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1

Effect of a novel temperature-controlled laminar airflow device on personal breathing zone aeroallergen exposure.  

PubMed

Temperature-controlled laminar airflow improves symptoms in atopic asthmatics, but its effects on personal allergen exposure are unknown. We aimed to evaluate its effects on personal cat allergen and particulate exposures in a simulated bedroom environment. Five healthy volunteers lay under an active and an inactive temperature-controlled laminar airflow device for 175 min, in a simulated bedroom containing bedding from a cat owner. Total airborne particles (?0.5 - ?10 ?m diameter) were quantified with a laser particle counter. Airborne allergen was sampled with Institute of Occupational Medicine filters. Inhaled exposure was sampled with nasal air samplers. Allergen-containing particles were quantified by immunoassay. Treatment reduced total airborne particles (>0.5 ?m diameter) by >99% (P < 0.001) and reduced airborne allergen concentration within the breathing zone (ratio of median counts = 30, P = 0.043). Treatment reduced inhaled allergen (ratio of median counts = 7, P = 0.043). Treatment was not associated with a change in airborne allergen concentration outside of the breathing zone (P = 0.160). Temperature-controlled laminar airflow treatment of individuals in an allergen-rich experimental environment results in significant reductions in breathing zone allergenic and non-allergenic particle exposure, and in inhaled cat allergen exposure. These findings may explain the clinical benefits of temperature-controlled laminar airflow. PMID:24750266

Gore, R B; Boyle, R J; Gore, C; Custovic, A; Hanna, H; Svensson, P; Warner, J O

2015-02-01

2

Laminar-airflow equipment certification: what the pharmacist needs to know.  

PubMed

The basic information pharmacy practitioners need to determine the suitability and applicability of laminar-airflow equipment test standards and procedures is presented. The operative guideline for any laminar-flow clean bench (LFCB) certification is the cleanroom and work station requirements for controlled environments as defined by the federal government under Federal Standard 209b (FS 209b). FS 209b outlines the tests, test procedures, and acceptable performance ranges for all LFCB equipment. National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 49 (NSF 49) is used in the certification of biological-safety cabinets (BSCs). NSF 49 covers those aspects of safety, maintenance, performance, and testing that are unique BSCs. To monitor certification properly, practitioners should be familiar with these standards and the air-velocity profile, high-efficiency particulate air filter performance, noise output, light, and electrical test procedures. A review of the requisite knowledge, experience, and reputation of certifying agents is presented, along with an outline of all the necessary procedures, equipment, and documentation to be used in the process. A thorough test report should be issued upon unit certification. As pharmacy practitioners are responsible for all other aspects of quality assurance, they should also be capable of auditing these certifications to ensure the aseptic quality of products compounded in the laminar-airflow environment. PMID:6465148

Bryan, D; Marback, R C

1984-07-01

3

Does a mobile laminar airflow screen reduce bacterial contamination in the operating room? A numerical study using computational fluid dynamics technique  

PubMed Central

Background Air-borne bacteria in the operating room (OR) may contaminate the surgical wound, either by direct sedimentation from the air or indirectly, by contaminated sterile instruments. Reduced air contamination can be achieved with an efficient ventilation system. The current study assesses the additive effect of a mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) unit on the microbiological air quality in an OR supplied with turbulent-mixing air ventilation. Methods A recently designed OR in NKS (Nya Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden) was the physical model for this study. Simulation was made with MLAF units adjacent to the operating table and the instrument tables, in addition to conventional turbulent-mixing ventilation. The evaluation used numerical calculation by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sedimentation rates (CFU/m2/h) were calculated above the operating table and two instrument tables, and in the periphery of the OR. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m3) was simulated above the surgical and instrument tables with and without the MLAF unit. Results The counts of airborne and sedimenting, bacteria-carrying particles downstream of the surgical team were reduced to an acceptable level for orthopedic/implant surgery when the MLAF units were added to conventional OR ventilation. No significant differences in mean sedimentation rates were found in the periphery of the OR. Conclusions The MLAF screen unit can be a suitable option when the main OR ventilation system is unable to reduce the level of microbial contamination to an acceptable level for orthopedic implant surgery. However, MLAF effect is limited to an area within 1 m from the screen. Increasing air velocity from the MLAF above 0.4 m/s does not increase the impact area. PMID:25006349

2014-01-01

4

Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1) was described. This program is a crew workload analysis computer program that was developed and expanded from previous workload analysis programs, and is designed to be used on the NASA terminal controlled vehicle program. The following information is described: derivation of the input data, processing of the data, and form of the output data. Eight scenarios that were created, programmed, and analyzed as verification of this model were also described.

Miller, K. H.

1976-01-01

5

Timeline analysis program (TLA-1), appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Appendices for the Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1) were given. The appendices contain the Atlanta terminal area scenarios, the task catalog and the control and display configurations for the forward and aft flight decks of the NASA 515 aircraft, and the event/procedure, phase, mission, and subsystem catalogs.

Miller, K. H.

1976-01-01

6

Airflow control system  

SciTech Connect

A dual airflow control system for an environment having a first air zone and a second air zone. The system includes a first input device operable to generate a first input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the first zone and a second input device operable to generate a second input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the second zone. First and second flow regulators are configured to regulate airflow to the first and second zones, respectively, such that the first and second regulators selectively provide the airflow to each of the first and second zones based on the first and second input signals. A single actuator is associated with the first and second flow regulators. The actuator is operable to simultaneously actuate the first and second flow regulators based on an input from the first and second input devices to allow the desired airflows to the first and the second zones.

Motszko, Sean Ronald; McEnaney, Ryan Patrick; Brush, Jeffrey Alan; Zimmermann, Daniel E.

2007-03-13

7

F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Test Flight - Duration: 29 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

An F-16XL aircraft was used by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a NASA-wide program to improve laminar airflow on aircraft flying at sustained supersonic speeds. It was th...

8

ORIGINAL ARTICLE tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was employed to isolate tla1, a stable transformant having conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity of the mass culture. Green algae growing under full

Polle, Jürgen

9

Clothing in laminar-flow operating theatres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial shedding, wound contamination and clinical-infection rates in clean wounds are influenced by operating-theatre dress. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of hats, masks and clothing to the control of wound contamination in both ultraclean (enclosed vertical laminar-flow) and conventional (plenum ventilated) airflow theatres. Personnel wore varying combinations of dress in both types of theatre.

M. J. Hubble; A. E. Weale; J. V. Perez; K. E. Bowker; A. P. MacGowan; G. C. Bannister

1996-01-01

10

Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Express Qa and Tla Class I Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The murine major histocompatibility complex encodes H-2K and H-2D transplantation antigens and other class I-like proteins called Qa and Tla molecules; the functions of the Qa\\/Tla molecules are not known. That they may participate in embryonic cell--cell interactions and\\/or play a role in immune responses against tumors has been speculated. We have studied two murine embryonal carcinoma tumors, 402AX and

Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg; Deborah A. Nickerson; Virginia K. Clements; Elizabeth P. Garcia; Esi Lamouse-Smith; Leroy Hood; Iwona Stroynowski

1989-01-01

11

NASA supercritical laminar flow control airfoil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and goals of experimental investigations of supercritical LFC airfoils conducted in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel beginning in March 1982 are reviewed. Topics addressed include laminarization aspects; flow-quality requirements; simulation of flight parameters; the setup of screens, honeycomb, and sonic throat; the design cycle; theoretical pressure distributions and shock-free limits; drag divergence and stability analysis; and the LFC suction system. Consideration is given to the LFC airfoil model, the air-flow control system, airfoil-surface instrumentation, liner design and hardware, and test options. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

Harvey, W. D.

1982-01-01

12

Experimental and numerical study of laminar forced convection heat transfer for a dimpled heat sink  

E-print Network

Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Egidio (Ed) Marotta An investigation was conducted to determine whether dimples on a heat sink fin can increase heat transfer for laminar airflows. This was accomplished by performing an experimental and numerical... the cooling fluid to reach all cooling fins and to allow good heat transfer from the heat source to the fins. Heat sink performance also depends on the type of fluid moving device used because airflow rates have a direct influence on its enhancement...

Park, Do Seo

2009-05-15

13

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

14

Effect of sewer headspace air-flow on hydrogen sulfide removal by corroding concrete surfaces.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide adsorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces at different air-flows were quantified using a pilot-scale sewer reactor. The setup was installed in an underground sewer research station with direct access to wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the headspace of the sewer reactor once per hour in peak concentrations of approximately 500 ppmv. The investigated range of sewer air-flows was representative for natural ventilated sewer systems, and covered both laminar and turbulent conditions. The experiments demonstrated a significant effect of sewer air-flow on the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide removal from the sewer headspace. From the lowest to the highest air-flow investigated, the rate of adsorption and oxidation increased more than threefold. At all air-flows, the reaction kinetics followed a simple n-th order rate equation with a reaction order of 0.8. The effect of air-flow on hydrogen sulfide adsorption and oxidation kinetics was quantified by a simple empirical equation. PMID:22755494

Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

2012-03-01

15

TLA-1: a New Plasmid-Mediated Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two ?-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single ?-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 ?-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5?. Sequencing of the blaTLA-1 gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A ?-lactamases: 70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A ?-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A ?-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 ?-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum ?-lactamase of Ambler class A. PMID:10722503

Silva, J.; Aguilar, C.; Ayala, G.; Estrada, M. A.; Garza-Ramos, U.; Lara-Lemus, R.; Ledezma, L.

2000-01-01

16

A Laminar-Flow, Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter (WCPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new water-based condensation particle counter (WCPC) is presented. The WCPC is a thermally diffusive, laminar flow instrument. Condensational enlargement is achieved through the introduction of a saturated airflow into a “growth tube” with wetted walls held at a temperature higher than that of the entering flow. An unsheathed, 1 L\\/min instrument utilizing this principle has been evaluated with various

Susanne V. Hering; Mark R. Stolzenburg; Frederick R. Quant; Derek R. Oberreit; Patricia B. Keady

2005-01-01

17

MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL OF ROTOGRAVURE AIRFLOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the technical and economic viability of using micro-processor-based control technology to collect volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a paper coating operation. The microprocessor-based control system monitors and controls both the airflow rate and...

18

Modulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by TLA1 gene over-expression and RNA interference  

PubMed Central

Truncated light-harvesting antenna 1 (TLA1) is a nuclear gene proposed to regulate the chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems and the chloroplast ultrastructure were manipulated upon TLA1 gene over-expression and RNAi downregulation. The TLA1 over-expressing lines possessed a larger chlorophyll antenna size for both photosystems and contained greater levels of Chl b per cell relative to the wild type. Conversely, TLA1 RNAi transformants had a smaller Chl antenna size for both photosystems and lower levels of Chl b per cell. Western blot analyses of the TLA1 over-expressing and RNAi transformants showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression was paralleled by modulation in the expression of light-harvesting protein, reaction centre D1 and D2, and VIPP1 genes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression impacts the organization of thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast. Over-expressing lines showed well-defined grana, whereas RNAi transformants possessed loosely held together and more stroma-exposed thylakoids. Cell fractionation suggested localization of the TLA1 protein in the inner chloroplast envelope and potentially in association with nascent thylakoid membranes, indicating a role in Chl antenna assembly and thylakoid membrane biogenesis. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of the Chl antenna size regulation by the TLA1 gene. PMID:23148270

Mitra, Mautusi; Kirst, Henning; Dewez, David; Melis, Anastasios

2012-01-01

19

Aircraft Laminar Flow Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

Joslin, Ronald D.

1998-01-01

20

Power requirement of rotating rods in airflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to determine the power required for rotating a rotor disc fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, were placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that power increased with increasing airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow and definite power peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the power attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained.

Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

1974-01-01

21

Torque requirement of rotating rods in airflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to determine the torque required for rotating a rotor disk fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, was placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that torque generally increased with airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow, the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow, and definite torque peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the torque attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test, a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained. The results also show that the torque peaks occurred at the same Strouhal number for all speeds.

Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

1979-01-01

22

Visualizing full-scale ventilation airflows  

SciTech Connect

The patterns of airflow are central to almost everything associated with HVAC. However, since these patterns are normally invisible, it is difficult to know how the airflow is behaving and the possibility of error is significant. In many studies no attempt is made to visualize the airflow, and only conceptual sketches are drawn of how one thinks it behaves. This is partly due to the traditional difficulty of clearly visualizing air currents.

Settles, G.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-07-01

23

Laminar soot processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot processes within hydrocarbon fueled flames are important because they affect the durability and performance of propulsion systems, the hazards of unwanted fires, the pollutant and particulate emissions from combustion processes, and the potential for developing computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation is studying soot processes in laminar diffusion and premixed flames in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions of luminous flames. Laminar flames are being studied due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of such results to practical turbulent flames through the laminar flamelet concept. Weakly-buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being considered because buoyancy affects soot processes in flames while most practical flames involve negligible effects of buoyancy. Thus, low-pressure weakly-buoyant flames are being observed during ground-based experiments while near atmospheric pressure nonbuoyant flames will be observed during space flight experiments at microgravity. Finally, premixed laminar flames also are being considered in order to observe some aspects of soot formation for simpler flame conditions than diffusion flames. The main emphasis of current work has been on measurements of soot nucleation and growth in laminar diffusion and premixed flames.

Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

1995-01-01

24

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide associated with soot emissions is responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied, emphasizing space-based experiments at microgravity. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. The microgravity environment is emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. Results discussed here were obtained from experiments carried out on two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a brief discussion of experimental methods, results found thus far are described, including soot concentration measurements, laminar flame shapes, laminar smoke points and flame structure. The present discussion is brief.

Lin, K. -C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

25

Development of laminar flow control wing surface porous structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that the chordwise air collection method, which actually combines chordwise and spanwise air collection, is the best of the designs conceived up to this time for full chord laminar flow control (LFC). Its shallower ducting improved structural efficiency of the main wing box resulting in a reduction in wing weight, and it provided continuous support of the chordwise panel joints, better matching of suction and clearing airflow requirements, and simplified duct to suction source minifolding. Laminar flow control on both the upper and lower surfaces was previously reduced to LFC suction on the upper surface only, back to 85 percent chord. The study concludes that, in addition to reduced wing area and other practical advantages, this system would be lighter because of the increase in effective structural wing thickness.

Klotzsche, M.; Pearce, W.; Anderson, C.; Thelander, J.; Boronow, W.; Gallimore, F.; Brown, W.; Matsuo, T.; Christensen, J.; Primavera, G.

1984-01-01

26

Airflow as a discriminative stimulus1  

PubMed Central

In one experiment, pigeons were taught to discriminate airflow by having availability of reinforcement signalled by its presence and extinction signalled by its absence. After they reached criterion, some were trained on a discrimination reversal. Others were trained on an intradimensional discrimination with a low airflow velocity associated with reinforcement and a higher airflow velocity associated with extinction. All discriminations were learned rapidly, indicating that airflow velocity can function as a discriminative stimulus. In the second and third experiments, naive pigeons were trained to discriminate the presence of a compound stimulus (one of three tonal intensities paired with one of three airflow velocities) from its absence. These pigeons were subsequently given a component stimulus test during extinction on four stimulus values; the two training values, the tone alone, and the airflow alone. High or moderate velocity airflow controlled more responding than any of the three tone intensities. However, low velocity airflow controlled more responding only when a low intensity tone was employed. PMID:16811574

Van Houten, Ronald; Seraganian, Peter; Rudolph, Robert

1972-01-01

27

Control of airborne nickel welding fumes by means of a vertical laminar air flow system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effeciveness of a clean room facility with laminar air flow in the control of nickel fumes released from metal inert gas (MIG) and shielded metal arc (SMA) welding operations performed on mild steel using nickel filler materials. From data observed in these experiments, it appears that the laminar flow clean room approach to controlling welding fumes can be successful in certain small table top welding operations. However, almost any interferences that obstruct the downward airflow can result in eddy currents and subsequent build-up of fumes by entrapment. Airflow patterns differ significantly when comparing table top operations to welding on large cylindrical and/or doughnut shaped items. (JGB)

Helms, T.C.

1980-12-08

28

Numerical studies of Trichel pulses in airflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the Trichel pulse regime of corona discharge in airflows is numerically studied with a two-dimensional model. The model is based on the hydrodynamic drift-diffusion approximation, taking into consideration the flow of the air in the discharge gap. Both transverse and longitudinal airflows under different conditions have been investigated. The influences of airflows on the characteristics of the Trichel pulses were clearly observed and analysed. The simulation results proved to be compatible with experimental analysis reported in the literature.

Deng, F. C.; Ye, L. Y.; Song, K. C.

2013-10-01

29

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 -Field  

E-print Network

1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT The 2008 California State Energy Code

30

Airflow resistance of selected biomass materials  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop created when air was forced through beds of selected biomass materials was determined. Materials tested included peanut hulls, peanut hull pellets, maize cobs, and wood shavings, chips and bark. The data were presented as logarithmic plots and equations of pressure drop versus airflow. The airflow resistances of the biomass materials increased with an increase in bulk density and were found to be in the range between values for ear and shelled maize. 12 references.

Cooper, S.C.; Sumner, H.R.

1985-01-01

31

Airflow resistance of airflow-regulating devices described by independent coefficients.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation after laryngectomy includes more and more the use of airflow-regulating devices such as shunt valves (SVs), tracheostoma valves (TSVs), and heat and moisture exchange (HME) filters. In determining the quality of those devices, airflow resistance is a very important factor. It is currently defined as pressure drop divided by airflow. However, for most applications, this definition does not result in a pressure- and airflow-independent parameter. Therefore, a new set of parameters is defined and applied to pressure-airflow curves of airflow-regulating devices. Pressure drop over TSVs and HME filters appears to have a squared relationship with flow. In SVs, it has a linear relationship. The new set of parameters describes the pressure-airflow relationship properly for all considered devices. In conclusion, theoretical predictions of flow mechanics appear to be valid for SVs, TSVs, and HME filters. Only 2 coefficients are necessary to describe the pressure-flow characteristics of these airflow-regulating devices, independent of pressure drop over and flow through the device. PMID:11465823

Verkerke, G J; Geertsema, A A; Schutte, H K

2001-07-01

32

Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae  

DOEpatents

The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

2010-06-29

33

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

34

Flight experiences with laminar flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of natural laminar flow (NLF) flight experiences over the period from the 1930's to the present has been given to provide information on the achievability and maintainability of NLF in typical airplane operating environments. Significant effects of loss of laminar flow on airplane performance have been observed for several airplanes, indicating the importance of providing information on these changes to laminar flow airplane operators. Significant changes in airplane stability and control and maximum lift were observed in flight experiments with the loss of laminar flow. However, these effects can be avoided by proper selection of airfoils. Conservative laminar flow airfoil designs should be employed which do not experience significant loss of lift (caused by flow separation) upon the loss of laminar flow. Mechanisms have been observed for the effects of insect accumulation, flight through clouds and precipitation, and propeller slipstreams on laminar flow behavior. Fixed transition testing, in addition to free transition testing, is recommended as a new standard procedure for airplanes with surfaces designed to support laminar flow.

Holmes, Bruce J.

1986-01-01

35

Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems  

E-print Network

An optimal airflow control method and procedure have been developed for laboratory air handing unit (LAHU) systems using linear optimization theories. The optimal airflow control minimizes the thermal energy consumption and the cost, and improves...

Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

2002-01-01

36

AIRFLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN A BABOON NASAL PASSAGE CAST  

EPA Science Inventory

Airflow patterns in the nasal Passages influence the distribution of air-pollutant-induced lesions in the airway mucosa. ittle is known about airflow characteristics or the complex nasopharyngeal airway of man and experimental animals. irflow characteristics in the nasopharyngeal...

37

Review of Airflow Measurement Techniques Jennifer McWilliams  

E-print Network

to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constantLBNL-49747 Review of Airflow Measurement Techniques Jennifer McWilliams Energy Performance, CA 94720 December 1, 2002 Abstract Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most

38

The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective epidemiological study of the early stages of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was performed on London working men. The findings showed that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) falls gradually over a lifetime, but in most non-smokers and many smokers clinically significant airflow obstruction never develops. In susceptible people, however, smoking causes irreversible obstructive changes.

C Fletcher; R Peto

1977-01-01

39

Overview of Laminar Flow Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) from the 1930s through the 1990s is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Early studies related to the natural laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. Although most of this publication is about slot-, porous-, and perforated-suction LFC concept studies in wind tunnel and flight experiments, some mention is made of thermal LFC. Theoretical and computational tools to describe the LFC aerodynamics are included for completeness.

Joslin, Ronald D.

1998-01-01

40

Continuous Laminar-Smoke Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single smoke filament used to study flow in low-speed wind tunnels. Use of small-diameter single laminar smoke stream allows examination of flow structures at higher resolution, and continuous operation facilitates use.

Weinstein, L. M.

1985-01-01

41

Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6?Pa for a flow rate of 20?L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8?Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18?m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76?m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

2013-01-01

42

Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.  

PubMed

We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates???5.7?L/min and???11.3?L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range?-?10(o) C ? To ?50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

2014-03-01

43

F-16XL Ship #2 during last flight showing titanium laminar flow glove on left wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dryden research pilot Dana Purifoy bends NASA F-16 XL #848 away from the tanker on the 44th flight in the Supersonic Laminar Flow Control program recently. The flight test portion of the program ended with the 45th and last data collection flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on Nov. 26, 1996. The project demonstrated that laminar--or smooth--airflow could be achieved over a major portion of a wing at supersonic speeds. The flight tests at Dryden involved use of a suction system which drew boundary-layer air through millions of tiny laser-drilled holes in a titanium 'glove' that was fitted to the upper surface of the F-16XL's left wing.

1996-01-01

44

F-16XL Ship #2 during last flight showing titanium laminar flow glove on left wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perforated titanium overlay mounted on the upper surface of the left wing is clearly evident on this view of NASA 848, a highly modified F-16XL aircraft flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) research program. The two-seat, single-engine craft, one of only two 'XL' F-16s built, recently concluded the SLFC project with its 45th data collection mission. The project demonstrated that laminar--or smooth--airflow could be achieved over a major portion of a wing at supersonic speeds by use of a suction system. The system drew a small part of the boundary-layer air through millions of tiny laser-drilled holes in the 'glove' fitted to the upper left wing.

1996-01-01

45

Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms  

SciTech Connect

A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip manufacturer can be cut 40% or more, and the associated greenhouse emissions even more. Cleanroom HVAC systems provide huge opportunities for energy savings in the semiconductor industry. In addition to direct cost reductions in cleanroom investment and operation, energy-efficient designs can reduce maintenance costs, increase power reliability, improve time-to-market in cleanroom production, and improve environmental quality. Companies that use energy efficiency to lower costs and increase productivity can gain a competitive advantage and achieve a higher return on investment. In addition, energy-efficient cleanroom systems conserve energy and natural resources, heightening the company's reputation as an environmentally conscious leader in the community and the industry. A significant portion of energy use in cleanroom environmental systems is associated with recirculating air systems. We will review and analyze design factors and operational performance of airflow systems in ISO Class 5 clean rooms. We will also discuss benefits of efficient cleanroom airflow designs in conjunction with effective cleanroom contamination control. We will consider the following common recirculating air system designs: fan-tower (FT) with pressurized-plenum; distributed air handler unit (AHU); and fan-filter unit (FFU).

Xu, Tengfang

2004-07-29

46

Supersonic laminar-flow control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.

Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

1987-01-01

47

Variable Speed Drive Volumetric Tracking (VSDVT) for Airflow Control in Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems  

E-print Network

An airflow control method has been developed for variable air volume (VAV) systems. This airflow control method is named VSD volumetric tracking (VSDVT) since both the supply and return airflows are determined using signals of the variable speed...

Liu, M.

2002-01-01

48

LIFTED LAMINAR JET DIFFUSION FLAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the numerical description of lifted flames in axisymmetric laminar coflow jets. The analysis considers moderately large values of the Reynolds number, when the boundary-layer approximation can be used to describe the slender mixing region that extends between the jet exit and the flame, providing the profiles of velocity and mixture fraction that exist immediately upstream from the

AMABLE LIÑÁN; EDUARDO FERNÁNDEZ-TARRAZO; MARCOS VERA; ANTONIO L. SÁNCHEZ

2005-01-01

49

Laminar flow: Challenge and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial air transportation has experienced revolutionary technology advances since WWII. These technology advances have resulted in an explosive growth in passenger traffic. Today, however, many technologies have matured, and maintaining a similar growth rate will be a challenge. A brief history of laminar flow technology and its application to subsonic and supersonic air transportation is presented.

Kirchner, Mark E.

1987-01-01

50

Laminar-flow flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

1989-01-01

51

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 ­ Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow: residential, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must

52

Optimization of VAV AHU Terminal Box Minimum Airflow  

E-print Network

is used in conventional control strategies. The terminal box minimum airflow required is not a constant since the supply air temperature, fresh air fraction and zone load are different. It is important to set up the minimum airflow to ensure IAQ...

Wang, Wei

2011-10-21

53

Impacts of Fluid Dynamics Simulation in Study of Nasal Airflow Physiology and Pathophysiology in Realistic Human Three-Dimensional Nose Models  

PubMed Central

During the past decades, numerous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, constructed from CT or MRI images, have simulated human nasal models. As compared to rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, which provide quantitative information only of nasal airflow, resistance, and cross sectional areas, CFD enables additional measurements of airflow passing through the nasal cavity that help visualize the physiologic impact of alterations in intranasal structures. Therefore, it becomes possible to quantitatively measure, and visually appreciate, the airflow pattern (laminar or turbulent), velocity, pressure, wall shear stress, particle deposition, and temperature changes at different flow rates, in different parts of the nasal cavity. The effects of both existing anatomical factors, as well as post-operative changes, can be assessed. With recent improvements in CFD technology and computing power, there is a promising future for CFD to become a useful tool in planning, predicting, and evaluating outcomes of nasal surgery. This review discusses the possibilities and potential impacts, as well as technical limitations, of using CFD simulation to better understand nasal airflow physiology. PMID:23205221

Lee, Heow Peuh; Gordon, Bruce R.

2012-01-01

54

Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

1986-01-01

55

Polymer transport by laminar flows  

E-print Network

Polymer transport is investigated for two paradigmatic laminar flows having open and closed streamlines, respectively. For both types of flows we find transport depletion owing to the action of the polymers elastic degree of freedom. For flows with closed streamlines the leading mechanism for the observed transport reduction is the (dynamical) formation of barriers. For flows with open streamlines the reduction of transport is induced by the renormalization of the bare diffusion coefficient. Results have been obtained by means of Lagrangian simulations.

M. De Lucia; A. Mazzino; A. Vulpiani

2002-02-18

56

Assembly of the Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll Antenna in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Requires Expression of the TLA2-CpFTSY Gene1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The truncated light-harvesting antenna2 (tla2) mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed a lighter-green phenotype, had a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per-cell content, and higher Chl a/b ratio than corresponding wild-type strains. Physiological analyses revealed a higher intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and greater Pmax values in the tla2 mutant than in the wild type. Biochemical analyses showed that the tla2 strain was deficient in the Chl a-b light-harvesting complex, and had a Chl antenna size of the photosystems that was only about 65% of that in the wild type. Molecular and genetic analyses showed a single plasmid insertion in the tla2 strain, causing a chromosomal DNA rearrangement and deletion/disruption of five nuclear genes. The TLA2 gene, causing the tla2 phenotype, was cloned by mapping the insertion site and upon complementation with each of the genes that were deleted. Successful complementation was achieved with the C. reinhardtii TLA2-CpFTSY gene, whose occurrence and function in green microalgae has not hitherto been investigated. Functional analysis showed that the nuclear-encoded and chloroplast-localized CrCpFTSY protein specifically operates in the assembly of the peripheral components of the Chl a-b light-harvesting antenna. In higher plants, a cpftsy null mutation inhibits assembly of both the light-harvesting complex and photosystem complexes, thus resulting in a seedling-lethal phenotype. The work shows that cpftsy deletion in green algae, but not in higher plants, can be employed to generate tla mutants. The latter exhibit improved solar energy conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity under mass culture and bright sunlight conditions. PMID:22114096

Kirst, Henning; García-Cerdán, Jose Gines; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Melis, Anastasios

2012-01-01

57

New superconduting T'La3+2- xRE 3+ xCuO4 with isovalent doping (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Lu, and Y)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis of new superconducting cuprates T'-La2-xRExCuO4 (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb Lu, and Y) using molecular beam epitaxy. The new superconductors have no effective dopant, at least nominally. The substitution of isovalent RE for La was essentially performed to stabilize the T' phase of La2CuO4 instead of the T phase. The maximum Tc onset is ~ 25

Akio Tsukada; Yoshiharu Krockenberger; Hideki Yamamoto; Michio Naito

58

New superconducting T'-(La3+)2-x(RE3+)xCuO4 with isovalent doping (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Lu, and Y)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis of new superconducting cuprates T'-La2-xRExCuO4 (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Lu, and Y) using molecular beam epitaxy. The new superconductors have no effective dopant, at least nominally. The substitution of isovalent RE for La was essentially performed to stabilize the T' phase of La2CuO4 instead of the T phase. The maximum Tconset is ~ 25 K

Akio Tsukada; Yoshiharu Krockenberger; Hideki Yamamoto; Michio Naito

2003-01-01

59

New superconduting cuprates with no effective doping: T'-(La3+)2-x(RE3+)xCuO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis of new superconducting cuprates T'-La2-xRExCuO4 (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Lu, and Y) using molecular beam epitaxy. The new superconductors have no effective dopant, at least nominally. The substitution of isovalent RE for La was essentially performed to stabilize the T' phase of La2CuO4 instead of the T phase. The maximum Tconset is ~ 25 K

A. Tsukada; Y. Krockenberger; H. Yamamoto; M. Naito

2004-01-01

60

Laminar vortex shedding behind a cooled circular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the functional demonstration of a hot air flow generator driven by convective heat transfer and the airflow behind a cooled circular cylinder in cross flow in the low velocity range. The wake flow was investigated experimentally using flow visualization, hot-wire anemometry, and laser Doppler anemometry. An evaluation of the free-stream velocity from the vortex shedding frequency was derived for the isothermal and non-isothermal cases and demonstrated using simple stroboscope measurements. The results confirm that cylinder cooling destabilizes the wake flow in air, i.e., the laminar steady regime can be changed into the vortex shedding regime, and the vortex shedding frequency increases as the cylinder temperature decreases. This thermal effect of cylinder cooling is consistent with its counterpart, the known effect of flow stabilization by cylinder heating. The effective temperature and effective Reynolds number concept have been further quantitatively evaluated, and the extension of their validity to the case of cooled cylinders has been confirmed.

Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Wang, An-Bang; Tu, Wen-Yun

2014-02-01

61

Airflow patterns in a small subalpine basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of mean wind speeds and directions has been completed in the Snowy Range of Southern Wyoming, U.S.A. It was conducted in a subalpine ecosystem at an altitude of 3 200 m to 3 400 m above sea level during the summers of 1988 and 1989. Indexes of deformation and axes of asymmetry due to wind shaping of Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa) are related to wind speeds and directions on a 100 m × 100 m grid spacing over the 300 ha research site. Isotach and airflow patterns are drawn to represent climatological near-ground-level winds. A statistical analysis of the wind data and deformation indexes indicates that the indexes estimated independently by three of the authors were not significantly different at the F0.025 level. Two methods of calculating wind speeds were applied. At lower mean wind speeds in Engelmann spruce, results from the Wade-Hewson method were not significantly different from the Griggs-Putnam method at the F0.025 level. In slightly higher wind speeds in subalpine fir, the Wade-Hewson method produced significantly lower wind speeds than the Griggs-Putnam method.

Wooldridge, G.; Musselman, R.; Connell, B.; Fox, D.

1992-03-01

62

Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation  

E-print Network

During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective trans- port of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 litre per second peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20ms, resulting in large- amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed...

Bates, Alister; Cetto, Raul; Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto; Tolley, Neil; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Schroter, Robert

2015-01-01

63

Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation.  

PubMed

During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s?¹ peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

Bates, A J; Doorly, D J; Cetto, R; Calmet, H; Gambaruto, A M; Tolley, N S; Houzeaux, G; Schroter, R C

2015-01-01

64

Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation  

PubMed Central

During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s?1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

2015-01-01

65

On laminar and turbulent friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

Von Karman, TH

1946-01-01

66

Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between…

Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.

2010-01-01

67

Soot growth in laminar premixed flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present investigation were to study soot processes in laminar premixed flames. Both experimental and computational methods were used: the experiments involved observations of the flame and soot properties of laminar premixed flames stabilized on flat-flame burners at atmospheric pressure, the computations involved predictions of flame structure using detailed mechanisms of transport and chemical kinetics as well

Fang Xu

1999-01-01

68

Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.

Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.

1989-01-01

69

Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion  

E-print Network

Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion N. Peters RWTH Aachen Ercoftac Summer School in Combustion Systems 1 Lecture 2: Calculation of Adiabatic Flame Temperatures and Chemical Equilibria 20: Laminar Diffusion Flames: Different Flow Geometries 156 Lecture 11: Turbulent Combustion: Introduction

Peters, Norbert

70

Burning Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (518KB, 20-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300182.html.

2003-01-01

71

Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300184.html.

2003-01-01

72

Chevrons formation in laminar erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When eroded by laminar free-surface flows, granular substrates may generate a rich variety of natural patterns. Among them are dunes, similar to the ones observed by Charru and Hinch in a Couette cell (Charru F, Hinch EJ ; Ripple formation on a particle bed sheared by a viscous liquid. Part 1. Steady flow ; JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 550: 111-121 MAR 10 2006). Chevron-shaped instabilities as those found on the sea-shore, can also be observed, sometimes in competition against dunes formation. These were first pointed out by Daerr et al. when pulling a plate covered with granular material out of a bath of water (Daerr A, Lee P, Lanuza J, et al. ; Erosion patterns in a sediment layer ; PHYSICAL REVIEW E 67 (6): Art. No. 065201 Part 2 JUN 2003). Both instabilities can grow in laminar open-channel flows, an experimental set-up which is more easily controlled. The mechanisms leading to the formation of these patterns are investigated and compared. Whereas dunes formation requires vertical inertia effects, we show that chevrons may result from the non-linear evolution of bars instability, which may grow even in purely viscous flows.

Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stephane; Nguyen, Khanh-Dang; Malverti, Luce; Lajeunesse, Eric

2007-11-01

73

Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and applied to actual systems for performance validation. The results of the theoretical analysis, numeric simulations, and experiments show that the optimal control algorithms can automatically identify the minimum rate of heating airflow under actual working conditions. Improved control helps to stabilize room air temperatures. The vertical difference in the room air temperature was lower than the comfort value. Measurements of room CO2 levels indicate that when the minimum airflow set point was reduced it did not adversely affect the indoor air quality. According to the measured energy results, optimal control algorithms give a lower rate of reheating energy consumption than conventional controls.

Cho, Young-Hum

74

Resistance to forced airflow through layers of composting organic material.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to adjust equations to estimate the static pressure gradient of airflow through layers of organic residues submitted to two stages of biochemical degradation, and to evaluate the static pressure drop of airflow thought the material layer. Measurements of static pressure drop in the layers of sugarcane bagasse and coffee husks mixed with poultry litter on day 0 and after 30 days of composting were performed using a prototype with specific airflow rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 m(3) s(-1) m(-2). Static pressure gradient and specific airflow rate data were properly fit to the Shedd, Hukill & Ives and Ergun models, which may be used to predict the static pressure gradient of air to be blown through the organic residue layers. However, the Shedd model was that which best represented the phenomenon studied. The static pressure drop of airflow increased as a power of the material layer thickness and showed tendency for decreasing with the biochemical degradation time of the organic material. PMID:25536861

Teixeira, Denis Leocádio; de Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Melo, Evandro de Castro

2015-02-01

75

Improvement of the nasal airflow by the nasal dilator Nozovent.  

PubMed

The lateral wall of the nostril is considered as the functional unit in the regulation of the nasal resistance causing more than half of the total resistance. In 16 test-subjects both nostrils were dilated with a plastic nasal device, Nozovent, and the airflow through the nose was measured with and without the device. In each object the mean value of ten inspirations at 150 Pa was calculated. Before the application the mean value of the subjects was 0.68 l/sec and with the device 0.84 l/sec. The improvement of airflow was comparable with that of treatment with nose-drops. The device ought to be helpful in patients with or without collapsing ala nasi during the night to increase nasal airflow when sleeping. PMID:3238284

Petruson, B

1988-12-01

76

Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

2005-01-01

77

Airflow studies in a forced ventilated chamber with low partitions  

SciTech Connect

A climate chamber was used to study experimentally the airflow characteristics in a ventilated space with low partitions. Two types of commonly used air distribution devices were selected for the study--a ceiling diffuser and side grille systems. A total of 16 tests were performed using the two diffusers with partition heights varying up to 1.8 m (5.91 ft) above floor level. From the measured results, the thermal comfort indices were assessed. A stabilization effect of airflow was found when the partition height reached 1.8 m (5.91 ft). Local draft risk was located in the occupied zone. Also, the modified Archimedes number proposed by Jackman (1990) was used to describe the indoor airflow in the absence of a workable design guide for partitioned spaces.

Chow, W.K.; Tsui, K.F. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

1995-12-31

78

Asthma, airflow limitation and mortality risk in the general population.  

PubMed

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease co-exist in a significant proportion of patients. Whether asthma increases mortality risk among subjects with airflow limitation remains controversial. We used data from 2121 adult participants in the population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease cohort. At enrolment (1972-1973), participants completed questionnaires and lung function tests. Participants were categorised into four groups based on the combination of airflow limitation (AL; forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <70%) and physician-confirmed asthma at baseline. Vital status as of January 2011 was assessed through the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in mortality risk across the four airflow limitation/asthma groups. In multivariate Cox models, the AL+/asthma+ group had a 114% increased mortality risk during follow-up compared with the AL-/asthma- group (adjusted HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.64-2.79). The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.34) and 1.34 (95% CI 1.14-1.57) for the AL-/asthma+ and AL+/asthma- groups, respectively. Among subjects with airflow limitation, asthma was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.12). However, this increased risk was substantially reduced and no longer significant after further adjustment for baseline FEV1 levels. Similar results were obtained when airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal. In a population-based cohort, subjects with concomitant airflow limitation and asthma had an increased risk of dying, which was mainly related to their baseline lung function deficits. PMID:25323227

Huang, Shuang; Vasquez, Monica M; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D; Guerra, Stefano

2015-02-01

79

Unidirectional pulmonary airflow patterns in the savannah monitor lizard.  

PubMed

The unidirectional airflow patterns in the lungs of birds have long been considered a unique and specialized trait associated with the oxygen demands of flying, their endothermic metabolism and unusual pulmonary architecture. However, the discovery of similar flow patterns in the lungs of crocodilians indicates that this character is probably ancestral for all archosaurs--the group that includes extant birds and crocodilians as well as their extinct relatives, such as pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Unidirectional flow in birds results from aerodynamic valves, rather than from sphincters or other physical mechanisms, and similar aerodynamic valves seem to be present in crocodilians. The anatomical and developmental similarities in the primary and secondary bronchi of birds and crocodilians suggest that these structures and airflow patterns may be homologous. The origin of this pattern is at least as old as the split between crocodilians and birds, which occurred in the Triassic period. Alternatively, this pattern of flow may be even older; this hypothesis can be tested by investigating patterns of airflow in members of the outgroup to birds and crocodilians, the Lepidosauromorpha (tuatara, lizards and snakes). Here we demonstrate region-specific unidirectional airflow in the lungs of the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). The presence of unidirectional flow in the lungs of V.?exanthematicus thus gives rise to two possible evolutionary scenarios: either unidirectional airflow evolved independently in archosaurs and monitor lizards, or these flow patterns are homologous in archosaurs and V.?exanthematicus, having evolved only once in ancestral diapsids (the clade encompassing snakes, lizards, crocodilians and birds). If unidirectional airflow is plesiomorphic for Diapsida, this respiratory character can be reconstructed for extinct diapsids, and evolved in a small ectothermic tetrapod during the Palaeozoic era at least a hundred million years before the origin of birds. PMID:24336209

Schachner, Emma R; Cieri, Robert L; Butler, James P; Farmer, C G

2014-02-20

80

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 3 of the Symposium proceedings contains papers addressing advanced airfoil development, flight research experiments, and supersonic transition/laminar flow control research. Specific topics include the design and testing of natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils, NLF wing gloves, and NLF nacelles; laminar boundary-layer stability over fuselage forebodies; the design of low noise supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels; and boundary layer instability mechanisms on swept leading edges at supersonic speeds.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

81

A faster 'transition' to laminar flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion is given of the ongoing research related to laminar flow airfoils, nacelles, and wings where the laminar flow is maintained by a favorable pressure gradient, surface suction or a combination of the two. Design methologies for natural laminar flow airfoil sections and wings for both low and high speed applications are outlined. Tests of a 7-foot chord, 23-deg sweep laminar flow-control airfoil at high subsonic Mach numbers are described, along with the associated stability theory used to design the suction system. The state-of-the-art of stability theory is simply stated and a typical calculation illustrated. In addition, recent computer simulations of transition using the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations are briefly described. Advances in wind tunnel capabilities and instrumentation will be reviewed, followed by the presentation of a few results from both wind tunnels and flight. Finally, some suggestions for future work will complete the paper.

Bobbitt, P. J.; Waggoner, E. G.; Harvey, W. D.; Dagenhart, J. R.

1985-01-01

82

Modeling airflow-related shear stress during heterogeneous constriction and mechanical ventilation  

E-print Network

Modeling airflow-related shear stress during heterogeneous constriction and mechanical ventilation, and Kenneth Lutchen. Modeling airflow-related shear stress during heterogeneous constriction and mechanical airflow-related shear stress to a dangerously high level that may be sufficient to cause injury

Lutchen, Kenneth

83

STATE OF CALIFORNIA HSPP/PSPP INSTALLATION; COOLING COIL AIRFLOW & FAN WATT DRAW TEST  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA HSPP/PSPP INSTALLATION; COOLING COIL AIRFLOW & FAN WATT DRAW TEST CEC- CF-4R TESTING CF-4R-MECH-22 HSPP/PSPP Installation; Cooling Coil Airflow & Fan Watt Draw Test (Page 1 of 3) Site When the Certificate of Compliance (CF1R )indicates Cooling Coil Airflow or Fan Watt Draw verification

84

STATE OF CALIFORNIA HSPP/PSPP INSTALLATION; COOLING COIL AIRFLOW & FAN WATT DRAW TEST  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA HSPP/PSPP INSTALLATION; COOLING COIL AIRFLOW & FAN WATT DRAW TEST CEC-CF-6R/PSPP Installation; Cooling Coil Airflow & Fan Watt Draw Test (Page 1 of 3) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit1R )indicates Cooling Coil Airflow or Fan Watt Draw verification are required, HSPP or PSPP

85

Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier  

DOEpatents

An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

86

Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

Catford, J.C.; And Others

87

Characterizing Exhaled Airflow from Breathing and Jitendra K. Gupta1  

E-print Network

Characterizing Exhaled Airflow from Breathing and Talking Jitendra K. Gupta1 Chao-Hsin Lin2 air comes from respiratory events such as the coughing, sneezing, breathing and talking. Accurate-fluid conditions of the exhaled air from the breathing and talking processes. The source model is a set

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

88

Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

1996-01-01

89

Laminar Flame Speeds of Moist Syngas Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This work experimentally investigates the effect of the presence of water vapor on the laminar flame speeds of moist syngas/air mixtures using the counterflow twin-flame configuration. The experimental results presented here are for fuel lean syngas mixtures with molar percentage of hydrogen in the hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture varying from 5% to 100%, for an unburned mixture temperature of 323 K, and under atmospheric pressure. At a given equivalence ratio, the effect of varying amount of water vapor addition on the measured laminar flame speed is demonstrated. The experimental laminar flame speeds are also compared with computed values using chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature. It is found that laminar flame speed varies non-monotonically with addition of water for the carbon monoxide rich mixtures. It first increases with increasing amount of water addition, reaches a maximum value, and then decreases. An integrated reaction path analysis is further conducted to understand the controlling mechanism responsible for the non-monotonic variation in laminar flame speed due to water addition. On the other hand, for higher values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio the laminar flame speed monotonically decreases with increasing water addition. It is shown that the competition between the chemical and thermal effects of water addition leads to the observed response. Furthermore, reaction rate sensitivity analysis as well as binary diffusion coefficient sensitivity analysis are conducted to identify the possible sources of discrepancy between the experimental and predicted values. The sensitivity results indicate that the reaction rate constant of H{sub 2} + OH = H{sub 2}O + H is worth revisiting and refinement of binary diffusion coefficient data of N{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}–H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O pairs can be considered.

Das, A. K.; Kumar, K.; Zhang, Z.; Sung, C. J.

2011-01-01

90

Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines  

SciTech Connect

Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

Xu, Tengfang

2003-01-05

91

Air Trapping and Airflow Obstruction in Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Piglets  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis. These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, inflammation, and mucus buildup. Objectives: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present before the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Methods: On the day they are born, piglets with cystic fibrosis lack airway infection and inflammation. Therefore, we used newborn wild-type piglets and piglets with cystic fibrosis to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory X-ray computed tomography scans. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes. Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator. Mean linear intercept and alveolar surface area were determined using stereologic methods. Measurements and Main Results: On the day they were born, piglets with cystic fibrosis exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type piglets (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively). Moreover, newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways. In contrast, mean linear intercept length, alveolar surface area, and lung volume were similar between both genotypes. Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis before the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development. Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be caused by congenital airway abnormalities. PMID:24168209

Adam, Ryan J.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Bauer, Christian; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Gross, Thomas J.; Awadalla, Maged S.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Diwakar, Amit; Ochs, Matthias; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.; Meyerholz, David K.

2013-01-01

92

Estimating subglottal pressure via airflow interruption with auditory masking.  

