip of tissue forming the anterior wall of the third brain ventricle, after adrenalectomy. Several weeks after surgery, the adrenalectomized rats were maintained with access to water and a low sodium diet for five days. In addition, hypertonic (0.5M) NaCl solution was available for the entire five-day period (sodium available) or only during the first four days (sodium unavailable). The number of neurons expressing Fos, determined at the end of the fifth day, was increased in the adrenalectomized rats with or without NaCl solution to drink. Fos activity in the median preoptic nucleus was increased only in adrenalectomized rats without access to NaCl solution. Treatment of adrenalectomized rats with the sodium-retaining mineralocorticoid hormone, deoxycorticosterone, at the end of the fourth day, decreased Fos expression in the subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis when NaCl solution was available but not when the NaCl solution was unavailable. In the adrenalectomized rats with NaCl solution available, mineralocorticoid treatment decreased both urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake. Brain nuclei in the lamina terminalis also became activated in intact rats made sodium deplete by treatment with the diuretic, furosemide. Relative to sodium-deplete intact rats, however, sodium-deplete adrenalectomized rats had a greater number of neurons expressing Fos in the organum vasculosum. Treatment of sodium-deplete rats, adrenalectomized or intact, with the angiotensin II-type 1 receptor antagonist, ZD7155, decreased sodium intake and Fos expression in the subfornical organ but not in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis or median preoptic nucleus. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that activation of the brain nuclei located in the lamina terminalis of adrenalectomized rats was primarily related to sodium deficit and not to the absence of the mineralocorticoid hormones, although the adrenal hormones may have a role in limiting the activation of organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis during sodium depletion. Furthermore, the results obtained with the administration of the angiotensin receptor antagonist are consistent with the proposal that sodium appetite of the sodium-deplete rat, adrenalectomized or intact, is mediated by circulating angiotensin II acting in the subfornical organ. PMID:10858623

  19. Clock and clock-controlled genes are differently expressed in the retina, lamina and in selected cells of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Damulewicz, Milena; Loboda, Agnieszka; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    The retina and the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila show circadian rhythms in various processes. To learn about the regulation of circadian rhythms in the retina and lamina and in two cell types, glial and the lamina L2 interneurons, we examined expression of the following clock genes; per, tim, clk, and cry and clock-controlled genes (ccgs); Atp?, nrv2, brp, Pdfr. We found that the expression of gene studied is specific for the retina and lamina. The rhythms of per and tim expression in the retina and glial cells are similar to that observed in the whole head and in clock neurons, while they differ in the lamina and L2 cells. In both the retina and lamina, CRY seems to be a repressor of clk expression. In L2 interneurons per expression is not cyclic indicating the other function of PER in those cells than in the circadian molecular clock. In contrast to per and tim, the pattern of clk and cry expression is similar in both the retina and lamina. The retina holds the autonomous oscillators but the expression of cry and ccgs, Atp? and nrv2, is also regulated by inputs from the pacemaker transmitted by PDF and ITP neuropeptides. PMID:26441524

  20. [Anchoring villi are sources of cytotrophoblastic invasion in the second trimester of physiologic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Milovanov, A P; Rasstrigina, I M; Fokina, T V

    2012-01-01

    The basal laminas and fixed on them anchoring villi after late abortion on 18-28 weeks of pregnancy have been studied. The pregnancies were without complication and abortions were activated by "Enzaprost" injection. 4 types of anchoring villi were studied: without cytotrophoblastic invasion, with maximal, medium and minimal density of cytotrophoblastic distribution and depth of its invasion into endometrium from villi's base. The maximum of its migration activity was in 18-20 and 22-23 weeks of pregnancy. The activity decay of cytotrophoblastic invasion was been found in the end of the second trimester Anatomic contact of villi's base with endometrium increased by them parallel attachment or horseshoe-shaped form. The estimation of villi's quantity and density of cytotrophoblastic distribution in their base can use for definition of cytotrophoblastic invasion rate in the adjacent myometrium of pregnant women on the second trimester. PMID:22880410

  1. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  2. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  3. Using the trans-lamina terminalis route via a pterional approach to resect a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma involving the third ventricle.

    PubMed

    Weil, Alexander G; Robert, Thomas; Alsaiari, Sultan; Obaid, Sami; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2016-01-01

    Retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas involving the anterior third ventricle are challenging to access. Although the pterional approach is a common route for suprasellar lesions, when the craniopharyngioma extends behind the chiasma into the third ventricle, access is even more difficult, and the lamina terminalis may offer a good working window. The translamina terminalis approach provides direct access to the retrochiasmatic portion of the tumor with minimal brain retraction and no manipulation of the visual nerves. In this video, we emphasize the utility of using the lamina terminalis corridor to resect the retrochiasmatic intraventricular portion of a craniopharyngioma. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hrLNC0hDKe4 . PMID:26722696

  4. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Broers, Jos L.V. . E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H.; Oestlund, C.; Worman, H.J.; Endert, J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  5. Inflammatory pain unmasks heterosynaptic facilitation in lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Carole

    2011-03-30

    Central sensitization in inflammatory pain conditions results in behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Specifically, C-fiber-driven spinal hyperexcitability enables A fibers to gain access to specific spinal circuitry, via heterosynaptic facilitatory mechanisms, to mediate mechanical hypersensitivity. However, the precise circuitry engaged is not known. Lamina I neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor expressing (NK1R(+)) dorsal horn neurons, many of which are projection neurons, are required for the development of this hypersensitivity and are therefore likely to be a component of this circuitry. To investigate, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from lamina I NK1R(+) neurons in the spinal cord slice preparation with attached dorsal root, obtained from rats with or without complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) hindpaw inflammation. EPSCs were recorded in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal root. Control neurons predominantly received monosynaptic C-fiber input (69%) with a smaller proportion receiving monosynaptic Aδ-fiber input (28%). In contrast, CFA inflammation significantly increased the incidence (by twofold) and magnitude (by 75% in a subset) of monosynaptic Aδ-fiber but not monosynaptic C-fiber-evoked responses. Aβ-fiber input to lamina I NK1R(+) neurons was minimal, polysynaptic in nature, and unaltered by CFA inflammation. Additional examination of control neurons revealed that a proportion received silent monosynaptic Aδ-fiber input, suggesting that these may provide the substrate for the novel Aδ inputs observed in CFA inflammation. This inflammation induced unmasking and strengthening of monosynaptic Aδ drive to lamina I NK1R(+) neurons may contribute to the heterosynaptic facilitatory mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain. PMID:21451051

  6. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22(-/-) fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  7. Unravelling crucial biomechanical resilience of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres provided by the Schwann cell basal lamina and PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Gonzalo; Liashkovich, Ivan; Gess, Burkhard; Young, Peter; Kun, Alejandra; Shahin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the research of the close and enigmatic relationship between nerve biomechanics and the development of neuropathies. Here we present a research strategy based on the application atomic force and confocal microscopy for simultaneous nerve biomechanics and integrity investigations. Using wild-type and hereditary neuropathy mouse models, we reveal surprising mechanical protection of peripheral nerves. Myelinated peripheral wild-type fibres promptly and fully recover from acute enormous local mechanical compression while maintaining functional and structural integrity. The basal lamina which enwraps each myelinated fibre separately is identified as the major contributor to the striking fibre's resilience and integrity. In contrast, neuropathic fibres lacking the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), which is closely connected with several hereditary human neuropathies, fail to recover from light compression. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of the basal lamina of Pmp22?/? fibres is significantly altered compared to wild-type fibres. In conclusion, the basal lamina and PMP22 act in concert to contribute to a resilience and integrity of peripheral nerves at the single fibre level. Our findings and the presented technology set the stage for a comprehensive research of the links between nerve biomechanics and neuropathies. PMID:25446378

  8. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  9. Basal lamina of rat myocardium. Its fate after death of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Vracko, R; Cunningham, D; Frederickson, R G; Thorning, D

    1988-01-01

    As part of a study of the interactions between myocardial cells and extracellular matrix during healing of necrotic lesions, we have examined the fate of myocyte basal lamina (BL) after injury with ischemia, freeze-thawing, or isoproterenol. Using light and electron microscopy, and antibodies to three BL-associated antigens, we found that the BL of necrotic myocytes remained largely intact and continued to delineate the myocyte compartment from connective tissue space. Inflammatory cells entered the myocyte compartment through holes in the acellular BL and removed cell debris. The holes may have been produced by inflammatory cells and/or by the stretching force of the beating heart. After removal of debris, some BL sheaths of necrotic myocytes collapsed, resulting in spatial approximation of vessels. Interstitial cells deposited collagen and elastic fibers in the connective tissue space and within portions of the myocyte compartment. The acellular myocyte BL, collapsed or not, retained normal antigen staining for type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate for about 10 days, then showed diminished staining in patchy areas. These areas may correspond to BL disruption and degradation in conjunction with fibrosis, although a substantial amount of acellular BL remained in situ and became embedded in scar tissue. At least two types of granulo-vesicular bodies, measuring 25 to 60 and 60 to 160 nm respectively, were associated with the acellular BL; these were of unknown origin and function. The study shows that the fate of acellular BL in injured myocardium is similar to the fate of BL in other injured tissues; however, the appearance of holes in acellular BL, within hours after injury, is unusual and may enhance scar tissue formation. Whether the acellular BL contributes to regeneration of myocardium, as do acellular BLs in other injured tissues, remains to be determined. PMID:3336205

  10. Sensitization of sodium appetite: evidence for sustained molecular changes in the lamina terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Seth W.; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G.; Xue, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Animals with a history of sodium depletions exhibit increases in salt intake, a phenomenon described as the sensitization of sodium appetite. Using a novel experimental design, the present experiments investigated whether putative molecular markers of neural plasticity and changes in the message for components of the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) accompany the sensitization of sodium appetite. An initial set of experiments examined whether the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 would attenuate sodium appetite sensitization and prevent changes in mRNA expression associated with sensitization. Rats with repeated sodium depletions exhibited enhanced sodium appetite and mRNA expression for components of the RAAS in areas along the lamina terminalis (LT), a region of the brain that is important for the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, and these effects were significantly attenuated by MK-801 pretreatment. A second set of experiments investigated whether successive sodium depletions would elevate sodium intake and induce a pattern of fos-B staining consistent with the Δfos-B isoform in areas along the LT. The pattern of fos-B staining in the subfornical organ was consistent with the characteristics of Δfos-B expression. Specifically, fos-B/Δfos-B expression was increased 4 days after the last of a series of sodium depletions, fos-B/Δfos-B expression was nearly absent in control rats, and the quantity of fos-B/Δfos-B staining was directly associated with a history of sodium depletions. These findings demonstrate that the sensitization of sodium appetite is associated with sustained molecular alterations in the LT that are indicative of neural plasticity and upregulation of the central RAAS. PMID:25354727

  11. Modeling of Trabecular Bone and Lamina Dura Following Selective Alveolar Decortication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sebaoun, Jean-David; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Turner, John W.; Carvalho, Roberto S.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Modifying the balance between resorption and apposition through selectively injuring the cortical plate of the alveolus has been an approach to speed tooth movement and is referred to as periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. The aim of this study was to investigate the alveolar response to corticotomy as a function of time and proximity to the surgical injury in a rat model. Methods: Maxillary buccal and lingual cortical plates were injured in 36 healthy adult rats adjacent to the upper left first molars. Twenty-four animals were euthanized at 3, 7, or 11 weeks. In one group, the maxillae were removed and stripped of soft tissues, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to study alveolar spongiosa and periodontal ligament (PDL) modeling dynamics. Catabolic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatasepositive osteoclasts and preosteoclasts. Anabolic actions were measured using a fluorescent vital bone stain series followed by sacrifice at 30 and 51 days. To further analyze the new bone formation, a separate group of animals were fed with calcein fluorescent stain and processed for non-decalcified fluorescent stain histology. Results: At 3 weeks, the surgery group had significantly (P <0.05) less calcified spongiosa bone surface, greater periodontal ligament surface, higher osteoclast number, and greater lamina dura apposition width. The catabolic activity (osteoclast count) and anabolic activity (apposition rate) were three-fold greater, calcified spongiosa decreased by two-fold, and PDL surface increased by two-fold. Surgical injury to the alveolus that induced a significant increase in tissue turnover by week 3 dissipated to a steady state by postoperative week 11. The impact of the injury was localized to the area immediately adjacent to the decortication injury. Conclusion: Selective alveolar decortication induced increased turnover of alveolar spongiosa, and the activity was localized; dramatic escalation of demineralization-remineralization dynamics is the likely biologic mechanism underlying rapid tooth movement following selective alveolar decortication. PMID:18771369

  12. Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity induced by central hyperosmolality

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Stocker, Sean D.; Toney, Glenn M.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in mediating central hyperosmolality-induced increases of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) was assessed in anesthetized rats. Solutions of graded NaCl concentration (150, 375, and 750 mM) were injected (150 μl) into the forebrain vascular supply via an internal carotid artery (ICA). Time-control experiments (n = 6) established that ICA NaCl injections produced short-latency, transient increases of renal SNA (RSNA) and mean ABP (MAP) (P < 0.05– 0.001). Responses were graded, highly reproducible, and unaltered by systemic blockade of vasopressin V1 receptors (n = 4). In subsequent studies, stimulus-triggered averaging of RSNA was used to accurately locate the OVLT. Involvement of OVLT in responses to ICA NaCl was assessed by recording RSNA and MAP responses before and 15 min after electrolytic lesion of the OVLT (n = 6). Before lesion, NaCl injections increased RSNA and MAP (P < 0.05– 0.001), similar to time control experiments. After lesion, RSNA responses were significantly reduced (P < 0.05– 0.001), but MAP responses were unaltered. To exclude a role for fibers of passage, the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol was microinjected into the OVLT (50 pmol in 50 nl) (n = 6). Before muscimol, hypertonic NaCl increased RSNA, lumbar SNA (LSNA), and MAP (P < 0.05– 0.001). After muscimol, both RSNA and LSNA were significantly reduced in response to 375 and 750 mM NaCl (P < 0.05). MAP responses were again unaffected. Injections of vehicle (saline) into OVLT (n = 6) and muscimol lateral to OVLT (n = 5) each failed to alter responses to ICA NaCl. We conclude that OVLT neurons contribute to sympathoexcitation by central hyperosmolality. PMID:17898124

  13. Functional correlates of activity in neurons projecting from the lamina terminalis to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Uschakov, Aaron; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald; McKinley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the LT (OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions, including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and, following a 1-week recovery period, they were subjected to either hypertonic saline administration (0.5 M NaCl, 1 mL/100 g i.p.), 24-h water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating angiotensin II; 50 microg/kg s.c.), heat exposure (39 degrees C for 60 min) or permitted 180 min spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the vlPAG and double-labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration, and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG-projecting neurons, and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli. PMID:20092577

  14. Sensitization of sodium appetite: evidence for sustained molecular changes in the lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Seth W; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2014-12-15

    Animals with a history of sodium depletions exhibit increases in salt intake, a phenomenon described as the sensitization of sodium appetite. Using a novel experimental design, the present experiments investigated whether putative molecular markers of neural plasticity and changes in the message for components of the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) accompany the sensitization of sodium appetite. An initial set of experiments examined whether the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 would attenuate sodium appetite sensitization and prevent changes in mRNA expression associated with sensitization. Rats with repeated sodium depletions exhibited enhanced sodium appetite and mRNA expression for components of the RAAS in areas along the lamina terminalis (LT), a region of the brain that is important for the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, and these effects were significantly attenuated by MK-801 pretreatment. A second set of experiments investigated whether successive sodium depletions would elevate sodium intake and induce a pattern of fos-B staining consistent with the Δfos-B isoform in areas along the LT. The pattern of fos-B staining in the subfornical organ was consistent with the characteristics of Δfos-B expression. Specifically, fos-B/Δfos-B expression was increased 4 days after the last of a series of sodium depletions, fos-B/Δfos-B expression was nearly absent in control rats, and the quantity of fos-B/Δfos-B staining was directly associated with a history of sodium depletions. These findings demonstrate that the sensitization of sodium appetite is associated with sustained molecular alterations in the LT that are indicative of neural plasticity and upregulation of the central RAAS. PMID:25354727

  15. Organum vasculosum lamina terminalis-evoked postsynaptic responses in rat supraoptic neurones in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C R; Senatorov, V V; Renaud, L P

    1994-01-01

    1. To characterize the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) innervation of hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurones, current clamp recordings were obtained in SON cells in superfused rat hypothalamic explants. Stimulation of 1 Hz evoked 5-10 mV bicuculline-sensitive IPSPs in forty out of forty-six SON neurones, including both phasic (vasopressin immunoreactive) and continuously firing (oxytocin immunoreactive) cells. 2. In twenty-four cells, mean IPSP latency was 8.7 +/- 1 ms (+/- S.D.) and reversal potentials (Vr) ranged between -60 and -75 mV. In the other sixteen cells, Vr ranged between -20 and -55 mV and the addition of bicuculline revealed underlying EPSPs (latency, 7.8 +/- 0.8 ms; mean Vr, -8 +/- 10 mV) with two components: (a) fast (rise and half-decay times of 5.83 +/- 1.3 ms and 19 +/- 4.4 ms respectively), with reversible blockade by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX); (b) slow (4- to 5-fold increase in rise and half-decay time), with reversible reduction by (-)-aminophosphonovaleric acid (APV). 3. During 10 Hz stimulation, EPSPs summated into 3-7 mV depolarizing envelopes lasting 1.5-3.0 s and sustaining action potential bursts. Depolarizing envelopes displayed voltage dependence, and were enhanced after removal of extracellular magnesium, diminished by APV and completely abolished by APV and CNQX together. 4. Thus, non-NMDA receptors probably mediate fast EPSPs whereas NMDA receptors mediate slow EPSPs and depolarizing envelopes. OVLT-evoked EPSPs were only seen in vasopressin-immunoreactive neurones. 5. These observations indicate converging inhibitory and target-selective excitatory amino acid-mediated inputs from OVLT to SON; the latter may modulate the excitability of SON vasopressin neurones to a hyperosmotic challenge. Images Figure 1 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7915322

  16. Pre- and postsynaptic contributions of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to nociceptive transmission in rat spinal lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Heinke, B; Balzer, E; Sandkühler, J

    2004-01-01

    Activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) is critical for neurotransmitter release, neuronal excitability and postsynaptic Ca2+ signalling. Antagonists of VDCCs can be antinociceptive in different animal pain models. Neurons in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn play a pivotal role in the processing of pain-related information, but the role of VDCCs to the activity-dependent Ca2+ increase in lamina I neurons and to the synaptic transmission between nociceptive afferents and second order neurons in lamina I is not known. This has now been investigated in a lumbar spinal cord slice preparation from young Sprague-Dawley rats. Microfluorometric Ca2+ measurements with fura-2 have been used to analyse the Ca2+ increase in lamina I neurons after depolarization of the cells, resulting in a distinct and transient increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This Ca2+ peak was reduced by the T-type channel blocker, Ni2+, by the L-type channel blockers, nifedipine and verapamil, and by the N-type channel blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA. The P/Q-type channel antagonist, omega-agatoxin TK, had no effect on postsynaptic [Ca2+]i. The NMDA receptor channel blocker D-AP5 reduced the Ca2+ peak, whereas the AMPA receptor channel blocker CNQX had no effect. Postsynaptic currents, monosynaptically evoked by electrical stimulation of the attached dorsal roots with C-fibre and Adelta-fibre intensity, respectively, were reduced by N-type channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA and to a much lesser extent, by P/Q-type channel antagonist omega-agatoxin TK, and the L-type channel blockers verapamil, respectively. No difference was found between unidentified neurons and neurons projecting to the periaqueductal grey matter. This is the first quantitative description of the relative contribution of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to the synaptic transmission in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn, which is essential in the processing of pain-related information in the central nervous system. PMID:14750968

  17. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-Deok

    2016-04-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice. PMID:26826218

  18. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A.; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-deok

    2016-01-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice. PMID:26826218

  19. Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01) and control eyes (P = 0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01), and transverse diameter (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

  20. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Kim, Dai Woo; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC) posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes) and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes) were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID) was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch’s membrane openings (BMO). The mean LC depth (mLCD) was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated. Results The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). The LC curvature index was significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls on both the horizontal (85.8 ± 34.1 vs. 68.2 ± 32.3 μm) and vertical meridians (49.8 ± 38.5 vs. 32.2 ± 31.1 μm, all P < 0.001). Multivariate regression showed significant associations of greater disc area (P < 0.001), vertical C/D ratio (P < 0.001) and mLCD (P < 0.001), smaller rim area (P = 0.001), thinner average RNFLT (P < 0.001), and myopic refraction (P = 0.049) with increased LC curvature index. There was no difference in the LC curvature index between mild (MD > –6 dB) and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < –6 dB, P = 0.95). Conclusions LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH) changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change. PMID:26963816

  1. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In September 2009, divers carefully capture an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found near the coast of North Carolina. Invasive lionfish are now established in the hard bottom habitats of North Carolina's coast, where they are abundant....

  2. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  3. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  4. Minimally Invasive Hepatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ocuin, Lee M; Tsung, Allan

    2016-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the background and progress that has been made in minimally invasive liver surgery. The essential steps of minimally invasive right and left lobectomy as well as left lateral sectionectomy are reviewed. In addition, existing data regarding the feasibility and oncologic outcomes of minimally invasive hepatic resection for malignancy are discussed. PMID:27017866

  5. Differential expression of markers for endothelial cells, pericytes, and basal lamina in the microvasculature of tumors and granulation tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Rietveld, F. J.; Kwaspen, F.; van de Kerkhof, P. C.; de Waal, R. M.; Ruiter, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and function of the tumor microvasculature is of great interest for cancer biology, diagnosis, and therapy. The distribution of endothelial cells, pericytes, and basal lamina in tumors is not well documented. In this study, the authors investigated the distribution of markers for these different components in a series of malignant human tumors and in human granulation tissue, both situations with extensive angiogenesis. Their results show a striking heterogeneity in the expression of markers for pericytes and endothelial cells between different tumors, but also within a single tumor lesion. To be able to distinguish between these two adjacent cell types decisively, all marker studies were carried out both on the light and the electron microscopical level and compared with staining results in granulation tissue of cutaneous wounds in healthy volunteers and of decubitus lesions. In granulation tissue of decubitus lesions, well-defined zones with increasing levels of maturation can be delineated. It was found that antibodies recognizing von Willebrand factor often failed to stain the tumor capillaries. Of the pericyte markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin was only locally expressed by pericytes in the tumor vasculature, whereas the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, stained the microvasculature broadly. Staining of the basal lamina components collagen type IV and laminin was, within the tumor, not restricted to the microvasculature. From their findings the authors conclude that 1) for the visualization of the tumor vasculature, antibodies recognizing endothelial markers, especially monoclonal antibodies PAL-E and BMA 120, are preferable to those recognizing pericytes or basal lamina; 2) within the microvasculature of tumors and granulation tissue, a heterogeneity of expression of endothelial and pericyte markers is observed; 3) during the formation of granulation tissue, all three microvascular components can be demonstrated already in the histologically earliest stage, suggesting not only an involvement of endothelial cells but also of pericytes and basal lamina in the initial steps of angiogenesis in wound healing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1711288

  6. A role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite invasion of anopheline mosquito salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Armistead, Jennifer S; Wilson, Iain B H; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2011-09-15

    HS (heparan sulfate) has been shown to be an important mediator of Plasmodium sporozoite homing and invasion of the liver, but the role of this glycosaminoglycan in mosquito vector host-sporozoite interactions is unknown. We have biochemically characterized the function of AgOXT1 (Anopheles gambiae peptide-O-xylosyltransferase 1) and confirmed that AgOXT1 can modify peptides representing model HS and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in vitro. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the mosquito salivary gland basal lamina proteoglycans are modified by HS. We used RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HS biosynthesis in A. gambiae salivary glands to determine whether Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites that are released from mosquito midgut oocysts use salivary gland HS as a receptor for tissue invasion. Our results suggest that salivary gland basal lamina HS glycosaminoglycans only partially mediate midgut sporozoite invasion of this tissue, and that in the absence of HS, the presence of other surface co-receptors is sufficient to facilitate parasite entry. PMID:21663594

  7. Environmental enrichment causes a global potentiation of neuronal responses across stimulus complexity and lamina of sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Enriched social and physical housing produces many molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavior benefits even in adult animals. Much less is known of its effects on cortical electrophysiology, especially in how sensory cortex encodes the altered environment, and extant studies have generally been restricted to neurons in input laminae in sensory cortex. To extend the understanding of how an enriched environment alters the way in which cortex views the world, we investigated enrichment-induced changes in neuronal encoding of sensory stimuli across all laminae of the rat barrel cortex receiving input from the face whisker tactile system. Animals were housed in Enriched (n = 13) or Isolated housing (n = 13) conditions for 8 weeks before extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex in response to simple whisker deflections and whisker motions modeling movements seen in awake animals undertaking a variety of different tasks. Enrichment resulted in increases in neuronal responses to all stimuli, ranging from those modeling exploratory behavior through to discrimination behaviors. These increases were seen throughout the cortex from supragranular layers through to input Layer 4 and for some stimuli, in infragranular Layer 5. The observed enrichment-induced effect is consistent with the postulate that enrichment causes shift in cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance, and we demonstrate this is greatest in supragranular layers. However, we also report that the effects are non-selective for stimulus parameters across a range of stimuli except for one modeling the likely use of whiskers by the rats in the enriched housing. PMID:23964199

  8. Effectiveness of muscle basal lamina carrying neural stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells in spinal cord repair.

    PubMed

    Kang, X W; Hu, J L; Wang, S K; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of muscle basal lamina (MBL) with neural stem cells (NSCs) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on spinal cord injury repair. Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord hemisection and divided into 6 groups. In blank control group (group A), the ends of the spinal cord hemisection model were flushed with physiological saline. In NSC transplantation group (B), OEC transplantation group (C), MBL with NSC transplantation group (D), MBL with OEC transplantation group (E), and MBL with NSC and OEC transplantation group (F), NSCs, OECs, MBL with NSCs, MBL with OECs, and MBL with NSCs and OECs were implanted into the ends of the hemisection model. Survival and migration of transplanted cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence after 4 and 8 weeks. Hind limb function repair was evaluated by Bundle branch block score at various time points before and after surgery. MBL could promote NSC growth along its lumen and promote host cell advancement in the lumen, reducing local inflammatory responses. Using MBL with NSCs and/or OECs for spinal cord repair shows advantages over simple cell transplantation. Group F contained more nerve cells in muscle basal lamina than group E. This method is useful for forming more axons, synaptic connections, and signal transduction pathways. However, these new axons showed nerve demyelination, which may greatly limit nerve signal conduction. In group F, OECs could induce neural stem cells, axonal growth, and synaptic connection formation, but its role is limited. PMID:26535658

  9. Neurons in the Most Superficial Lamina of the Mouse Superior Colliculus Are Highly Selective for Stimulus Direction

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Samsoon; Barchini, Jad; Chen, Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a layered midbrain structure important for multimodal integration and sensorimotor transformation. Its superficial layers are purely visual and receive depth-specific projections from distinct subtypes of retinal ganglion cells. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to characterize the response properties of neurons in the most superficial lamina of the mouse SC, an undersampled population with electrophysiology. We find that these neurons have compact receptive fields with primarily overlapping ON and OFF subregions and are highly direction selective. The high selectivity is observed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. These neurons do not cluster according to their direction preference and lack orientation selectivity. In addition, we perform single-unit recordings and show that direction selectivity declines with depth in the SC. Together, our experiments reveal for the first time a highly specialized lamina in the most superficial SC for movement direction, a finding that has important implications for understanding signal transformation in the early visual system. PMID:25995482

  10. Climate Versus Local Cave Environment Controls on Trace Element and Stable Isotopic Cycles in Annual Laminae in Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.; Grassineau, N. V.; Muller, W.; Garcia-Anton, E.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of laminae are commonly observed in stalagmites: visible, resulting from alternating crystal morphology, fluid inclusion abundance or calcite-aragonite couplets; fluorescent, related to captured organic matter and cryptic, defined by cyclical abundances of trace elements or stable isotopes. Many processes generate laminae but in regions where there are strong primary cycles in climate, annual lamination may form as a direct result of seasonal change in precipitation, temperature and vegetation or the indirect effects of local cave processes such as ventilation. Visible, fluorescent and cryptic lamination types are often all present and closely correlated in the same stalagmite, but the correspondence of annual cycles in fabric, trace element and stable isotopes, can be dissimilar in different regions of the world, or even from different areas in the same cave system. This especially applies to the interrelationships among trace elements and stable isotopes where controls on their behavior seem specific to the local environment, making generalised interpretations problematic. This study presents seasonally resolved stable isotope (20-100 ?m resolution) and trace element (10 ?m resolution by LA-ICPMS) data for visible laminae for which there is compelling evidence for annularity. Five cave sites with diverse regional climates and local microenvironments are compared: Voli Voli, Fiji (VV) and Krem Umsynrang, India (KU) are caves from tropical or subtropical environments with strong seasonal rainfall in summer months and a relatively small annual temperature range; New St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar (NSM) is a strongly seasonal Mediterranean site with winter rainfall and a large annual temperature range; Marble Arch, N. Ireland (MA) and High Pasture, Skye (HP) are British cave sites from temperate maritime climates where seasonality in temperature and rainfall is weaker. Laminae at the tropical sites with highest rainfall, VV and KU, show weakest seasonality in Mg, Sr and soil derived elements P and Y but strong periodicity in ?13C that is largely decoupled from ?18O. Calcite precipitation at NSM. modulated by ventilation-controlled cave air pCO2, shows strong coupling of fabric, trace elements and stable isotopes. Laminae developed at the temperate maritime sites MA and HP have exceptionally well developed annual cycles in Mg, Sr and soil derived elements, P, Y and Zn but variations in ?13C and ?18O vary independently of seasonal change. Mg and Sr seem to be elements that can be strongly dominated by local processes such as prior calcite precipitation and ventilation controlled growth kinetics whereas elements P, Y or Zn, mobilized as organometallic complexes, have closer relations to soil processes and local climate. ?13C is sensitive to a range of factors but may closely track trace element cycles at sites where seasonal changes in cave air pCO2 are important; in general, evidence suggests that ?18O tracks seasonal or interannual variations in the ?18O of effective recharge but absence of a correlation between ?18O with ?13C does not always preclude some modification of ?18O by local processes.

  11. Monosynaptic convergence of somatic and visceral C-fiber afferents on projection and local circuit neurons in lamina I: a substrate for referred pain

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Liliana L.; Fernandes, Elisabete C.; Sivado, Miklos; Kokai, Eva; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Referred pain is a phenomenon of feeling pain at a site other than the site of the painful stimulus origin. It arises from a pathological mixing of nociceptive processing pathways for visceral and somatic inputs. Despite numerous studies based on unit recordings from spinal and supraspinal neurons, the exact mechanism and site of this mixing within the central nervous system are not known. Here, we selectively recorded from lamina I neurons, using a visually guided patch-clamp technique, in thoracic spinal cord preparation with preserved intercostal (somatic) and splanchnic (visceral) nerves. We show that somatic and visceral C fibers converge monosynaptically onto a group of lamina I neurons, which includes both projection and local circuit neurons. Other groups of lamina I neurons received inputs from either somatic or visceral afferents. We have also identified a population of lamina I local circuit neurons showing overall inhibitory responses upon stimulation of both nerves. Thus, the present data allow us to draw two major conclusions. First, lamina I of the spinal cord is the first site in the central nervous system where somatic and visceral pathways directly converge onto individual projection and local circuit neurons. Second, the mechanism of somatovisceral convergence is complex and based on functional integration of monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs in specific groups of neurons. This complex pattern of convergence provides a substrate for alterations in the balance between visceral and somatic inputs causing referred pain. PMID:26098437

  12. [A case of superficial carcinoma in a diverticulum of the thoracic esophagus].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Fukuda, Takashi; Oka, Daiji; Arima, Miwako; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ogura, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Isao; Noda, Kazumasa; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Tatsuya; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Nishimura, Youji; Amikura, Katsumi; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Yoichi

    2013-11-01

    An upper gastrointestina(l GI) series revealed a diverticulum in the anterior wall of the middle thoracic esophagus of a 72-year-old man. Endoscopy revealed a type 0-IIc lesion in the esophageal diverticulum. The margin of the lesion was unclear. Biopsy proved that it was squamous cell carcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed that the deepest layer of the tumor was the lamina propria mucosae (cT1a-LPM) and that the underlying muscularis propria was thinning. No distant metastasis or regional lymph node metastasis was detected. Diverticulectomy or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was out of indication due to the unclear margin and thin muscularis propria. We conducted mediastinoscopy-assisted esophagectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion to the lamina propria mucosae (pT1a-LPM). Pathological examination proved the thinning of the underlying muscularis propria in the diverticulum. The patient is alive without recurrence at 6 months after surgery. PMID:24394026

  13. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Anthony M.; Enders, Allen C.; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  14. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  15. Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Nimish; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sonawane, Heena V.; Bansal, Neha; Arwade, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR) to determine whether lamina dura (LD) and periodontal ligament (PDL) space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16) and in posteriors with sagittal section (17). Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25) and sagittal section (21), while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors. PMID:25684906

  16. Development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for glaucoma through understanding and modification of scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Harry A.; Cone, Frances E.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the state of ocular connective tissues and their response in glaucomatous disease affects the degree of glaucoma damage. Both experimental and clinical data suggest that improved diagnostic and prognostic information could be derived from assessment of the mechanical responsiveness of the sclera and lamina cribrosa to intraocular pressure (IOP). Controlled mutagenesis of the sclera has produced a mouse strain that is relatively resistant to increased IOP. Alteration of the baseline scleral state could be accomplished through either increased cross-linking of fibrillar components or their reduction. The sclera is a dynamic structure, altering its structure and behavior in response to IOP change. The biochemical pathways that control these responses are fertile areas for new glaucoma treatments. PMID:23535950

  17. Expanded GAA repeats impair FXN gene expression and reposition the FXN locus to the nuclear lamina in single cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana M; Brown, Jill M; Buckle, Veronica J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Lufino, Michele M P

    2015-06-15

    Abnormally expanded DNA repeats are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), expanded GAA repeats in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN) reduce FXN mRNA levels in averaged cell samples through a poorly understood mechanism. By visualizing FXN expression and nuclear localization in single cells, we show that GAA-expanded repeats decrease the number of FXN mRNA molecules, slow transcription, and increase FXN localization at the nuclear lamina (NL). Restoring histone acetylation reverses NL positioning. Expanded GAA-FXN loci in FRDA patient cells show increased NL localization with increased silencing of alleles and reduced transcription from alleles positioned peripherally. We also demonstrate inefficiencies in transcription initiation and elongation from the expanded GAA-FXN locus at single-cell resolution. We suggest that repressive epigenetic modifications at the expanded GAA-FXN locus may lead to NL relocation, where further repression may occur. PMID:25814655

  18. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  19. Repeatability of in vivo 3D lamina cribrosa microarchitecture using adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Wollstein, Gadi; Nevins, Jessica E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X.; Schuman, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the repeatability of lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture for in vivo 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of healthy, glaucoma suspects, and glaucomatous eyes. Eyes underwent two scans using a prototype adaptive optics spectral domain OCT (AO-SDOCT) device from which LC microarchitecture was semi-automatically segmented. LC segmentations were used to quantify pore and beam structure through several global microarchitecture parameters. Repeatability of LC microarchitecture was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating parameter imprecision. For all but one parameters (pore volume) measurement imprecision was <4.7% of the mean value, indicating good measurement reproducibility. Imprecision ranged between 27.3% and 54.5% of the population standard deviation for each parameter, while there was not a significant effect on imprecision due to disease status, indicating utility in testing for LC structural trends. PMID:24761293

  20. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  1. Invasion of the Whiteflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As invasive alien species spread, they often displace indigenous species, thus altering ecological communities and adversely affecting agricultural pest management, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. Despite the importance of invasive species, the processes enabling them to become estab...

  2. Minimally invasive pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Governale, Lance S

    2015-04-01

    Advances in technology have facilitated the development of minimally invasive neurosurgical options for the treatment of pediatric neurological disease. This review seeks to familiarize pediatric neurologists with some of the techniques of minimally invasive pediatric neurosurgery, focusing on treatments for hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, intracranial mass lesions, and craniosynostosis. PMID:25771997

  3. Minimally invasive renal autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay; Jeong, Wooju; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D; Bhandari, Mahendra; Menon, Mani

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive renal allotransplantation techniques have been recently described; reported benefits include reduced morbidity/complications. These benefits have been successfully adapted for minimally invasive renal autotransplantation, however, in a non-oncological setting. We, here, describe a novel alternative robot-assisted renal autotransplantation technique, utilizing GelPOINT, which by permitting ex vivo graft examination and surgery might allow further broadening of indications for minimally-invasive renal autotransplantation, to include complex oncological renal/ureteral lesions. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of these techniques. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015;112:717-722. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25995142

  4. Adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst with invasion to the stomach: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, K; Nakayama, H; Kagawa, T; Ichikawa, T; Yasui, W

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered. PMID:15047751

  5. Minimally Invasive/Less Invasive Microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Badlani, Neil; Yu, Elizabeth; Ahn, Junyoung; Kurd, Mark F; Khan, Safdar N

    2016-04-01

    Herniated disks in the lumbar spine typically present with the sudden onset of back and leg pain in a myodermatomal distribution. Symptoms may include radicular pain, paresthesias, and in extreme cases weakness or foot drop. Typically patients are treated conservatively for 6-8 weeks with a combination of steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, epidural steroid injections, and rest. In the absence of symptom improvement, surgical intervention typically with a microdisectomy is recommended to patients who are refractory to at least 6 weeks of nonoperative treatment. Earlier intervention may be considered in patients with severe or progressive neurological deficits. This paper reviews the preoperative and postoperative considerations, as well as the surgical technique, for a minimally invasive/less invasive microdisectomy. PMID:26945129

  6. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A scientist from the North Carolina Aquarium removes an invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) found in coastal North Carolina's hard bottom habitat, to prevent ecological impacts due to its predation and competition with native fishes....

  7. Invasive Brown Treesnake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Biologist Mike Hogan (left) and USGS biologist Adam Knox (right) give an outreach presentation with a sterilized (invasive) brown treesnake at Southern High School, Sapian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands....

  8. The stress-strain relationships in wood and fiber-reinforced plastic laminae of reinforced glued-laminated wood beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, Daniel Arthur

    The reinforcement of wood and wood composite structural products to improve their mechanical properties has been in practice for many years. Recently, the use of high-strength fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) as a reinforcement in such applications has been commercialized. The reinforcement is manufactured using a standard pultrusion process or alternatively a sheet-forming process commonly referred to as "pulforming". The high-modulus fibers are predominately unidirectional, although off-axis fibers are often used to enhance off-axis properties. The fibers used are either of a single type or multiple types, which are called "hybrids". Unidirectional, single, and hybrid fiber FRP physical properties and characteristics were compared to wood. Full-scale reinforced glulams were tested. Aramid-reinforced plastics (ARP) used as tensile reinforcements were found to be superior in strength applications to other types of FRP made with fiber, such as carbon and fiberglass. Carbon/aramid-reinforced plastic (CARP) was shown to be superior in both modulus and strength design situations. Fiberglass was shown to be suitable only in hybrid situations with another fiber such as aramid or carbon and only in limited use situations where modulus was a design criteria. The testing and analysis showed that the global response of reinforced glulam beams is controlled by localized strength variations in the wood such as slope of grain, knots, finger joints, etc. in the tensile zone. The elemental tensile strains in the extreme wood tensile laminae, due to global applied loads, were found to be well below the strain at failure in clear wood samples recovered from the failure area. Two areas affecting the relationship between the wood and the FRP were investigated: compatibility of the wood and FRP materials and interface characteristics between the wood and FRP. The optimum strain value at yield point for an FRP was assessed to be slightly higher than the clear wood value in tension for a species/grade to be reinforced. The effects of localized strength variations in the tensile wood laminae adjacent to the FRP were found to be the predominate cause of failure in full-scale reinforced glulams with less than 1.5% by cross section reinforcement.