PubMed

Current noninvasive measurement of subglottal pressure using airflow interruption often produces inconsistent results due to the elicitation of audio-laryngeal reflexes. Auditory feedback could be considered as a means of ensuring measurement accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to determine if auditory masking could be used with the airflow interruption system to improve intrasubject consistency. A prerecorded sample of subject phonation was played on a loop over headphones during the trials with auditory masking. This provided subjects with a target pitch and blocked out distracting ambient noise created by the airflow interrupter. Subglottal pressure was noninvasively measured using the airflow interruption system. Thirty subjects, divided into two equal groups, performed 10 trials without auditory masking and 10 trials with auditory masking. Group one performed the normal trials first, followed by the trials with auditory masking. Group two performed the auditory masking trials first, followed by the normal trials. Intrasubject consistency was improved by adding auditory masking, resulting in a decrease in average intrasubject standard deviation from 0.93+/-0.51 to 0.47+/-0.22 cm H(2)O (P < 0.001). Auditory masking can be used effectively to combat audio-laryngeal reflexes and aid subjects in maintaining constant glottal configuration and frequency, thereby increasing intrasubject consistency when measuring subglottal pressure. By considering auditory feedback, a more reliable method of measurement was developed. This method could be used by clinicians, as reliable, immediately available values of subglottal pressure are useful in evaluating laryngeal health and monitoring treatment progress. PMID:18538988

Hoffman, Matthew R; Jiang, Jack J

2009-11-01

93

Development of Power-head based Fan Airflow Station  

E-print Network

the basic theory, experiment and results of the power-head based airflow station. Theory Figure 1 shows variable speed fan connection schematic. VFD is normally installed on the motor to adjust the motor speed by modulating frequency. Typically... if the motor and fan efficiency is known. fan fanmotormotor fan fanfan H W H W Q ??? ?? = ? = (2) Based on the motor theory, the motor efficiency is the function of the motor power. )( 1 motormotor Wf=? (3) Typically the motor efficiency can...

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01

94

A zero-equation turbulence model for indoor airflow simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, Computational-Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) with the ‘standard’ k-? model is a popular method for numerical simulation of room airflow. The k-? model needs a lot of computing time and large a computer. This paper proposes a new zero-equation model to simulate three dimensional distributions of air velocity, temperature, and contaminant concentrations in rooms. The method assumes turbulent viscosity to be

Qingyan Chen; Weiran Xu

1998-01-01

95

Numerical Simulations and Observations of Airflow through the Alenuihaha Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airflow characteristics in the coastal waters of the Hawaiian archipelago, particular the Alenuihaha Channel between the island of Hawaii and the Island of Maui, are examined using observations and model simulations from the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) Modeling System. Airflow features related to interaction with the archipelago, including seasonal and diurnal changes, are presented using data from the QuikSCAT satellite, various buoys and ship data gathered in the Alenuihaha Channel. Verifications of the WRF model is made through comparisons of several years of buoy data with respective years of a WRF model hindcast. Special attention is paid to the Alenuihaha Channel, the site of two historical buoys, where a notable acceleration of wind occurs in conjunction with a sinking of the trade-wind inversion. WRF simulations for July 2005 provides model support for the existence of accelerated winds, a lowering of the trade-wind inversion and a hydraulic jump within the channel, delineating their magnitude, degree of deflection, diurnal variations, and placement while elucidating their mechanics. Topographical influences of Maui on the airflow through the Alenuihaha Channel are explored by comparing WRF runs with Maui County with those in which it has been removed. These influences include island blocking/orographic lifting on the windward side and adiabatic descent on the lee side, which augment the pressure gradient through the channel.

Chen, Y.; Hitzl, D.; Nguyen, H.

2013-12-01

96

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid 1970's, NASA, industry, and universities have worked together to conduct important research focused at developing laminar flow technology that could reduce fuel consumption for general aviation, commuter, and transport aircraft by as much as 40 to 50 percent. The symposium was planned in view of the recent accomplishments within the areas of laminar flow control and natural laminar flow, and the potential benefits of laminar flow technology to the civil and military aircraft communities in the United States. Included were technical sessions on advanced theory and design tool development; wind tunnel and flight research; transition measurement and detection techniques; low and high Reynolds number research; and subsonic and supersonic research.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

97

On laminar steady flow in sinusoidal channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a perturbation method is developed in order to study viscous laminar flows through wavy-walled channels. The stream function of the flow is expanded in a series thereby the wall amplitude being the perturbation parameter. The walls of the channel are transformed into parallel straight lines in order to simplify the boundary conditions of the problem on

S. Tsangaris; E. Leiter

1984-01-01

98

LAMINAR: PRACTICAL FINE-GRAINED DECENTRALIZED INFORMATION  

E-print Network

guarantees. #12;Outline Comparison with current DIFC systems Laminar: programming model Design: PL + OS techniques Security regions Case studies and evaluation Summary #12;Current DIFC enabled systems #12;Untrusted code on trusted data Your computer holds trusted and sensitive data Credit card number

Witchel, Emmett

99

Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

Not Available

2014-02-01

100

Mixed laminar convection in Trombe wall channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional, steady, combined forced and natural convection in a vertical channel is investigated for the laminar regime. To simulate the Trombe wall channel geometry properly, horizontal inlet and exit segments have been added to the vertical channel. The vertical walls of the channel are maintained at constant but different temperatures while the horizontal walls are insulated. A finite difference

S. K. Chaturvedi; T. O. Mohieldin; G. C. Huang

1988-01-01

101

Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System  

PubMed Central

We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. PMID:22719793

Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M.

2012-01-01

102

Real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field by use of digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement and analysis of airflow field is very important in fluid dynamics. For airflow, smoke particles can be added to visually observe the turbulence phenomena by particle tracking technology, but the effect of smoke particles to follow the high speed airflow will reduce the measurement accuracy. In recent years, with the advantage of non-contact, nondestructive, fast and full-field measurement, digital holography has been widely applied in many fields, such as deformation and vibration analysis, particle characterization, refractive index measurement, and so on. In this paper, we present a method to measure the airflow field by use of digital holography. A small wind tunnel model made of acrylic glass is built to control the velocity and direction of airflow. Different shapes of samples such as aircraft wing and cylinder are placed in the wind tunnel model to produce different forms of flow field. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup, a series of digital holograms carrying the information of airflow filed distributions in different states are recorded by CCD camera and corresponding holographic images are numerically reconstructed from the holograms by computer. Then we can conveniently obtain the velocity or pressure information of the airflow deduced from the quantitative phase information of holographic images and visually display the airflow filed and its evolution in the form of a movie. The theory and experiment results show that digital holography is a robust and feasible approach for real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field.

Di, Jianglei; Wu, Bingjing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin

2013-04-01

103

Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages.  

PubMed Central

The nasal passages of laboratory animals and man are complex, and lesions induced in the delicate nasal lining by inhaled air pollutants vary considerably in location and nature. The distribution of nasal lesions is generally a consequence of regional deposition of the inhaled material, local tissue susceptibility, or a combination of these factors. Nasal uptake and regional deposition are are influenced by numerous factors including the physical and chemical properties of the inhaled material, such as water solubility and reactivity; airborne concentration and length of exposure; the presence of other air contaminants such as particulate matter; nasal metabolism, and blood and mucus flow. For certain highly water-soluble or reactive gases, nasal airflow patterns play a major role in determining lesion distribution. Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species. Local tissue susceptibility is also a complex issue that may be a consequence of many factors, including physiologic and metabolic characteristics of the diverse cell populations that comprise each of the major epithelial types lining the airways. Identification of the principal factors that influence the distribution and nature of nasal lesions is important when attempting the difficult process of determining potential human risks using data derived from laboratory animals. Toxicologic pathologists can contribute to this process by carefully identifying the site and nature of nasal lesions induced by inhaled materials. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:2200663

Morgan, K T; Monticello, T M

1990-01-01

104

Airflow within major Alpine river valleys under heavy rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study documents the airflow within major Alpine river valleys in the presence of precipitation. The analysis seeks a conceptual understanding of the effect of rain on the valley flow. Ground-based and airborne Doppler radar and surface data from the Mesoscale Alpine Programme show that during persistent rainy periods the subsidence caused by melting and evaporation of precipitation particles contributes to the formation of a down-valley flow. This down-valley flow opposes moist southerly flow aloft, which is lifted over the topographic barrier and in which precipitation particles are formed.

Steiner, Matthias; Bousquet, Olivier; Houze, Robert A.; Smull, Bradley F.; Mancini, Marco

2003-01-01

105

Testing of air-flow windows for evaluation and application  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of how the performance of air-flow windows was assessed in comparison to a conventional window of good current design. Tests were performed in the University Building Environment and Energy Laboratory which allowed tests quite representative of actual application conditions in a variety of vertical orientations. The actual application condition requirement necessitated some approximations to the energy measurements which are not found in guarded hot box or calorimeter kinds of approaches to performance evaluations. The testing technique and required approximations are described. A possible type of solar-residential application is also described briefly.

Boehm, R.F.; Brandle, K.

1980-12-01

106

Evaluation of airflow patterns in 2706-T and 2706-TA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the current placement of fixed head air samplers and continuous air monitors (CAMs) in the 2706-T and 2706-TA Complex. The airflow study consisted of 6 configurations of facility HVAC and HEPA filtration equipment to determine impacts on CAM location. The results of this study provide recommendations based on guidance in DOE G 411.1-8 and NUREG-1400 for placement of fixed head air samplers or CAMS within 2706-T and 2706-TA.

DEROSA, D.C.

1999-08-26

107

CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators. PMID:17933207

Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

2007-01-01

108

Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

1986-01-01

109

CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Smith, B. L. (Barton L.); Martin, R. A. (Richard A.)

2001-01-01

110

Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) composite is defined as composite laminate with up to five percent volume of fibrous reinforcement oriented in a 'trans-laminar' fashion in the through-thickness direction. The TLR can be continuous threads as in 'stitched laminates', or it can be discontinuous rods or pins as in 'Z-Fiber(TM) materials. It has been repeatedly documented in the literature that adding TLR to an otherwise two dimensional laminate results in the following advantages: substantially improved compression-after-impact response; considerably increased fracture toughness in mode 1 (double cantilever beam) and mode 2 (end notch flexure); and severely restricted size and growth of impact damage and edge delamination. TLR has also been used to eliminate catastrophic stiffener disbonding in stiffened structures. TLR directly supports the 'Achilles heel' of laminated composites, that is delamination. As little as one percent volume of TLR significantly alters the mechanical response of laminates. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of TLR on the in-plane and inter-laminar mechanical response of undamaged composite laminates. Detailed finite element models of 'unit cells', or representative volumes, were used to study the effects of adding TLR on the elastic constants; the in-plane strength; and the initiation of delamination. Parameters investigated included TLR material, TLR volume fraction, TLR diameter, TLR through-thickness angle, ply stacking sequence, and the microstructural features of pure resin regions and curved in-plane fibers. The work was limited to the linear response of undamaged material with at least one ply interface. An inter-laminar dominated problem of practical interest, a flanged skin in bending, was also modeled.

Hinders, Mark; Dickinson, Larry

1997-01-01

111

Veried Computations of Laminar Premixed Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The required spatial discretization to capture all detailed continuum physics in the re- action zone for one-dimensional steady laminar premixed hydrogen-air ames described by detailed kinetics and multi-component transport is accurately estimated a priori by a simple mean free path calculation. To verify this, a robust method has been developed to rigorously calculate the nest length scale a posteriori. The

Ashraf N. Al-Khateeb; Joseph M. Powers; Samuel Paolucci

112

Laminar Smoke Points of Wax Candles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of laminar smoke points of candle flames is presented. Adjustable wicks with diameters of 1.7–7.3 mm were used to measure smoke points in quiescent air for 14 different waxes. The measured smoke points increased with wick diameter. Smoke points interpolated to a wick diameter of 4.5 mm varied from 41–80 mm and increased from commercial waxes (candelilla, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin)

Kathryn M. Allan; John R. Kaminski; Jerry C. Bertrand; Jeb Head; Peter B. Sunderland

2009-01-01

113

Airflow and air quality in a large enclosure  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of air flow patterns and thermal parameters are essential in the design of a ventilation system for large enclosures. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using computer simulation to predict the airflow pattern and removal effectiveness of ventilation systems in large enclosures. The quality of air and thermal comfort in a three-floor shopping center are studied by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Two ventilation systems are selected. In System 1, rooms are ventilated by two ceiling slot diffusers, supplying air downward into the rooms. The halls are equipped with wall jet diffusers delivering air in a horizontal direction. Airflow and air quality, under both summer and winter conditions are investigated. In System 2, the air in each room is supplied in a radial manner by four ceiling rectangular diffusers. The hall and balconies have jet diffusers which supply air vertically downward. Different ventilation rates, outdoor air ratios and supply air temperatures are studied. Occupants are simulated by heat and CO{sub 2} sources without aerodynamic blockages. It was found that the summer and winter air temperature differences in the sopping center differ by approximately 2 C. The rectangular air diffusers should be used in the rooms and the jet diffusers in the halls and balconies. Both the variable air volume and the constant air volume methods, with an adjusted supply air temperature, can be used for air conditioning control in a large enclosure.

Jiang, Z. [MAYA Heat Transfer Technology, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chen, Q. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Architecture; Haghighat, F. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Building Studies

1995-05-01

114

Building ventilation : a pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of  

E-print Network

Building ventilation : a pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of validation H. Thus in tropical climates, natural ventilation affects essentially the inside comfort by favouring, the energetic aspect is the determining factor in these airflow transfers. In fact the importance of ventilation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Studies on the Fluctuation Characteristics of Airflow in the Built Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluctuation characteristic of airflow is one of the important factors to influence the indoor thermal environment and human thermal comfort, which attracts researchers' interest in these years. This paper introduces the recent researches on the fluctuation characteristics of airflow conducted in Tsinghua University. Results show that there exist obvious differences and interesting connections between the fluctuation characteristics of natural

ZHU Yingxin; OUYANG Qin; JIANG Yi

116

Estimating Engine Airflow in Gas-Turbine Powered Aircraft with Clean and Distorted Inlet Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The P404-GF-400 Powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the impact of inlet-generated total-pressure distortion on estimating levels of engine airflow. Five airflow estimation methods were studied. The Reference Method was a fan corrected airflow to fan corrected speed calibration from an uninstalled engine test. In-flight airflow estimation methods utilized the average, or individual, inlet duct static- to total-pressure ratios, and the average fan-discharge static-pressure to average inlet total-pressure ratio. Correlations were established at low distortion conditions for each method relative to the Reference Method. A range of distorted inlet flow conditions were obtained from -10 deg. to +60 deg. angle of attack and -7 deg. to +11 deg. angle of sideslip. The individual inlet duct pressure ratio correlation resulted in a 2.3 percent airflow spread for all distorted flow levels with a bias error of -0.7 percent. The fan discharge pressure ratio correlation gave results with a 0.6 percent airflow spread with essentially no systematic error. Inlet-generated total-pressure distortion and turbulence had no significant impact on the P404-GE400 engine airflow pumping. Therefore, a speed-flow relationship may provide the best airflow estimate for a specific engine under all flight conditions.

Williams, J. G.; Steenken, W. G.; Yuhas, A. J.

1996-01-01

117

Effects of vowel height and vocal intensity on anticipatory nasal airflow in individuals with normal speech.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vowel height and vocal intensity on the magnitude of anticipatory nasal airflow in normal speakers when producing vowel-nasal-vowel (VNV) sequences. Measurements of nasal and oral airflow were obtained from 15 men and 12 women with normal speech during production of the VNV sequences /ini/ and /ana/ at low, medium, and high intensity levels. Ratios of nasal to oral-plus-nasal airflow were calculated for the initial vowel of both utterances at each of the intensity levels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures indicated a significant main effect of intensity level and a significant vowel-by-sex interaction effect (p < .05) on the airflow ratios. Overall, the airflow ratio was reduced at high as compared to low intensity levels, regardless of sex of the speaker or vowel type. Female speakers exhibited greater airflow ratios during production of /ini/ than during productions of /ana/. Their airflow ratios were also greater during production of /ini/ than were those of male speakers. The results suggest that vocal intensity may affect velopharyngeal (VP) function in an assimilative nasal phonetic context. The results further suggest that anticipatory nasal airflow may be determined by the configuration of the oral cavity to a greater extent in women than in men. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:11218109

Young, L H; Zajac, D J; Mayo, R; Hooper, C R

2001-02-01

118

AN ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY SCAVENGER FROM DIRECT AIRFLOW Seong-Hyok Kim1  

E-print Network

oscillation from quasi-constant airflow; and a permanent magnet/coil system, which generates electrical power. Rotary permanent magnet generators to harness this source have been developed [5], but such machinesAN ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY SCAVENGER FROM DIRECT AIRFLOW Seong-Hyok Kim1 , Chang-Hyeon Ji1 , Preston

119

Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots  

E-print Network

Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots by Cecilia Rodriguez Aragon Doctor to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate

Hearst, Marti

120

IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Diagnostic Cases: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents a set of in-depth diagnostic test cases for multi-zone heat transfer models that do not include the heat and mass transfer effects of airflow between zones. The multi-zone non-airflow test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST (Judkoff and Neymark 1995a).

Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Alexander, D.; Felsmann, C.; Strachan, P.; Wijsman, A.

2011-11-01

121

Simulating Buoyancy-Driven Airflow in Buildings by1 Coarse-Grid Fast Fluid Dynamics2  

E-print Network

1 Simulating Buoyancy-Driven Airflow in Buildings by1 Coarse-Grid Fast Fluid Dynamics2 Mingang Jin1 the literature. The improved model has also been used to calculate the19 ventilation rate for buoyancy The integrated model was tested with buoyancy-driven airflow in buildings.28 The plume model can improve

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

122

NASA Flight Tests Explore Supersonic Laminar Flow - Duration: 55 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Centerâ??s tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...

123

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 of the Symposium proceedings includes papers addressing various topics in basic wind tunnel research/techniques and computational transitional research. Specific topics include: advanced measurement techniques; laminar flow control; Tollmien-Schlichting wave characteristics; boundary layer transition; flow visualization; wind tunnel tests; flight tests; boundary layer equations; swept wings; and skin friction.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

124

Slip-boundary equations for multicomponent nonequilibrium airflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for the surface-slip (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low Reynolds number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. These are obtained from closed-form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations by using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent airflow, includes the finite-rare surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various slip quantities have been obtained in a form which can readily be employed in flow-field computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent and binary mixtures and single-species gas. An expression is also provided for the finite-rate species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in the absence of slip.

Gupta, R. N.; Scott, C. D.; Moss, J. N.

1985-01-01

125

Precision temperature controlled filtered laminar air enclosure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a novel temperature controlled filtered laminar air enclosure composed of primarily off-the-shelf components that can be applied to a broad class of systems to significantly enhance their performance. An air mixing method is employed to provide variable cooling of the incoming filtered air, providing a temperature stability of ± 0.02 °C within the enclosure. The method is inexpensive to implement, and is suitable for a wide range of temperature controlled enclosures, with dimensions in the approximate range from 1 m to 5 m, making it ideal for many scientific applications.

Dedman, C. J.; Henson, B. M.; Khakimov, R. I.; Truscott, A. G.; Dall, R. G.

2015-02-01

126

Velocity profiles in laminar diffusion flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Velocity profiles in vertical laminar diffusion flames were measured by using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Four fuels were used: n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, and ethyl alcohol. The velocity profiles were similar for all the fuels, although there were some differences in the peak velocities. The data compared favorably with the theoretical velocity predictions. The differences could be attributed to errors in experimental positioning and in the prediction of temperature profiles. Error in the predicted temperature profiles are probably due to the difficulty in predicting the radiative heat losses from the flame.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Margle, Janice M.

1986-01-01

127

Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.  

PubMed

The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect. PMID:16354777

Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

2006-01-01

128

Properties of surface arc discharge in a supersonic airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of a direct-current, surface arc discharge in a Mach 2 cold supersonic airflow is presented. The surface arc discharge is generated with cylindrical tungsten electrodes flush-mounted on a boron-nitride ceramic plate embedded in the lower wall of the supersonic test section. In the presence of airflow, gas breakdown voltage increases from 1.5 kV in stationary air to 2 kV due to particle number density augmentation in the flow. The surface arc discharge transforms from a continuous mode in stationary air to a pulsed-repetitive mode in the flow. The mean time interval between discharge pulses is about 4.3 ms. For a single pulse, arc discharge occupies only about 60 µs. The discharge photos taken by a high-speed CCD camera (framing rate 1125 Hz) validate this pulsed-repetitive process and indicate that the plasma channel of the surface arc discharge is blown downstream by the supersonic flow. As the length of the plasma channel increases, the discharge voltage also increases. When the channel length reaches a critical value (~25 mm), the dc power supply (3 kV-4 kW) cannot sustain the discharge voltage (~3 kV) and the Joule heating energy cannot balance the dissipation of constrained convection, and hence the discharge quenches immediately. Current and voltage measurements demonstrate that the discharge process in a single pulse can be separated into three distinct phases: strong-pulsed breakdown process, steady discharge process and discharge attenuation process. Finally, the underlying mechanism of the dynamic process of surface arc discharge in supersonic flow is discussed. This paper provides more insights into the mechanism of supersonic flow control (in particular, shock waves) by a surface arc discharge.

Li, Yinghong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng; An, Zhiyong; Hou, Shengli; Xing, Fei

2010-04-01

129

Uninstrumented assembly airflow testing in the Annular Flow Distribution facility  

SciTech Connect

During the Emergency Cooling System phase of a postulated large-break loss of coolant accident (ECS-LOCA), air enters the primary loop and is pumped down the reactor assemblies. One of the experiments performed to support the analysis of this accident was the Annular Flow Distribution (AFD) experiment, conducted in a facility built for this purpose at Babcock and Wilcox Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. As part of this experiment, a large body of airflow data were acquired in a prototypical mockup of the Mark 22 reactor assembly. This assembly was known as the AFD (or the I-AFD here) reference assembly. The I-AFD assembly was fully prototypical, having been manufactured in SRS`s production fabrication facility. Similar Mark 22 mockup assemblies were tested in several test facilities in the SRS Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). Discrepancies were found. The present report documents further work done to address the discrepancy in airflow measurements between the AFD facility and HTL facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to disseminate the data from the U-AFD test, and to compare these test results to the I-AFD data and the U-AT data. A summary table of the test data and the B&W data transmittal letter are included as an attachment to this report. The full data transmittal volume from B&W (including time plots of the various instruments) is included as an appendix to this report. These data are further analyzed by comparing them to two other HTL tests, namely, SPRIHTE 1 and the Single Assembly Test Stand (SATS).

Kielpinski, A.L.

1992-02-01

130

Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.  

PubMed

Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands. PMID:25405953

Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

2014-12-01

131

Spectral analysis of single-channel airflow and oxygen saturation recordings in obstructive sleep apnea detection.  

PubMed

This study investigated the usefulness of the very low spectral content of single-channel airflow recordings to help in the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Additionally, we evaluated whether airflow frequency components in the 0.01 - 0.10 Hz band are linked with desaturations in blood oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) recordings due to apnea events. The relationship between changes in airflow and SaO(2) was analyzed by means of the magnitude squared coherence (MSC) function. Power spectral density (PSD) was used to obtain the power spectrum of single airflow and SaO(2) signals. Peak amplitude (PA) and relative power (P(R)) were used to parameterize the power spectrum in the very low frequency band. 148 subjects suspected of suffering from OSA were studied. Significant differences (p-value ? 0.01) between OSA positive and OSA negative subjects were obtained from PSD and MSC features. We found a power increase in the very low frequency band of single-channel airflow linked with the periodic desaturations of OSA. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 84.0%, 85.4% and 84.5%, respectively, were reached with the peak amplitude of the airflow PSD. Thus, spectral features from the very low frequency components of single-channel airflow recordings could provide useful information to help in OSA diagnosis. PMID:21096316

Alvarez, Daniel; Gutierrez, G C; Marcos, J Victor; Del Campo, Felix; Hornero, Roberto

2010-01-01

132

The Course of Persistent Airflow Limitation in Subjects with and without Asthma  

PubMed Central

Rationale Most patients who develop persistent airflow limitation do so either as a manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is largely related to smoking or as a consequence of persistent asthma. We sought to compare the natural course of lung function associated with persistent airflow limitation in subjects with and without asthma from early to late adult life. Methods We studied 2552 participants aged 25 or more who had multiple questionnaire and lung function data from the long-term prospective population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease. Persistent airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio consistently < 70% in all completed surveys subsequent to the first survey with airflow limitation. Participants were divided into nine groups based on the combination of their physician-confirmed asthma status (never, onset ? 25 years, or onset > 25 years) and the presence of airflow limitation during the study follow-up (never, inconsistent, or persistent). Results Among subjects with an asthma onset ? 25 years, blood eosinophilia increased significantly the odds of developing persistent airflow limitation (adjOR: 3.7, 1.4–9.5), whereas cigarette smoking was the strongest risk factor for persistent airflow limitation among non-asthmatics and among subjects with asthma onset after age 25 years. Among subjects with persistent airflow limitation, the natural course of lung function differed between subjects with asthma onset ? 25 years and non-asthmatics, with the former having lower FEV1 levels at age 25 (predicted value for a 175-cm tall male of 3,400 versus 4,090 ml, respectively; p<0.001) and the latter having greater FEV1 loss between age 25 and 75 (1,590 versus 2,140 ml; p=0.003). Conclusion In subjects who have asthma onset before 25 years of age and persistent airflow limitation in adult life, the bulk of the FEV1 deficit is already established before age 25 years. PMID:18684603

Guerra, Stefano; Sherrill, Duane L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Venker, Claire; Halonen, Marilyn; Quan, Stuart F; Martinez, Fernando D

2008-01-01

133

Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.  

PubMed

Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n?=?3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

2014-01-01

134

Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings  

PubMed Central

Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n?=?3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration—similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

2014-01-01

135

Series of Laminar Soot Processes Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (189KB JPEG, 1350 x 1517 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300183.html.

2003-01-01

136

A Series of Laminar Jet Flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (249KB JPEG, 1350 x 1524 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300185.html.

2003-01-01

137

Data Visualization of Invisible Airflow Hazards During Helicopter Takeoff and Landing Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground such as vortices, downdrafts, wind shear, microbursts, or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing airplanes, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, which often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions. We are developing flight-deck visualizations of airflow hazards during helicopter takeoff and landing operations, and are evaluating their effectiveness with usability studies. Our hope is.that this work will lead to the production of an airflow hazard detection system for pilots that will save lives.

Aragon, Cecilia R.

2004-01-01

138

Care For Patients With Severe Chronic Airflow Obstruction And Respiratory Failure  

PubMed Central

The successful care of patients with disorders causing chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and potential chronic respiratory failure and pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale) requires the following: 1. Recognize CAO as the cause of a patient's problem. 2. Describe and measure airflow obstruction and the individual's response to it. 3. Undertake therapeutic trials to maximize airflow. 4. Teach patients monitoring skills and interventions in order to prevent acute respiratory failure and hospital admission. 5. Maintain optimism and interest in the patient's chronic illness, appreciating its impact on the total person and his daily life. PMID:21297794

Pugsley, S. O.; Robinson, L. A.

1979-01-01

139

Numerical Simulation of Airflow Fields in Two Typical Nasal Structures of Empty Nose Syndrome: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of empty nose syndrome (ENS) has not been elucidated so far. Though postulated, there remains a lack of experimental evidence about the roles of nasal aerodynamics on the development of ENS. Objective To investigate the nasal aerodynamic features of ENS andto explore the role of aerodynamic changes on the pathogenesis of ENS. Methods Seven sinonasal models were numerically constructed, based on the high resolution computed tomography images of seven healthy male adults. Bilateral radical inferior/middle turbinectomy were numerically performed to mimic the typical nasal structures of ENS-inferior turbinate (ENS-IT) and ENS-middle turbinate (ENS-MT). A steady laminar model was applied in calculation. Velocity, pressure, streamlines, air flux and wall shear stress were numerically investigated. Each parameter of normal structures was compared with those of the corresponding pathological models of ENS-IT and ENS-MT, respectively. Results ENS-MT: Streamlines, air flux distribution, and wall shear stress distribution were generally similar to those of the normal structures; nasal resistances decreased. Velocities decreased locally, while increased around the sphenopalatine ganglion by 0.20±0.17m/s and 0.22±0.10m/s during inspiration and expiration, respectively. ENS-IT: Streamlines were less organized with new vortexes shown near the bottom wall. The airflow rates passing through the nasal olfactory area decreased by 26.27%±8.68% and 13.18%±7.59% during inspiration and expiration, respectively. Wall shear stresses, nasal resistances and local velocities all decreased. Conclusion Our CFD simulation study suggests that the changes in nasal aerodynamics may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of ENS. An increased velocity around the sphenopalatine ganglion in the ENS-MT models could be responsible for headache in patients with ENS-MT. However, these results need to be validated in further studies with a larger sample size and more complicated calculating models. PMID:24367645

Di, Meng-Yang; Jiang, Zhe; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi; An, Yi-Ran; Lv, Wei

2013-01-01

140

Fabrication, characterization, and simulation of a cantilever-based airflow sensor integrated with optical fiber.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the fabrication and packaging of a cantilever-based airflow sensor integrated with optical fiber. The sensor consists of a micro Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity including a fiber and a micro cantilever that is fabricated using the photolithography method. Airflow causes a small deflection of the micro cantilever and changes the cavity length of the FP, which makes the fringe shift. The pressure distribution and velocity streamlines across the cantilever resulted from the airflow in the channel have been simulated by the finite element method. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensor has a linear sensitivity of 190 [fringe shift (pm)] per (l/min) and a minimum detectable airflow change of 0.05 (l/min). PMID:23669859

Cheri, M Sadegh; Latifi, Hamid; Aghbolagh, F Beygi Azar; Naeini, O R Ranjbar; Taghavi, Majid; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir

2013-05-10

141

Building ventilation: A pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of validation  

E-print Network

The calculation of airflows is of great importance for detailed building thermal simulation computer codes, these airflows most frequently constituting an important thermal coupling between the building and the outside on one hand, and the different thermal zones on the other. The driving effects of air movement, which are the wind and the thermal buoyancy, are briefly outlined and we look closely at their coupling in the case of buildings, by exploring the difficulties associated with large openings. Some numerical problems tied to the resolving of the non-linear system established are also covered. Part of a detailled simulation software (CODYRUN), the numerical implementation of this airflow model is explained, insisting on data organization and processing allowing the calculation of the airflows. Comparisons are then made between the model results and in one hand analytical expressions and in another and experimental measurements in case of a collective dwelling.

Boyer, H; Adelard, L; Mara, T A

2012-01-01

142

Airflow patterns in the vicinity of an air-driven free reed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free reed instruments are characterized by high-volume airflow rates through the oscillating reeds. Measurements have been made of the average volume flow rate through a single American organ reed as a function of blowing pressure. In addition, measurements of average air velocity have been made at a grid of points close to the vibrating air-driven reed, mounted on the surface of a laboratory wind chest. These measurements supplement earlier investigations, which explored relations among the reed motion, airflow, and acoustic pressure associated with the vibration of free reeds. [M. Busha and J. P. Cottingham, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2376 (2002)]. An attempt has been made to determine whether the left-right asymmetry due to the asymmetric shape (twist) of the reed is reflected in the airflow pattern. A graphing program has been developed so that the airflow pattern can be visualized in two or three dimensions.

Jensen, Jesse T.; Cottingham, James P.

2003-10-01

143

Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a 16-generation tracheobronchial airway model  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to achieve both manageable simulation and local accuracy of airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a representative human tracheobronchial (TB) region, the complex airway network was decomposed into adjustable triple-bifurcation units, spreading axially and laterally. Gi...

144

Coupling of a multizone airflow simulation program with computational fluid dynamics for indoor environmental analysis  

E-print Network

Current design of building indoor environment comprises macroscopIC approaches, such as CONT AM multizone airflow analysis tool, and microscopic approaches that apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Each has certain ...

Gao, Yang, 1974-

2002-01-01

145

Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

2008-03-01

146

Bioinspired carbon nanotube fuzzy fiber hair sensor for air-flow detection.  

PubMed

Artificial hair sensors consisting of a piezoresistive carbon-nanotube-coated glass fiber embedded in a microcapillary are assembled and characterized. Individual sensors resemble a hair plug that may be integrated in a wide range of host materials. The sensors demonstrate an air-flow detection threshold of less than 1 m/s with a piezoresistive sensitivity of 1.3% per m/s air-flow change. PMID:24665067

Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Dickinson, Benjamin T; Phillips, David M; Ray, Cody W; Reich, Greg W; Baur, Jeffery W

2014-05-28

147

LINKING THE COMIS MULTI-ZONE AIRFLOW MODEL WITH THE ENERGYPLUS BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an effort to link the COMIS 3.0 multi-zone airflow model with the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. COMIS 3.0 is a network-based multi-zone a irflow model developed by a multinational team in the framework of International Energy Agency's Annex 23 for simulating airflows through the building fabric due to infiltration or natural ventilation, and from zone to

Joe Huang; Fred Winkelmann; Fred Buhl; Curtis Pedersen; Daniel Fisher; Richard Liesen; Russell Taylor; Richard Strand; Linda Lawrie

148

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-09-01

149

Thermohydrodynamic analysis for laminar lubricating films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Galerkin-type analysis to include thermal effects in laminar lubricating films was performed. The lubricant properties were assumed constant except for a temperature-dependent Newtonian viscosity. The cross-film temperature profile is established by collocation at the film boundaries and two interior Lobatto points. The interior temperatures are determined by requiring that the zeroth and first moment of the energy equation be satisfied across the film. The fluidity is forced to conform to a third--degree polynomial appropriate to the Lobatto-point temperatures. Preliminary indications are that the use of just two such sampling points enables satisfactory prediction of bearing performance even in the presence of substantial viscosity variation.

Elrod, H. G.; Brewe, D. E.

1986-01-01

150

Laminar superlayer at the turbulence boundary.  

PubMed

In this Letter we present results from particle tracking velocimetry and direct numerical simulation that are congruent with the existence of a laminar superlayer, as proposed in the pioneering work of Corrsin and Kistler (NACA, Technical Report No. 1244, 1955). We find that the local superlayer velocity is dominated by a viscous component and its magnitude is comparable to the characteristic velocity of the smallest scales of motion. This slow viscous process involves a large surface area so that the global rate of turbulence spreading is set by the largest scales of motion. These findings are important for a better understanding of mixing of mass and momentum in a variety of flows where thin layers of shear exist. Examples are boundary layers, clouds, planetary atmospheres, and oceans. PMID:21517388

Holzner, M; Lüthi, B

2011-04-01

151

Laminar flow control perforated wing panel development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many structural concepts for a wing leading edge laminar flow control hybrid panel were analytically investigated. After many small, medium, and large tests, the selected design was verified. New analytic methods were developed to combine porous titanium sheet bonded to a substructure of fiberglass and carbon/epoxy cloth. At -65 and +160 F test conditions, the critical bond of the porous titanium to the composite failed at lower than anticipated test loads. New cure cycles, design improvements, and test improvements significantly improved the strength and reduced the deflections from thermal and lateral loadings. The wave tolerance limits for turbulence were not exceeded. Consideration of the beam column midbay deflections from the combinations of the axial and lateral loadings and thermal bowing at -65 F, room temperature, and +160 F were included. Many lap shear tests were performed at several cure cycles. Results indicate that sufficient verification was obtained to fabricate a demonstration vehicle.

Fischler, J. E.

1986-01-01

152

On the combustion of a laminar spray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spray combustor, with flow velocities in the laminar range, exhibits a unique operating mode where large amplitude, self-induced oscillations of the flame shape occur. The phenomenon, not previously encountered, only occurs when fuel is supplied in the form of fine liquid droplets and does not occur when fuel is supplied in gaseous form. Several flow mechanisms are coupled in such a fashion as to trigger and maintain the oscillatory motion of the flame. These mechanisms include heat transfer and evaporation processes, dynamics of two-phase flows, and effects of gravity (buoyancy forces). An interface volume, lying above the fuel nozzle and below the flame was found to be the most susceptible to gravity effects and postulated to be responsible for inducing the oscillatory motion. Heptane fuel was used in the majority of the tests. Tests performed with iso-octane also showed similar results.

Levy, Yeshayahou; Bulzan, Daniel L.

1993-01-01

153

Simultaneous detection of particles and airflow with a MEMS piezoresistive cantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a particle and airflow sensor using a MEMS piezoresistive cantilever with the dimensions of 250 µm × 200 µm × 0.29 µm. The sensor structure is simple and detects both the airflow velocity and particle collisions by measuring the fractional resistance change due to the cantilever bending. The signals of the airflow velocity and particle collisions can be simultaneously detected by distinguishing continuous and pulse responses. The sensitivity to the airflow velocity was 1.2 × 10-3 (m/s)-1 from 0 to 2.5 m s-1. When a particle of 35 µm diameter (Lycopodium) collided with the cantilever surface, the fractional resistance change varied with the collision. After the collision, reverberation occurred at 3 kHz, which was the same as the resonance frequency of the cantilever. The magnitude of the fractional resistance changes due to particle collision was proportional to the airflow velocity. The sensitivity to particle collision was 2.0 × 10-3 (m/s)-1 when the airflow velocity varied between 0 and 2.5 m s-1.

Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Kan, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

2013-02-01

154

Pulsatile airflow during phonation: an excised larynx model.  

PubMed

Pulsatile airflow in the excised larynx was investigated with simultaneous recordings of air velocity, subglottal pressure, volume flow, and the electroglottograph signal for various conditions of the larynx. Canine larynges were mounted on a bench with sutures attached to cartilages to mimic the function of laryngeal muscles. Sustained oscillations were established and maintained with the flow of heated and humidified air through the trachea. The instantaneous air velocity above the glottis, which is the summation of a periodic velocity and the turbulent component, was measured with a constant temperature hot-wire probe at various locations. The phase-averaged velocity was used to construct the patterns of jet flow at selected time frames of the oscillation cycle. Results suggest that supraglottal air velocity is highly spatially and temporally dependent. Cycles of local air velocity with double peaks were not uncommon and a case is provided. For one phase-averaged phonatory cycle, a 9 x 13 velocity measurement grid demonstrated strongly nonuniform velocity surfaces for eight phases of the cycle, with greater velocities located anteriorly. PMID:7876445

Alipour, F; Scherer, R C

1995-02-01

155

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow.  

PubMed

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of "star drops". This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars. PMID:24032934

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2013-08-01

156

Cigarette smoke potentiates asbestos-induced airflow abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that exposure to both asbestos and cigarette smoke can produce worse parenchymal lung disease than exposure to asbestos alone. Using a guinea pig model of asbestos administration that produces primarily airway disease and associated airflow abnormalities, we showed previously that the combination of asbestos and smoke acts synergistically to produce more marked increases in tissue collagen, fibrosis of airway walls, and early interstitial fibrosis than are seen with asbestos alone. To investigate the functional effects of these morphological and biochemical abnormalities, pulmonary function tests for volumes and flows, including lung volumes, pressure-volume curves, and flow-volume curves, were performed. By themselves, both smoke and asbestos produced increases in total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC); the two agents together made all these changes worse than either one alone. Both smoking and asbestos moved the pressure-volume curve upward, and the effects of the two agents together were again greater than either alone. Similarly, both smoke and asbestos decreased flows, and the two agents produced more severe impairment than either one by itself. The changes in volumes, pressure-volume curve, and flows correlated with both increased thickness of small airway walls and increases in airspace size. These observations indicate that, at least in this guinea pig model, cigarette smoke can potentiate the functional consequences of asbestos exposure.

Wright, J.L.; Tron, V.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

1988-01-01

157

Current Laminar Flow Control Experiments at NASA Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to demonstrate laminar flow over the swept wing of a subsonic transport is being developed. Discrete Roughness Elements are being used to maintain laminar flow over a substantial portion of a wing glove. This passive laminar flow technology has only come to be recognized as a significant player in airliner drag reduction in the last few years. NASA is implementing this experiment and is planning to demonstrate this technology at full-scale Bight cruise conditions of a small-to-medium airliner.

Bowers, Al

2010-01-01

158

Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

1988-01-01

159

Three-Dimensional Engineered High Fidelity Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLA) as Targets for Human Respiratory Virus Infections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like assemblies (TLA) (Goodwin et aI, 1992, 1993, 2000 and Nickerson et aI. , 2001,2002) offer high organ fidelity with the potential to emulate the infective dynamics of viruses and bacteria in vivo. Thus, utilizing NASA micro gravity Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology, in vitro human broncho-epithelial (HBE) TLAs were engineered to mimic in vivo tissue for study of human respiratory viruses. These 3D HBE TLAs were propagated from a human broncho-tracheal cell line with a mesenchymal component (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and either an adult human broncho-epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) or human neonatal epithelial cell (16HBE140-) as the overlying element. Resulting TLAs share several characteristic features with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including tight junctions, desmosomes and cilia (SEM, TEM). The presence of epithelium and specific lung epithelium markers furthers the contention that these HBE cells differentiate into TLAs paralleling in vivo tissues. A time course of infection of these 3D HBE TLAs with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) wild type A2 strain, indicates that virus replication and virus budding are supported and manifested by increasing virus titer and detection of membrane-bound F and G glycoproteins. Infected 3D HBE TLAs remain intact for up to 12 days compared to infected 2D cultures that are destroyed in 2-3 days. Infected cells show an increased vacuolation and cellular destruction (by transmission electron microscopy) by day 9; whereas, uninfected cells remain robust and morphologically intact. Therefore, the 3D HBE TLAs mimic aspects of human respiratory epithelium providing a unique opportunity to analyze, for the first time, simulated in vivo viral infection independent of host immune response.

Goodwin, T. J.; Deatly, A. M.; Suderman, M. T.; Lin, Y.-H.; Chen, W.; Gupta, C. K.; Randolph, V. B.; Udem, S. A.

2003-01-01

160

Selected experiments in laminar flow: An annotated bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1930s, there have been attempts to reduce drag on airplanes by delaying laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Experiments conducted during the 1940's, while successful in delaying transition, were discouraging because of the careful surface preparation necessary to meet roughness and waviness requirements. The resulting lull in research lasted nearly 30 years. By the late 1970s, airframe construction techniques had advanced sufficiently that the high surface quality required for natural laminar flow (NLF) and laminar flow control (LFC) appeared possible on production aircraft. As a result, NLF and LFC research became widespread. This report is an overview of that research. The experiments summarized herein were selected for their applicability to small transonic aircraft. Both flight and wind tunnel tests are included. The description of each experiment is followed by corresponding references. Part One summarizes NLF experiments; Part Two deals with LFC and hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiments.

Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.

1992-01-01

161

Advanced stability theory analyses for laminar flow control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments of the SALLY computer code for stability analysis of laminar flow control wings are summarized. Extensions of SALLY to study three dimensional compressible flows, nonparallel and nonlinear effects are discussed.

Orszag, S. A.

1980-01-01

162

Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

2010-01-01

163

Studies of premixed laminar and turbulent flames at microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two and one-half year experimental and theoretical research program on the properties of laminar and turbulent premixed gas flames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.

Ronney, Paul D.

1993-01-01

164

Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

1986-01-01

165

Numerical solutions for unsteady laminar boundary layers behind blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the similarity solutions obtained for laminar boundary layers behind a power-law shock associated with a blast wave. A finite-difference method based on Blottner's numerical scheme (1970) is used. The results are valid, at all times, in the entire flow region between the shock front and the immediate vicinity of the blast-wave origin provided the boundary layer remains laminar.

Liu, S. W.; Mirels, H.

1980-04-01

166

Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.

1979-01-01

167

Determining the mechanical properties of equine laminar corium tissue  

E-print Network

DETERMINING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EQUINE LAMINAR CORIUM TISSUE A Thesis NADIM JAMES HALLAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EQUINE LAMINAR CORIUM TISSUE A Thesis NADIM JAMES HALLAB Approved as to style and content by: ry . o n (Chair of Committee) /. Christian Burger...

Hallab, Nadim James

1991-01-01

168

Simulation and Modelling of a Laminar Separation Bubble on Airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A high-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around an airfoil near stall has been achieved. We have observed that\\u000a the laminar boundary layer undergoes a quick transition to turbulence in a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) close to the leading\\u000a edge of the airfoil profile. The flow structures in this transitional flow region have been analysed and the transition

F. Richez; I. Mary; V. Gleize; C. Basdevant

2009-01-01

169

Ignition in laminar and turbulent nonpremixed counterflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations into nonpremixed ignition were conducted to examine the influence of complex chemistry and flow turbulence as found in practical combustion systems. The counterflow configuration, where a hot air jet ignited a cold (298K) fuel jet, was adopted in experiments and calculations. The study of the ignition of large alkane hydrocarbons focused on the effects of fuel structure by investigating the reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. The ignition response of these fuels was similar to smaller fuels with similar molecular structures. This conclusion was reinforced by showing that the ignition temperature became nearly insensitive to fuel molecule size above C4, but continued to depend on whether the structure was linear or branched. The effects of turbulence were studied by adding perforated plates to the burner to generate controlled levels of turbulence. This configuration was examined in detail experimentally and computationally without reaction, and subsequently the effects of turbulence on ignition were studied with hydrogen as the fuel. The results indicated that at low turbulence intensities, ignition is enhanced relative to laminar ignition, but as the turbulence intensity increases the ignition temperature also increases, demonstrating that optimal conditions for ignition exist at low turbulence intensities. At high pressures, where HO2 chemistry is important, all turbulent ignition temperatures were higher than laminar ones, and the increasing temperature trend with turbulence intensity was still observed. At low fuel concentrations, a different ignition mode was observed where the transition from a weakly reacting state to a flame occurred over a range of temperatures where the flame was repeatedly ignited and extinguished. Turbulent ignition was modeled by solving a joint scalar PDF equation using a Monte Carlo technique. The absence of significant heat release prior to ignition enabled the use of a frozen flow solution, solved separately, in the scalar calculation. The results did not reproduce the qualitative trends noted in the experiments and the influence of turbulence intensity was not apparent in the calculated results. These discrepancies were attributed to shortcomings in the molecular mixing models in low turbulent Reynolds number flows and where reaction rates are much lower than in a flame.

Blouch, John Dewey

2002-01-01

170

Clinical application of C2 laminar screw technique  

PubMed Central

C2 laminar screws have become an increasingly used alternative method to C2 pedicle screw fixation. However, the outcome of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. A total of 35 cases with upper cervical spinal instability undergoing C2 laminar screw fixation were reviewed. All cases had symptoms of atlantoaxial instability, such as craniocervical junction pain, and were fixed with the Vertex cervical internal fixation system. A total of 68 screws were placed and hybrid constructs (a C2 translaminar screw combined with a C2 pars screw) were incorporated in two patients. In this series, there were no intraoperative complications and no cases of neurological worsening or vascular injury from hardware placement. Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a partial dorsal laminar breach in ten patients. None of these resulted in neurological symptoms. None of the patients was found to have a breach of the ventral laminar cortex. All the C2 laminar screws fixations were performed successfully. There was no instability seen on the films with no evidence of hardware failure or screw loosening during the follow-up period in all patients. In conclusion, C2 laminar screw technique is straightforward and easily adopted; it can efficiently and reliably restore upper cervical stability. It is an alternative method to C2 pedicle screw fixation, especially in patients with unilateral occlusion of vertebral artery and pedicle deformity of C2. PMID:20524135

Feng, Leling; Xu, Rongming; Liu, Xiaochen; Lee, Alan H.; Sun, Shaohua; Zhao, Liujun; Hu, Yong; Liu, Guanyi

2010-01-01

171

Feasibility study of laminar flow bodies in fully turbulent flow  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important design requirements of long range autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is to minimize propulsive power. An important and relatively easy way of achieving this is by careful selection of hull shape. Two main schools of thought in this respect are: if laminar flow can be maintained for a long length of the body, the effective drag can be reduced; it is not possible to maintain laminar flow for a significant length of the body and hull design should be based on turbulent flow conditions. In this paper, a feasibility study of laminar flow designs is undertaken under the assumption that flow will be turbulent over the entire length. For comparison two laminar flow designs X-35 and F-57 are selected and results are compared with those of two typical torpedo shaped bodies, namely AFTERBODY1 and AFTERBODY2 of DTNSRDC. It has been shown that laminar flow bodies have 10--15% higher drag when flow is turbulent over the entire length. Hence there is some hydrodynamic risk involved in adopting such laminar bodies without further consideration.