  9. An in vitro model study of BSp73 rat tumour cell invasion into endothelial monolayer.

    PubMed

    Boxberger, H J; Paweletz, N; Spiess, E; Kriehuber, R

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the process of invasion in more detail we developed an in vitro model of the vessel wall. Rat tumour cells derived from an adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, BSp73 AS--of high invasive but low metastatic capacity--and BSp73 ASML--not invasive but highly metastatic--were compared for their mode of invasion into confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. Corneal as well as vascular endothelial cells were plated alternatively onto the basal lamina-like bovine lens capsule that was mounted in a combi-ring dish or reconstituted extracellular matrix (Basement Membrane Matrigel) as substrata. The endothelial monolayers were confronted with AS- and ASML-tumour cells. The interaction of the various cell types was followed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The invasive cell type AS was able to force the endothelial cells to retract and subsequently undermined the endothelial cell layer. In the noninvasive cell population ASML most cells remained in the typical roundish morphology and did not interact with the endothelial cell layers. Only a very minor fraction of ASML populations was able to attach to and also invade into the endothelial cell monolayer. It could be shown that AS-cells individually and as small groups penetrated the endothelial cell layer. The results of transmission and scanning electron microscopy suggest that endothelial cell retraction and underlapping of adjacent endothelial cells by tumour cells play an important role in invasion and extravasation through blood vessels. Against all expectations, the nonmetastasizing tumour cell variant (AS-cells) exhibited a dramatic invasive behaviour whereas the highly metastatic ASML-variant mostly retained its spherical shape and showed invasive activity only in exceptional cases. PMID:2627127

  10. A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arancio, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes). PMID:22533413

  11. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, STs showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  12. The nuclear envelope lamina network has elasticity and a compressibility limit suggestive of a molecular shock absorber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kris Noel; Kahn, Samuel M; Wilson, Katherine L; Discher, Dennis E

    2004-09-15

    Mechanical properties of the nuclear envelope have implications for cell and nuclear architecture as well as gene regulation. Using isolated Xenopus oocyte nuclei, we have established swelling conditions that separate the intact nuclear envelope (membranes, pore complexes and underlying lamin filament network) from nucleoplasm and the majority of chromatin. Swelling proves reversible with addition of high molecular mass dextrans. Micropipette aspiration of swollen and unswollen nuclear envelopes is also reversible and yields a network elastic modulus, unaffected by nucleoplasm, that averages 25 mN/m. Compared to plasma membranes of cells, the nuclear envelope is much stiffer and more resilient. Our results suggest that the nuclear lamina forms a compressed network shell of interconnected rods that is extensible but limited in compressibility from the native state, thus acting as a 'molecular shock absorber'. In light of the conservation of B-type lamins in metazoan evolution, the mechanical properties determined in this investigation suggest physical mechanisms by which mutated lamins can either destabilize nuclear architecture or influence nuclear responses to mechanical signals in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, progeria syndromes (premature 'aging') and other laminopathies. PMID:15331638

  13. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small ports from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entrymeaning only one small incision, like the uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional open surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Minimally invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small "ports" from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry-meaning only one small incision, like the "uniport" video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional "open" surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  15. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  16. Specific disruption of intermediate filaments and the nuclear lamina by the 19-kDa product of the adenovirus E1B oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Cipriani, R

    1989-01-01

    The 19-kDa protein encoded within the adenovirus E1B gene is essential for transformation by adenovirus and for proper regulation of viral early gene transcription. In order to investigate the biological function of the 19-kDa E1B protein, vectors were constructed to produce the 19-kDa protein in mammalian cells under the direction of heterologous promoters. Surprisingly, during transient expression, the E1B 19-kDa protein specifically associated with and disrupted the organization of intermediate filaments and the nuclear lamina, without disturbing the organization of other cytoskeletal networks. These results directly demonstrate an effect of a viral transforming protein on the cytoskeleton and suggest a role for intermediate filaments and the nuclear lamina in modulation of viral gene expression and the process of oncogenic transformation. Images PMID:2532364

  17. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus UL50 and UL53 Recruit Viral Protein Kinase UL97, Not Protein Kinase C, for Disruption of Nuclear Lamina and Nuclear Egress in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayuri; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Coughlin, Margaret; Reim, Natalia I.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesvirus nucleocapsids traverse the nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress that includes disruption of the nuclear lamina. In several herpesviruses, a key player in nuclear egress is a complex of two proteins, whose homologs in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are UL50 and UL53. However, their roles in nuclear egress during HCMV infection have not been shown. Based largely on transfection studies, UL50 and UL53 have been proposed to facilitate disruption of the nuclear lamina by recruiting cellular protein kinase C (PKC), as occurs with certain other herpesviruses, and/or the viral protein kinase UL97 to phosphorylate lamins. To investigate these issues during HCMV infection, we generated viral mutants null for UL50 or UL53. Correlative light electron microscopic analysis of null mutant-infected cells showed the presence of intranuclear nucleocapsids and the absence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that UL50 and UL53 are required for disruption of the nuclear lamina. A subpopulation of UL97 colocalized with the nuclear rim, and this was dependent on UL50 and, to a lesser extent, UL53. However, PKC was not recruited to the nuclear rim, and its localization was not affected by the absence of UL50 or UL53. Immunoprecipitation from cells infected with HCMV expressing tagged UL53 detected UL97 but not PKC. In summary, HCMV UL50 and UL53 are required for nuclear egress and disruption of nuclear lamina during HCMV infection, and they recruit UL97, not PKC, for these processes. Thus, despite the strong conservation of herpesvirus nuclear egress complexes, a key function can differ among them. PMID:24155370

  19. Human cytomegalovirus UL50 and UL53 recruit viral protein kinase UL97, not protein kinase C, for disruption of nuclear lamina and nuclear egress in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayuri; Kamil, Jeremy P; Coughlin, Margaret; Reim, Natalia I; Coen, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Herpesvirus nucleocapsids traverse the nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress that includes disruption of the nuclear lamina. In several herpesviruses, a key player in nuclear egress is a complex of two proteins, whose homologs in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are UL50 and UL53. However, their roles in nuclear egress during HCMV infection have not been shown. Based largely on transfection studies, UL50 and UL53 have been proposed to facilitate disruption of the nuclear lamina by recruiting cellular protein kinase C (PKC), as occurs with certain other herpesviruses, and/or the viral protein kinase UL97 to phosphorylate lamins. To investigate these issues during HCMV infection, we generated viral mutants null for UL50 or UL53. Correlative light electron microscopic analysis of null mutant-infected cells showed the presence of intranuclear nucleocapsids and the absence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that UL50 and UL53 are required for disruption of the nuclear lamina. A subpopulation of UL97 colocalized with the nuclear rim, and this was dependent on UL50 and, to a lesser extent, UL53. However, PKC was not recruited to the nuclear rim, and its localization was not affected by the absence of UL50 or UL53. Immunoprecipitation from cells infected with HCMV expressing tagged UL53 detected UL97 but not PKC. In summary, HCMV UL50 and UL53 are required for nuclear egress and disruption of nuclear lamina during HCMV infection, and they recruit UL97, not PKC, for these processes. Thus, despite the strong conservation of herpesvirus nuclear egress complexes, a key function can differ among them. PMID:24155370

  20. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control. PMID:25230477

  1. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  2. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  3. Invasive Bordetella holmesii infections.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, Joel T; Riederer, Kathleen; Sawaf, Hadi; Mody, Rupal

    2015-02-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a rare cause of invasive human disease. The fastidious and unusual nature of this organism makes routine isolation and identification challenging. We report two cases of B. holmesii bacteremia that were rapidly identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) when standard techniques failed to provide speciation. There are no current standards for susceptibility testing or treatment recommendations. The rare occurrence and challenges in identifying this pathogen led us to perform a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and treatment options for this potentially invasive pathogen. PMID:25415654

  4. The Effect of Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis on the Vasospasm and Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Patients Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hatefi, Masoud; Azhary, Shirzad; Naebaghaee, Hussein; Mohamadi, Hasan Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: SAH (Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage) is a life threatening that is associated with complications such as vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of FLT (Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis) on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in ACoA (Anterior Communicating Artery) aneurismal in SAH. Materials and Methods: The data of 50 ruptured ACoA aneurism patients were selected during the year 2001-2009 admitted to Imam Hussein hospital, Tehran, IR. In a randomized double-blind trial patients assigned in two group {with fenestration (FLT, n=25), without fenestration (No FLT, n=25)}. All patients underwent craniotomy by a single neurosurgeon. Patients age, sex, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, vasospasm, presence of hydrocephalus and incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences among groups in relation to demographic characteristics, neurological scale scores (Hunt-Hess grade) and the severity of the SAH (Fisher grade) (p>0.05). The rate of hydrocephalus on admission, were 24% and 16% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). The shunt placement postoperatively in FLT and no FLT group were 16% and 12% respectively (p>0.05). The clinical vasospasm was 20% and 24% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite FLT can be a safe method there were not significant differences of FLT on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. A systematic evaluation with multisurgeon, multicentre and with greater sample size to disclose reality is suggested. PMID:26393164

  5. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  6. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Ciara A.; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma. PMID:25821737

  7. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  8. Invasive Lionfish Removal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Research divers rest at 20 feet as they ascend with a dive bag containing invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans). The bag is clipped to a line to prevent them being stung by the lionfish as its bladder fills with air during the ascent. These lionfish were removed from hard bottom habitat, about 10...

  9. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become

  10. CONTROL OF INVASIVE SEAWEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive marine seaweeds have become serious threats to ecosystems along the coasts of many countries, including the United States. The most widespread and notorious have been infestations of Caulerpa taxifolia, which now infests over 15,000 acres of Mediterranean subtidal zones. These non-native...

  11. Invasive Spiny Water Flea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An invasive species, the spiny water flea, is likely a primary driver of changes in Lake Huron's food web over the past decade. Recent USGS research suggests that consumption of prey by invertebrates is outweighing consumption by fish in Lake Huron, and one invertebrate in particular – the in...

  12. Abnormal intestinal permeability and jejunal morphometry.

    PubMed Central

    Juby, L D; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1987-01-01

    The cellobiose and mannitol differential sugar test is a non-invasive investigation of small bowel permeability, in which urinary recoveries of cellobiose and mannitol after a hyperosmolar oral load are expressed as a ratio to give a permeability index. Changes in the cellobiose:mannitol ratio often occur in coeliac disease, but some patients with abnormal permeability have normal jejunums by routine microscopy. Using computed morphometry the perimeter:lamina propria area index of jejunal biopsy samples was measured and compared with the cellobiose:mannitol ratio in three groups of patients: (i) those with coeliac disease with villous atrophy; (ii) those with normal jejunums and sugar test results: and (iii) those with normal jejunums but abnormal sugar test results. In addition to the expected difference in perimeter:lamina propria area index between patients with coeliac disease and those with normal findings (p less than 0.001), the index was also abnormal in patients with normal jejunums but abnormal sugar test results: (p less than 0.001 compared with group 1) and (0.01 greater than p greater than 0.001 compared with group 2). There was a significant overall correlation between the perimeter:lamina propria area index and cellobiose:mannitol ratio (p = 0.001). This study shows that computed jejunal morphometry can identify patients with subtle morphological changes that are related to abnormal intestinal permeability. Images Fig 1 PMID:3114327

  13. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  14. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    nal, Emre; ?dilman, ?lkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; zmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karaalt?ncaba, Mu?turay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  15. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  16. 3D Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal Tension Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Horii, Takaaki; Takahashi, Seri; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although the lamina cribrosa (LC) is the primary site of axonal damage in glaucoma, adequate methods to image and measure it are currently lacking. Here, we describe a noninvasive, in vivo method of evaluating the LC, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and determine this methods ability to quantify LC thickness. Methods This study comprised 54 eyes, including normal (n = 18), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG; n = 18), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG; n = 18) eyes. We used SS-OCT to obtain 3 x 3 mm cube scans of an area centered on the optic disc, and then synchronized reconstructed B- and en-face images from this data. We identified the LC in these B-scan images by marking the visible borders of the LC pores. We marked points on the anterior and posterior borders of the LC in 12 B-scan images in order to create a skeleton model of the LC. Finally, we used B-spline interpolation to form a 3D model of the LC, including only reliably measured scan areas. We calculated the average LC thickness (avgLCT) in this model and used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to compare it with circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT). Results We found that the correlation coefficient of avgLCT and cpRNFLT was 0.64 (p < 0.01). The coefficient of variation for avgLCT was 5.1%. AvgLCT differed significantly in the groups (normal: 282.6 20.6 ?m, PPG: 261.4 15.8 ?m, NTG: 232.6 33.3 ?m). The normal, PPG and NTG groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, refractive error or intraocular pressure (IOP), although the normal and NTG groups differed significantly in cpRNFLT and Humphrey field analyzer measurements of mean deviation. Conclusion Thus, our results indicate that the parameters of our newly developed method of measuring LC thickness with SS-OCT may provide useful and important data for glaucoma diagnosis and research. PMID:25875096

  17. Nitric oxide synthase-cyclo-oxygenase pathways in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis: possible role in pyrogenic fever in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J. H.; Lin, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. Fever was induced in rabbits by administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS; 0.001-10 micrograms) into the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT). Deep body temperature was evaluated over a period of 7 h. 2. The LPS-induced febrile response was mimicked by intra-OVLT injection of the nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 1-10 micrograms), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 micrograms), or hydroxylamine (10 micrograms), the cyclic GMP analogue 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (8-Br-cyclic GMP, 10-100 micrograms), or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 0.2 micrograms). 3. Dexamethasone (Dex, a potent inhibitor of the transcription of inducible NO synthase, iNOS, 10 micrograms), anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor, 100 micrograms), L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO; an irreversible NOS inhibitor, 10-200 micrograms), aminoguanidine (a specific iNOS inhibitor, 1000 micrograms), or NG-methyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor, 100 micrograms) inhibited fever induced by LPS when injected into the OVLT 1 h before LPS injection. An intra-OVLT dose of 1000 micrograms of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a potent inhibitor of constitutive NOS) did not exhibit antipyretic effects. 4. Methylene blue (an inhibitor of NOS and soluble guanylate cyclase, 1-10 micrograms), 6-(phenylamino)-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583; an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase and NO release, 20 micrograms), or indomethacin (an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, COX, 400 micrograms) inhibited fever induced by LPS when injected into the OVLT 1 h before LPS injection. Pretreatment with methylene blue or haemoglobin (a NO scavenger, 100 micrograms) attenuated the fever induced by intra-OVLT injection of SNAP. 5. The PGE2-induced fever was potentiated, rather then attenuated, by pretreatment with an intra-OVLT dose of animoguanidine (1000 micrograms), L-NMMA (100 micrograms) or L-NIO (200 micrograms). 6. These results suggest that iNOS-COX pathways in the OVLT represent an important mechanism for modulation of pyrogenic fever in rabbits. PMID:8733593

  18. Effects of prostaglandin E2 on cells cultured from the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and median preoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Simm, B; Ott, D; Pollatzek, E; Murgott, J; Gerstberger, R; Rummel, C; Roth, J

    2016-01-28

    The time course of the induction of enzymes responsible for the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after an inflammatory insult, in relation to the concomitant febrile response, suggests that peripherally generated PGE2 is involved in the induction of the early phase of fever, while centrally produced PGE2 exerts pyrogenic capacities during the later stages of fever within the hypothalamic median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). The actions of peripherally derived PGE2 on the brain might occur at the level of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), which lacks a tight blood-brain barrier and is implicated in fever, while the effects of PGE2 within the MnPO might interfere with glutamatergic neurotransmission within a recently characterized central efferent pathway for the activation of cold-defence reactions. Using the fura-2 ratio imaging technique we, therefore, measured changes of the intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration in primary neuroglial microcultures of rat OVLT and MnPO stimulated with PGE2 and/or glutamate. In cultures from the OVLT, as opposed to those derived from the MnPO, substantial numbers of neurons (8% of 385), astrocytes (19% of 645) and microglial cells (28% of 43) directly responded to PGE2 with a transient increase of intracellular Ca(2+). The most pronounced effect of PGE2 on cells from MnPO microcultures was its modulatory influence on the strength of glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-signals. In 72 out of 512 neurons and in 105 out of 715 astrocytes PGE2 significantly augmented glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-signals. About 30% of these neurons were GABAergic. These observations are in agreement with putative roles of peripheral PGE2 as a directly acting circulating agent at the level of the OVLT, and of central MnPO-intrinsic PGE2 as an enhancer of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which causes disinhibition of thermogenic heat production, a crucial component for the manifestation of fever. In microcultures from both brain sites investigated incubation with PGE2 significantly reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6) into the supernatant. PGE2, thus, seems to be involved in a negative feed-back loop to limit the strength of the brain inflammatory process and to play a dual role with pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26608124

  19. Minimally invasive restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J

    1999-01-01

    Minimally invasive restorative treatment implements need-, damage-, and risk-balanced dental care while ensuring that the ends and means are reconciled. Using examples from initial treatment of carious lesions, maintenance and correction of existing restorations, treatment of traumatic damage, and direct color and form correction of teeth, a preventively offensive and restoratively defensive treatment concept is presented. Such a concept demands of the dentist greater diagnostic efforts and more highly differentiated employment of invasive treatment methods. Demands on the patients are greater as well: they must be willing to comply with regular post-treatment examinations. In return, one receives the option of minimizing the sacrifice of maintainable hard tooth structures and avoiding extensive, large-scale dental procedures. PMID:11725674

  20. Invasive salmonellosis in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Melita A; Graham, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of invasive salmonellosis has increased among children and HIV-infected adults in Malawi. This has been associated with the emergence of drug resistance in the non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. In contrast, S. Typhi isolates have remained fully sensitive to commonly used antibiotics and the estimated incidence of typhoid fever, although still present, has fallen slightly among both adults and children. Infection with S. Typhi is not closely associated with underlying immunosuppression but it is possible that the non-typhoidal Salmonellae have adapted to the person-person human transmission niche in this frequently immunosuppressed population. The huge burden of invasive salmonellosis in Malawi, the high associated mortality, and the recent emergence of drug resistance emphasise the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology and the need for vaccine development. PMID:19745520

  1. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  2. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  3. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes. PMID:22368356

  4. Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate amassive lamina reticularis.

    PubMed

    Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C

    2013-09-01

    In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10?m) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an ?6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23834951

  5. Peripherally driven low-threshold inhibitory inputs to lamina I local-circuit and projection neurones: a new circuit for gating pain responses

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system which relays primary afferent input to supraspinal areas. However, little is known about how the signal is modulated by its intrinsic network including local-circuit neurones (LCNs) and much less numerous anterolateral tract projection neurones (PNs). Here, we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings in an isolated spinal cord preparation to examine properties of identified LCNs (n=85) and PNs (n=73) in their functionally preserved local networks. Forty LCNs showed spontaneous rhythmic firing (27Hz) at zero current injection, which persisted in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic transmission. In the remaining cases, most LCNs and PNs fired tonically in response to depolarizing current injections. We identified LCNs and PNs receiving low-threshold primary afferent-driven inhibitory inputs, which in many cases were disynaptic and temporally preceded classical high-threshold excitatory inputs. This direct inhibitory link between low-threshold afferents and PNs can function as a postsynaptic gate controlling the nociceptive information flow in the spinal cord. The LCNs were found to be integrated into the superficial dorsal horn network by their receipt of monosynaptic and disynaptic inputs from other lamina I and II neurones. One-third of LCNs and two-thirds of PNs tested responded to substance P application. Thus, substance P released by a noxious afferent stimulation may excite PNs in two ways: directly, and via the activation of presynaptic LCN circuitries. In conclusion, we have described important properties of identified lamina I neurones and their roles in a new circuit for gating pain responses. PMID:24421354

  6. Spinal lamina I neurones that express neurokinin 1 receptors: II. Electrophysiological characteristics, responses to primary afferent stimulation and effects of a selective mu-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Cheunsuang, O; Maxwell, D; Morris, R

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of a longitudinal, parasagittal spinal cord slice from the neonatal rat. Their responses to peripheral nerve stimulation were first tested. Then the responses to bath application of [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P and [D-Ala(2),N-MePhe(4),Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin, neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) and mu-opioid receptor agonists respectively, were studied. Finally, the structure of each neurone was investigated by injecting neurobiotin intracellularly following recording, and immunocytochemical studies were performed on post-fixed tissues to reveal whether they expressed the NK(1) receptor. Nine lamina I neurones where shown to express NK(1) receptor and these were depolarised by [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P. These neurones typically received a powerful C-fibre input that was strongly inhibited, presynaptically, by the mu-opioid receptor agonist.The structure, afferent input, opioid sensitivity and intrinsic properties of these neurones are all consistent with the view that they are a major relay for nociceptive information leading to intense pain. The characteristics of 10 other neurones studied in which the NK(1) receptor was not found to be expressed at levels detectable by immunocytochemistry are briefly described for comparison. These results contribute to the emergent view that the large neurones in the most dorsal neuronal layer (lamina I) of the spinal cord, which express the principal receptor for substance P (NK(1)) over their entire soma and dendrites, are a major relay for information leading to intense pain. Inhibition of the relay of information by these neurones would be predicted to result in analgesia and hence, a detailed knowledge of their unique neurochemical characteristics is of paramount importance. PMID:11983327

  7. Decidual Control of Trophoblast Invasion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shipra; Godbole, Geeta; Modi, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    At the time of implantation, the trophoblast cells of the embryo adhere and then invade into the maternal endometrium and eventually establish placentation. The endometrium at the same time undergoes decidualization, which is essential for successful pregnancy. While the NK cells of the decidua have been implicated to play a key role in trophoblast invasion, few evidence are now available to demonstrate a pro-invasive property of decidual stromal cells. Secretions from decidualized endometrial stromal cells promote invasion of primary trophoblasts and model cell lines by activating proteases and altering expression of adhesion-related molecules. The decidual secretions contain high amounts of pro-invasive factors that include IL-1?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, Eotaxin CCL11, IP-10 and RANTES, and anti-invasive factors IL-10, IL-12 and VEGF. It appears that these decidual factors promote invasion by regulating the protease pathways and integrin expression utilizing the STAT pathways in the trophoblast cells. At the same time the decidua also seem to secrete some anti-invasive factors that are antagonist to the matrix metalloproteinases and/or are activators of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This might be essential to neutralize the effects of the invasion-promoting factors and restrain overinvasion. It is tempting to propose that during the course of pregnancy, the decidua must balance the production of these pro and anti-invasive molecules and such harmonizing production would allow a timely and regulated invasion. PMID:26755153

  8. Synaptic control of rat supraoptic neurones during osmotic stimulation of the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Richard, D; Bourque, C W