Sarkar, T.; Sayer, P.G.; Fraser, S.M. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

172

Impact of Acoustic Airflow Nebulization on Intrasinus Drug Deposition of a Human Plastinated Nasal Cast: New Insights  

E-print Network

, geometrically and aerodynamically validated6 (endoscopy, CT scans, acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry of airborne particles8 metrology produced under different nebulization conditions (100 Hz acoustic airflow and

Boyer, Edmond

173

Radiative interactions in laminar duct flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses and numerical procedures are presented for infrared radiative energy transfer in gases when other modes of energy transfer occur simultaneously. Two types of geometries are considered, a parallel plate duct and a circular duct. Fully developed laminar incompressible flows of absorbing-emitting species in black surfaced ducts are considered under the conditions of uniform wall heat flux. The participating species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O. Nongray as well as gray formulations are developed for both geometries. Appropriate limiting solutions of the governing equations are obtained and conduction-radiation interaction parameters are evaluated. Tien and Lowder's wide band model correlation was used in nongray formulation. Numerical procedures are presented to solve the integro-differential equations for both geometries. The range of physical variables considered are 300 to 2000 K for temperature, 0.1 to 100.0 atm for pressure, and 0.1 to 100 cm spacings between plates/radius of the tube. An extensive parametric study based on nongray formulation is presented. Results obtained for different flow conditions indicate that the radiative interactions can be quite significant in fully developed incompressible flows.

Trivedi, P. A.; Tiwari, S. N.

1990-01-01

174

Laminar bubbly flow in a vertical channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the buoyant rise of many nearly spherical bubbles in laminar flows in vertical channels. The lift force on spherical bubbles leads to a very simple flow structure in terms of the void fraction distribution and the average liquid velocity. The numerical results show that at steady state the number density of bubbles in the center of the channel is always such that the fluid mixture there is in hydrostatic equilibrium and the velocity is uniform. For upflow, excess bubbles are pushed to the walls, forming a bubble rich layer, one bubble diameter thick. For downflow, bubbles are drawn into the channel core, leading to a wall layer with no bubbles, of a thickness determined by the pressure gradient and the average void fraction. For the downflow, the void fraction profile and the velocity profile can be predicted analytically, but for upflow the velocity increase across the wall-layer must be obtained from the simulations. The behaviour of the bubbles in the middle of the channel, including the slip velocity and their velocity fluctuations, is well predicted by results for homogeneous flows in fully periodic domains.

Lu, Jiacai

2005-11-01

175

A redefined hydraulic diameter for laminar flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For laminar, steady flow in ducts, the current definition of hydraulic diameter, Dh, does not accurately depict the non-uniform wall shear stress distribution around the perimeter of non-circular duct shapes. In this investigation, a new hydraulic diameter Dh(1), was empirically determined. It correlated friction factor data for many non-circular shapes to within approximately 2.4 % of the circular duct value. An experiment, using the AFIT oil Flow Rig Set-Up, was run to determine the effect of transition Reynolds number, Re(tr), and hydrodynamic entrance length, L(+), of replacing Dh with Dh(1). Transition Reynolds number and L(+) were determined, based on Dh and Dh(1) for a circular, square, and concentric annular duct. Transition Reynolds numbers, based on Dh, for the square and concentric annular ducts were approximately 12.5% lower than the circular duct Re(tr). The Re(tr), based on Dh(1), did not correlate well for the concentric annulus, but did correlate for the square duct.

Sutherland, Bruce J.

1986-12-01

176

Incipient particle motion in laminar shear flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally the critical conditions for incipient motion of spherical particles deposited on a regular substrate under laminar flow conditions. The substrates consist of a monolayer of wall-fixed spheres uniformly sized and regularly arranged in triangular and quadratic configurations. To highlight the effects of exposure, the distance between the substrate spheres is varied in the quadratic arrangement. We found that for particle Reynolds numbers of order one and smaller, the critical Shields parameter is independent from the particle density and from the particle Reynolds numbers but it depends significantly on the geometry of the substrate. We show how different geometrical parameters like the particle arrangement and exposure affect the critical Shields parameter. We particularly focus on the effect of neighboring particles on the onset of particle motion. Unlike single rolling particles, we observe switching between rolling and sliding motion as a consequence of friction between the moving neighbors. In our experiments, this two-particle interaction is the basic difference between the incipient motion of a single and multiple particles, resulting in a significant increment of the critical Shields number.

Rodríguez Agudo, José Alberto; Wierschem, Andreas

2013-04-01

177

Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning. PMID:24063885

Kimbell, J.S.; Frank, D.O.; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G.J.M.; Rhee, J.S.

2014-01-01

178

Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station facilities, cannot involve soot emitting flames in order to ensure that test chamber windows used for experimental observations are not blocked by soot deposits, thereby compromising unusually valuable experimental results. Another important motivation to define conditions where soot is present in diffusion flames is that flame chemistry, transport and radiation properties are vastly simplified when soot is absent, making such flames far more tractable for detailed numerical simulations than corresponding soot-containing flames. Motivated by these observations, the objectives of this phase of the investigation were as follows: (1) Observe flame-sheet shapes (the location of the reaction zone near phi=1) of nonluminous (soot free) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of flame-sheet shapes for these conditions; (2) Observe luminous flame boundaries of luminous (soot-containing) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of luminous flame boundaries for these conditions. In order to fix ideas here, maximum luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point conditions were sought, i.e., luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point; (3) Observe effects of coflow on laminar soot- and smoke-point conditions because coflow has been proposed as a means to control soot emissions and minimize the presence of soot in diffusion flames.

Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

179

Predictors of survival in subjects with chronic airflow limitation.  

PubMed

In a study of chronic airflow limitation, we followed 140 subjects living in Utah at altitudes of 1,300 to 1,500 meters for seven to 13 years. Twelve-year survival probabilities were determined and compared with an age- and sex-matched Utah population. The lowest 12-year survival probability was 0.40 for those patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than or equal to 0.40, indicating that there is much variability in survival. Other indicators of a lower survival probability (and increased death risk ratio) were an FEV1 percent predicted less than or equal to 50, an FEV1 less than or equal to 1.5 liters, male gender, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) [exercise] less than or equal to 50 mm Hg, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) [rest] greater than 39 mm Hg, PCO2 (exercise) greater than 39 mm Hg, FVC percent predicted less than or equal to 80, PO2 (rest) less than or equal to 55 mm Hg, and a carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) percent predicted less than or equal to 80. Current smokers had a poorer survival probability than the reference population and an increased death risk when compared with the nonsmokers in the study. Pack/years of smoking also affected survival. Other variables associated with reduced survival were a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis combined with emphysema, more rapid annual declines in the FEV1 and/or FVC, low alpha 1-antitrypsin levels, a 20 percent improvement in FEV1 following the use of a bronchodilator aerosol, and a lower socioeconomic class. Differences between these findings and those noted in other studies are in the main due to differences in the characteristics (such as age, diagnosis, and extent of disease) of the patients in the study populations. The findings have relevance in estimating a patient's prognosis and for developing guidelines for disability determination purposes. PMID:6600584

Kanner, R E; Renzetti, A D; Stanish, W M; Barkman, H W; Klauber, M R

1983-02-01

180

Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p = 0.1-1 bar) and airflow velocities (U?=0-100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

Kriegseis, J.; Barckmann, K.; Frey, J.; Tropea, C.; Grundmann, S.

2014-05-01

181

Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect

The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p?=?0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ?}=0?100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

Kriegseis, J., E-mail: kriegseis@kit.edu [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S., E-mail: grundmann@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Frey, J. [Institute for Aerospace Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Tropea, C. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2014-05-15

182

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-01-01

183

Mixed laminar convection in Trombe wall channels  

SciTech Connect

The two-dimensional, steady, combined forced and natural convection in a vertical channel is investigated for the laminar regime. To simulate the Trombe wall channel geometry properly, horizontal inlet and exit segments have been added to the vertical channel. The vertical walls of the channel are maintained at constant but different temperatures while the horizontal walls are insulated. A finite difference method using up-wind differencing for the nonlinear convective terms, and central differencing for the second order derivatives, is employed to solve the governing differential equations for the mass, momentum, and energy balances. The solution is obtained for stream function, vorticity, and temperature as the dependent variables by an iterative technique known as successive substitution with overrelaxation. The flow and temperature patterns in the channel are obtained for Reynolds numbers and Grashof numbers ranging from 25 to 100 and 10,000 to 1,000,000, respectively. Both local and overall heat transfer coefficients are computed for the channel aspect ratio varying from 5 to 15. For a given value of Grashof number, as the Reynolds number is increased, the flow patterns in the vertical channel exhibit a change from natural convection like flow patterns in which a large recirculating region is formed in the vertical part of the channel, to a forced flow type pattern. This is also the case with isotherms. The size of the recirculating region in the channel increases with increasing value of Gr/Re/sup 2/. At low Reynolds number, the stream function, and isotherms are qualitatively similar to those reported for the natural convection in rectangular slots.

Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mohieldin, T.O.; Huang, G.C. (Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA 23455 (US))

1988-02-01

184

Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

2014-04-01

185

How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats.  

PubMed

The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

Eiting, Thomas P; Perot, J Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R

2015-02-01

186

Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation in long-term Canadian chrysotile miners and millers  

SciTech Connect

To investigate further the relationships of asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation, we have obtained detailed pulmonary function tests (PFT) in 331 long-term Canadian chrysotile workers, 34 of whom were lifetime nonsmokers. Three disease categories were defined on the bases of standard diagnostic criteria, gallium-67 lung uptake, and the lung pressure-volume curve. Category A was composed of workers without changes suggestive of alveolitis or asbestosis. There were eight nonsmokers (ns), among whom we found a statistically significant 30% reduction in airflow conductance (Gus) at low lung volume, which is consistent with the concept of an asbestos airway lesion. The 85 smokers (sm) of category A had reduction of Gus at both high and low lung volumes. Category B was composed of workers without asbestosis but with evidence of asbestos alveolitis. In the six ns, Gus was significantly reduced to 50% normal at low lung volume. The 59 sm had reduction of Gus at both high and low lung volumes but less severely than sm in category A. Category C was composed of workers with asbestosis. The 20 ns had restrictive pattern of lung function, and Gus was decreased to 39% normal at 50% TLC. The 153 sm in C had airflow reduction comparable to sm in B. We concluded that asbestos exposure, which leads to asbestos airway disease, asbestos peribronchiolar alveolitis, and asbestosis, causes airflow limitation at low lung volume but does not reduce the expiratory flow rates on the flow-volume curve in lifetime nonsmokers. In the smoking asbestos workers with alveolitis or asbestosis, the major component of airflow limitation is a smoking effect. In these smoking workers, rigidity of the lung lessens airflow obstruction associated with smoking at the expense of increased work of breathing.

Begin, R.; Boileau, R.; Peloquin, S.

1987-01-01

187

The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

2011-12-01

188

Aerodynamic-wave break-up of liquid sheets in swirling airflows and combustor modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental mean drop diameter data were obtained for the atomization of liquid sheets injected axially downstream in high velocity swirling and nonswirling airflow. Conventional simplex pressure atomizing fuel nozzles and splash type fuel injectors were studied under simulated combustor inlet airflow conditions. A general empirical expression relating recirprocal mean drop diameter to airstream mass velocity was obtained and is presented. The finest degree of atomization, i.e., the highest value of the coefficient C, was obtained with swirl can combustor modules (C = 15) as compared with pressure atomizing nozzles (C = 12).

Ingebo, R.

1983-01-01

189

Brief history of laminar flow clean room systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the development and evolution of laminar flow clean rooms and hoods and describes the underlying principles and rationales associated with development of this type of clean room system and Federal Standard No. 209. By the mid 1970's, over a thousand hospitals in the US had installed laminar flow equipment in operating rooms. During the past several years a great deal of attention has been focused on conserving energy in clean rooms. Some gains in energy conservation have been achieved by improved design, off hours shutdown, and closer evaluation of requirements for clean rooms. By the early 1970's, the laminar flow principle had been carried from the Laboratory and applied to production hardware to create a mature industry producing and marketing a variety of laminar flow equipment in less than 10 years time. This achievement was made possible by literally dozens of persons in industry, government, military, and private individuals who developed hardware, added numerous innovations, and had the foresight to apply the technology to many fields other than industrial clean rooms. Now, with laminar flow devices available, class 100 levels are readily achievable and maintained, and at the same time require fewer operating restrictions than previously possible.

Whitfield, W J

1981-01-01

190

Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.

Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

2011-01-01

191

Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) Experiment: Findings From Space Flight Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study of soot processes in hydrocarbon-fueled laminar nonbuoyant and nonpremixed (diffusion) flames at microgravity within a spacecraft was motivated by the relevance of soot to the performance of power and propulsion systems, to the hazards of unwanted fires, and to the emission of combustion-generated pollutants. Soot processes in turbulent flames are of greatest practical interest, however, direct study of turbulent flames is not tractable because the unsteadiness and distortion of turbulent flames limit available residence times and spatial resolution within regions where soot processes are important. Thus, laminar diffusion flames are generally used to provide more tractable model flame systems to study processes relevant to turbulent diffusion flames, justified by the known similarities of gas-phase processes in laminar and turbulent diffusion flames, based on the widely-accepted laminar flamelet concept of turbulent flames. Unfortunately, laminar diffusion flames at normal gravity are affected by buoyancy due to their relatively small flow velocities and, as discussed next, they do not have the same utility for simulating the soot processes as they do for simulating the gas phase processes of turbulent flames.

Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Yuan, Z. G.; Aalburg, C.; Diez, F. J.; Faeth, G. M.

2003-01-01

192

Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

Maestrello, Lucio

2001-01-01

193

Laminar flow integration: Flight tests status and plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the Aircraft Energy Efficiency - Laminar Flow Control Program, there are currently three flight test programs under way to address critical issues concerning laminar flow technology application to commercial transports. The Leading-Edge Flight Test (LEFT) with a JetStar aircraft is a cooperative effort with the Ames/Dryden Flight Research Facility to provide operational experience with candidate leading-edge systems representative of those that might be used on a future transport. In the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE), also a cooperative effort between Langley and Ames/Dryden, basic transition data on an F-14 wing with variable sweep will be obtained to provide a data base for laminar flow wing design. Finally, under contract to the Boeing Company, the acoustic environment on the wing of a 757 aircraft will be measured and the influence of engine noise on laminar flow determined with a natural laminar flow glove on the wing. The status and plans for these programs are reported.

Wagner, R. D.; Fisher, D. F.; Fischer, M. C.; Bartlett, D. W.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.

1986-01-01

194

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications on Atmospheric Circulations at High Southern Latitudes*  

E-print Network

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications) ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that winds in the lower atmosphere over the Antarctic continent are among the mean annual and seasonal airflow patterns over the Antarctic continent to compare with previous

Howat, Ian M.

195

Measurement of Airflow around the Human Body with Wide-cover Type Personal Air-conditioning with PIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many existing personal air-conditioning systems cool only specific portions of the human body in the form of spot cooling, using either cooled or fast airflow to control thermal sensation. This may cause various problems related to localized airflow, such as discomfort to the face and neck areas and dryness in the eyes. Therefore, a method is proposed in this research

Jeong-Hoon Yang; Shinsuke Kato; Ho-Tae Seok

2009-01-01

196

Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System  

E-print Network

as Equation 2, which is derived by the fan laws: 22120 '' QaQaaH ?+?+= ?? (2) where: ? is a current fan speed over 100% fan speed. Q? is a calculated airflow rate under partial speed of the fan. The airflow rate...

Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.

2006-01-01

197

Lockheed laminar-flow control systems development and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is summarized from 1974 to the present in the practical application of laminar-flow control (LFC) to subsonic transport aircraft. Those efforts included preliminary design system studies of commercial and military transports and experimental investigations leading to the development of the leading-edge flight test article installed on the NASA JetStar flight test aircraft. The benefits of LFC on drag, fuel efficiency, lift-to-drag ratio, and operating costs are compared with those for turbulent flow aircraft. The current activities in the NASA Industry Laminar-Flow Enabling Technologies Development contract include summaries of activities in the Task 1 development of a slotted-surface structural concept using advanced aluminum materials and the Task 2 preliminary conceptual design study of global-range military hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to obtain data at high Reynolds numbers and at Mach numbers representative of long-range subsonic transport aircraft operation.

Lange, Roy H.

1987-01-01

198

Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.

Stack, John P. (inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (inventor)

1989-01-01

199

Laminar flow control, 1976 - 1982: A selected annotated bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar Flow Control technology development has undergone tremendous progress in recent years as focused research efforts in materials, aerodynamics, systems, and structures have begun to pay off. A virtual explosion in the number of research papers published on this subject has occurred since interest was first stimulated by the 1976 introduction of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Laminar Flow Control Program. The purpose of this selected bibliography is to list available, unclassified laminar flow (both controlled and natural) research completed from about 1975 to mid 1982. Some earlier pertinent reports are included but listed separately in the Appendix. Reports listed herein emphasize aerodynamics and systems studies, but some structures work is also summarized. Aerodynamic work is mainly limited to the subsonic and transonic sped regimes. Because wind-tunnel flow qualities, such as free stream disturbance level, play such an important role in boundary-layer transition, much recent research has been done in this area and it is also included.

Tuttle, M. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

1982-01-01

200

Laminar diffusion flamelet models in non-premixed turbulent combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laminar flamelet concept views a turbulent diffusion flame as\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009an ensemble of laminar diffusion flamelets. Work relevant to the\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009flamelet concept is spread over various fields in the literature:\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009laminar flame studies, asymptotic analysis, theory of turbulence\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009and percolation theory. This review tries to gather and integrate\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009this material in order to derive a self-consistent formulation. Under\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the assumption

N. Peters

1984-01-01

201

Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.

Stack, John P. (inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (inventor)

1990-01-01

202

Laminar flow in a recess of a hydrostatic bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow in a recess of a hydrostatic journal bearing is studied in detail. The Navier-Stokes equations for the laminar flow of an incompressible liquid are solved numerically in a two-dimensional plane of a typical bearing recess. Pressure- and shear-induced flows, as well as a combination of these two flow conditions, are analyzed. Recess friction, pressure-ram effects at discontinuities in the flow region, and film entrance pressure loss effects are calculated. Entrance pressure loss coefficients over a forward-facing step are presented as functions of the mean flow Reynolds number for pure-pressure and shear-induced laminar flows.

San Andres, Luis A.; Velthuis, Johannes F. M.

1992-01-01

203

Laminar and intermittent flow in a tilted heat pipe.  

PubMed

Heat transfer measurements performed by Riedinger et al. (Phys. Fluids, 25, 015117 (2013)) showed that in an inclined channel, heated from below and cooled from above with adiabatic walls, the flow is laminar or intermittent (local bursts can occur in the laminar flow) when the inclination angle is sufficiently high and the applied power sufficiently low. In this case, gravity plays a crucial role in the characteristics of the flow. In this paper, we present velocity measurements, and their derived tensors, obtained with Particle Image Velocimetry inside the channel. We, also, propose a model derived from a jet interpretation of the flow. Comparison between experiment and model shows a fair agreement. PMID:24464137

Rusaouen, E; Riedinger, X; Tisserand, J-C; Seychelles, F; Salort, J; Castaing, B; Chillà, F

2014-01-01

204

Production of plastic fuel tanks using Laminar barrier technology  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles from all parts of the world are now being built with plastic fuel tanks made from high density polyethylene (HPDE). The most difficult aspect of the current manufacturing process for meeting environmental regulations is the need to work with hazardous chemicals such as fluorine and sulfur trioxide to reduce hydrocarbon permeation. Laminar barrier technology is a barrier process under development which meets EPA requirements, reduces costs and eliminates environmental and employee safety concerns. Laminar technology is described in this paper. Its application for fuel tanks is discussed.

Bell, R.L.; Mehra, V.

1989-01-01

205

Citric acid cough threshold and airway responsiveness in asthmatic patients and smokers with chronic airflow obstruction.  

PubMed Central

The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two occasions by administering doubling concentrations of citric acid. Seven of the 11 asthmatic subjects and 14 of 25 smokers with chronic airflow obstruction had a positive cough threshold on both test days. Cough threshold measurements were reproducible in both groups (standard deviation of duplicate measurements 1.2 doubling concentrations in asthma, 1.1 doubling concentrations in chronic airflow obstruction). Citric acid provocation did not cause bronchial obstruction in most patients, though four patients had a fall in FEV1 of more than 20% for a short time on one occasion only. No significant difference in cough threshold was found between the two patient groups despite differences in baseline FEV1 values. There was no significant correlation between cough threshold and the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) histamine in either group. Thus sensory nerves can be activated with a tussive agent in patients with asthma and chronic airflow obstruction without causing bronchial smooth muscle contraction. PMID:1948792

Auffarth, B; de Monchy, J G; van der Mark, T W; Postma, D S; Koëter, G H

1991-01-01

206

Nasal Obstruction in Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: Relationships between Allergic Inflammation and Nasal Airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nasal obstruction is a typical symptom of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by a Th2-dependent inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between allergic inflammation, including inflammatory cells and cytokine pattern, and nasal airflow in patients with nasal obstruction due to seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods: Fifty patients (31 males and 19 females, mean

Giorgio Ciprandi; Ignazio Cirillo; Andrea Vizzaccaro; Manlio Milanese; Maria Angela Tosca

2004-01-01

207

Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap  

E-print Network

Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Jiu Jimmy Jiao1 October 2009. [1] Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

208

The Challenge of Measuring Airflow through Mine Regulators to allow Real Time Ventilation Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical modeling of airflow through operating mine regulators is discussed. Results are used in the development of a computerized monitoring and simulation system to provide immediate or real time data on air behavior within each branch within an underground mine ventilation network through linking of sensors to the ventilation network simulation software. Software has been developed to link real

A. D. S. Gillies; H. W. Wu; T. I. Mayes; A. Halim

209

Airflow obstruction in bronchiectasis: correlation between computed tomography features and pulmonary function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAn obstructive defect is usual in bronchiectasis, but the pathophysiological basis of airflow obstruction remains uncertain. High resolution computed tomographic (CT) scanning now allows quantitation of static morphological abnormalities, as well as dynamic changes shown on expiratory CT scans. The aim of this study was to determine which static and dynamic structural abnormalities on the CT scan are associated with

H R Roberts; A U Wells; D G Milne; M B Rubens; J Kolbe; P J Cole; D M Hansell

2000-01-01

210

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Airflow Characteristics in the Plenum of Underfloor Air Supply  

E-print Network

Energy-efficient and cost-effective space conditioning in offices and other commercial buildings usually use the underfloor space for the supply air static-pressure plenum. The airflow in a plenum of the underfloor air supply was simulated by a...