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of osmotic or electrical stimulation of the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) were examined during intracellular recordings (32 degrees C) obtained from ninety-five supraoptic nucleus magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in superfused explants of rat hypothalamus. 2. Brief (10-20 s) applications of hypertonic and hypotonic solutions to the area of the OVLT caused prolonged (> 1 min) increases and decreases, respectively, in electrical activity in seventy of seventy-four trials performed on neurones with membrane potentials near spike threshold (approximately -55 mV). Changes in firing frequency were related to changes in external osmolality in a dose-dependent manner between 275 and 355 mosmol kg-1. 3. When 30 s periods recorded immediately before, and 30 s following, the application of an osmotic stimulus were examined, the frequency of spontaneous EPSPs (sEPSPs) was related in a dose-dependent manner to the osmolality of the solution superfusing the OVLT region. The increased EPSP frequency was maintained and did not adapt if the osmolality of the medium was raised for periods of > 10 min. In contrast, the frequency of spontaneous IPSPs (sIPSPs) was virtually unaffected by changes in external osmotic pressure. 4. Osmotically evoked changes in MNC firing were strongly correlated with accompanying changes in the frequency of sEPSPs (slope, 0.9; correlation coefficient (r) = 0.7), but not sIPSPs (r = 0.2), suggesting that changes in firing rate following osmotic stimulation of the OVLT are selectively mediated by changes in synaptic excitation. 5. In the presence of bicuculline (5-10 microM), electrical stimulation of the OVLT evoked fast EPSPs in forty-seven of forty-eight MNCs tested. These responses were reversibly reduced by application of 20-40 microM kynurenic acid (n = 3) or 20-40 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; n = 11). Similarly, bath application of CNQX (n = 3) or kynurenic acid (n = 4) reversibly abolished the excitatory response of supraoptic neurones following hypertonic stimulation of the OVLT. 6. Brief (10-15 s) applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) over the OVLT reversibly abolished increases in sEPSP frequency and action potential firing rate evoked by hyperosmotic stimulation of the OVLT. In the presence of GABA, the rates of sEPSP and sIPSP frequency were reduced to 37 +/- 10 and 44 +/- 13% (means +/- S.E.M.), respectively, of those observed under isotonic conditions (295 mosmol kg-1). 7. These results suggest that inhibitory and excitatory pathways originating from neurones located within the OVLT are tonically active under resting osmotic conditions in rat hypothalamic explants. Osmotically evoked changes in MNC firing, however, are selectively mediated through increases or decreases in the intensity of the excitatory component of OVLT-derived inputs. PMID:8847648

  9. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  10. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive approaches. Furthermore, increased robotic experience and studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to validate the findings of the current literature. PMID:26904426

  11. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α–lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin. PMID:26443848

  12. Nuclear lamina defects cause ATM-dependent NF-κB activation and link accelerated aging to a systemic inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Fernando G.; Bárcena, Clea; Soria-Valles, Clara; Ramsay, Andrew J.; de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Fueyo, Antonio; Freije, José M.P.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in the architecture and dynamics of the nuclear lamina have a causal role in normal and accelerated aging through both cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the molecular cues involved in this process remains incompletely defined. Here we report that the accumulation of prelamin A isoforms at the nuclear lamina triggers an ATM- and NEMO-dependent signaling pathway that leads to NF-κB activation and secretion of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in two different mouse models of accelerated aging (Zmpste24−/− and LmnaG609G/G609G mice). Causal involvement of NF-κB in accelerated aging was demonstrated by the fact that both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB signaling prevents age-associated features in these animal models, significantly extending their longevity. Our findings provide in vivo proof of principle for the feasibility of pharmacological modulation of the NF-κB pathway to slow down the progression of physiological and pathological aging. PMID:23019125

  13. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Gnter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  14. [Invasive streptococcal infections].

    PubMed

    Kosina, P; Plísek, S; Dostál, V; Morávková, M; Cermák, P; Preis, J; Lukes, A; Kracmarová, R; Krausová, J

    2007-12-01

    The severity of streptococcal infections depends upon different virulence of individual strains of its causative agent. The most important species are beta-haemolytic group A streptococci (GAS). Clinical manifestations include skin affections, respiratory tract infections and, in particular, serious systemic invasive infections. The pathogenicity of GAS is derived from cell wall components and extracellular products, especially toxins with properties of the so-called superantigens. Less invasive forms of the disease are include necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, pneumonia, sepsis without focus, arthritis, meningitis, puerperal sepsis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and severe course of erysipelas and cellulitis with blood culture positive for GAS. In most cases, soft tissue infections dominate, often accompanied by chronic diseases of lower extremities in elderly patients. The other clinical forms are rather rare. In children, the condition is clearly frequently related to chickenpox. The generally accepted therapeutic management comprises comprehensive intensive care, early administration of penicillin in combination with clindamycin, and surgical intervention. The use of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), elimination methods and hyperbaric oxygen are under discussion. The slight increase in cases and ineffective prevention require rapid assessment of diagnosis and adequate treatment as a protracted course of the condition is connected with a high mortality rate. PMID:18320500

  15. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  16. Resolving the genetic basis of invasiveness and predicting invasions.

    PubMed

    Weinig, Cynthia; Brock, Marcus T; Dechaine, Jenny A; Welch, Stephen M

    2007-02-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in determining traits underlying invasiveness. Yet, identifying a set of traits that commonly confers invasiveness in a range of species has proven elusive, and almost nothing is known about genetic loci affecting invasive success. Incorporating genetic model organisms into ecologically relevant studies is one promising avenue to begin dissecting the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. Molecular biologists are rapidly characterizing genes mediating developmental responses to diverse environmental cues, i.e., genes for plasticity, as well as to environmental factors likely to impose strong selection on invading species, e.g., resistance to herbivores and competitors, coordination of life-history events with seasonal changes, and physiological tolerance of heat, drought, or cold. Here, we give an overview of molecular genetic tools increasingly used to characterize the genetic basis of adaptation and that may be used to begin identifying genetic mechanisms of invasiveness. Given the divergent traits that affect invasiveness, "invasiveness genes" common to many clades are unlikely, but the combination of developmental genetic advances with further evolutionary studies and modeling may provide a framework for identifying genes that account for invasiveness in related species. PMID:16955329

  17. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  18. Genetic reconstructions of invasion history.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-05-01

    A diverse array of molecular markers and constantly evolving analytical approaches have been employed to reconstruct the invasion histories of the most notorious invasions. Detailed information on the source(s) of introduction, invasion route, type of vectors, number of independent introductions and pathways of secondary spread has been corroborated for a large number of biological invasions. In this review, I present the promises and limitations of current techniques while discussing future directions. Broad phylogeographic surveys of native and introduced populations have traced back invasion routes with surprising precision. These approaches often further clarify species boundaries and reveal complex patterns of genetic relationships with noninvasive relatives. Moreover, fine-scale analyses of population genetics or genomics allow deep inferences on the colonization dynamics across invaded ranges and can reveal the extent of gene flow among populations across various geographical scales, major demographic events such as genetic bottlenecks as well as other important evolutionary events such as hybridization with native taxa, inbreeding and selective sweeps. Genetic data have been often corroborated successfully with historical, geographical and ecological data to enable a comprehensive reconstruction of the invasion process. The advent of next-generation sequencing, along with the availability of extensive databases of repository sequences generated by barcoding projects opens the opportunity to broadly monitor biodiversity, to identify early invasions and to quantify failed invasions that would otherwise remain inconspicuous to the human eye. PMID:25703061

  19. Integrated assessment of biological invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the main annalists of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists should be able to provide information that can guide management practices. Managers often want to know about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in the sites under their ...

  20. MEDUSAHEAD INVASION, IMPLICATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead invasion of western rangelands is at a cross-road, either an aggressive effort to prevent its invasion of new areas is initiated, or millions of acres will be lost. Medusahead is an aggressive, exotic, annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. The rapid spread of me...

  1. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not mea...

  2. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not me...

  3. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mtrai, Zoltn; Gulys, Gusztv; Kunos, Csaba; Svolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollr, Andrs; Ksler, Mikls

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(5), 162-169. PMID:24463161

  4. Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Al Ghamdi, K S; Polgr, E; Todd, A J

    2009-12-29

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn contains neurons that project to various brain regions, and approximately 80% of these projection cells express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), the main receptor for substance P. Two populations of NK1r-immunoreactive neurons have been identified in lamina I: small weakly immunoreactive cells and large cells with strong immunolabelling [Cheunsuang O and Morris R (2000) Neuroscience 97:335-345]. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the large cells are projection neurons and that the small cells are interneurons. Projection neurons were identified by injection of tracers into the caudal ventrolateral medulla and lateral parabrachial area, and this was combined with immunostaining for NK1r. We found a bimodal size distribution for NK1r-immunoreactive neurons. The small cells (with somatic cross-sectional areas <200 microm(2)) showed weak immunoreactivity, while immunostaining intensity was variable among the large cells. Virtually all (99%) of the immunoreactive cells with soma areas >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, while only 10% of retrogradely labelled cells were smaller than this. Soma sizes of retrogradely labelled neurons that lacked NK1r did not differ from those of NK1r-expressing projection neurons. It has been suggested that a population of small pyramidal projection neurons that lack NK1r may correspond to cells activated by innocuous cooling, and we therefore assessed the morphology of retrogradely labelled cells that were not NK1r-immunoreactive. Fifteen percent of these were pyramidal, but these did not differ in size from pyramidal NK1r-immunoreactive projection neurons. These results confirm that large NK1r-immunoreactive lamina I neurons are projection cells, and suggest that the small cells are interneurons. Since almost all of the NK1r-immunoreactive cells with soma size >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, cells of this type can be identified as projection cells in anatomical studies. PMID:19800942

  5. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  6. Integration time in a subset of spinal lamina I neurons is lengthened by sodium and calcium currents acting synergistically to prolong subthreshold depolarization.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A; De Koninck, Yves

    2005-05-11

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in processing and relaying nociceptive information to the brain. It comprises physiologically distinct cell types that process information in fundamentally different ways: tonic neurons fire repetitively during stimulation and display prolonged EPSPs, suggesting operation as integrators, whereas single-spike neurons act like coincidence detectors. Using whole-cell recordings from a rat spinal slice preparation, we set out to determine the basis for prolonged EPSPs in tonic cells and the implications for signal processing. Kinetics of synaptic currents could not explain differences in EPSP kinetics. Instead, tonic neurons were found to express a persistent sodium current, I(Na,P), that amplified and prolonged depolarization in response to brief stimulation. Tonic neurons also expressed a persistent calcium current, I(Ca,P), that contributed to prolongation but not to amplification. Simulations using NEURON software demonstrated that I(Na,P) was necessary and sufficient to explain amplification, whereas I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) acted synergistically to prolong depolarization: initial activation of the slower current (I(Ca,P)) depended on the faster current (I(Na,P)) but maintained activation of the faster current likewise depended on the slower current. Additional investigation revealed that I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) could dramatically increase integration time (>30x) and thereby encourage temporal summation but at the expense of spike time precision. Thus, by prolonging subthreshold depolarization, intrinsic inward currents allow tonic neurons in spinal lamina I to specialize as integrators that are optimally suited to encode stimulus intensity. PMID:15888650

  7. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Characterization of the Healthy Human Lamina Cribrosa With Adaptive Optics Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Zach; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit; Hammer, Daniel X.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the in vivo three-dimensional (3D) lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture of healthy eyes using adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT). Methods. A multimodal retinal imaging system with a light source centered at 1050 nm and AO confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was used in this study. One randomly selected eye from 18 healthy subjects was scanned in a 6 6 window centered on the LC. Subjects also underwent scanning with Cirrus HD-OCT. Lamina cribrosa microarchitecture was semiautomatically segmented and quantified for connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), beam thickness, pore diameter, pore area, and pore aspect ratio. The LC was assessed in central and peripheral regions of equal areas and quadrants and with depth. A linear mixed effects model weighted by the fraction of visible LC was used to compare LC structure between regions. Results. The nasal quadrant was excluded due to poor visualization. The central sector showed greater CTVF and thicker beams as compared to the periphery (P < 0.01). Both superior and inferior quadrants showed greater CTVF, pore diameter, and pore mean area than the temporal quadrant (P < 0.05). Depth analysis showed that the anterior and posterior aspects of the LC contained smaller pores with greater density and thinner beams as compared to the middle third (P < 0.05). The anterior third also showed a greater CTVF than the middle third (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In vivo analysis of healthy eyes using AO-SDOCT showed significant, albeit small, regional variation in LC microarchitecture by quadrant, radially, and with depth, which should be considered in further studies of the LC. PMID:25228539

  8. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Integrated assessment of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions. PMID:24640532

  10. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

  11. The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions.

    PubMed

    Fridley, J D; Stachowicz, J J; Naeem, S; Sax, D F; Seabloom, E W; Smith, M D; Stohlgren, T J; Tilman, D; Von Holle, B

    2007-01-01

    The invasion paradox describes the co-occurrence of independent lines of support for both a negative and a positive relationship between native biodiversity and the invasions of exotic species. The paradox leaves the implications of native-exotic species richness relationships open to debate: Are rich native communities more or less susceptible to invasion by exotic species? We reviewed the considerable observational, experimental, and theoretical evidence describing the paradox and sought generalizations concerning where and why the paradox occurs, its implications for community ecology and assembly processes, and its relevance for restoration, management, and policy associated with species invasions. The crux of the paradox concerns positive associations between native and exotic species richness at broad spatial scales, and negative associations at fine scales, especially in experiments in which diversity was directly manipulated. We identified eight processes that can generate either negative or positive native-exotic richness relationships, but none can generate both. As all eight processes have been shown to be important in some systems, a simple general theory of the paradox, and thus of the relationship between diversity and invasibility, is probably unrealistic. Nonetheless, we outline several key issues that help resolve the paradox, discuss the difficult juxtaposition of experimental and observational data (which often ask subtly different questions), and identify important themes for additional study. We conclude that natively rich ecosystems are likely to be hotspots for exotic species, but that reduction of local species richness can further accelerate the invasion of these and other vulnerable habitats. PMID:17489447

  12. The role of the extracellular matrix in neoplastic glial invasion of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, C J

    1996-09-01

    Intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are generally derived from the glial cells: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. Although such tumours rarely metastasize to distant organs, they show a marked propensity for local invasion of the surrounding nervous tissue. Sub-populations of neoplastic glia may migrate several millimetres away from main tumour mass into the contiguous CNS parenchyma, resulting in poor demarcation of the tumour. These migratory, so-called "guerrilla" cells give rise to recurrent tumours following surgical debulking and adjuvant radio- and chemo-therapeutic intervention. As in other organs, tumour cell invasion is, in part, facilitated by interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM); however, apart from the vascular basal lamina and the glia limitans externa, the CNS lacks a well-defined ECM. Invading neoplastic cells must, therefore, provide their own ECM, a process which may be stimulated by such agents as gangliosides or growth factors. Glioma cell-derived laminin and hyaluronic acid may provide the most important substrates for invasion, cell adhesion to these substrates being achieved largely through integrin receptors (the function of which may be determined by interaction with cell surface gangliosides) and CD44, respectively. Modulation of these ECM components is facilitated by a variety of proteinases including the matrix metalloproteinases and hyaluronidase, the activity of which is also thought to stimulate angiogenesis. Interference with the mechanisms which promote glioma cell adhesive properties may provide suitable targets for novel anti-invasive therapies. These might include ECM components, growth factors, gangliosides, integrin receptors and proteases and their inhibitors. PMID:9181059

  13. Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector.

    PubMed

    During, M J; Xu, R; Young, D; Kaplitt, M G; Sherwin, R S; Leone, P

    1998-10-01

    Gene therapy is usually reserved for severe and medically refractory disorders because of the toxicity, potential long-term risks and invasiveness of most gene transfer protocols. Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a beta-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery in an animal model of lactose intolerance. A gene 'pill' associated with highly efficient and stable gene expression might be a practical and cost-effective strategy for even relatively mild disorders, such as lactase deficiency. PMID:9771745

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  15. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  16. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute ... be progressive and less invasive in how we care for our patients. 8 Here's one from one ...

  17. Increased Leaf Angle1, a Raf-Like MAPKKK That Interacts with a Nuclear Protein Family, Regulates Mechanical Tissue Formation in the Lamina Joint of Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jing; Zhang, Baocai; Wang, Nili; Zhou, Yihua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), which function at the top level of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, are clustered into three groups. However, no Group C Raf-like MAPKKKs have yet been functionally identified. We report here the characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, increased leaf angle1 (ila1), resulting from a T-DNA insertion in a Group C MAPKKK gene. The increased leaf angle in ila1 is caused by abnormal vascular bundle formation and cell wall composition in the leaf lamina joint, as distinct from the mechanism observed in brassinosteroid-related mutants. Phosphorylation assays revealed that ILA1 is a functional kinase with Ser/Thr kinase activity. ILA1 is predominantly resident in the nucleus and expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf lamina joints. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified six closely related ILA1 interacting proteins (IIPs) of unknown function. Using representative IIPs, the interaction of ILA1 and IIPs was confirmed in vivo. IIPs were localized in the nucleus and showed transactivation activity. Furthermore, ILA1 could phosphorylate IIP4, indicating that IIPs may be the downstream substrates of ILA1. Microarray analyses of leaf lamina joints provided additional evidence for alterations in mechanical strength in ila1. ILA1 is thus a key factor regulating mechanical tissue formation at the leaf lamina joint. PMID:22207574

  18. Plant invasions and extinction debts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Levine, Jonathan M

    2013-01-29

    Whether introduced species invasions pose a major threat to biodiversity is hotly debated. Much of this debate is fueled by recent findings that competition from introduced organisms has driven remarkably few plant species to extinction. Instead, native plant species in invaded ecosystems are often found in refugia: patchy, marginal habitats unsuitable to their nonnative competitors. However, whether the colonization and extinction dynamics of these refugia allow long-term native persistence is uncertain. Of particular concern is the possibility that invasive plants may induce an extinction debt in the native flora, where persistence over the short term masks deterministic extinction trajectories. We examined how invader impacts on landscape structure influence native plant persistence by combining recently developed quantitative techniques for evaluating metapopulation persistence with field measurements of an invaded plant community. We found that European grass invasion of an edaphically heterogeneous California landscape has greatly decreased the likelihood of the persistence of native metapopulations. It does so via two main pathways: (i) decreasing the size of native refugia, which reduces seed production and increases local extinction, and (ii) eroding the dispersal permeability of the matrix between refugia, which reduces their connectivity. Even when native plant extinction is the deterministic outcome of invasion, the time to extinction can be on the order of hundreds of years. We conclude that the relatively short time since invasion in many parts of the world is insufficient to observe the full impact of plant invasions on native biodiversity. PMID:23297239

  19. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  20. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Christiansen, Blaine A.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings. PMID:26545120

  1. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that sustained activation of the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA by fasting may contribute to the high arousal state associated with food deprivation. In agreement with this, ORX cells also remain active after expected nursing, which is consistent with reports in other species. PMID:24112031

  2. Minimally-invasive parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Bellantone, R; Raffaelli, M; DE Crea, C; Traini, E; Lombardi, C P

    2011-08-01

    During the last two decades, several techniques for minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy have been developed, including open approaches (open minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy - OMI P), minimally-invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MI-RP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy through a lateral approach (VAP-LA) and purely endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP). We have reviewed the pertinent literature, analyzing the indications, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques. Even if the field of minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy is heterogeneous, there is some evidence that minimally-invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy (MIVAP) should be preferred over OMIP for better cosmetic outcomes, improved visualization of neck structures and control of pain. There is also low-level evidence that MIVAP has some advantages over other purely endoscopic procedures for parathyroidectomy and VAP-LA, in terms of technical difficulties, in addition to the possibility to perform bilateral exploration and associated procedures on the thyroid gland. While the data on medium-term results are encouraging, longer follow-up times are still needed to confirm its safety and rate of cure with respect to conventional surgery. It has been demonstrated that MIVAP is also feasible in secondary and familial hyperparathyroidism, although no conclusive data are available. PMID:22065831

  3. Invasive Cervical Cancer and Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Kuo-You; Chiu, Wei-Che; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S.; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To our knowledge, no prior population-based study has been published wherein the primary aim was to evaluate whether an association between psychotropic drug prescription and cervical cancer exists. Herein we have conducted the first study that primarily aimed to determine the association between antidepressants use and risk of invasive cervical cancer in the general population. This is a population-based study utilizing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 26,262 cases with invasive cervical cancer and 129,490 controls. We adopted the conditional logistic regression model as the statistical method and adjusted for potential confounding factors. The prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (adjusted OR?=?0.93, 95% CI?=?0.841.04), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), mirtazapine and bupropion, adjusting for cumulative dose, was not associated with an increased, or decreased, risk for invasive cervical cancer. An association between trazodone prescription and invasive cervical cancer was observed (adjusted OR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.031.43). An association between the major classes of antidepressants and invasive cervical cancer was not observed herein. Our preliminary finding regarding a possible association between trazodone and cervical cancer requires replication. PMID:26496343

  4. Minimally Invasive Orthopedic Surgery: Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Treuting, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Arthroscopy, a minimally invasive alternative to standard open surgical techniques and now the most commonly performed orthopedic surgical procedure, was one of the greatest advances in orthopedic surgery of the 20th century. Minimally invasive surgeries result in less postoperative swelling than open techniques and reduce pain, risk of complications, and recovery times. Arthroscopy has evolved from a diagnostic tool to a therapeutic tool capable of treating a wide range of injuries and disorders. Many injuries, particularly those that at one time would have been career ending for athletes, can now be addressed with arthroscopy allowing a quicker return to full function. While arthroscopy has resulted in an overall decrease in morbidity compared with open techniques, it is still an invasive procedure and inherently involves risks. Almost all arthroscopic procedures can be performed in an outpatient setting. In 1999, 211 arthroscopic procedures were performed at Ochsner. PMID:21765685

  5. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  6. Descending inhibitory influences exerted by the brain stem upon the activities of dorsal horn lamina V cells induced by intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs.