Li, X.; Li, N.; Fang, F.; Zhao, D.

2006-01-01

211

One-dimensional airflow in unsaturated zone induced by periodic water table fluctuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the vertical airflow driven by fluctuating water table within the lower layer of a coastal two-layered system. The upper layer is unsaturated and semipermeable, while the lower is permeable. An analytical solution of the subsurface air pressure fluctuation is derived on the basis of model simplification assumptions, the reasonability of which was examined by numerical solutions of

Hailong Li; Jiu Jimmy Jiao

2005-01-01

212

Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

2014-03-01

213

Simulation of airflow around rain gauges: Comparison of LES with RANS models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is responsible for systematic errors that affect rain gauge measurements. The authors investigate the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to calculate airflow around rain gauges by applying a high-resolution large eddy simulation (LES) model to determine the flow fields around a measuring system of two rain gauges. The simulated air flow field is characterized by the presence of

George S. Constantinescu; Witold F. Krajewski; Celalettin E. Ozdemir; Talia Tokyay

2007-01-01

214

Detection of Mouse Cough Based on Sound Monitoring and Respiratory Airflow Waveforms  

PubMed Central

Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes. PMID:23555643

Chen, Liyan; Lai, Kefang; Lomask, Joseph Mark; Jiang, Bert; Zhong, Nanshan

2013-01-01

215

Physical Modeling of Airflow-Walls Interactions to Understand the Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

E-print Network

Introduction Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a person stops breathing during the night, usually for periodsPhysical Modeling of Airflow-Walls Interactions to Understand the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Yohan Payan1, France {pelorson,perrier}@icp.inpg.fr Abstract. Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) is defined as a partial

Payan, Yohan

216

Performance of Supply Airflow Entrainment for Particles in an Underfloor Air Distribution System  

E-print Network

comfort conditions and energy conservation. However, the supply air outlet of UFAD system is set on the floor, such that the supply airflow may entrain the dust particles settled on the floor or suspended near the floor. This creates problems that need...

Li, C.; Li, N.

2006-01-01

217

Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

2014-01-01

218

Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Wilson, Josh

2003-01-01

219

Airflow produced by dielectric barrier discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes  

SciTech Connect

We observed a novel type of airflow produced by an atmospheric rf discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes. The electrodes were a bare metal rod 1 mm in diameter and a glass-coated metal rod 3.2 mm in diameter. The thrust, measured by a pendulum, increased with discharge input power.

Hayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Motofumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems Company, 20-1 Kansei-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0034 (Japan); Toshiba Business and Life Service Corporation, 7-1 Nisshin-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0024 (Japan)

2007-09-15

220

F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

1999-01-01

221

The quenching of laminar methane-air flames by water mists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a computational investigation of limiting water droplet and vapor concentrations, beyond which laminar methane-air flames are incapable of self-sustained propagation. The variation of laminar burning velocity with droplet size and number density has been investigated and the results compared with analytical predictions. Finally, the influence of added alkali salts on laminar burning velocity and

G. O. Thomas

2002-01-01

222

Usability Evaluation of a Flight-Deck Airflow Hazard Visualization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices, downdrafts, low level wind shear, microbursts, or turbulence from surrounding vegetation or structures near the landing site. These hazards can be dangerous even to airliners; there have been hundreds of fatalities in the United States in the last two decades attributable to airliner encounters with microbursts and low level wind shear alone. However, helicopters are especially vulnerable to airflow hazards because they often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions (such as emergency search and rescue, military or shipboard operations). Providing helicopter pilots with an augmented-reality display visualizing local airflow hazards may be of significant benefit. However, the form such a visualization might take, and whether it does indeed provide a benefit, had not been studied before our experiment. We recruited experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots for a preliminary usability study to evaluate a prototype augmented-reality visualization system. The study had two goals: first, to assess the efficacy of presenting airflow data in flight; and second, to obtain expert feedback on sample presentations of hazard indicators to refine our design choices. The study addressed the optimal way to provide critical safety information to the pilot, what level of detail to provide, whether to display specific aerodynamic causes or potential effects only, and how to safely and effectively shift the locus of attention during a high-workload task. Three-dimensional visual cues, with varying shape, color, transparency, texture, depth cueing, and use of motion, depicting regions of hazardous airflow, were developed and presented to the pilots. The study results indicated that such a visualization system could be of significant value in improving safety during critical takeoff and landing operations, and also gave clear indications of the best design choices in producing the hazard visual cues.

Aragon, Cecilia R.

2004-01-01

223

A computational study of the respiratory airflow characteristics in normal and obstructed human airways.  

PubMed

Obstructive lung diseases in the lower airways are a leading health concern worldwide. To improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of lower airways, we studied airflow characteristics in the lung between the 8th and the 14th generations using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, where we compared normal and obstructed airways for a range of breathing conditions. We employed a novel technique based on computing the Pearson?s correlation coefficient to quantitatively characterize the differences in airflow patterns between the normal and obstructed airways. We found that the airflow patterns demonstrated clear differences between normal and diseased conditions for high expiratory flow rates (>2300ml/s), but not for inspiratory flow rates. Moreover, airflow patterns subjected to filtering demonstrated higher sensitivity than airway resistance for differentiating normal and diseased conditions. Further, we showed that wall shear stresses were not only dependent on breathing rates, but also on the distribution of the obstructed sites in the lung: for the same degree of obstruction and breathing rate, we observed as much as two-fold differences in shear stresses. In contrast to previous studies that suggest increased wall shear stress due to obstructions as a possible damage mechanism for small airways, our model demonstrated that for flow rates corresponding to heavy activities, the wall shear stress in both normal and obstructed airways was <0.3Pa, which is within the physiological limit needed to promote respiratory defense mechanisms. In summary, our model enables the study of airflow characteristics that may be impractical to assess experimentally. PMID:25058489

Sul, Bora; Wallqvist, Anders; Morris, Michael J; Reifman, Jaques; Rakesh, Vineet

2014-09-01

224

Self-pumping suction/propulsion for laminar flow bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented to investigate the feasibility of a self-pumping suction system for a very low drag suction laminar flow control (SLFC) underwater test body. The nose and afterbody of a torpedo-like body are contoured such that a prominent low-pressure region in the aft part of the body can serve as a suction pump to suck the boundary layer fluid through the circumferential surface-slots and thus laminarize the entire body length forward of the aft low-pressure peak. The results indicate that it is feasible to laminarize a test body in this fashion at a design speed, such as 40 knots; but that the laminarization of a particular configuration is limited to a band of speeds at and near the design speed. If an SLFC test body with a wide range of speed capability is desired, then a controllable-speed suction pump and controllable suction distribution along the body are indicated. The analysis includes a suction system design calculation example and should be a useful reference for future development of undersea SLFC vehicles.

Rogers, K. H.; King, D. A.

1984-06-01

225

Estimation of Laminar Burning Velocities by Direct Digital Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bunsen burner flame, which is the most common flame in the laboratory, can be easily studied for its dynamics because of modern, economical digital technology available to student laboratories. Direct digital photography of Bunsen flames is used to obtain laminar burning velocities of selected gaseous hydrocarbon/air flames.

Uske, J.; Barat, R.

2004-01-01

226

Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam  

DOEpatents

A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

Maschke, A.W.

1984-04-16

227

Preconditioned Multigrid Simulation of an Axisymmetric Laminar Diffusion Flame \\Lambda  

E-print Network

that their solution constitutes a challenging test for nonlinear elliptic solvers. The flame sheet model adds only onePreconditioned Multigrid Simulation of an Axisymmetric Laminar Diffusion Flame \\Lambda Samir Karaa of an elliptic flame sheet problem. By selecting the generalized minimum residual method as the linear smoother

Zhang, Jun

228

Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

Hartshom, Fletcher

2012-01-01

229

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers [28–30] are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. The local stoichiometric axial velocity, Ust, and scalar dissipation rate, ?st, are obtained at points that are upstream of the stabilization

Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

2000-01-01

230

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. Jet exit velocity, nozzle diameter, coflow air velocity as well as partial jet premixing with air are varied to obtain the local

Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

2000-01-01

231

Laminar Soot Processes Experiment Shedding Light on Flame Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment investigated soot processes in nonturbulent, round gas jet diffusion flames in still air. The soot processes within these flames are relevant to practical combustion in aircraft propulsion systems, diesel engines, and furnaces. However, for the LSP experiment, the flames were slowed and spread out to allow measurements that are not tractable for practical, Earth-bound flames.

Urban, David L.

1998-01-01

232

Laminar film condensation due to a rotating disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regular perturbation methods are employed to investigate the problem of laminar film condensation on a rotating disk in a large volume of quiescent vapour for small and large rates of cooling at the disk surface. The flow and thermal fields are represented by the Von Karman similar solution. Exact numerical solutions of the similar equations are obtained for the

P. M. Beckett; P. C. Hudson; G. Poots

1973-01-01

233

Simulations of Serpentine Plasma Actuators in a Laminar Boundary Layer  

E-print Network

Simulations of Serpentine Plasma Actuators in a Laminar Boundary Layer Mark Riherd and Subrata Roy to the addition of the serpentine actuation are also measured. Nomenclature u, v, w Flow velocities p Pressure U geometry actuator,17,18 and the serpentine geometry actuator.18 The geometry relevant to the present work

Roy, Subrata

234

Application of laminar flow control to supersonic transport configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and impact of implementing a laminar flow control system on a supersonic transport configuration were investigated. A hybrid laminar flow control scheme consisting of suction controlled and natural laminar flow was developed for a double-delta type wing planform. The required suction flow rates were determined from boundary layer stability analyses using representative wing pressure distributions. A preliminary design of structural modifications needed to accommodate suction through a perforated titanium skin was carried out together with the ducting and systems needed to collect, compress and discharge the suction air. The benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag were weighed against the weight, volume and power requirement penalties of suction system installation in a mission performance and sizing program to assess the net benefits. The study showed a feasibility of achieving significant laminarization of the wing surface by use of a hybrid scheme, leading to an 8.2 percent reduction in the cruise drag. This resulted in an 8.5 percent reduction in the maximum takeoff weight and a 12 percent reduction in the fuel burn after the inclusion of the LFC system installation penalties. Several research needs were identified for a resolution of aerodynamics, structural and systems issues before these potential benefits could be realized in a practical system.

Parikh, P. G.; Nagel, A. L.

1990-01-01

235

Laminar natural convection from constant heat flux helical coiled tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of a steady state natural convection from uniformly heated helical coiled tubes oriented horizontally in air has been made. Average heat transfer coefficients are obtained for laminar natural convection. The experiments have been carried out for four coils and for various values of heat fluxes of 500–5000 W m?2. The data are correlated with Rayleigh number using

Mohamed E. Ali

1998-01-01

236

On the collision of laminar jets: fluid chains and fishbones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the family of free-surface flows generated by obliquely colliding laminar jets. We present a parameter study of the flow, and describe the rich variety of forms observed. When the jet Reynolds number is sufficiently high, the jet collision generates a thin fluid sheet that evolves under the combined

John W. M. Bush; Alexander E. Hasha

2004-01-01

237

Application of porous materials for laminar flow control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.

Pearce, W. E.

1978-01-01

238

Production of plastic fuel tanks using Laminar barrier technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobiles from all parts of the world are now being built with plastic fuel tanks made from high density polyethylene (HPDE). The most difficult aspect of the current manufacturing process for meeting environmental regulations is the need to work with hazardous chemicals such as fluorine and sulfur trioxide to reduce hydrocarbon permeation. Laminar barrier technology is a barrier process under

R. L. Bell; V. Mehra

1989-01-01

239

Prediction of laminar and turbulent boundary layer with rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the laminar and turbulent boundary layer with rotation in a two-dimensional rotating channel by using varying steps, staggered grids, and an implicit central difference scheme. Six computational examples show that the predicted data and the measured ones match quite well. The paper also discusses modifying the turbulence model with rotation.

Zhang, Guoqing; Hua, Yaonan; Wu, Chunghua

1990-08-01

240

Laminar burning speeds of ethanol\\/air\\/diluent mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar burning speed of ethanol\\/air\\/diluent mixtures have been measured over a wide range of temperature, pressure, fuel air equivalence ratio and diluent. Experimental facilities include a cylindrical vessel with two large end windows and a spherical vessel with capability to withstand pressures up to 425atm. Both of these vessels are heated for having initial temperatures of unburned gas up to

Kian Eisazadeh-Far; Ali Moghaddas; Jalal Al-Mulki; Hameed Metghalchi

2011-01-01

241

Laminar epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis in an equine hoof  

PubMed Central

A 6-year-old Canadian Warmblood gelding was presented for suspicion of keratoma growth, based on a history of recurring abscesses in the right front foot. Radiographic examination and computed tomography identified 2 bilaterally symmetrical, laminar epidermal ingrowths adhered to the hoof wall at the level of the lateral and medial heels. PMID:24155488

Tatarniuk, Dane M.; Bracamonte, Joe L.; Wilson, David G.; Sharma, Ajay; Perry, Al W.

2013-01-01

242

Standing waves at low Mach number laminar bow shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explorer 43 data have been used to study 34 bow shock crossings observed from 5 to 16 Re upstream from the average bow shock location. These shocks have magnetosonic Mach numbers between 1.2 and 2.0, and they display particularly simple laminar structures. In 17 of these cases waves are detected adjacent to and upstream of the shock with amplitudes ranging

D. A. Fairfield; W. C. Feldman

1975-01-01

243

Laminar thermally developing flow inside right-angularly triangular ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical approach based on the generalized integral transform technique is presented, for the solution of laminar forced convection within the thermal entry region of ducts with arbitrarily shaped cross-sections. The analysis is illustrated through consideration of a right triangular duct subjected to constant wall temperature boundary condition. Critical comparisons are made with results available in the literature, from direct

J. B. Aparecido; R. M. Cotta

1992-01-01

244

Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The wing was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

2014-01-01

245

Modeling of NOx formation in circular laminar jet flames  

E-print Network

-premixed isolated circular laminar jet flame. The jet consists of the fuel rich inner region and the O2 rich outer region. The model estimates both thermal NOx and prompt NOx assuming single step kinetics for NOx formation and a thin flame model. Further the amount...

Siwatch, Vivek

2007-04-25

246

Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. The diffusion flame is found at the surface where the fuel jet and oxygen meet, react, and consume each other. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. Flame stability is strongly dependent on the fuel jet velocity. When the fuel jet velocity is sufficiently low, the diffusion flame anchors at the burner rim. When the fuel jet velocity is increased, the flame base gradually moves downstream. However, when the fuel jet velocity increases beyond a critical value, the flame base abruptly jumps downstream. When this "jump" occurs, the flame is said to have reached its lift-off condition and the critical fuel jet velocity is called the lift-off velocity. While lifted, the flame is not attached to the burner and it appears to float in mid-air. Flow conditions are such that the flame cannot be maintained at the burner rim despite the presence of both fuel and oxygen. When the fuel jet velocity is further increased, the flame will eventually extinguish at its blowout condition. In contrast, if the fuel jet velocity of a lifted flame is reduced, the flame base moves upstream and abruptly returns to anchor at the burner rim. The fuel jet velocity at reattachment can be much lower than that at lift off, illustrating the hysteresis effect present in flame stability. Although there have been numerous studies of flame stability, the controlling mechanisms are not well understood. This uncertainty is described by Pitts in his review of various competing theories of lift off and blow out in turbulent jet diffusion flames. There has been some research on the stability of laminar flames, but most studies have focused on turbulent flames. It is also well known that the airflow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. Buoyant convection is sufficiently strong in 1-g flames that it can dominate the flow-field, even at the burner rim. In normal-gravity testing, it is very difficult to delineate the effects of the forced airflow from those of the buoyancy-induced flow. Comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames provides clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) investigation (STS-87/USMP-4 Space Shuttle mission, November to December 1997) is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flame, e.g., see http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm. The ELF hardware meets the experiment hardware limit of the 35-liter interior volume of the glovebox working area, and the 180x220-mm dimensions of the main door. The ELF experiment module is a miniature, fan-driven wind tunnel, equipped with a gas supply system. A 1.5-mm diameter nozzle is located on the duct's flow axis. The cross section of the duct is nominally a 76-mm square with rounded corners. The forced air velocity can be varied from about 0.2 to 0.9 m/s. The fuel flow can be set as high as 3 std. cubic centimeter (cc) per second, which corresponds to a nozzle exit velocity of up to 1.70 m/s. The ELF hardware and experimental procedure are discussed in detail in Brooker et al. The 1-g test results are repeated in several experiments following the STS-87 Mission. The ELF study is also relevant to practical systems because the momentum-dominated behavior of turbulent flames can be achieved in laminar flames in microgravity. The specific objectives of this paper are to evaluate the use reduced model for simulation of flame lift-off and blowout.

Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

2001-01-01

247

A simulation study of the changes in PM2.5 concentrations due to interzonal airflow variations caused by internal door opening patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term variations in interzonal airflows can cause significant fluctuations in gaseous or particulate matter concentrations in indoor environments and therefore, interzonal airflow variations need careful consideration when modelling indoor pollutant concentrations. This study investigates the potential accuracy of modelling interzonal airflow variations and assesses the effect of interzonal airflow variations on indoor pollutant concentrations. A variable interzonal airflow is compared with a time-weighted average interzonal airflow, and the differences in the resulting estimates of indoor pollutant concentrations are analysed. Interzonal airflow variations were simulated by the opening/closing of internal doors for periods of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. Based on experimental comparison, it can be concluded that the modelling approach used, accurately predicts PM2.5 concentrations for interzonal airflow variations for durations of 10 min or greater, with increasing accuracy for longer durations. The simulations demonstrate that both the time of occurrence and duration of the interzonal airflow variations are critical in determining indoor concentrations, and indicating that a time-weighted average interzonal airflow is not a suitable substitute for modelling interzonal airflow variations, as it under-predicts mean PM2.5 concentrations by up to 28%.

McGrath, J. A.; Byrne, M. A.; Ashmore, M. R.; Terry, A. C.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

2014-04-01

248

Detection of airflow limitation using a handheld spirometer in a primary care setting  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care settings is difficult to achieve chiefly due to lack of availability of spirometry. This study estimated the prevalence of airflow limitation among chronic smokers using a handheld spirometer in this setting. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed on consecutive patients who were ?40 years old with ?10 pack-years smoking history. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to obtain demographic data and relevant information. Handheld spirometry was performed according to a standard protocol using the COPd-6 device (Model 4000, Vitalograph, Ennis, Ireland) in addition to standard spirometry. Airflow limitation was defined as ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 s <0.75 (COPd-6) or FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of airflow limitation. Results A total of 416 patients were recruited with mean age of 53 years old. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 10.6% (n = 44) with COPd-6 versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Risk factors for airflow limitation were age >65 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.732 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.100–1.280), a history of ‘bad health’ (OR 2.524, 95% CI: 1.037–6.142) and low to normal body mass index (OR 2.914, 95% CI: 1.191–7.190). Conclusions In a primary care setting, handheld spirometry (COPd-6) found a prevalence of airflow limitation of ?10% in smokers. Patients were older, not overweight and had an ill-defined history of health problems. SUMMARY AT A GLANCE Prevalence of COPD is unknown in Malaysia. The prevalence of COPD using a handheld spirometer (COPd-6TM) was 10.6% versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Predictors of COPD were older age, lower BMI and a history of ‘bad health’. Case-finding for COPD should be targeted in this special population. PMID:24708063

Ching, Siew-Mooi; Pang, Yong-Kek; Price, David; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Lee, Ping-Yein; Irmi, Ismail; Faezah, Hassan; Ruhaini, Ismail; Chia, Yook-Chin

2014-01-01

249

42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air...

2010-10-01

250

Unique airflow visualization techniques for the design and validation of above-plenum data center CFD models  

E-print Network

One cause for the substantial amount of energy used for data center cooling is poor airflow effects such as hot-aisle to cold-aisle air recirculation. To correct these and to investigate innovative designs that will notably ...

Lloyd, Michael David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

251

Thermal Comfort under Transient Metabolic and Dynamic Localized Airflow Conditions Combined with Neutral and Warm Ambient Temperatures  

E-print Network

, in practice, people move between spaces, and thermal conditions such as metabolic rate, surface temperatures, airflow speed and direction vary in a typical day. A human subject test was designed to determine the transient relationship between the people...

Ugursal, Ahmet

2012-02-14

252

Conceptual design for a laminar-flying-wing aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminar-flying-wing aircraft appears to be an attractive long-term prospect for reducing the environmental impact of commercial aviation. In assessing its potential, a relatively straightforward initial step is the conceptual design of a version with restricted sweep angle. Such a design is the topic of this thesis. Subject to constraints, this research aims to; provide insight into the parameters affecting practical laminar-flow-control suction power requirements; identify a viable basic design specification; and, on the basis of this, an assessment of the fuel efficiency through a detailed conceptual design study. It is shown that there is a minimum power requirement independent of the suction system design, associated with the stagnation pressure loss in the boundary layer. This requirement increases with aerofoil section thickness, but depends only weakly on Mach number and (for a thick, lightly-loaded laminar flying wing) lift coefficient. Deviation from the optimal suction distribution, due to a practical chamber-based architecture, is found to have very little effect on the overall suction coefficient. In the spanwise direction, through suitable choice of chamber depth, the pressure drop due to frictional and inertial effects may be rendered negligible. Finally, it is found that the pressure drop from the aerofoil surface to the pump collector ducts determines the power penalty. To identify the viable basic design specification, a high-level exploration of the laminar flying wing design space is performed. The characteristics of the design are assessed as a function of three parameters: thickness-to-chord ratio, wingspan, and unit Reynolds number. A feasible specification, with 20% thickness-to-chord, 80 m span and a unit Reynolds number of 8 x 106 m-1, is identified; it corresponds to a 187 tonne aircraft which cruises at Mach 0.67 and altitude 22,500 ft, with lift coefficient 0.14. On the basis of this specification, a detailed conceptual design is undertaken. A 220-passenger laminar-flying-wing concept, propelled by three turboprop engines, with a cruise range of 9000 km is developed. The laminar flying wing proposed in this thesis falls short of the performance improvements expected of the concept, and is not worth the development effort.

Saeed, T. I.

253

Shapes of Buoyant and Nonbuoyant Methane Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar gas jet diffusion flames represent a fundamental combustion configuration. Their study has contributed to numerous advances in combustion, including the development of analytical and computational combustion tools. Laminar jet flames are pertinent also to turbulent flames by use of the laminar flamelet concept. Investigations into the shapes of noncoflowing microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames have primarily been pursued in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, by Cochran and coworkers and by Bahadori and coworkers. These studies were generally conducted at atmospheric pressure; they involved soot-containing flames and reported luminosity lengths and widths instead of the flame-sheet dimensions which are of Greater value to theory evaluation and development. The seminal model of laminar diffusion flames is that of Burke and Schumann, who solved the conservation of momentum equation for a jet flame in a coflowing ambient by assuming the velocity of fuel, oxidizer and products to be constant throughout. Roper and coworkers improved upon this model by allowing for axial variations of velocity and found flame shape to be independent of coflow velocity. Roper's suggestion that flame height should be independent of gravity level is not supported by past or present observations. Other models have been presented by Klajn and Oppenheim, Markstein and De Ris, Villermaux and Durox, and Li et al. The common result of all these models (except in the buoyant regime) is that flame height is proportional to fuel mass flowrate, with flame width proving much more difficult to predict. Most existing flame models have been compared with shapes of flames containing soot, which is known to obscure the weak blue emission of flame sheets. The present work involves measurements of laminar gas jet diffusion flame shapes. Flame images have been obtained for buoyant and nonbuoyant methane flames burning in quiescent air at various fuel flow-rates, burner diameters and ambient pressures. Soot concentrations were minimized by selecting conditions at low flowrates and low ambient pressures; this allows identification of actual flame sheets associated with blue emissions of CH and CO2. The present modeling effort follows that of Roper and is useful in explaining many of the trends observed.

Sunderland, Peter B.; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Urban, David L.

1997-01-01

254

The coupling influence of airflow and temperature on the wall-wetted fuel film distribution  

SciTech Connect

The coupling influence of airflow and temperature on the two-dimensional distribution of the film resulted from fuel spray impinging on a horizontal flat wall was studied with experiments. The horizontal airflow direction was perpendicular to the vertical axis of the injection spray. The results show that, as air velocity increases, the film shape turns from a circle to an oblong. As wall temperature increases, the film area shrinks. Film thickness decreases as wall temperature or air velocity increases. The boiling point of the fuel is an important temperature to affect the film area and the film thickness. Film center moves more far away in the downstream direction as air velocity increases. For a certain air velocity, film center moves less far away as wall temperature increases. (author)

Cheng, Yong-sheng [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng, Kangyao; Li, Tao [Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-02-15

255

Airway Resistance and Energy Budget of Airflow in a CT-Based Human Lung Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-house characteristic-Galerkin finite element code is utilized to study airway resistance and energy budget of airflow in 5-7 generations of a CT-based human lung model. The energy budget of airflow in the trachea and main bronchi is further analyzed and compared with Pedley's airway resistance formula. The results show that most airways exhibit an asymptotic relationship of pressure drop proportional to mass flux with a power varying from 2 to 1.6. The maximum predicted airway resistance is found at the fourth airway generation with a value of 0.09 cm-H2O/l/s at peak inspiration. This is in excellent agreement with existing experimental data. According to the pressure drop-mass flux relationship, the five lobes have similar collective flow characteristics in the studied normal subject. The effect of turbulent laryngeal jet on the energy budget and airway resistance is also discussed.

Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

2007-11-01

256

Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

2004-01-01

257

Airflow energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films by self-excited vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed self-excited vibration energy harvesters of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films using airflow. To enhance the self-excited vibration, we used 30-?m-thick stainless steel (SS304) foils as base cantilevers on which PZT thin films were deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering. To compensate for the initial bending of PZT/SS304 unimorph cantilever due to the thermal stress, we deposited counter PZT thin films on the back of the SS304 cantilever. We evaluated power-generation performance and vibration mode of the energy harvester in the airflow. When the angle of attack (AOA) was 20° to 30°, large vibration was generated at wind speeds over 8 m/s. By FFT analysis, we confirmed that stable self-excited vibration was generated. At the AOA of 30°, the output power reached 19 ?W at wind speeds of 12 m/s.

Suwa, E.; Tsujiura, Y.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

2014-11-01

258

Coolant pressure and airflow distribution in a strut-supported transpiration-cooled vane for a gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.

Kaufman, A.; Poferl, D. J.; Richards, H. T.

1972-01-01

259

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse micro-tomography of snow samples to enable in-situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4 day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-06-01

260

Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping has been thought to have little influence on the test results and has usually been ignored. It is hypothesized that, if the unsaturated zone is capped by low-permeability soil, airflow in the unsaturated zone may be developed during pumping and may have impact on the drawdown in the aquifer. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model is employed to simulate the pumping-induced air and groundwater flows in both the saturated zone and unsaturated zone with a low-permeability layer. The results demonstrate that negative pressure in the unsaturated zone can be generated by pumping. The negative pressure begins to appear as the drawdown rate increases to a maximum, approaches a peak before the drawdown rate becomes zero, and then gradually disappears. Drawdown obtained from the capped aquifer is much greater because the water in the pores in the unsaturated zone is sucked by the negative pressure and the gravity drainage from the pores is hampered. Consequently, the drawdown versus time curve does not conform to the traditional S-shaped curve for an unconfined aquifer but is similar to that of a confined aquifer. If the airflow caused by the low-permeability cap is ignored, the error in estimated drawdown could be over 80% for the specific parameters and aquifer configuration used in the study. The possible errors in parameter estimation when airflow is ignored are explored. Overall, the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer can be overestimated and the specific yield of the aquifer underestimated if airflow is ignored. The estimation error for specific yield tends to be greater than that in hydraulic conductivity.

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Guo, Haipeng

2009-10-01

261

Three-dimensional simulations and wind-tunnel experiments on airflow over isolated forest stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of windthrow risk to individual or groups of retained trees in harvested stands requires an improved understanding\\u000a of canopy airflow dynamics. Large-eddy simulations were used to simulate wind-tunnel experiments in two and three dimensions\\u000a to compare with observations for model validation and to address parameter space considerations for the design of subsequent\\u000a retention pattern experiments. The three-dimensional simulations were

Terry L. Clark; Stephen J. Mitchell; Michael Novak

2007-01-01

262

Three-dimensional simulations and wind-tunnel experiments on airflow over isolated forest stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of windthrow risk to individual or groups of retained trees in harvested stands requires an improved understanding of canopy airflow dynamics. Large-eddy simulations were used to simulate wind-tunnel experiments in two and three dimensions to compare with observations for model validation and to address parameter space considerations for the design of subsequent retention pattern experiments. The three-dimensional simulations were

Terry L. Clark; Stephen J. Mitchell; Michael Novak

2007-01-01

263

Indices of Upper Airway Obstruction in Patients with Simultaneous Chronic Airflow Limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL), the detection of upper airway obstruction (UAO) by analysis of forced flows can be difficult due to the masking of conventional UAO indices. We analyzed five indices: maximum inspiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FIF50), the ratio of maximum expiratory to inspiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50\\/FIF50), the

Eduardo García-Pachón; Pere Casan; Joaquín Sanchis

1994-01-01

264

Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure: electrical properties and induced airflow characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of an asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air have been investigated experimentally. The discharge is used for airflow production close to the dielectric surface, and the time-averaged flow velocity spatial profiles have been measured. Velocities of up to 3.5 m s-1 at heights of 1-2 mm are reached when filamentary discharges with current peaks up

Jérôme Pons; Eric Moreau; Gérard Touchard

2005-01-01

265

Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation in long-term Canadian chrysotile miners and millers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate further the relationships of asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation, we have obtained detailed pulmonary function tests (PFT) in 331 long-term Canadian chrysotile workers, 34 of whom were lifetime nonsmokers. Three disease categories were defined on the bases of standard diagnostic criteria, gallium-67 lung uptake, and the lung pressure-volume curve. Category A was composed of workers without

R. Begin; Robert Boileau; S. Peloquin

1987-01-01

266

Combined simulation of airflow, radiation and moisture transport for heat release from a human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described a combined numerical simulation method of airflow, thermal radiation and moisture transport for predicting heat release from a human body. A human thermo-physiological model was also included to examine the sensible and latent heat transfer from the human body. Flow, temperature and moisture fields were investigated with three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). We used a low-Reynolds-number type

Shuzo Murakami; Shinsuke Kato; Jie Zeng

2000-01-01

267

Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

Johnston, James D., Jr.

1988-01-01

268

Periodontitis is related to lung volumes and airflow limitation: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the potential association of periodontal diseases with lung volumes and airflow limitation in a general adult population. Based on a representative population sample of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), 1463 subjects aged 25-86 years were included. Periodontal status was assessed by clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing depth and number of missing teeth. Lung function was measured using spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Linear regression models using fractional polynomials were used to assess associations between periodontal disease and lung function. Fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated as potential intermediate factors. After full adjustment for potential confounders mean CAL was significantly associated with variables of mobile dynamic and static lung volumes, airflow limitation and hyperinflation (p<0.05). Including fibrinogen and hs-CRP did not change coefficients of mean CAL; associations remained statistically significant. Mean CAL was not associated with total lung capacity and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Associations were confirmed for mean probing depth, extent measures of CAL/probing depth and number of missing teeth. Periodontal disease was significantly associated with reduced lung volumes and airflow limitation in this general adult population sample. Systemic inflammation did not provide a mechanism linking both diseases. PMID:23222882

Holtfreter, Birte; Richter, Stefanie; Kocher, Thomas; Dörr, Marcus; Völzke, Henry; Ittermann, Till; Obst, Anne; Schäper, Christoph; John, Ulrich; Meisel, Peter; Grotevendt, Anne; Felix, Stephan B; Ewert, Ralf; Gläser, Sven

2013-12-01

269

Human-Mediated Dispersal of Seeds by the Airflow of Vehicles  

PubMed Central

Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation. PMID:23320077

von der Lippe, Moritz; Bullock, James M.; Kowarik, Ingo; Knopp, Tatjana; Wichmann, Matthias

2013-01-01

270

Parametric study of the cyclic behaviour of a hygroscopic matrix in a desiccant airflow system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the transport phenomena in desiccant airflow systems has been addressed in numerous research works, some of them concerning combined processes of cooling, dehumidification and energy recovery. In this paper a detailed numerical model is used to simulate the behaviour of a parallel-plate channel, cyclically exposed to two airflows with different inlet conditions, the plate being composed by a substrate and a desiccant porous layer. The modelled channel is considered to be representative of a real channel of a hygroscopic matrix that is operating at steady state regime, like it occurs in desiccant or enthalpy rotors. The numerical results are treated in order to represent the global behaviour of the hygroscopic rotor under steady state conditions. Results of a parametric study are presented as maps of isovalues of the heat and mass transfer rates and of the outlet states of both airflows, considering channels of distinct wall thickness, of different thickness of the desiccant and the subtract layers, together with wide ranges of the rotation speed and of the wheel partition. The mapped results presented provide an overview of the operation characteristics of hygroscopic rotors, allowing a quick determination of the optimum range of values for relevant parameters, such as the rotation speed and the wheel partition. The model is thus an interesting tool for design and manufacture purposes of enthalpy and desiccant wheels.

Ruivo, C. R.; Costa, J. J.; Figueiredo, A. R.

2011-09-01

271

Chronic Endotoxin Exposure Produces Airflow Obstruction and Lung Dendritic Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the mechanisms of persistent airflow obstruction that result from chronic occupational endotoxin exposure. We sought to analyze the inflammatory response underlying persistent airflow obstruction as a result of chronic occupational endotoxin exposure. We developed a murine model of daily inhaled endotoxin for periods of 5 days to 8 weeks. We analyzed physiologic lung dysfunction, lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and total lung homogenate inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles, and pulmonary gene expression profiles. We observed an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness as a result of chronic endotoxin exposure. After 8 weeks, the mice exhibited an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung neutrophils that correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Detailed analyses of inflammatory cell subsets revealed an expansion of dendritic cells (DCs), and in particular, proinflammatory DCs, with a reduced percentage of macrophages. Gene expression profiling revealed the up-regulation of a panel of genes that was consistent with DC recruitment, and lung histology revealed an accumulation of DCs in inflammatory aggregates around the airways in 8-week–exposed animals. Repeated, low-dose LPS inhalation, which mirrors occupational exposure, resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness, associated with a failure to resolve the proinflammatory response, an inverted macrophage to DC ratio, and a significant rise in the inflammatory DC population. These findings point to a novel underlying mechanism of airflow obstruction as a result of occupational LPS exposure, and suggest molecular and cellular targets for therapeutic development. PMID:22517795

Lai, Peggy S.; Fresco, Jennifer M.; Pinilla, Miguel A.; Macias, Alvaro A.; Brown, Ronald D.; Englert, Joshua A.; Hofmann, Oliver; Lederer, James A.; Hide, Winston; Christiani, David C.; Cernadas, Manuela

2012-01-01

272

Lung matrix metalloproteinase-9 correlates with cigarette smoking and obstruction of airflow.  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for obstruction of airflow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or an imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs), is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. We investigated whether the MMPs expression or the imbalance between MMPs and TIMP-1 is associated with the amount of cigarette smoking and the FEV1 value, in the lung parenchyma of 26 subjects (6 non-smokers and 20 cigarette smokers). First, we performed zymographic analysis to identify the profile of the MMPs, which revealed gelatinolytic bands mainly equivalent to MMP-9 in the smokers. We then measured, using enzyme immunoassay, the concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1. Correlation analysis revealed that both the MMP-9 concentrations and the molar ratios of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) were correlated with the amount of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, MMP-9 concentrations were inversely correlated with FEV1. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP-9 expression in human lung parenchyma is associated with cigarette smoking and also with the obstruction of airflow, suggesting that MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the cigarette smoke-induced obstruction of airflow known as the characteristic of COPD. PMID:14676438

Kang, Min Jong; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Myung Goo; Hyun, In Gyu; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Jung, Ki-Suck

2003-01-01

273

Human-mediated dispersal of seeds by the airflow of vehicles.  

PubMed

Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation. PMID:23320077

von der Lippe, Moritz; Bullock, James M; Kowarik, Ingo; Knopp, Tatjana; Wichmann, Matthias C; Wichmann, Matthias

2013-01-01

274

Influence of airflow intensity on phytase production by solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger F3 by solid state fermentation (SSF) on citrus peel was evaluated at pilot scale under different aeration conditions. The best airflow intensity was 1 VkgM (Lair kg medium(-1) min(-1)), which allowed to produce 65 units of phytases per gram in dry basis (65 Ug(-1) d.b.) as it removed the metabolic heat generated by the microorganism, Agitation did not improve heat removal. Airflow intensity was considered as scale-up criterion. When the airflow intensity was maintained at 1 VkgM for SSF with 2 and 20 kg of medium, the kinetics parameters for biomass and enzyme concentration at the end of fermentation differed by less than 2. The air flow intensity was required to maintain the temperature and cool the SSF and to provide oxygen for microbial growth. Air flow intensity is a key a factor that must be considered when scale-up of SSF is attempted. PMID:22704830

Rodríguez-Fernández, D E; Rodríguez-León, J A; de Carvalho, J C; Karp, S G; Sturm, W; Parada, J L; Soccol, C R

2012-08-01

275

Laminar/turbulent oscillating flow in circular pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted simulating the gas flow inside Stirling engine heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10,800 (Va = 272), 19,300 (Va = 272), and 60,800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Predictions of the flow regime are also checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase difference with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, the performance of the k-epsilon model was evaluated to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

1992-01-01

276

Laminar flow test installation in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the initial wind tunnels tests in the 5- by 8-ft Boeing Research Wind Tunnel of a near full-scale (20-foot chord) swept wing section having laminar flow control (LFC) by slot suction over its first 30 percent chord. The model and associated test apparatus were developed for use as a testbed for LFC-related experimentation in support of preliminary design studies done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper contains the description of the model and associated test apparatus as well as the results of the initial test series in which the proper functioning of the test installation was demonstrated and new data were obtained on the sensitivity of suction-controlled laminar flow to surface protuberances in the presence of crossflow due to sweep.

George-Falvy, Dezso

1990-01-01

277

Some observations regarding steady laminar flows past bluff bodies.  

PubMed

Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder or a sphere, have been studied for well over a century. Theoretical, experimental and numerical methods have all contributed fundamentally towards our understanding of the resulting flows. This article focuses on developments during the past few decades, when mostly numerical and asymptotical advances have provided insights also for steady, although unstable, high-Reynolds-numbers flow regimes. PMID:24936017

Fornberg, Bengt; Elcrat, Alan R

2014-07-28

278

Free convective laminar flow within the Trombe wall channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line-by-line forward marching implicit finite-difference method is used to study the laminar free convection between vertical parallel plates of different temperatures. A uniform inlet velocity profile and the dynamic contribution to the inlet pressure reduction are selected as the starting conditions. Local Nusselt numbers at each surface, the rate of heat absorption by the fluid, and the mixed-mean fluid

H. Akbari; T. R. Borgers

1979-01-01

279

Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.

Smith, Brooke Edward

1993-01-01

280

Natural laminar flow experiments on modern airplane surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight and wind-tunnel natural laminar flow experiments have been conducted on various lifting and nonlifting surfaces of several airplanes at unit Reynolds numbers between 0.63 x 10 to the 6th power/ft and 3.08 x 10 to the 6th power/ft, at Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.7, and at lifting surface leading-edge sweep angles from 0 deg to 63 deg. The airplanes tested were selected to provide relatively stiff skin conditions, free from significant roughness and waviness, on smooth modern production-type airframes. The observed transition locations typically occurred downstream of the measured or calculated pressure peak locations for the test conditions involved. No discernible effects on transition due to surface waviness were observed on any of the surfaces tested. None of the measured heights of surface waviness exceeded the empirically predicted allowable surface waviness. Experimental results consistent with spanwise contamination criteria were observed. Large changes in flight-measured performance and stability and control resulted from loss of laminar flow by forced transition. Rain effects on the laminar boundary layer caused stick-fixed nose-down pitch-trim changes in two of the airplanes tested. No effect on transition was observed for flight through low-altitude liquid-phase clouds. These observations indicate the importance of fixed-transition tests as a standard flight testing procedure for modern smooth airframes.

Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.; Yip, L. P.

1984-01-01

281

The Effects of Gravity on Wrinkled Laminar Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity are significant to the dynamics of idealized unconfined open premixed flames. Moderate to low turbulence Reynolds number flames, i.e., wrinkled laminar flames, of various unconfined geometries have been used extensively for investigating fundamental processes of turbulent flame propagation and to validate theoretical models. Without the wall constraints, the flames are free to expand and interact with surrounding ambient air. The flow field in which the flame exists is determined by a coupling of burner geometry, flame orientation and the gravity field. These complex interactions raise serious questions regarding the validity of comparing the experimental data of open flames with current theoretical and numerical models that do not include the effects of gravity nor effects of the larger aerodynamic flowfield. Therefore, studies of wrinkled laminar flame in microgravity are needed for a better understanding of the role of gravity on flame characteristics such as the orientation, mean aerodynamics stretch, flame wrinkle size and burning rate. Our approach to characterize and quantify turbulent flame structures under microgravity is to exploit qualitative and quantitative flow visualization techniques coupled with video recording and computer controlled image analysis technologies. The experiments will be carried out in the 2.2 second drop tower at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The longest time scales of typical wrinkled laminar flames in the geometries considered here are in the order of 10 msec. Hence, the duration of the drop is sufficient to obtain the amount of statistical data necessary for characterize turbulent flame structures.

Kostiuk, Larry W.; Zhou, Liming; Cheng, Robert K.

1993-01-01

282

The effects of gravity on wrinkled laminar flames  

SciTech Connect

Laminar and turbulent conical Bunsen type flames were used. The study compares results from normal gravity with the burner in an up-right orientation (+g), the burner inverted (-g), and in microgravity ([mu]g) by using the NASA Lewis drop tower facility. The primary diagnostic is a laser schlieren system and some LDA measurements were taken for the +g condition to measure the flow field. The +g laminar flame experiences a large amount of instabilities and results in an unsteady flame tip; cause is torroidal vortex rolling up between products and stagnate surrounding air. Comparison between LDA measurements in reactants and schlieren images shows that velocity fluctuation are induced at the same frequency as the roll up vortices are formed. This pumping of the reactant stream by the product/air interface instability in the +g case is also observed in the turbulent flames. In the -g arrangement the product/air interface is stable so there is no large pumping of the flame tip. At low flow rates the -g flames have flattened tips, but at higher flow rates they become conical in shape. When both flames. appear conical, the -g flames are longer for the same flow rate. In [mu]g the larger instabilities in the flame no longer exist as the product/air interface is believed to become stable. The laminar flames in [mu]g still show small instabilities over the entire flame.

Kostiuk, L.W.; Zhou, L.; Cheng, R.K.

1992-09-01

283

The effects of gravity on wrinkled laminar flames  

SciTech Connect

Laminar and turbulent conical Bunsen type flames were used. The study compares results from normal gravity with the burner in an up-right orientation (+g), the burner inverted (-g), and in microgravity ({mu}g) by using the NASA Lewis drop tower facility. The primary diagnostic is a laser schlieren system and some LDA measurements were taken for the +g condition to measure the flow field. The +g laminar flame experiences a large amount of instabilities and results in an unsteady flame tip; cause is torroidal vortex rolling up between products and stagnate surrounding air. Comparison between LDA measurements in reactants and schlieren images shows that velocity fluctuation are induced at the same frequency as the roll up vortices are formed. This pumping of the reactant stream by the product/air interface instability in the +g case is also observed in the turbulent flames. In the -g arrangement the product/air interface is stable so there is no large pumping of the flame tip. At low flow rates the -g flames have flattened tips, but at higher flow rates they become conical in shape. When both flames. appear conical, the -g flames are longer for the same flow rate. In {mu}g the larger instabilities in the flame no longer exist as the product/air interface is believed to become stable. The laminar flames in {mu}g still show small instabilities over the entire flame.

Kostiuk, L.W.; Zhou, L.; Cheng, R.K.

1992-09-01

284

The effect of debris accumulation on and filter resistance to airflow for four commercially available vacuum cleaners.  

PubMed

Mortar removal with right-angle grinders can cause excessive exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To control this dust exposure, vacuum cleaners need to exhaust 2.3 m(3)/min (80 cubic feet per minute) from the grinder's exhaust hood. Maintaining this airflow while collecting as much as 15.9 kg (35 lb) of debris in the vacuum cleaner has been problematic. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate how mortar debris affects vacuum cleaner airflow and filter pressure loss. Four vacuum cleaners were tested. Two of the vacuum cleaners used vacuum cleaner bags as a prefilter; the other two vacuum cleaners used cyclones to reduce the amount of debris that reaches the filter. Test debris was collected by a masonry restoration contractor during actual mortar removal using a grinder fitted with a hood. The hood is attached to a vacuum cleaner with cyclonic pre-separation. The vacuum cleaner fan curves were obtained experimentally to learn how pressure loss affects vacuum cleaner airflows. Then, 15.9 kg (35 lb) of mortar removal debris was sucked into the vacuum cleaner in 2.27-kg (5-lb) increments. Before and after adding each 2.27-kg (5-lb) increment of debris, vacuum cleaner airflows were measured with a venturi meter, and vacuum cleaner static pressures were measured at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor, and before and after each filter. The vacuum cleaners equipped with cyclonic pre-separation were unaffected by the mass of debris collected in the vacuum cleaner and were able to maintain airflows in excess of 1.98 m(3)/min (70 cfm) throughout the testing program. As debris accumulated in the vacuum cleaners that used bags, airflow decreased from 2.3 m(3)/min (80 cfm) to as little as 0.85 m(3)/min (30 cfm). This airflow loss is caused by the increased airflow resistance of the bags that increased from less 0.03 kPa/m(3)/min (0.1 inches of water per cfm) to 16.7 kPa/m(3)/min (1.9 inches of water/cfm). Apparently, vacuum cleaners using bags should be used in applications where adequate dust control can be achieved at airflows less than 0.85 m(3)/min (30 cfm). Vacuum cleaners with cyclonic pre-separators provided superior and cost-effective dust control compared with vacuums with bags when dust loading was high and when more than 30 cfm of airflow is needed for dust control. PMID:19360515

Heitbrink, William A; Santalla-Elias, Javier

2009-06-01

285

Distributed educated throat stability bypass to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 60-percent internal contraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to increase the stable airflow operating range of a supersonic mixed-compression inlet are presented. A distributed educated throat stability-bypass entrance configuration was tested. In terms of diffuser-exit corrected airflow, a large inlet stable airflow range of about 16.1 percent was obtained if a constant pressure was maintained in the bypass plenum. Limited unstart angle of attack data are presented.