    PubMed Central

    Besson, J M; Guilbaud, G; Le Bars, D

    1975-01-01

    1. In order to study descending influences of the brain stem upon the transmission of nociceptive messages at the spinal level, the activities of lumbar lamina V dorsal horn cells, induced by intra-arterial injection of brandykinin into the limbs, were recorded in unanaesthetized cats in both decerebrate and temporary spinal states (reversible cold block applied at the thoracic level). 2. In the decerebrate state, the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin had little or no effect. 3. During the reversible spinalization, the effects of bradykinin were revealed or considerably enhanced. As described in a previous study, in the C1-transected cat, three types of effects were encountered: excitatory, inhibiitory and mixed (inhibitory-excitatory). 4. These modifications observed after spinalization were generally associated with a large increase of the spontaneous firing rate. 5. These results emphasize, in the decerebrate cat, the importance of descending inhibitory controls exerted by the brain stem upon the transmission of nonciceptive messages at the spinal cord level. Images Plate 1 PMID:1151845

  7. A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

    1991-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

  8. Nuclear localization of the dystrophin-associated protein ?-dystrobrevin through importin ?2/?1 is critical for interaction with the nuclear lamina/maintenance of nuclear integrity.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Areli; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Surez-Snchez, Roco; Zinker, Samuel; Jans, David A; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2015-05-01

    Although ?-dystrobrevin (DB) is assembled into the dystrophin-associated protein complex, which is central to cytoskeletal organization, it has also been found in the nucleus. Here we delineate the nuclear import pathway responsible for nuclear targeting of ?-DB for the first time, together with the importance of nuclear ?-DB in determining nuclear morphology. We map key residues of the nuclear localization signal of ?-DB within the zinc finger domain (ZZ) using various truncated versions of the protein, and site-directed mutagenesis. Pulldown, immunoprecipitation, and AlphaScreen assays showed that the importin (IMP) ?2/?1 heterodimer interacts with high affinity with the ZZ domain of ?-DB. In vitro nuclear import assays using antibodies to specific importins, as well as in vivo studies using siRNA or a dominant negative importin construct, confirmed the key role of IMP?2/?1 in ?-DB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of ?-DB expression perturbed cell cycle progression in C2C12 myoblasts, with decreased accumulation of cells in S phase and, significantly, altered localization of lamins A/C, B1, and B2 with accompanying gross nuclear morphology defects. Because ?-DB interacts specifically with lamin B1 in vivo and in vitro, nuclear ?-DB would appear to play a key role in nuclear shape maintenance through association with the nuclear lamina. PMID:25636738

  9. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 is required for intrinsic osmoreception in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons and for normal thirst responses to systemic hyperosmolality.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Sorana; Bourque, Charles W

    2006-08-30

    Recent studies have indicated that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family of cation channels are required for the generation of normal osmoregulatory responses, yet the mechanism of osmosensory transduction in primary osmoreceptor neurons of the CNS remains to be defined. Indeed, despite ample evidence suggesting that the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) serves as the primary locus of the brain for the detection of osmotic stimuli, evidence that neurons in the OVLT are intrinsically osmosensitive has remained elusive. Here we show that murine OVLT neurons are intrinsically sensitive to increases in the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. Hypertonic conditions provoked increases in membrane cation conductance that resulted in the generation of an inward current, depolarizing osmoreceptor potentials, and enhanced action potential discharge. Moreover, we found that this osmosensory signal transduction cascade was absent in OVLT neurons from TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1-/-) mice and that responses of wild type (WT) OVLT neurons could be blocked by ruthenium red, an inhibitor of TRPV channels. Finally, TRPV1-/- mice showed significantly attenuated water intake in response to systemic hypertonicity compared with WT controls. These findings indicate that OVLT neurons act as primary osmoreceptors and that a product of the trpv1 gene is required for osmosensory transduction. PMID:16943565

  10. Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated by Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Brain Organum Vasculosum of the Lamina Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Collister, John P.; Taylor-Smith, Heather; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) can access the brain via circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), to modulate blood pressure. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for both the SFO and OVLT in the hypertensive response to chronic AngII, yet it is unclear which intracellular signaling pathways are involved in this response. Overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the SFO has been shown to attenuate the chronic hypertensive effects of AngII. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of superoxide (O2∙−) in the OVLT contribute to the hypertensive effects of AngII. To facilitate overexpression of superoxide dismutase, adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD or control adenovirus (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the OVLT of rats. Following 3 days of control saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Blood pressure increased 33 ± 8 mmHg in AdEmpty rats (n = 6), while rats overexpressing CuZnSOD (n = 8) in the OVLT demonstrated a blood pressure increase of only 18 ± 5 mmHg after 10 days of AngII infusion. These results support the hypothesis that overproduction of O2∙− in the OVLT plays an important role in the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:26881025

  11. Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated by Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Brain Organum Vasculosum of the Lamina Terminalis.

    PubMed

    Collister, John P; Taylor-Smith, Heather; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) can access the brain via circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), to modulate blood pressure. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for both the SFO and OVLT in the hypertensive response to chronic AngII, yet it is unclear which intracellular signaling pathways are involved in this response. Overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the SFO has been shown to attenuate the chronic hypertensive effects of AngII. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of superoxide (O2 (∙-)) in the OVLT contribute to the hypertensive effects of AngII. To facilitate overexpression of superoxide dismutase, adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD or control adenovirus (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the OVLT of rats. Following 3 days of control saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Blood pressure increased 33 ± 8 mmHg in AdEmpty rats (n = 6), while rats overexpressing CuZnSOD (n = 8) in the OVLT demonstrated a blood pressure increase of only 18 ± 5 mmHg after 10 days of AngII infusion. These results support the hypothesis that overproduction of O2 (∙-) in the OVLT plays an important role in the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension. PMID:26881025

  12. Experience with invasive and non-invasive sensors for anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews experiences with the development and clinical use of invasive and non-invasive sensors for continuous real-time monitoring. The clinical focus, and inspiration, for this work has been the fetus and the newborn baby, but the work described is also directly relevant to the challenges of performing timely assessments of blood gas and acid-base status in subjects undergoing anaesthesia and critical care. The first results obtained from the use of invasive PO2, PCO2, and pH sensors in humans, in the late 1960's, provided exciting new insights in to basic physiological processes, but the sensors were very limited in their performance, particularly with regard to haemocompatibility. Research since that time has been concerned with attempting to overcome the problems of blood interactions with sensor surfaces, and an approach based on the mimicry of cell membrane phospholipid biochemistry is described here. The issue of haemocompatibility may be obviated by the utilisation of non-invasive methods. The interrogation of tissues by near infra-red radiation (700-1000 nm) is described, with particular emphasis on the development of spectrophotometric techniques for the measurement of HHb, HbO2, and Hbtot in the brain. Prospects for the measurement of other species, such as glucose, and of achieving spatial discrimination within tissues are also considered. PMID:7660751

  13. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  14. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  15. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  16. RANGELAND MONITORING AND INVASIVE WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the serious biological obstacles that must be addressed in any comprehensive revision of rangeland ecological condition assessment is what to do with sites dominated by exotic self invasive species. In certain cases such species have truncated succession so that with a bare minimum of distur...

  17. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success.

    PubMed

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.?sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.? bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F.?sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F.?sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F.?japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  18. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  19. Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Gelembiuk, Gregory William

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. PMID:25567726

  20. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  1. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement. PMID:26704655

  2. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  3. Cardiac Output Assessed by Invasive and Minimally Invasive Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allison J.; Cohn, Jennifer Hochman; Ranasinghe, J. Sudharma

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) measurement has long been considered essential to the assessment and guidance of therapeutic decisions in critically ill patients and for patients undergoing certain high-risk surgeries. Despite controversies, complications and inherent errors in measurement, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) continuous and intermittent bolus techniques of CO measurement continue to be the gold standard. Newer techniques provide less invasive alternatives; however, currently available monitors are unable to provide central circulation pressures or true mixed venous saturations. Esophageal Doppler and pulse contour monitors can predict fluid responsiveness and have been shown to decrease postoperative morbidity. Many minimally invasive techniques continue to suffer from decreased accuracy and reliability under periods of hemodynamic instability, and so few have reached the level of interchangeability with the PAC. PMID:21776254

  4. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  5. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  6. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their......

  7. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  8. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  9. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  10. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  11. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  12. Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted versus Minimally Invasive Nonendoscopic Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fk, Zden?k; Astl, Jaromr; Zbrodsk, Michal; Luke, Petr; Merunka, Ilja; Chovanec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET) represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient's comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques. PMID:24800227

  13. Renal responses produced by microinjection of the kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50-488H, into sites within the rat lamina terminalis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cynthia; Fortepiani, Lourdes; Nguyen, Tin; Rangel, Yolanda; Strong, Randy; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2015-03-01

    Activation of central kappa opioid receptors (KOR) has been demonstrated to produce marked free water diuresis with a concurrent increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This study investigated the cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects evoked by central activation of KOR in two lamina terminalis sites, the median preoptic area (MPA) and anterolateral division of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST). Rats anesthetized with urethane alpha-chloralose were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, heart rate, RSNA, and urine output (V). Rats were infused with isotonic saline (25?L/min) and urine samples were collected during two 10-min control periods and six consecutive 10-min experimental periods following microinjection of vehicle, U50-448H (U50, KOR agonist) alone or norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, KOR antagonist) plus U50. Microinjection of U50 into the BST increased V (peak at 30min, 84.812.9?L/min) as compared to its respective control, vehicle, or nor-BNI plus U50. This diuretic effect occurred without any significant changes in CV parameters, RSNA, or urinary sodium excretion. In contrast, U50 injection into the MPA significantly increased RSNA (peak at 20mins: 1299.9) without increasing the other parameters. This study demonstrated novel sites through which activation of KOR selectively increases V and RSNA. The ability of U50 to increase V without affecting sodium excretion and RSNA raises the possibility that LT neurons could be an important substrate through which drugs targeting KOR could selectively facilitate water excretion in sodium-retaining diseases such as congestive heart failure. PMID:26038693

  14. Annual-Resolution Precipitation Record of Lake Suigetsu Based on Lamina Thickness and Its Chemical Composition during the Last 350 Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Tada, R.; Irino, T.; Yamada, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Suigetsu sediment has distinct lamination since ca. 1664 A.D. when Urami trench was cut to lower the lake level that increased because of the closure of the outlet due to the 1660 A.D. earthquake. Approximately 3 m deep Urami Trench allowed intrusion of brackish water that caused density stratification within the lake and development euxinic bottom water. This distinct parallel lamination is considered as varves, but previous "varve"counting fails to prove its annual origin. In this study, we sampled top several tens of centimeter of the Lake Suigetsu sediment using Limnos Sediment Sampler. A high-resolution age-depth model based on radioisotopes 137Cs and 210Pb profiles and 14C dating are compared with the age-depth model based on varve counting. The two curves agreed within the error that is less than 10 years at the bottom. Thus, the lamination is proved to be varves. This age model allows us to examine annual-resolution record of river discharge, eolian dust flux, and seismic events. Lamination is generally from 1 to 2 mm thick, dark gray in color and rich in diatom. In addition, there are a few thicker (>2mm) lamina characterized with sharp and slightly erosional at the bottom and gradational at the top. Based on these characteristics, we call them "Event layers". Light gray Event layers are common in the Suigetsu sediments, and interpreted as representing flood events although supporting evidence is insufficient. We correlated them to contemporary observational precipitation record. These light gray Event layers are well correlated to the historical record of the flood disasters in Lake Suigetsu within +/_ 3 years during the past 70 years. Assuming these light gray event layers represents flood events, we fine-tuned the age-depth model and examined the correlation between precipitation record and flux of detrital materials estimated from the sedimentary record. The result will be presented and implication will be discussed.

  15. COOH-Terminal Collagen Q (COLQ) Mutants Causing Human Deficiency of Endplate Acetylcholinesterase Impair the Interaction of ColQ with Proteins of the Basal Lamina

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Gochez, Danielle A.; Lee, Diana C.; Logia, Stephanie P.; Nguyen, Joanna; Maselli, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel mutations at the COOH-terminus of ColQ in seven patients from five families affected with endplate (EP) AChE deficiency. We found that the mutations do not affect the assembly of ColQ with AChE to form asymmetric forms of AChE or impair the interaction of ColQ with perlecan. By contrast, all mutations impair in varied degree the interaction of ColQ to MuSK as well as basement membrane extract (BME) that have no detectable MuSK. Our data confirm that the interaction of ColQ to perlecan and MuSK is crucial for anchoring AChE to the NMJ. In addition, the identified COOH-terminal mutants not only reduce the interaction of ColQ with MuSK, but also diminish the interaction of ColQ with BME. These findings suggest that the impaired attachment of COOH-terminal mutants causing EP AChE deficiency is in part independent of MuSK, and that the COOH-terminus of ColQ may interact with other proteins at the BL. PMID:24281389

  16. Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla depends on spatial position within the leaf lamina

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Tatiana; Ebner, Martin; Traiser, Christopher; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large distance between peripheral leaf regions and the petiole in large leaves is expected to cause stronger negative water potentials at the leaf apex and marginal zones compared with more central or basal leaf regions. Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves. Methods The diurnal course of stomatal conductance, gs, was monitored at defined lamina zones during two consecutive vegetation periods in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla that has large leaves. Local climate and stem water potential were also monitored to include parameters involved in stomatal response. Additionally, leaf zonal vein densities were measured to assess possible trends in local hydraulic supply. Key Results It was found that the diurnal pattern of gs depends on the position within a leaf in A. macrophylla. The highest values during the early morning were shown by the apical region, with subsequent decline later in the morning and a further gradual decline towards the evening. The diurnal pattern of gs at the marginal regions was similar to that of the leaf tip but showed a time lag of about 1 h. At the leaf base, the diurnal pattern of gs was similar to that of the margins but with lower maximum gs. At the the leaf centre regions, gs tended to show quite constant moderate values during most of the day. Densities of minor veins were lower at the margin and tip compared with the centre and base. Conclusions Gas exchange regulation appears to be zone specific in A. macrophylla leaves. It is suggested that the spatialdiurnal pattern of gs expressed by A. macrophylla leaves represents a strategy to prevent leaf zonal water stress and subsequent vein embolism. PMID:23606681

  17. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  18. Role of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis for the chronic cardiovascular effects produced by endogenous and exogenous ANG II in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre A; Nahey, David B; Collister, John P

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous circulating ANG II acts at one of the central circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO), to modulate chronic blood pressure regulation. However, at the forebrain, another important CVO is the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the OVLT mediates the hypertension or the hypotension produced by chronic infusion of ANG II or losartan (AT1 antagonist), respectively. Six days after sham or OVLT electrolytic lesion, male Sprague-Dawley rats (280-320 g, n = 6 per group) were instrumented with intravenous catheters and radiotelemetric blood pressure transducers. Following another week of recovery, rats were given 3 days of saline control infusion (7 ml/day) and were then infused with ANG II (10 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or losartan (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 days, followed by 3 recovery days. Twenty-four hour average measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were made during this protocol. Hydromineral balance (HB) responses were measured during the experimental protocol. By day 9 of ANG II treatment, MAP had increased 16 ± 4 mmHg in sham rats but only 4 ± 1 mmHg in OVLT lesioned rats without changes in HR or HB. However, the hypotension produced by 10 days of losartan infusion was not modified in OVLT lesioned rats. These results suggest that the OVLT might play an important role during elevation of plasma ANG II, facilitating increases of blood pressure but is not involved with baseline effects of endogenous ANG II. PMID:20861280

  19. Renal responses produced by microinjection of the kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50-488H, into sites within the rat lamina terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cynthia; Fortepiani, Lourdes; Nguyen, Tin; Rangel, Yolanda; Strong, Randy; Gottlieb, Helmut B

    2015-01-01

    Activation of central kappa opioid receptors (KOR) has been demonstrated to produce marked free water diuresis with a concurrent increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This study investigated the cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects evoked by central activation of KOR in two lamina terminalis sites, the median preoptic area (MPA) and anterolateral division of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST). Rats anesthetized with urethane alpha-chloralose were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, heart rate, RSNA, and urine output (V). Rats were infused with isotonic saline (25 μL/min) and urine samples were collected during two 10-min control periods and six consecutive 10-min experimental periods following microinjection of vehicle, U50-448H (U50, KOR agonist) alone or norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, KOR antagonist) plus U50. Microinjection of U50 into the BST increased V (peak at 30 min, 84.8 ± 12.9 μL/min) as compared to its respective control, vehicle, or nor-BNI plus U50. This diuretic effect occurred without any significant changes in CV parameters, RSNA, or urinary sodium excretion. In contrast, U50 injection into the MPA significantly increased RSNA (peak at 20 mins: 129 ± 9.9) without increasing the other parameters. This study demonstrated novel sites through which activation of KOR selectively increases V and RSNA. The ability of U50 to increase V without affecting sodium excretion and RSNA raises the possibility that LT neurons could be an important substrate through which drugs targeting KOR could selectively facilitate water excretion in sodium-retaining diseases such as congestive heart failure. PMID:26038693

  20. Invasive cervical resorption following trauma.

    PubMed

    Heithersay, G S

    1999-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is an insidious and often aggressively destructive form of external root resorption which may occur as a late complication following dental trauma particularly where it involves damage to cementum and supporting tissues. While this resorption may be evident clinically as a pink coronal discolouration, later with cavitation of the enamel, often there are no obvious external signs and the condition is only detected radiographically. It is characterised by the invasion of the cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue which progressively resorbs dentine, enamel and cementum. The dental pulp remains protected by an intact layer of dentine and predentine until late in the process. Ectopic calcifications can be observed in advanced lesions both within the invading fibrous tissue and deposited directly onto the resorbed dentine surface. The aetiology of invasive cervical resorption is unknown but trauma has been documented as a potential predisposing factor. A recent study by the author of 222 patients with a total of 257 teeth which displayed varying degrees of invasive cervical resorption showed that trauma alone was a potential predisposing sole factor in 14% of patients and 15.1% of teeth. Trauma in combination with bleaching, orthodontics or delayed eruption was found in an additional 11.2% of patients or 10.6% of teeth and of these a combination of trauma and bleaching occurred in a relatively high proportion of 7.7% of patients or 7.4% of teeth. This study also revealed that of other potential predisposing factors orthodontics was the most common sole factor constituting 21.2% of patients and 24.1% of teeth examined. Successful treatment of invasive cervical resorption is dependent on the extent of the resorptive process. Teeth with invasive cervical resorption have been divided into four classes. Whilst several treatment modalities are possible, a clinical evaluation of the treatment of this condition by the topical application of a 90% aqueous solution of trichloracetic acid, curettage, endodontic therapy where necessary and restoration with a glass ionomer cement has been evaluated on 94 patients with a total of 101 teeth with a minimum follow-up period of three years. Results indicate a satisfactory treatment outcome can be anticipated in Class 1, 2 and 3 cases. In Class 4 resorption no treatment or alternative therapy is recommended. Diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of development is highly desirable and therefore the patients who have a potential for the development of this condition by virtue of a history such as trauma should be monitored radiographically at intervals throughout life. PMID:11411085

  1. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts...

  2. Mllerianosis and endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder: report of two cases with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koki; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Kagotani, Akiko; Kawauchi, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare benign condition, characterized by the presence of a mixture of at least two mllerian-derived components, and endosalpingiosis is also an extremely rare condition, characterized by the presence of tubal-type epithelium. In this report, we describe the 17(th) case of mllerianosis and 5(th) case of endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder. A 39-year-old Japanese female presented with menstrual hematuria and was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. Histopathological study demonstrated variably-sized dilated tubular glands in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. These dilated glands were covered by ciliated cuboidal cells, and some of them were covered by columnar cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Moreover, a tiny focus of endometrial tissues was also present. Immunohistochemically, these glandular cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of mllerianosis was made. The second case was a 37-year-old Japanese female, who was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the bladder. Dilated tubular glands were covered by ciliated cells in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. Neither endocervical nor endometrial tissues were observed. Immunohistochemically, these ciliated cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of endosalpingiosis was made. Our analysis revealed that these two conditions mainly affect premenopausal females and occur exclusively in the posterior wall. Although the pathogenesis remains completely unresolved, a metaplastic theory is favored. The recognition of these two conditions is important because they can mimic invasive adenocarcinoma. PMID:25120826

  3. Mllerianosis and endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder: report of two cases with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Kagotani, Akiko; Kawauchi, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare benign condition, characterized by the presence of a mixture of at least two mllerian-derived components, and endosalpingiosis is also an extremely rare condition, characterized by the presence of tubal-type epithelium. In this report, we describe the 17th case of mllerianosis and 5th case of endosalpingiosis of the urinary bladder. A 39-year-old Japanese female presented with menstrual hematuria and was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. Histopathological study demonstrated variably-sized dilated tubular glands in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. These dilated glands were covered by ciliated cuboidal cells, and some of them were covered by columnar cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Moreover, a tiny focus of endometrial tissues was also present. Immunohistochemically, these glandular cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of mllerianosis was made. The second case was a 37-year-old Japanese female, who was found to have a polypoid lesion in the posterior wall of the bladder. Dilated tubular glands were covered by ciliated cells in the lamina propria and muscularis propria. Neither endocervical nor endometrial tissues were observed. Immunohistochemically, these ciliated cells were positive for estrogen receptor. Accordingly, a diagnosis of endosalpingiosis was made. Our analysis revealed that these two conditions mainly affect premenopausal females and occur exclusively in the posterior wall. Although the pathogenesis remains completely unresolved, a metaplastic theory is favored. The recognition of these two conditions is important because they can mimic invasive adenocarcinoma. PMID:25120826

  4. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible. PMID:25568799

  5. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J M

    1990-01-01

    Severe infections due to Candida species have become more frequent during the past two decades because of the increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients being treated in our hospitals. Distinguishing colonization from invasive disease requires knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to invasion. To assist the clinician in therapeutic decisions, clinical microbiologists should identify to species Candida organisms isolated from immunosuppressed patients. Quantitative or semiquantitative cultures of urine, burn tissues, intravascular catheter tips, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens may provide useful information. Immunofluorescent staining of certain specimens can enhance diagnostic yield. The lysis-centrifugation blood culture technique offers some advantages over traditional broth techniques in detecting Candida fungemia. Antibody testing is of limited diagnostic value in highly immunosuppressed patients. Developing simple and reliable tests for detecting antigens or metabolites of Candida spp. in the sera of infected patients has proven difficult. Methods for typing Candida albicans are evolving. Typing should prove useful for studying the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients. Images PMID:2404567

  7. Invasive Salmonellosis in Kilifi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muthumbi, Esther; Morpeth, Susan C.; Ooko, Michael; Mwanzu, Alfred; Mwarumba, Salim; Mturi, Neema; Etyang, Anthony O.; Berkley, James A.; Williams, Thomas N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Invasive salmonelloses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, but the incidence and case fatality of each disease vary markedly by region. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of invasive salmonelloses among children and adults in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods. We analyzed integrated clinical and laboratory records for patients presenting to the Kilifi County Hospital between 1998 and 2014. We calculated incidence, and summarized clinical features and multidrug resistance. Results. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) accounted for 10.8% and 5.8% of bacteremia cases in children and adults, respectively, while Salmonella Typhi accounted for 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Among 351 NTS isolates serotyped, 160 (45.6%) were Salmonella Enteritidis and 152 (43.3%) were Salmonella Typhimurium. The incidence of NTS in children aged <5 years was 36.6 per 100 000 person-years, being highest in infants aged <7 days (174/100 000 person-years). The overall incidence of NTS in children varied markedly by location and declined significantly during the study period; the pattern of dominance of the NTS serotypes also shifted from Salmonella Enteritidis to Salmonella Typhimurium. Risk factors for invasive NTS disease were human immunodeficiency virus infection, malaria, and malnutrition; the case fatality ratio was 22.1% (71/321) in children aged <5 years and 36.7% (11/30) in adults. Multidrug resistance was present in 23.9% (84/351) of NTS isolates and 46.2% (12/26) of Salmonella Typhi isolates. Conclusions. In Kilifi, the incidence of invasive NTS was high, especially among newborn infants, but typhoid fever was uncommon. NTS remains an important cause of bacteremia in children <5 years of age. PMID:26449944

  8. Cardiotoxicity during invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Armand O; Millett, Elizabeth R C; Quint, Jennifer K; Orihuela, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, with adult hospitalization linked to approximately 19% incidence of an adverse cardiac event (e.g., heart failure, arrhythmia, infarction). Herein, we review the specific host-pathogen interactions that contribute to cardiac dysfunction during invasive pneumococcal disease: (1) cell wall-mediated inhibition of cardiomyocyte contractility; (2) the new observation that S. pneumoniae is capable of translocation into the myocardium and within the heart, forming discrete, nonpurulent, microscopic lesions that are filled with pneumococci; and (3) the bacterial virulence determinants, pneumolysin and hydrogen peroxide, that are most likely responsible for cardiomyocyte cell death. Pneumococcal invasion of heart tissue is dependent on the bacterial adhesin choline-binding protein A that binds to laminin receptor on vascular endothelial cells and binding of phosphorylcholine residues on pneumococcal cell wall to platelet-activating factor receptor. These are the same interactions responsible for pneumococcal translocation across the blood-brain barrier during the development of meningitis. We discuss these interactions and how their neutralization, either with antibody or therapeutic agents that modulate platelet-activating factor receptor expression, may confer protection against cardiac damage and meningitis. Considerable collagen deposition was observed in hearts of mice that had recovered from invasive pneumococcal disease. We discuss the possibility that cardiac scar formation after severe pneumococcal infection may explain why individuals who are hospitalized for pneumonia are at greater risk for sudden death up to 1 year after infection. PMID:25629643

  9. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776

  10. Invasive pneumococcal infection in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, C H; Chiu, N C; Huang, F Y

    2001-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can involve multiple organs and cause high mortality and morbidity. In this retrospective study, we reviewed patients with invasive pneumococcal infection in the pediatric department of a teaching hospital in Taipei. From 1984 to 1998, 81 children with invasive pneumococcal infection were hospitalized. Twenty-eight patients had meningitis, 27 had pneumonia with pleural effusion, 60 had sepsis, and 4 had arthritis. Thirty-eight patients had more than one site of infection. Most of our patients (81.7%) were below 5 years of age. Pneumococcal infections were more common from October to March. Eight patients had a history of trauma that correlated with the site of infection. Thirteen patients (16.0%) expired and 20 (24.7%) had severe sequelae. Multi-regression analysis found that meningitis and complications were independent variables that affected the outcome. The percentage of penicillin-resistant strains increased beginning in 1990 and accounted for about four-fifths of the infections in the final 2 years of the study. Since invasive pneumococcal infections in children may have a poor prognosis and penicillin-resistant strains have become increasingly common, early and adequate antibiotic therapy should be given as soon as possible. PMID:11485072

  11. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, C.; Thuiller, W.; Leroy, B.; Genovesi, P.; Bakkenes, M.; Courchamp, F.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the “100 of the world’s worst invasive species” defined by the IUCN, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  12. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    PubMed

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. PMID:23913552

  13. Advances and refinements in phonosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ford, C N

    1999-12-01

    Scientific discovery, technological advances, and improved outcomes assessment have resulted in advances and refinements in phonosurgery. Three areas of substantial evolution are phonomicrosurgery, laryngeal framework surgery, and the use of implantable materials in vocal folds. Discovery of the importance of the superficial layers of the lamina propria has led to increased use of more limited medial microflap approaches and less frequent use of the classic lateral cordotomy flap approach. Alternative approaches to managing vocal fold scarring defects have addressed the separation of body and cover and provided suitable lamina propria replacement. Approaches to sulcus vocalis have been refined to address type II (linear vergeture) and type III (focal invasive pit) sulcus, where there is loss of lamina propria, while still recognizing the common nonpathological type I (physiological) sulcus. Technological advancements such as photodynamic therapy, tuned dye lasers, and laryngeal microdebridement have augmented the armamentarium for mechanical removal of laryngeal papillomata. Careful infusion-assisted microexcision and adjunctive medical management have been refined and made more effective. Laryngeal framework surgery has embraced the development of Silastic, hydroxylapatite, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, and titanium shims. Anatomical studies have helped to improve operative precision and safety, and have led to inventive variations in arytenoid repositioning that improve closure of the posterior subunit. Vocal fold augmentation by injection has been facilitated by innovative use of the rigid telescope and intraoperative videostroboscopy. Anatomical studies have focused on the infrafold region and rheological studies have attempted to match viscoelastic properties of injectable substances to those of vocal fold tissues. Alloplastic materials such as Teflon have been largely supplanted by newer bioimplantables such as fat, collagen, and fascia. PMID:10591344

  14. Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V; Mus, Liselot M; Parmar, Virinder S; De Wever, Olivier; Mareel, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the chick heart assay is to offer a relevant organ culture method to study tumor invasion in three dimensions. The assay can distinguish between invasive and non-invasive cells, and enables study of the effects of test compounds on tumor invasion. Cancer cells - either as aggregates or single cells - are confronted with fragments of embryonic chick heart. After organ culture in suspension for a few days or weeks the confronting cultures are fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The three-dimensional interaction between the cancer cells and the normal tissue is then reconstructed from serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin or after immunohistochemical staining for epitopes in the heart tissue or the confronting cancer cells. The assay is consistent with the recent concept that cancer invasion is the result of molecular interactions between the cancer cells and their neighbouring stromal host elements (myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix components, etc.). Here, this stromal environment is offered to the cancer cells as a living tissue fragment. Supporting aspects to the relevance of the assay are multiple. Invasion in the assay is in accordance with the criteria of cancer invasion: progressive occupation and replacement in time and space of the host tissue, and invasiveness and non-invasiveness in vivo of the confronting cells generally correlates with the outcome of the assay. Furthermore, the invasion pattern of cells in vivo, as defined by pathologists, is reflected in the histological images in the assay. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) analysis of the results obtained with numerous potentially anti-invasive organic congener compounds allowed the study of structure-activity relations for flavonoids and chalcones, and known anti-metastatic drugs used in the clinic (e.g., microtubule inhibitors) inhibit invasion in the assay as well. However, the assay does not take into account immunological contributions to cancer invasion. PMID:26131648

  15. Heparan Sulfate Degradation: Relation to Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Properties of Mouse B16 Melanoma Sublines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro; di Ferrante, Daniela; di Ferrante, Nicola; Nicolson, Garth L.

    1983-05-01

    After transport in the blood and implantation in the microcirculation, metastatic tumor cells must invade the vascular endothelium and underlying basal lamina. Mouse B16 melanoma sublines were used to determine the relation between metastatic properties and the ability of the sublines to degrade enzymatically the sulfated glycosaminoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of cultured vascular endothelial cells. Highly invasive and metastatic B16 sublines degraded matrix glycosaminoglycans faster than did sublines of lower metastatic potential. The main products of this matrix degradation were heparan sulfate fragments. Intact B16 cells (or their cell-free homogenates) with a high potential for lung colonization degraded purified heparan sulfate from bovine lung at higher rates than did B16 cells with a poor potential for lung colonization. Analysis of the degradation fragments indicated that B16 cells have a heparan sulfate endoglycosidase. Thus the abilities of B16 melanoma cells to extravasate and successfully colonize the lung may be related to their capacities to degrade heparan sulfate in the walls of pulmonary blood vessels.

  16. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. PMID:25469955

  17. Secretome signature of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Formolo, Catherine A; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J; Lee, Norman H; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-07-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%. PMID:21574646

  18. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)—0.18 × age (years)—1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP–CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups. Results In the normal population (n = 12,069), the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg) was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15), but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636). Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16). Conclusions TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients. PMID:26840184

  19. Intra-carotid hyperosmotic stimulation increases Fos staining in forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis neurones that project to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Martinez, Michelle A; Calderon, Alfredo S; Chen, Qinghui; Cunningham, J Thomas; Toney, Glenn M

    2008-01-01

    Body fluid hyperosmolality has long been known to elicit homeostatic responses that range from drinking to inhibition of salt appetite to release of neurohypohyseal hormones (i.e. vasopressin and oxytocin). More recently, it has been recognized that hyperosmolality is capable of also provoking a significant increase of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). It has been reported that neurones in the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) each contribute significantly to this response. Here we sought to determine if sympathoexcitatory levels of hyperosmolality activate specifically those OVLT neurones that form a monosynaptic pathway to the PVN. First, we established in anaesthetized rats that graded concentrations of hypertonic NaCl (1.5 and 3.0 osmol kg−1) elicit graded increases of renal SNA (RSNA) when infused at a rate of 0.1 ml min−1 through an internal carotid artery (ICA) – the major vascular supply of the forebrain. Next, infusions were performed in conscious rats in which OVLT neurones projecting to the PVN (OVLT-PVN) were retrogradely labelled with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Immunostaining of the immediate early gene product Fos and CTB was performed to quantify osmotic activation of OVLT-PVN neurones. ICA infusions of hypertonic NaCl and mannitol each significantly (P < 0.01–0.001) increased the number of Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neuronal nuclei in the dorsal cap (DC) and lateral margins (LM) of OVLT. In the LM, infusions of 1.5 and 3.0 osmol kg−1 NaCl produced similar increases in the number of Fos-ir neurones. In the DC, these infusions produced graded increases in Fos expression. Among OVLT neurones with axons projecting directly to the PVN (i.e. CTB-ir), graded hypertonic NaCl infusions again produced graded increases in Fos expression and this was observed in both the DC and LM. Although the DC and LM contained a similar number of OVLT-PVN neurones, the proportion of such neurones that expressed Fos-ir in responses to ICA hypertonic NaCl infusions was greater in the DC (P < 0.001). These findings support the conclusion that PVN-projecting neurones in the DC and LM of OVLT could participate in behavioural, neuroendocrine, and sympathetic nervous system responses to body fluid hyperosmolality. PMID:18755745

  20. Serine Protease-mediated Host Invasion by the Parasitic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae*

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Veríssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V.; Simões, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 × 104 s−1 m−1 against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  1. Serine protease-mediated host invasion by the parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Verssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V; Simes, Nelson

    2010-10-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 10(4) s(-1) m(-1) against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  2. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis". PMID:23843974

  3. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these features enable a degree of decentralization and distributed ownership that have helped other types of scientific information services succeed in recent years.

  4. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) provides research and technical assistance relating to invasive species management concerns, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, FORT scientists are developing the Invasive Species Information Node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a comprehensive, Web-accessible database of invasive plant and animal species and disease agents. From these data, and in partnership with Colorado State University, the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), and others, FORT scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species behavior for more effective management. FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  5. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hohler, Sharon E

    2004-06-01

    Total hip arthroplasty procedures relieve patients' arthritic hip pain. Since the first procedure was performed in the 1960s, surgeons and implant companies have worked to improve prosthesis design, composition of implants, and the mechanisms for holding the implants in place. Recently, surgeons have focused on minimizing the surgical incision. Smaller incisions have resulted in smaller scars and faster recoveries. This article presents a brief historical overview of, as well as current trends in, minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty. All aspects of care for a patient undergoing total hip arthroplasty are discussed. PMID:15239326

  6. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

  7. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment. PMID:10171342

  8. [UPDATE ON MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is an attractive choice for patients undergoing major cardiac procedures. This paper focuses on minimally invasive mitral valve repair and robotic surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair is usually performed through a right minithoracotomy with direct vision. The techniques used in this procedure are similar to those in open surgery. The outcome of minimally invasive mitral valve repair is also equivalent to that of open surgery, with high levels of patient satisfaction. On the other hand, minimally invasive cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System has not been approved in Japan except for internal mammary artery harvesting. A Japanese clinical trial of da Vinci surgery for mitral valve repair and atrial septal defect closure has been completed and approval is awaited. Although da Vinci surgery is technically demanding, this less-invasive technique may provide another choice for patients in the near future. PMID:26630738

  9. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  10. Biological Invasions: A Challenge In Ecological Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Smith, J. A.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Graves, S.; Trees, C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spread of invasive species is one of the most daunting environmental, economic, and human-health problems facing the United States and the World today. It is one of several grand challenge environmental problems being considered by NASA's Earth Science Vision for 2025. The invasive species problem is complex and presents many challenges. Developing an invasive species predictive capability could significantly advance the science and technology of ecological forecasting.

  11. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Steven I.; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success. PMID:24989502

  12. Biology of invasive termites: a worldwide review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Forschler, Brian T; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The number of recognized invasive termite species has increased from 17 in 1969 to 28 today. Fourteen species have been added to the list in the past 44 years; 10 have larger distributions and 4 have no reported change in distribution, and 3 species are no longer considered invasive. Although most research has focused on invasive termites in urban areas, molecular identification methods have answered questions about certain species and found that at least six species have invaded natural forest habitats. All invasive species share three characteristics that together increase the probability of creating viable propagules: they eat wood, nest in food, and easily generate secondary reproductives. These characteristics are most common in two families, the Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae (which make up 21 species on the invasive termite list), particularly in three genera, Cryptotermes, Heterotermes, and Coptotermes (which together make up 16 species). Although it is the largest termite family, the Termitidae (comprising 70% of all termite species) have only two invasive species, because relatively few species have these characteristics. Islands have double the number of invasive species that continents do, with islands in the South Pacific the most invaded geographical region. Most invasive species originate from Southeast Asia. The standard control methods normally used against native pest termites are also employed against invasive termites; only two eradication attempts, in South Africa and New Zealand, appear to have been successful, both against Coptotermes species. PMID:23020620

  13. Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

  14. National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species communitya?|

  15. Establishment risks for invasive species.

    PubMed

    Bartell, Steven M; Nair, Shyam K

    2004-08-01

    This article presents a quantitative methodology for evaluating the probability of invasive pest species establishing persistent populations. The estimation of pest establishment relies on data and information describing the biology and ecology of the pest and its interactions with potential host species and the regional environment. This information is developed using a model construct borrowed from theoretical population ecology. The methodology for estimating the probability of pest establishment is part of an overall framework that explores the implications of reductions in pest invasions on subsequent establishment. The risk reduction framework integrates the engineering aspects of different technologies for reducing pest entry, the biology and ecology of pest species, the suitability of potentially susceptible hosts, and the quality of available habitats. The methodology for estimating the risk of establishment is presented using an example pest, the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), which has been introduced into the United States via solid wood packing materials (SWPM) used in international commerce. Uncertainties inherent to the estimation of model parameters that determine the risk of establishment are defined, quantified, and propagated through the population model. Advantages and limitations of the proposed methodology are discussed along with recommendations to make the approach more useful in the management of risks posed by the establishment of pest populations. PMID:15357803

  16. Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

    2005-12-22

    We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level and herbivory was weak. We suggest that invasive plants may possess novel phytochemicals with anti-herbivore properties in addition to allelopathic and anti-microbial characteristics. Herbivory could be employed as an easily measured predictor of the likelihood that recently introduced exotic plants may become invasive. PMID:17148226

  17. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgr, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  18. Inflammation reduces the contribution of N-type calcium channels to primary afferent synaptic transmission onto NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons in the rat dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Rycroft, Beth K; Vikman, Kristina S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2007-01-01

    N-type calcium channels contribute to the release of glutamate from primary afferent terminals synapsing onto nocisponsive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but little is known of functional adaptations to these channels in persistent pain states. Subtype-selective conotoxins and other drugs were used to determine the role of different calcium channel types in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Electrically evoked primary afferent synapses onto lumber dorsal horn neurons were examined three days after induction of inflammation with intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant. The maximal inhibitory effect of the N-type calcium channel blockers, ?-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA, were attenuated in NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons after inflammation, but the potency of CVID was unchanged. This was associated with reduced inhibition of the frequency of asynchronous-evoked synaptic events by CVID studied in the presence of extracellular strontium, suggesting reduced N-type channel contribution to primary afferent synapses after inflammation. After application of CVID, the relative contributions of P/Q and L channels to primary afferent transmission and the residual current were unchanged by inflammation, suggesting the adaptation was specific to N-type channels. Blocking T-type channels did not affect synaptic amplitude under control or inflamed conditions. Reduction of N-type channel contribution to primary afferent transmission was selective for NK1 receptor-positive neurons identified by post hoc immunohistochemistry and did not occur at synapses in laminae IIo or IIi, or inhibitory synapses. These results suggest that inflammation selectively downregulates N-type channels in the terminals of primary afferents synapsing onto (presumed) nociceptive lamina I NK1 receptor-positive neurons. PMID:17303639

  19. Inflammation reduces the contribution of N-type calcium channels to primary afferent synaptic transmission onto NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, Beth K; Vikman, Kristina S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2007-05-01

    N-type calcium channels contribute to the release of glutamate from primary afferent terminals synapsing onto nocisponsive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but little is known of functional adaptations to these channels in persistent pain states. Subtype-selective conotoxins and other drugs were used to determine the role of different calcium channel types in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Electrically evoked primary afferent synapses onto lumber dorsal horn neurons were examined three days after induction of inflammation with intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant. The maximal inhibitory effect of the N-type calcium channel blockers, omega-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA, were attenuated in NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons after inflammation, but the potency of CVID was unchanged. This was associated with reduced inhibition of the frequency of asynchronous-evoked synaptic events by CVID studied in the presence of extracellular strontium, suggesting reduced N-type channel contribution to primary afferent synapses after inflammation. After application of CVID, the relative contributions of P/Q and L channels to primary afferent transmission and the residual current were unchanged by inflammation, suggesting the adaptation was specific to N-type channels. Blocking T-type channels did not affect synaptic amplitude under control or inflamed conditions. Reduction of N-type channel contribution to primary afferent transmission was selective for NK1 receptor-positive neurons identified by post hoc immunohistochemistry and did not occur at synapses in laminae II(o) or II(i), or inhibitory synapses. These results suggest that inflammation selectively downregulates N-type channels in the terminals of primary afferents synapsing onto (presumed) nociceptive lamina I NK1 receptor-positive neurons. PMID:17303639

  20. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Robert P.; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C.; Boyle, Kieran A.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to “unclassified” cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate promote morphogenesis and block invasion of prostate cancer cells in three-dimensional organotypic models

    PubMed Central

    Hrm, V; Knuuttila, M; Virtanen, J; Mirtti, T; Kohonen, P; Kovanen, P; Happonen, A; Kaewphan, S; Ahonen, I; Kallioniemi, O; Grafstrm, R; Ltjnen, J; Nees, M

    2012-01-01

    Normal prostate and some malignant prostate cancer (PrCa) cell lines undergo acinar differentiation and form spheroids in three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. Acini formed by PC-3 and PC-3M, less pronounced also in other PrCa cell lines, spontaneously undergo an invasive switch, leading to the disintegration of epithelial structures and the basal lamina, and formation of invadopodia. This demonstrates the highly dynamic nature of epithelial plasticity, balancing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition against metastable acinar differentiation. This study assessed the role of lipid metabolites on epithelial maturation. PC-3 cells completely failed to form acinar structures in delipidated serum. Adding back lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) rescued acinar morphogenesis and repressed invasion effectively. Blocking LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) functions by siRNA (small interference RNA) or the specific LPAR1 inhibitor Ki16425 promoted invasion, while silencing of other G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to LPA or S1P mainly caused growth arrest or had no effects. The G-proteins G?12/13 and G?i were identified as key mediators of LPA signalling via stimulation of RhoA and Rho kinases ROCK1 and 2, activating Rac1, while inhibition of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of cAMP may be secondary. Interfering with these pathways specifically impeded epithelial polarization in transformed cells. In contrast, blocking the same pathways in non-transformed, normal cells promoted differentiation. We conclude that LPA and LPAR1 effectively promote epithelial maturation and block invasion of PrCa cells in 3-D culture. The analysis of clinical transcriptome data confirmed reduced expression of LPAR1 in a subset of PrCa's. Our study demonstrates a metastasis-suppressor function for LPAR1 and G?12/13 signalling, regulating cell motility and invasion versus epithelial maturation. PMID:21996742

  2. Coevolution between Native and Invasive Plant Competitors: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely...

  3. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  4. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. PMID:26249172

  5. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  6. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  7. Minimally invasive surgery for diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Turley, R S; Mantyh, C R; Migaly, J

    2013-02-01

    The realm of minimally invasive surgery now encompasses the majority of abdominal operations in the field of colorectal surgery. Diverticulitis, a common pathology seen in most colorectal practices, poses unique challenges to surgeons implementing laparoscopic surgery in their practices due to the presence of an inflammatory phlegmon and distorted anatomical planes, which increase the difficulty of the operation. Although the majority of colon resections for diverticulitis are still performed through a standard laparotomy incision, laparoscopic techniques are becoming increasingly common. A large body of literature now supports laparoscopic surgery to be safe and effective as well as to provide significant advantages over open surgery for diverticular disease. Here, we review the most current literature supporting laparoscopic surgery for elective and emergent treatment of diverticulitis. PMID:23250639

  8. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  9. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Trent J; Lubowitz, James H

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  10. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  11. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

  13. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... an aggressive invasive plant management program, the number, density, and distribution of invasive... invasive species laws and policies requires aggressive invasive plant management. This analysis...

  14. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  15. Influence of Tamarisk Invasion on Bird Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the effects of exotic species invasion on native plant and animal communities is of great value for land and wildlife managers. With limited resources always a concern, defining the greatest threat of an invasion is important. In desert environments of the Great Basin, riparian wood...

  16. Plant Invasions in China Challenges and Chances

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause serious environmental and economic harm and threaten global biodiversity. We set out to investigate how quickly invasive plant species are currently spreading in China and how their resulting distribution patterns are linked to socio-economic and environmental conditions. A comparison of the invasive plant species density (log species/log area) reported in 2008 with current data shows that invasive species were originally highly concentrated in the wealthy, southeastern coastal provinces of China, but they are currently rapidly spreading inland. Linear regression models based on the species density and turnover of invasive plants as dependent parameters and principal components representing key socio-economic and environmental parameters as predictors indicate strong positive links between invasive plant density and the overall phytodiversity and associated climatic parameters. Principal components representing socio-economic factors and endemic plant density also show significant positive links with invasive plant density. Urgent control and eradication measures are needed in China's coastal provinces to counteract the rapid inland spread of invasive plants. Strict controls of imports through seaports need to be accompanied by similarly strict controls of the developing horticultural trade and underpinned by awareness campaigns for China's increasingly affluent population to limit the arrival of new invaders. Furthermore, China needs to fully utilize its substantial native phytodiversity, rather than relying on exotics, in current large-scale afforestation projects and in the creation of urban green spaces. PMID:23691164

  17. Applying Ecologically-Based Invasive Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a guideline to assist land managers in making better decisions when they are faced with invasive annual grasses is critical to gaining greater adoption of ecologically-based invasive plant management. This manual guides users through the EBIPM decision process to assist in restoration of...

  18. Indirect effects of parasites in invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduced species disrupt native communities and biodiversity worldwide. Parasitic infections (and at times, their absence) are thought to be a key component in the success and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions, and positively or negatively...

  19. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  20. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    van Ingen, Jakko; Morrissey, Anne B.; Boeree, Martin J.; Mavura, Daudi R.; Swai, Britta; Thielman, Nathan M.; Bartlett, John A.; Grossman, Henning; Maro, Venance P.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Data on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. During 20062008, we identified 3 HIV-infected patients in northern Tanzania who had invasive NTM; 2 were infected with Mycobacterium sherrisii and 1 with M. avium complex sequevar MAC-D. Invasive NTM disease is present in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19116050

  1. ECOLOGICALLY BASED INVASIVE PLANT MANAGEMENT NEWSLETTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript describes the characteristics that make a plant invasive, and some of the existing theories of "invasions". It compares non-relational approaches (identifying characteristics that make something a weed) to relational approaches (drawing on relationships between a species and an ecos...

  2. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land managers long have identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework to guide the implementation of successful restoration, especially where invasive plants dominate the ecosystem. A holistic, ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosy...

  3. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an

  4. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  5. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

  6. Foam invasion through a single pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbos, Aline; Pitois, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    We investigate experimentally the behavior of liquid foams pumped at a given flow rate through a single pore, in the situation where the pore diameter is smaller than the bubble diameter. Results reveal that foam invasion can be observed only within a restricted range of values for the dimensionless flow rate and the foam liquid fraction. Within this foam invasion regime, the liquid content of invading foams is measured to be three times higher than the initial liquid content. Outside this regime, both gas alone and liquid alone invasion regimes can be observed. The gas invasion regime results from the rupture of foam films during local T1, during bubble rearrangements events induced by foam flow, whereas the liquid invasion regime is allowed by the formation of a stable cluster of jammed bubbles at the pore's opening.

  7. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity. PMID:20545732

  8. Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Mallawaaratchy, Duthika M; Buckland, Michael E; McDonald, Kerrie L; Li, Cheryl C Y; Ly, Linda; Sykes, Erin K; Christopherson, Richard I; Kaufman, Kimberley L

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E(-04)) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin α5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin α5β1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM. PMID:25853691

  9. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, Susan L.; Roller, Richard J. . E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu

    2006-04-10

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while U{sub L}34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that U{sub L}34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, U{sub S}3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a U{sub S}3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. U{sub S}3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either U{sub L}34 or U{sub S}3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both U{sub L}34 and U{sub S}3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection.

  10. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  11. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant-plant or plant-herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  12. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  13. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  14. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  15. Minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: predictors of vascular invasion and impact on patterns of care.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Paolo; Jillard, Christa; Thomas, Samantha; Scheri, Randall P; Sosa, Julie Ann; Roman, Sanziana

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have reported that minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) with vascular invasion is associated with compromised prognosis, leading to an ongoing debate regarding extent of surgery for MIFC. Our goal was to identify predictors of vascular invasion and determine its impact on patterns of care. Adult patients with MIFC were culled from the National Cancer Database, 2010-2011, and segregated according to the presence/absence of capsular or vascular invasion. Variables of interest were examined using Chi-square and student's t tests. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic regression. A total of 617 patients with MIFC were identified: 54% with capsular invasion only and 46% with vascular invasion. Demographic characteristics were similarly distributed between the two groups. Tumor size was larger in patients with vascular invasion (mean=35.7 vs. 29.2mm capsular invasion only, p<0.001); a 2% increase in risk of vascular invasion was observed with each 1mm increase in size. The rate of total thyroidectomy was similar for MIFCs with vascular invasion compared to capsular invasion only (72.9 vs. 75.1%, p=0.537). The RAI administration rate was higher in patients with vascular invasion (62.1 vs. 52.6% capsular invasion only, p=0.017). In multivariate analysis, the presence of vascular invasion was independently associated with increased likelihood of receiving RAI (OR 1.641, p=0.007). MIFC remains aggressively treated despite current guidelines favoring a more conservative approach. Building consensus around MIFC management is important for standardization of practice patterns and improvement in quality of care. PMID:26077949

  16. Effect of prolonged administration of dietary capsaicin on Salmonella enteritidis infection in leghorn chicks.

    PubMed

    Tellez, G I; Jaeger, L; Dean, C E; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Williams, J D; Hargis, B M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 14 or 19 days of dietary capsaicin (18 ppm) on Salmonella enteritidis infection and histological, morphometric, and pH changes of the ceca was investigated. At day 13 or day 18, chicks were challenged with 10(8) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis. Chicks were killed and cultured 24 hours later. The total number of S. enteritidis-organ-culture-positive chicks was significantly lower among chicks fed capsaicin for either 14 or 19 days than among controls (P < 0.05). Subjective histological examination revealed a mild to moderate infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophils in lamina propria of ceca, as well as epithelial cell proliferation in chicks following either 14 or 19 days of capsaicin administration. Using morphometric analysis, the mean lamina propria thickness and mean epithelial cell thickness in chickens fed capsaicin for 14 or 19 days were significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.05). Capsaicin significantly decreased luminal pH in both trials (P < 0.05). These data indicate that the observed capsaicin-induced resistance to S. enteritidis organ invasion is associated with measurable pH and morphological changes of the cecal mucosa. PMID:8452490

  17. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Finally, the knowledge of the mechanical properties of invasive and non-invasive cells could provide a source for future drug developments to inhibit formation of metastases. This special section also includes two papers from the group of Martin Herrmann, a research paper and a review paper. The research paper by Janko et al deals with the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserines on apoptotic cell membranes [6]. This could not alone serve as an 'eat me' signal for macrophages as healthy cells also express Annexin A5 on their cell surface. The authors suggest that the cooperative binding is altered and subsequently the fluidity of Annexin A5 on the membrane. Together this may serve as a signal for phagocytic cells to eat apoptotic cells and leave healthy ones untouched. The paper by Biermann et al reviews the role of biophysical signals in the clearance of apoptotic cells [7]. In addition to the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, the keratin network seems to play a role in cancer research. The paper from the Beil and the Marti group demonstrates that microrheology is a valuable tool to determine the viscoelastic properties of polymer networks such as the keratin network in cells and an arbitrary in vitro network [8]. They describe how the topology of the keratin network affects the overall mechanical behavior of cells. It seems that the field of physical oncology will continue to grow in the future and more research will address the mechanical properties of cancer cells and whole tissues. Biophysical methods will need to be further improved and adapted to the needs of cancer research. References [1] Coughlin M F and Fredberg J J 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065001 [2] Krause M, te Riet J and Wolf K 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065002 [3] Munn L L 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065003 [4] Bordeleau F, Tang L N and Reinhart-King C A 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065004 [5] Mierke C T 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065005 [6] Janko C, Jeremic I, Biermann M, Chaurio R, Schorn C, Muñoz L E and Herrmann M 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065006 [7] Biermann M, Maueröder C, Brauner J M, Chaurio R, Janko C, Herrmann M and Muñoz L E 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065007 [8] Paust T, Paschke S, Beil M and Marti O 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065008

  18. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA. Galactomannan, ?-D glucan test, and DNA detection in IA are available only in a few centers. Mortality of the patients with IA is very high due to delays in diagnosis and therapy. Antifungal use is largely restricted to amphotericin B deoxycholate and itraconazole, though other anti-Aspergillus antifungal agents are available in those countries. Clinicians are aware of good outcome after use of voriconazole/liposomal amphotericin B/caspofungin, but they are forced to use amphotericin B deoxycholate or itraconazole in public-sector hospitals due to economic reasons. PMID:20718613

  19. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  20. Eating the competition speeds up invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels. PMID:20961884

  1. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  2. Eating the competition speeds up invasions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J

    2011-04-23

    Many introduced species engage in intraguild predation (IGP), the consumption of species with which they compete for shared resources. While the factors influencing local persistence of IG predator and prey species are well-understood, using these factors to predict the invasion speed of an introduced IG predator has received less attention. Existing theory predicts that native competitors slow invasions via depletion of shared resources, but this fails to account for additional resources acquired when an invader consumes competitors. Here, I outline a general framework for understanding the effect of IGP on invasion speeds. I find that invaders that consume native competitors may be able to spread where invasion by pure competitors would fail, and that invasion speed increases with increasing levels of IGP. Notably, if the benefit from consuming competitors outweighs the loss of shared resources to competitors, invasion proceeds faster than invasion in the absence of competitors. This may explain empirical observations of rapid spread rates of invaders that feed at multiple trophic levels. PMID:20961884

  3. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  4. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M; Najar, Fares Z; Roe, Bruce A; Hambright, K David

    2015-09-15

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  5. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M.; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Hambright, K. David

    2015-01-01

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  6. Imaging and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has been the most important tool allowing for innovation in cardiac surgery. There are now a variety of approaches available for treating aortic valve disease, including standard sternotomy, minimally invasive surgery, and percutaneous valve replacement. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery relies on maximizing exposure within a limited field of view. The complexity of this approach is increased as the relationship between the great vessels and the bony thorax varies between individuals. Ultimately, the success of minimally invasive surgery depends on appropriate choices regarding the type and location of the incision, cannulation approach, and cardioprotection strategy. These decisions are facilitated by preoperative imaging, which forms the focus of this review. PMID:25694979

  7. Evolution Arrests Invasions of Cooperative Populations.

    PubMed

    Korolev, Kirill S

    2015-11-13

    Population expansions trigger many biomedical and ecological transitions, from tumor growth to invasions of non-native species. Although population spreading often selects for more invasive phenotypes, we show that this outcome is far from inevitable. In cooperative populations, mutations reducing dispersal have a competitive advantage. Such mutations then steadily accumulate at the expansion front, bringing invasion to a halt. Our findings are a rare example of evolution driving the population into an unfavorable state, and they could lead to new strategies to combat unwelcome invaders. PMID:26613477

  8. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion. PMID:25629807

  9. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit. PMID:16792118

  10. Evolution Arrests Invasions of Cooperative Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-11-01

    Population expansions trigger many biomedical and ecological transitions, from tumor growth to invasions of non-native species. Although population spreading often selects for more invasive phenotypes, we show that this outcome is far from inevitable. In cooperative populations, mutations reducing dispersal have a competitive advantage. Such mutations then steadily accumulate at the expansion front, bringing invasion to a halt. Our findings are a rare example of evolution driving the population into an unfavorable state, and they could lead to new strategies to combat unwelcome invaders.

  11. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  12. Minimally invasive quadriceps tendon harvest.

    PubMed

    Almazn Daz, Arturo; Cruz Lpez, Francisco; Prez Jimnez, Francisco-Xavier; Ibarra Ponce de Len, Jos-Clemente

    2006-06-01

    Quadriceps tendon (QT) is becoming a popular graft for primary and revision ligament surgery. A subcutaneous technique for graft harvesting a QT is presented. Special closed tendon strippers were designed; these devices have 10- and 11-mm inner diameters and are stronger and sharper than regular hamstrings strippers. In the mid-line of the patellar upper pole, a 2-cm longitudinal incision is made, a 20- x 10-mm bone plug is created with an oscillating saw, and the tendon stripper is positioned and advanced into the thigh, dissecting the QT until the desired length, usually 10 cm, is obtained. The graft can be released by making a stab incision at the device's tip or by ventrally pointing and turning the tendon stripper to amputate the graft's end. The QT graft can be prepared in several fashions for 1- or 2-bundle ligament reconstructions. The technique was tested and refined in 3 cadaver specimens and has been used at our institution since 2003 in 18 primary posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with no problems. This minimally invasive technique is safe, provides a consistently good-quality graft with excellent cosmetic results, and is simple and easily reproducible. PMID:16762711

  13. Minimally invasive medial hip approach.

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

    2014-10-01

    The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

  14. Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Mojon, D S

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility. PMID:25431106

  15. Mechanobiology of tumor invasion: engineering meets oncology

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Shawn P.; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Shin, Sandra J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical sciences and engineering have introduced novel perspectives into the study of cancer through model systems, tools, and metrics that enable integration of basic science observations with clinical data. These methods have contributed to the identification of several overarching mechanisms that drive processes during cancer progression including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. During tumor cell invasion – the first clinically observable step of metastasis – cells demonstrate diverse and evolving physical phenotypes that cannot typically be defined by any single molecular mechanism, and mechanobiology has been used to study the physical cell behaviors that comprise the “invasive phenotype”. In this review, we discuss the continually evolving pathological characterization and in vitro mechanobiological characterization of tumor invasion, with emphasis on emerging physical biology and mechanobiology strategies that have contributed to a more robust mechanistic understanding of tumor cell invasion. These physical approaches may ultimately help to better predict and identify tumor metastasis. PMID:22178415

  16. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  17. Microbial invasions: the process, patterns, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Cyrus Alexander; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2015-11-01

    There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields. PMID:26439296

  18. EBIPM 2013 planner for preventing weed invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....

  19. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  20. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...The Department of the Interior published a document in the Federal Register of February 11, 2013, concerning a notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those...

  1. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  2. The ethics of surgically invasive neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of distinctions and definitions is necessary before determining which types of surgically invasive neuroscience research should be permitted and how the experimental protocols can properly be undertaken. A failure to clarify the ethical distinctions in invasive neuroscience research hinders attempts at ethical analysis and guidance. At least four main distinctions need to be addressed: "invasiveness" as an important moral characteristic; special brain-mind-related risks; research participant selection; and ideologic interpretation of human function. Harm and not invasiveness is the metric by which to measure the ethical permissibility of research. Because of a class of harms to minds and selves, special attention should be paid to value considerations. These considerations need to be addressed by researchers, funders, and review boards to create proper safeguards from conception of research through final application of results. PMID:24182388

  3. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  4. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient

    PubMed Central

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B. N.; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals. PMID:26816451

  5. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  7. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  8. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  9. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marien I.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of severe Haemophilus influenza infections, such as sepsis and meningitis, has declined substantially since the introduction of the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine. However, the H. influenzae type b vaccine fails to protect against nontypeable H. influenzae strains, which have become increasingly frequent causes of invasive disease, especially among children and the elderly. We summarize recent literature supporting the emergence of invasive nontypeable H. influenzae and describe mechanisms that may explain its increasing prevalence over the past 2 decades. PMID:26407156

  10. Screening for characteristic microRNAs between pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Lu; Wen, Shang-Yun; Ai, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan-Li; Teng, Yin-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer. A gene expression profile (GSE7803) containing 21 invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma samples, 10 normal squamous cervical epithelium samples and seven high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using significance analysis of microarray software, and a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The miRNAs that interacted with the identified DEGs were selected, based on the TarBase v5.0 database. Regulatory networks were constructed from these selected miRNAs along with their corresponding target genes among the DEGs. The regulatory networks were visualized using Cytoscape. A total of 1,160 and 756 DEGs were identified in the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. The results of the GO enrichment demonstrated that the DEGs were predominantly involved in the immune response and the cell cycle, in the pre?invasive and invasive stages, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 18 and 26 characteristic miRNAs were screened in the pre?invasive and invasive stages, respectively. These miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of cervical cancer. PMID:25695263

  11. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  12. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring. PMID:26882479

  13. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability. PMID:25567917

  14. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  15. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    PubMed

    Acosta, André L; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Saraiva, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring. PMID:26882479

  16. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Honěk, Alois; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  17. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  18. 77 FR 23494 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, National Invasive Species Council. ACTION: Request for Nominations for the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, on behalf of the interdepartmental National Invasive...

  19. Dispersal in the course of an invasion.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Arne W

    2011-05-01

    Invasive species receive attention as manifestations of global ecological change and because of the effects that they may have on other organisms. They are commonly discussed in the context of the ecological perturbations or the human activities that permitted the invasion. There is also evidence, that there is an intrinsic component to biological invasions in that evolutionary changes of the invaders themselves can facilitate or limit invasions (Lee 2002; Urban et al. 2007; Van Bocxlaer et al. 2010). Hence, teasing apart whether environmental change or changes of the organism foster invasions is an interesting field of research. Ample evidence for plants and animals documents that ecological change and human activities trigger range expansions and invasions, but questions regarding evolutionary change of invaders remain less explored although there are several reasons to believe it matters. Firstly, rapid evolutionary change is possible in time-frames relevant for contemporary biological invasions(Hendry et al. 2007). Furthermore, population genetic modelling suggests that there are circumstances where the range expansion and colonization of empty spaces in the course of an invasion can induce evolutionary change in a way that is specific to invaders: the process of repeated founding out of marginal populations in the course of a range expansion can shift allele frequencies and has been referred to as allele surfing, which not only affects neutral genetic variance, but also fitness relevant traits (Klopfstein et al. 2006; Travis et al. 2007; Burton & Travis 2008). Importantly, this process poses a null model for evolutionary inference in invasive populations. It predicts conspicuous allele frequency changes in an expanding metapopulation unless migration homogenizes the gene pool. Despite this relevance, ideas about allele surfing rely heavily on modelling although some experimental evidence comes from studies that document the segregation of genetic variants in growing plaques of bacteria (Hallatschek et al. 2007). To date, little empirical data is available that would reveal the migration processes that affect the establishment of gene pools at invasion fronts in natural systems. This aspect sets the study of Bronnenhuber et al. (2011) apart. They quantify migration behind the expansion front of an invading fish and thus provide important baseline data for the interpretation of the emerging patterns of genetic differentiation. PMID:21634055

  20. Global phylogenetics of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), an invasive aphid species: Evidence for multiple invasions into North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical to the study of an invasive species is understanding the number and origin of invasions that have occurred, as well as the rate or potential of post-invasion adaptation and geographic range expansion. One virulent, invasive insect species that has caused much damage in the United States is...

  1. Remote sensing of species invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Nicholas Etienne

    The invasion of the Western United States of America by Bromus tectorum, also known as "cheatgrass" is mapped using techniques of remote sensing. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance using the MODTRAN4 atmospheric simulation model. The results of the radiometric processing were checked against ground reflectances with a portable ASD spectrometer. Landsat TM imagery covering portions of Utah State, USA were obtained at two times for each scene, one in the spring and one in the summer. The imagery was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance. Field data on cheatgrass abundance were collected at the same time period of the Landsat imagery. A variety of regression models were tested for predicting cheatgrass abundance. Prediction variables included the extracted ground reflectance from the multi-temporal imagery and ancillary topographic data. A meta-prediction framework was devised for compositing the results of an ensemble of regression models. Using cross-validation, the method was found to predict cheatgrass abundance (as percent) with approximately 15% Root Mean Square Error. The Landsat based prediction maps were used to scale reference data to 250 meter resolution, for prediction over larger spatial areas using the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps, at 250 meter spatial resolution and bi-monthly data frequency, were assembled over a five year time period spanning 2001-2005. PRISM monthly total precipitation data, a spatially interpolated (4 kilometer) resolution data product, were compiled over the same time period and the same spatial coverage as the MODIS data. Thin plate (Duchon) splines were fit to the time series of precipitation data and MODIS NDVI in order to generate time series of precipitation and NDVI (with an arbitrary number of data points) over the study area. Metrics designed to quantify ecosystem response to precipitation were developed and tested on the time series. The metrics were tested to efficacy in prediction of cheatgrass abundance, at a 250 meter resolution. Multiple data mining algorithms (classifiers) were tested, using cross validation to compare accuracy and aid in model selection. In a presence/absence context, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to have approximately 90% overall accuracy on the training data. In a four class context (none, low, moderate, high levels of infestation), a different SVM was found to have approximately 71% accuracy. Throughout the analysis, open source and/or free software written in Java was used when possible.

  2. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Neira, Carlos; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2006-02-01

    Vascular plants strongly control belowground environments in most ecosystems. Invasion by vascular plants in coastal wetlands, and by cordgrasses (Spartina spp.) in particular, are increasing in incidence globally, with dramatic ecosystem-level consequences. We examined the trophic consequences of invasion by a Spartina hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa) in San Francisco Bay (USA) by documenting differences in biomass and trophic structure of benthic communities between sediments invaded by Spartina and uninvaded sediments. We found the invaded system shifted from an algae-based to a detritus-based food web. We then tested for a relationship between diet and tolerance to invasion, hypothesizing that species that consume Spartina detritus are more likely to inhabit invaded sediments than those that consume surface algae. Infaunal diets were initially examined with natural abundance stable isotope analyses and application of mixing models, but these yielded an ambiguous picture of food sources. Therefore, we conducted isotopic enrichment experiments by providing 15N-labeled Spartina detritus both on and below the sediment surface in areas that either contained Spartina or were unvegetated. Capitellid and nereid polychaetes, and oligochaetes, groups shown to persist following Spartina invasion of San Francisco Bay tidal flats, took up 15N from labeled native and invasive Spartina detritus. In contrast, we found that amphipods, bivalves, and other taxa less tolerant to invasion consumed primarily surficial algae, based on 13C enrichment experiments. Habitat (Spartina vs. unvegetated patches) and location of detritus (on or within sediments) did not affect 15N uptake from detritus. Our investigations support a "trophic shift" model for ecosystem response to wetland plant invasion and preview loss of key trophic support for fishes and migratory birds by shifting dominance to species not widely consumed by species at higher trophic levels. PMID:16637367

  3. Preimplantation factor (PIF) promotes human trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Moindjie, Hadia; Santos, Esther Dos; Loeuillet, Laurence; Gronier, Hloise; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Barnea, Eytan R; Vialard, Franois; Dieudonne, Marie-Nolle

    2014-11-01

    Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a peptide secreted by viable mammalian embryos. Moreover, it can be detected in the circulation of pregnant women. Recently, it was shown that PIF promotes invasion in trophoblast cell lines in vitro. Successful human embryo implantation depends on a deep and highly controlled invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in the maternal endometrium. Trophoblast invasion is regulated in part by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and integrin expression. The present study demonstrates the presence of PIF in early pregnancy and characterizes its effects on primary human trophoblast invasion. At the fetomaternal interface, intense PIF labeling by immunohistochemistry was present during early gestation in villous trophoblasts and EVTs. A decrease of labeling was observed at term. Furthermore, PIF significantly promoted invasion of human EVT isolated from first-trimester placenta. The proinvasive regulatory effect of PIF in EVT was associated with 1) increased MMP9 activity and 2) reduced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression. PIF also regulated alpha v and alpha 1 integrin mRNA expressions. Last, the proinvasive effect of PIF appeared to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and Janus-kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathways. In summary, this work describes the direct, positive effect of PIF on the control of human trophoblastic cell invasion by modulation of MMP/TIMP balance and integrin expression. Moreover, these results suggest that PIF is involved in pathological pregnancies characterized by insufficient or excessive trophoblast invasion. PMID:25232018

  4. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species. PMID:26354937

  5. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  6. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis ranges from 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 ICU admissions and represents 5% to 10% of all ICU-acquired infections, with an overall mortality comparable to that of severe sepsis/septic shock. A large majority of them are due to Candida albicans, but the proportion of strains with decreased sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole is increasingly reported. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized, but only 5% to 30% of them develop an invasive infection. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are common risk factors, but invasive candidiasis is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. Indeed, blood cultures are positive in a minority of cases and often late in the course of infection. New nonculture-based laboratory techniques may contribute to early diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis. Both serologic (mannan, antimannan, and betaglucan) and molecular (Candida-specific PCR in blood and serum) have been applied as serial screening procedures in high-risk patients. However, although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques are largely investigational and their clinical usefulness remains to be established. Identification of patients susceptible to benefit from empirical antifungal treatment remains challenging, but it is mandatory to avoid antifungal overuse in critically ill patients. Growing evidence suggests that monitoring the dynamic of Candida colonization in surgical patients and prediction rules based on combined risk factors may be used to identify ICU patients at high risk of invasive candidiasis susceptible to benefit from prophylaxis or preemptive antifungal treatment. PMID:21906271

  7. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species' geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  8. Minimally invasive techniques in colon surgery.

    PubMed

    Holt, T; Paris, B; Wietfeldt, E D; Hassan, I

    2008-04-01

    With the description of the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1985, minimally invasive approaches have become the standard practice of surgeons in managing several disease processes. This has been mainly driven by the significant favorable impact of minimally invasive surgery on patient related outcomes. Smaller incisions lead to improved cosmesis, reduced postoperative pain and earlier return of gastrointestinal function. These factors in turn contribute to a faster recovery of the patient (compared to similar open procedures) with a reduced utilization of hospital resources, reduced costs and earlier return of the patient to normal routines of daily life and work. With experience it is clear that these favorable patient outcomes can also be seen with minimally invasive surgery for various colonic diseases and procedures. Many of the early concerns regarding minimally invasive approaches such as port site recurrence and the feasibility of adequate oncologic resections have been laid to rest by multiple randomized trials. There are now documented benefits to minimally invasive approaches for colonic diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and diverticular disease; as long as surgeons choose the appropriate patients and spend the time and resources needed to become proficient at these advanced procedures. PMID:18427444

  9. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing.

  10. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, M.B.; Wikle, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dispersal of biotic organisms is an important subject in ecology. Ecologists are able to accurately describe survival and fecundity in plant and animal populations and have developed quantitative approaches to study the dynamics of dispersal and population size. Of particular interest are the dynamics of invasive species. Such nonindigenous animals and plants can levy significant impacts on native biotic communities. Effective models for relative abundance have been developed; however, a better understanding of the dynamics of actual population size (as opposed to relative abundance) in an invasion would be beneficial to all branches of ecology. In this article, we adopt a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the invasion of such species while addressing the discrete nature of the data and uncertainty associated with the probability of detection. The nonlinear dynamics between discrete time points are intuitively modeled through an embedded deterministic population model with density-dependent growth and dispersal components. Additionally, we illustrate the importance of accommodating spatially varying dispersal rates. The method is applied to the specific case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove, an invasive species at mid-invasion in the United States at the time of this writing. ?? 2006, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-02-15

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  12. Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Ortensi, Barbara; Setti, Matteo; Osti, Daniela; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

  13. Cancer stem cell contribution to glioblastoma invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like doublecortin and microRNAs. These findings may affect the design of effective therapies currently not considered for GBM invasive progression. PMID:23510696

  14. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species’ geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwajin

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which epithelial cells acquire the characteristics of invasive mesenchymal cells. EMT has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis as well as the formation of many tissues and organs during development. Epithelial cells undergoing EMT lose cell-cell adhesion structures and polarity, and rearrange their cytoskeletons. Several oncogenic pathways such as transforming growth factor (TGF) -?, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways, have been shown to induce EMT. These pathways have activated transcription factors including Snail, Slug, and the ZEB family which work as transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, thereby making epithelial cells motile and resistant to apoptosis. Mounting evidence shows that EMT is associated with cell invasion and tumor progression.In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of EMT, pathways leading to EMT, and the role of EMT in cell invasion. Three topics are addressed in this review: (1) Definition of EMT, (2) Signaling pathways leading to EMT, (3) Role of EMT in cell invasion. Understanding the role of EMT in cell invasion will provide valuable information for establishing strategies to develop anti-metastatic therapeutics which modulate malignant cellular processes mediated by EMT. PMID:24278531

  16. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  17. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Marmura, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and other chronic headache disorders are common and if inadequately treated, can lead to significant disability. The effectiveness of medications can be limited by side effects, drug interactions, and comorbid diseases necessitating alternative methods. Technological developments in the past 5years have made it possible to use non-invasive methods of neuromodulation to treat primary headache disorders. This field includes technologies such as supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation (STS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS). Existing trials show these modalities are safe and well tolerated and can be combined with standard pharmacotherapy. We review the technologies, biological rationales, and trials involving non-invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache disorders. PMID:26750126

  18. Arthropod invasion disrupts Cycas micronesica seedling recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Terry, L. Irene

    2011-01-01

    We recently described characteristics of reproductive effort for the cycad Cycas micronesica on the island of Guam. The data were serendipitously recorded just prior to the devastating invasion of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. This invasion decimated the cycad population and after six years of infestation no recruitment is occurring among the survivors. We describe various underlying mechanisms that may explain how this homopteran insect has eliminated host recruitment among categories including plant-pollinator mutualism disruptions, direct damage to reproductive structures, population level responses to declining plant health, and failures of seedlings to establish. Our pre-invasion data on reproductive effort will serve as the benchmark for quantifying how this alien pest is endangering the endemic cycad. PMID:22446554

  19. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    PubMed Central

    Caversaccio, Marco; Proops, David; Brett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation. PMID:25110661

  20. Transient Microgeographic Clines during B Chromosome Invasion.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Shaw, Michael W; Cabrero, Josefa; Bakkali, Mohammed; Ruíz-Estévez, Mercedes; Ruíz-Ruano, Francisco J; Martín-Blázquez, Rubén; López-León, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    The near-neutral model of B chromosome evolution predicts that the invasion of a new population should last some tens of generations, but the details on how it proceeds in real populations are mostly unknown. Trying to fill this gap, we analyze here a natural population of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans at three time points during the last 35 years. Our results show that B chromosome frequency increased significantly during this period and that a cline observed in 1992 had disappeared in 2012 once B chromosome frequency reached an upper limit at all sites sampled. This indicates that, during B chromosome invasion, transient clines for B chromosome frequency are formed at the invasion front on a microgeographic scale. Computer simulation experiments showed that the pattern of change observed for genotypic frequencies is consistent with the existence of B chromosome drive through females and selection against individuals with a high number of B chromosomes. PMID:26655780

  1. [Invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Garnacho-Montero, Jos; Daz-Martn, Ana; Ruiz-Prez De Piappn, Maite; Garca-Cabrera, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    The most common organism implicated in fungal infections in the critically ill patients is Candida spp. C. albicans continues to be the species that causes the largest number of invasive candidiasis. In critically ill patients, Candida spp. are frequently isolated in non-sterile sites. Candida colonization is documented in nearly 60% of non-neutropenic critically ill patients staying more than one week in the ICU. However, only 5% of colonized patients will develop invasive candidiasis. The diagnosis of invasive non-candidemic candidiasis remains elusive in the majority of the patients. Candida in a blood culture should never be viewed as a contaminant and should always prompt treatment initiation. Patients with multifocal colonization with a Candida score >3 should also receive antifungal therapy. Fluconazole is reserved for non-severely ill patients without recent exposure to azoles. The use of an echinocandin is recommended for hemodynamically unstable patients or with a history of recent fluconazole exposure. PMID:22503211

  2. Non-Invasive markers for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With great advancements in the therapeutic modalities used for the treatment of chronic liver diseases, the accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is a vital need for successful individualized management of disease activity in patients. The lack of accurate, reproducible and easily applied methods for fibrosis assessment has been the major limitation in both the clinical management and for research in liver diseases. However, the problem of the development of biomarkers capable of non-invasive staging of fibrosis in the liver is difficult due to the fact that the process of fibrogenesis is a component of the normal healing response to injury, invasion by pathogens, and many other etiologic factors. Current non-invasive methods range from serum biomarker assays to advanced imaging techniques such as transient elastography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among non-invasive methods that gain strongest clinical foothold are FibroScan elastometry and serum-based APRI and FibroTest. There are many other tests that are not yet widely validated, but are none the less, promising. The rate of adoption of non-invasive diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis differs from country to country, but remains limited. At the present time, use of non-invasive procedures could be recommended as pre-screening that may allow physicians to narrow down the patients' population before definitive testing of liver fibrosis by biopsy of the liver. This review provides a systematic overview of these techniques, as well as both direct and indirect biomarkers based approaches used to stage fibrosis and covers recent developments in this rapidly advancing area. PMID:21849046

  3. [Experience with invasive thymoma presenting pleural dissemination].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Daisuke; Nonaka, M; Yamamoto, S; Fukuzumi, M; Kunimura, T; Kaga, E; Kadokura, M; Takaba, T

    2003-11-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a myasthenia gravis. Chest computed tomography revealed a mediastinal invasive tumor. During surgery, invasion to the pericardium and dissemination on the left visceral pleura and the left diaphragm were observed. Extended thymo-thymectomy and partial resection of the pericardium, left lung, and diaphragm were performed. Incomplete resection was achieved because of the dissemination on the diaphragm. Chemotherapy using ADOC and radiotherapy for mediastinum and left diaphragm were done. Four years after surgery, neither recurrence of the tumor nor myasthenia gravis was observed. PMID:14608927

  4. Minimally invasive reoperative aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, Simone; Tripodi, Alberto; Dozza, Luca; Lamarra, Mauro; Del Giglio, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The operative mortality associated with repeat heart valve surgery is supposedly higher than the mortality associated with the primary operation. However, controversy still surrounds the risk factors and optimal surgical approach for patients requiring repeat cardiac surgery, particularly for those requiring aortic valve replacements (AVR). While the standard approach generally utilizes full sternotomy and peripheral cannulation, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive sternotomy may play an increasingly important role in this field. This study compares the advantages and disadvantages of a minimally invasive approach in redo AVR with the standard approach, highlighting difficulties and potential solutions. PMID:25694980

  5. Asiatic clam invasion: causes and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.; Graney, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The recent introduction and subsequent invasion of the Asiatic clam has offered a new problem of infestation in power plant intake systems that conventional intermittent chlorination procedures may not resolve. These clam invasions adversely affect intake systems and irrigation works by clogging the systems and causing erosion of pipes. Heated power plant discharges were found to be a source of thermal enrichment for the clams. Methods of temperature control followed by chlorination appear to offer short-term solutions; harvesting of the clams for protein and calcium contents present an additional solution.

  6. Minimally invasive reoperative aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Elisa; Calvi, Simone; Tripodi, Alberto; Dozza, Luca; Lamarra, Mauro; Del Giglio, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The operative mortality associated with repeat heart valve surgery is supposedly higher than the mortality associated with the primary operation. However, controversy still surrounds the risk factors and optimal surgical approach for patients requiring repeat cardiac surgery, particularly for those requiring aortic valve replacements (AVR). While the standard approach generally utilizes full sternotomy and peripheral cannulation, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive sternotomy may play an increasingly important role in this field. This study compares the advantages and disadvantages of a minimally invasive approach in redo AVR with the standard approach, highlighting difficulties and potential solutions. PMID:25694980

  7. Minimally invasive surgical training: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Pierorazio, Phillip M; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for urological malignancies continue to increase and include endoscopic, laparoscopic, robotic, and image-guided percutaneous techniques. This ever expanding array of technically demanding management options coupled with a static training paradigm introduces challenges to training the urological oncologist of the future. Minimally invasive learning opportunities continue to evolve, and include an intensive experience during residency, postgraduate short courses or mini-apprenticeships, and full time fellowship programs. Incorporation of large animal surgery and surgical simulators may help shorten the necessary learning curve. Ultimately, programs must provide an intense hands-on experience to trainees in all minimally invasive surgical aspects for optimal training. PMID:19285236

  8. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

  9. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Lead the Invasion of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells by Creating an Invasive Track

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Jia, Zhuqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Fuyin; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Wuwei; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are critical in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. However the role of CAFs in the invasion of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated primary CAFs from two ACC patients. ACC-derived CAFs expressed typical CAF biomarkers and showed increased migration and invasion activity. Conditioned medium collected from CAFs significantly promoted ACC cell migration and invasion. Co-culture of CAFs with ACC cells in a microfluidic device further revealed that CAFs localized at the invasion front and ACC cells followed the track behind the CAFs. Interfering of both matrix metalloproteinase and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway inhibited ACC invasion promoted by CAFs. Overall, our study demonstrates that ACC-derived CAFs exhibit the most important defining feature of CAFs by promoting cancer invasion. In addition to secretion of soluble factors, CAFs also lead ACC invasion by creating an invasive track in the ECM. PMID:26954362

  10. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, A.; Jarnevich, C.; Madsen, J.; Westbrooks, R.; Fournier, C.; Mehrhoff, L.; Browne, M.; Graham, J.; Sellers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our experience that sharing information, including invasive species dispersal mechanisms and rates, impacts, and prevention and control strategies, enables resource managers and decision-makers to mount a more effective response to biological invasions.

  11. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    PubMed

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533

  12. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  13. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-16

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techni