Shaw, R. J.; Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

1974-01-01

286

Forward slanted slot throat stability bypass to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 60 percent internal contraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to increase the stable airflow operating range of a supersonic mixed-compression inlet are presented. Two forward-slanted slot stability-bypass entrance configurations were tested. In terms of diffuser-exit corrected airflow, a large inlet stable airflow range of 18.5 percent was obtained with the superior configuration if a constant pressure was maintained in the bypass plenum. Limited unstart angle-of-attack data are presented.

Shaw, R. J.; Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

1974-01-01

287

Airway wall thickness associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline and development of airflow limitation.  

PubMed

Airway wall thickness and emphysema contribute to airflow limitation. We examined their association with lung function decline and development of airflow limitation in 2021 male smokers with and without airflow limitation. Airway wall thickness and emphysema were quantified on chest computed tomography and expressed as the square root of wall area of a 10-mm lumen perimeter (Pi10) and the 15th percentile method (Perc15), respectively. Baseline and follow-up (median (interquartile range) 3 (2.9-3.1)?years) spirometry was available. Pi10 and Perc15 correlated with baseline forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) (r=?-0.49 and 0.11, respectively (p<0.001)). Multiple linear regression showed that Pi10 and Perc15 at baseline were associated with a lower FEV1 after follow-up (p<0.05). For each sd increase in Pi10 and decrease in Perc15 the FEV1 decreased by 20?mL and 30.2?mL, respectively. The odds ratio for developing airflow limitation after 3?years was 2.45 for a 1-mm higher Pi10 and 1.46 for a 10-HU lower Perc15 (p<0.001). A greater degree of airway wall thickness and emphysema was associated with a higher FEV1 decline and development of airflow limitation after 3?years of follow-up. PMID:25614166

Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Mali, Willem P T M; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry J M; van Ginneken, Bram; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Zanen, Pieter

2015-03-01

288

The coupling of conical wrinkled laminar flames with gravity  

SciTech Connect

This work explores the influences that gravity has on conical premixed laminar and mildly turbulent flames (i.e., wrinkled laminar flames). The approach is to compare overall flame characteristics in normal (+g) reverse ({minus}g), and micro-gravity ({micro}g). Laser schlieren is the principal diagnostic for the {micro}g experiments. Laboratory investigation of +g and {minus}g flames also include two components laser doppler anemometry. The results obtained in a wide range of flow, mixture and turbulence conditions show that gravity has a profound effect on the lean stabilization limits, features of the flowfield, and mean flame heights. in +g and {micro}g do not flicker. analysis of the flame flickering frequencies produces in an empirical relationship St*{sup 2}/Ri = 0.0018 Re{sup 2/3} (where St*, Ri, and Re are, respectively, the Strouhal number normalized by the heat release ratio, the Richardson number, and the Reynolds number). This correlation would be useful for theoretical prediction of buoyancy induced flame instabilities. Comparison of mean flame heights shows that +g, {minus}g, {micro}g flame properties do not converge with increased flow momentum. Velocity measurements in laminar flames show that in +g, the flow generated by the rising products plum is almost non-divergent, slightly turbulent and unstable. In {minus}g, the flow becomes divergent but is stable and non-turbulent in the region surrounding the flame cone. The change from a nondivergent to divergent flow field seems to account for the differences in the observed mean flame heights. The schlieren images and the velocity measurements in +g and {minus}g also provide some insight into the overall flowfield features of {micro}g flames.

Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-10-01

289

C-reactive protein levels, airflow obstruction, and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  There is some evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be related, perhaps\\u000a through systemic inflammation, which is common to both. However, this relationship has not yet been clearly demonstrated.\\u000a The aim of this study was to investigate the association between airflow obstruction, CKD, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels\\u000a in Japanese men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study included

Yayoi Funakoshi; Hisamitsu Omori; Shuichi Mihara; Ayumi Onoue; Yasuhiro Ogata; Hisamichi Aizawa; Takahiko Katoh

290

Gas crossflow effects on airflow through a wire-form transpiration cooling material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental analysis was conducted to determine the effects of gas stream flow parallel to the discharging surface on the flow characteristics of a wire-form porous material. Flow data were obtained over a range of transpiration airflow rates from 0.129 to 0.695/grams per second-centimeter squared and external gas stream Mach numbers from 0 to 0.46. The conclusion was drawn that the flow characteristics of the wire cloth were not significantly affected by the external gas flows.

Kaufman, A. S.; Russell, L. M.; Poferl, D. J.

1972-01-01

291

Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a ?2-agonist) as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11), and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB? group, n=20). Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n=49). Results In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB? and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group compared with the COPD group, and that easy collapsibility of small airways during expiration of tidal breath was not apparent in the CPFE OB+ group compared with the COPD group. Dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation was significantly greater in the COPD group than in the CPFE OB? group, and also tended to be greater in the CPFE OB+ group than in the CPFE OB? group. Conclusion The mechanisms underlying impairment of physiological function may differ among CPFE OB+ patients, CPFE OB? patients, and COPD patients. CPFE is a heterogeneous disease, and may have distinct phenotypes physiologically and radiologically. PMID:25114520

Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Hotta, Junichi; Hirayama, Jiro

2014-01-01

292

Fire-extinguishing mechanism and energy procedure by high velocity airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the testing result of character of forest fire, with the aid mold of flameextinguishing and mathematical method,\\u000a the combustion of the forest fuels and the energy transfer under the convention condition were studied and the mechanism and\\u000a interrelated elements of flameextinguishing with high velocity airflow were given. The energy formulae is given: Nz=K?0 L\\u000a 0 (15)GH\\/102\\u000a gh\\u000a through

Chen Dawo

1996-01-01

293

Note: Background Oriented Schlieren as a diagnostics for airflow control by plasma actuators.  

PubMed

Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is an optical technique sensitive to the first spatial derivative of the refractive index inside a light-transmitting medium. Compared to other Schlieren-like techniques, BOS is more versatile and allows to capture bi-dimensional gradients rather than just one spatial component. We propose to adopt BOS for studying the capabilities of surface dielectric barrier discharges to work like plasma actuators in flow control applications. The characteristics of the BOS we implemented at this purpose are discussed, together with few results concerning the ionic wind produced by the discharge in absence of an external airflow. PMID:25725896

Biganzoli, I; Capone, C; Barni, R; Riccardi, C

2015-02-01

294

Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction  

SciTech Connect

In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

Musk, A.W.

1983-11-01

295

Single-stage electrohydraulic servosystem for actuating on airflow valve with frequencies to 500 hertz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airflow valve and its electrohydraulic actuation servosystem are described. The servosystem uses a high-power, single-stage servovalve to obtain a dynamic response beyond that of systems designed with conventional two-stage servovalves. The electrohydraulic servosystem is analyzed and the limitations imposed on system performance by such nonlinearities as signal saturations and power limitations are discussed. Descriptions of the mechanical design concepts and developmental considerations are included. Dynamic data, in the form of sweep-frequency test results, are presented and comparison with analytical results obtained with an analog computer model is made.

Webb, J. A., Jr.; Mehmed, O.; Lorenzo, C. F.

1980-01-01

296

Note: Background Oriented Schlieren as a diagnostics for airflow control by plasma actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is an optical technique sensitive to the first spatial derivative of the refractive index inside a light-transmitting medium. Compared to other Schlieren-like techniques, BOS is more versatile and allows to capture bi-dimensional gradients rather than just one spatial component. We propose to adopt BOS for studying the capabilities of surface dielectric barrier discharges to work like plasma actuators in flow control applications. The characteristics of the BOS we implemented at this purpose are discussed, together with few results concerning the ionic wind produced by the discharge in absence of an external airflow.

Biganzoli, I.; Capone, C.; Barni, R.; Riccardi, C.

2015-02-01

297

Diagnostic performance of single airflow channel recording (ApneaLink) in home diagnosis of sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  ApneaLink is a novel single-channel screening device for sleep apnea detection which is based on pressure-transduced measurement\\u000a of oronasal airflow, summarised as respiratory disturbance index per hour of recording time (RDIApneaLink). We tested ApneaLink's diagnostic performance in a patient population with high prevalence of sleep apnea.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  ApneaLink was applied simultaneously with in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) (n?=?102, 24 female, age 54.7 years) and

Regine Ragette; Yi Wang; Gerhard Weinreich; Helmut Teschler

2010-01-01

298

Dumb-bell model for polymer transport in laminar flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer transport is investigated, in the limit of the so-called dumb-bell model, for two paradigmatic laminar flows having open and closed streamlines, respectively. For both types of flows we find transport depletion owing to the action of the polymers elastic degree of freedom. For flows with closed streamlines the leading mechanism for the observed transport reduction is the (dynamical) formation of barriers. For flows with open streamlines the reduction of transport is induced by the renormalization of the bare diffusion coefficient. Results have been obtained by means of Lagrangian simulations.

DeLucia, M.; Mazzino, A.; Vulpiani, A.

2002-10-01

299

Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.

Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.

1987-01-01

300

Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Presenting as Cortical Laminar Necrosis: Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia. PMID:23482893

Choi, Jong Mun; Roh, Sook Young

2013-01-01

301

Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow  

E-print Network

We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

2011-04-27

302

Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.

Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.

1972-01-01

303

A smart, intermittent driven particle sensor with an airflow change trigger using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) cantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a smart, intermittent driven particle sensor with an airflow trigger. A lead zirconate titanate cantilever functions as the trigger, which detects an airflow change without requiring a power supply to drive the sensing element. Because an airflow change indicates that the particle concentration has changed, the trigger switches the optical particle counter from sleep mode to active mode only when the particle concentration surrounding the sensor changes. The sensor power consumption in sleep mode is 100 times less than that in the active mode. Thus, this intermittent driven method significantly reduces the total power consumption of the particle sensor. In this paper, we fabricate a prototype of the particle sensor and demonstrate that the optical particle counter can be switched on by the fabricated trigger and thus that the particle concentration can be measured.

Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Tomimatsu, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Isozaki, Akihiro; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

2014-02-01

304

Application of laminar flow control to the High Speed Civil Transport - The NASA Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) program encompasses the development of refined CFD methods and boundary layer stability codes for the highly 3D supersonic flow conditions encountered by the F-16XL technology demonstration aircraft and the prospective High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). While the F-16XL-1 aircraft continues to gather SLFC data, work is under way on the F-16XL-2 aircraft: which will furnish attach-line design criteria, code-calibration data, and an improved understanding of the flowfield over a wing that will add confidence to the design of HSCTs' boundary layer-controlling air-suction panels.

Fischer, Michael C.; Vemuru, Chandra S.

1991-01-01

305

The laminar distribution of neuritic plaques in the fascia dentata of patients with Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuritic plaques are prominent in the fascia dentata of the hippocampus and are often linearly oriented in stratum moleculare. Since the afferents to this region are also organized in a laminar pattern, the present study focused on the relative number and laminar distribution of plaques in this region to shed light on the genesis of the neuritic plaques. Examination of

B. J. Crain; P. C. Burger

1988-01-01

306

Electrochimica Acta 50 (2005) 53905398 Membraneless laminar flow-based micro fuel cells operating in alkaline,  

E-print Network

Electrochimica Acta 50 (2005) 5390­5398 Membraneless laminar flow-based micro fuel cells operating) in membraneless, laminar flow-based micro fuel cells (LF-FCs) eliminates several PEM-related issues such as fuel the anode is in acidic media while the cathode is in alkali, or vice versa. Operating a fuel cell under

Kenis, Paul J. A.

307

Soot formation in high pressure laminar diffusion flames Ahmet E. Karatas *, mer L. Glder  

E-print Network

Review Soot formation in high pressure laminar diffusion flames Ahmet E. Karatas¸ *, �mer L. Gülder online 30 June 2012 Keywords: High pressure soot formation High pressure combustion Laminar diffusion that most combustion devices used for transportation operate at very high pressures (e.g., aircraft gas

Gülder, �mer L.

308

Small is beautiful: Upscaling from microscale laminar to natural turbulent rivers  

E-print Network

Small is beautiful: Upscaling from microscale laminar to natural turbulent rivers L. Malverti,1 E; published 9 October 2008. [1] The use of microscale experimental rivers (with flow depths of the order the experimental microscale at which flow is laminar to the scale of natural turbulent rivers. We address

Lajeunesse, Eric

309

Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow  

E-print Network

Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow David Moxey1 and Dwight) When fluid flows through a channel, pipe, or duct, there are two basic forms of motion: smooth laminar numerical computations in pipes of variable lengths up to 125 diameters to investigate the nature of transi

Barkley, Dwight

310

Tabulated chemistry approaches for laminar flames: Evaluation of flame-prolongation of ILDM and flamelet methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study considers the performance of tabulation methods for numerical simulation of complex chemical kinetics in laminar combusting flows and compares their predictions to results obtained by direct calculation. Two tabulation methods are considered: the Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) method and Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM). The FPI method is of current interest as it is

Pradeep K. Jha; Clinton P. T. Groth

2012-01-01

311

Tabulated chemistry approaches for laminar flames: Evaluation of flame-prolongation of ILDM and flamelet methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study considers the performance of tabulation methods for numerical simulation of complex chemical kinetics in laminar combusting flows and compares their predictions to results obtained by direct calculation. Two tabulation methods are considered: the Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) method and Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM). The FPI method is of current interest as it is

Pradeep K. Jha; Clinton P. T. Groth

2011-01-01

312

A laminar vortex interacting with a premixed flame - Regimes of interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single toroidal, laminar vortex interacts with a counterpropagating laminar premixed flame to examine the fundamentals of the flame-vortex interaction. This interaction represents a fundamental 'building block' of premixed turbulent combustion. Experimental results quantify the degree of flame rollup, the boundary of the pocket formation (corrugated flame) regime, the flame perimeter increase due to wrinkling, and local quenching of the premixed flame.

Roberts, Wm. L.; Driscoll, J. F.; Drake, M. C.

1992-01-01

313

Air-Breathing Laminar Flow-Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Alkaline Electrolyte  

E-print Network

Air-Breathing Laminar Flow-Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Alkaline Electrolyte Ranga S Power Systems, Cary, North Carolina 27513, USA We report the performance of an air-breathing laminar of an air-breathing gas diffusion electrode GDE as the cathode, which resulted in a fivefold improvement

Kenis, Paul J. A.

314

Scanning PIV measurements of a laminar separation bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning PIV is applied to a laminar separation bubble to investigate the spanwise structure and dynamics of the roll-up of vortices within the bubble. The laminar flow separation with turbulent reattachment is studied on the suction side of an airfoil SD7003 at Reynolds numbers of 20,000-60,000. The flow is recorded with a CMOS high-speed camera in successive light-sheet planes over a time span of 1-2 s to resolve the temporal evolution of the flow in the different planes. The results show the quasi-periodic development of large vortex-rolls at the downstream end of the separation bubble, which have a convex structure and an extension of 10-20% chord length in the spanwise direction. These vortices possess an irregular spanwise pattern. The evolution process of an exemplary vortex structure is shown in detail starting from small disturbances within the separation bubble transforming into a compact vortex at the downstream end of the separation bubble. As the vortex grows in size and strength it reaches a critical state that leads to an abrupt burst of the vortex with a large ejection of fluid into the mean flow.

Burgmann, S.; Brücker, C.; Schröder, W.

2006-08-01

315

Transmembrane semaphorin signaling controls laminar stratification in the mammalian retina  

PubMed Central

In the vertebrate retina, establishment of precise synaptic connections among distinct retinal neuron cell types is critical for processing visual information and for accurate visual perception. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), amacrine cells, and bipolar cells establish stereotypic neurite arborization patterns to form functional neural circuits in the inner plexiform layer (IPL)1–3: a laminar region that is conventionally divided into five major parallel sublaminae1,2. However, the molecular mechanisms governing distinct retinal subtype targeting to specific sublaminae within the IPL remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that the transmembrane semaphorin Sema6A signals through its receptor PlexinA4 (PlexA4) to control lamina-specific neuronal stratification in the mouse retina. Expression analyses demonstrate that Sema6A and PlexA4 proteins are expressed in a complementary fashion in the developing retina: Sema6A in most ON sublaminae and PlexA4 in OFF sublaminae of the IPL. Mice with null mutations in PlexA4 or Sema6A exhibit severe defects in stereotypic lamina-specific neurite arborization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic amacrine cells, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs), and calbindin-positive cells in the IPL. Sema6A and PlexA4 genetically interact in vivo with respect to the regulation of dopaminergic amacrine cell laminar targeting. Therefore, neuronal targeting to subdivisions of the IPL in the mammalian retina is directed by repulsive transmembrane guidance cues present on neuronal processes. PMID:21270798

Matsuoka, Ryota L.; Nguyen-Ba-Charvet, Kim T.; Parray, Aijaz; Badea, Tudor C.; Chédotal, Alain; Kolodkin, Alex L.

2010-01-01

316

Streamwise Vorticity Generation in Laminar and Turbulent Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex streamwise vorticity fields are observed in the evolution of non-circular jets. Generation mechanisms are investigated via Reynolds-averaged (RANS), large-eddy (LES) and direct numerical (DNS) simulations of laminar and turbulent rectangular jets. Complex vortex interactions are found in DNS of laminar jets, but axis-switching is observed only when a single instability mode is present in the incoming mixing layer. With several modes present, the structures are not coherent and no axis-switching occurs, RANS computations also produce no axis-switching. On the other hand, LES of high Reynolds number turbulent jets produce axis-switching even for cases with several instability modes in the mixing layer. Analysis of the source terms of the mean streamwise vorticity equation through post-processing of the instantaneous results shows that, complex interactions of gradients of the normal and shear Reynolds stresses are responsible for the generation of streamwise vorticity which leads to axis-switching. RANS computations confirm these results. k - epsilon turbulence model computations fail to reproduce the phenomenon, whereas algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) computations, in which the secondary normal and shear stresses are computed explicitly, succeeded in reproducing the phenomenon accurately.

Demuren, Aodeji O.; Wilson, Robert V.

1999-01-01

317

Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

1984-01-01

318

Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.

Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.

2013-03-01

319

A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is necessary to accurately account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Generally, the greatest difficulty comes about when attempting to determine the increase in profile drag that results from the presence of separation bubbles. While a number of empirically based separation bubble models have been introduced in the past, the majority assume that the bubble development is fully predictable from upstream conditions. One way of accounting for laminar separation bubbles in airfoil design is the bubble analog used in the design and analysis program of Eppler and Somers. A locally interactive separation bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers program. Although unable to account for strong interactions such as the large reduction in suction peak sometimes caused by leading edge bubbles, it is able to predict the increase in drag and the local alteration of the airfoil pressure distribution that is caused by bubbles occurring in the operational range which is of most interest.

Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.

1989-01-01

320

Three dimensional/boundary layer interaction: Laminar and turbulent behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of a 3D skewed shock wave laminar boundary layer interaction has been carried out. The test configuration was a flat/finned plat arrangement with sharp leading edge fins having 4, 6 and 8 deg incidence relative to the free stream. The flat plate laminar boundary layer had thickness between 1.1 and 2.2 mm depending on test conditions. The unit Reynolds numbers used were 1.2 million and 2.4 million. Experimental surface data represented as surface flow visualizations and pressure distributions are presented for all test conditions. All tests were carried out at a nominal free stream Mach number of 2.25 and under approximately adiabatic wall conditions. The experimental results indicate that extended separation occurs even for the smallest wedge incidence, i.e., for a pressure ratio of 1.27 and that the extent of upstream influence is much larger in this 3D interaction than in comparable 2D interactions. Preliminary theoretical investigations show that an integral method is not suited for the study of the present interaction. The new implicit corrected viscosity method for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can yield convergence speeds of order unity under suitable chosen conditions.

Ginoux, J. J.; Degrez, G.

1982-12-01

321

Collective Odor Source Estimation and Search in Time-Variant Airflow Environments Using Mobile Robots  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots’ search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot’s detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection–diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

2011-01-01

322

Relationship of tracheal size to maximal expiratory airflow and density dependence.  

PubMed

Wave-speed theory predicts that maximal expiratory flow (MEF) at high lung volumes depends strongly on size of central airways. We tested this prediction by correlating MEF and tracheal cross-section area (T-XSA) in 15 (11 males, 4 females) healthy never-smoking volunteers. T-XSA was determined by planimetric analysis of contiguous 1-cm computerized tomographic scans of the intrathoracic trachea. We found a significant correlation between T-XSA at total lung capacity (TLC) and flow at 75% of vital capacity (V75) (r = 0.88, P less than 0.001). This contrasted to the correlation found between lung volume at TLC and V75 (r = 0.60). Density dependence of airflow (percent increase in V75 in air) was 35 +/- 17% and showed a significant inverse relationship to T-XSA (r = 0.70). These results confirm predictions of wave-speed theory and demonstrate the importance of cross-sectional area of central airways in determining MEF at high lung volumes. The large variability of MEF in normal individuals partly represents variations in tracheal size. Poor correlation between lung size and airway size suggests only a loose coupling between airways and lung parenchyma consistent with dysanaptic growth. Our findings indicate that changes in density dependence of airflow are not solely determined by the status of small airways and that differences in tracheal size contribute to its variability. PMID:3949655

Dolyniuk, M V; Fahey, P J

1986-02-01

323

Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

2010-01-01

324

A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Layer Entrainment by Airflow in Cough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coughing is an alternative mode of ensuring mucus clearance in the lung when normal cilia induced flow breaks down. A numerical model of this process is presented with the following aspects. (1) A portion of the airway comprising the first three bronchus generations is modeled as radially reinforced elastic tubes. Elasticity equations are solved to predict airway deformation under effect of airway pressure. (2) The compressible, turbulent flow induced by rapid lung contraction is modeled by direct numerical simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-10,000 and by Large Eddy Simulation for Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-40,000. (3) A two-layer model of the airway surface liquid (ASL) covering the airway epithelial layer is used. The periciliary liquid (PCL) in direct contact with the epithelial layer is considered to be a Newtonian fluid. Forces modeling cilia beating can act upon this layer. The mucus layer between the PCL and the interior airflow is modeled as an Oldroyd-B fluid. The overall computation is a fluid-structure interaction simulation that tracks changes in ASL thickness and airway diameters that result from impulsive airflow boundary conditions imposed at bronchi ends. In particular, the amount of mucus that is evacuated from the system is computed as a function of cough intensity and mucus rheological properties.

Mitran, Sorin M.

2008-07-01

325

Collective odor source estimation and search in time-variant airflow environments using mobile robots.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots' search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot's detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection-diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

2011-01-01

326

Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

2003-01-01

327

Detailed predictions of particle aspiration affected by respiratory inhalation and airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of air pollution found in the atmosphere and exposure to airborne particles are an important problem in the interest of public health. Exposure to contaminated air under different flow conditions is studied using the latest computational fluid dynamics models. For the first time the upper respiratory airway is integrated into a human body and placed inside a room, facing different airflow speeds (0.05-0.35 m s-1). It was found that the airflow streamlines diverged as it approached the human body, at the torso and accelerated upwards past the face and head before separating at the rear of the head, forming recirculating regions in the wake behind the body. Inhaled particles were tracked backwards to determine its origins. At a plane upstream from the face the locations of particles inhaled form a region known as the critical area, which is presented. This study establishes a better understanding of particle inhalability and provides a step towards a more holistic approach in determining inhalation toxicology effects of exposure to atmospheric particles.

Inthavong, Kiao; Ge, Qin Jiang; Li, Xiang Dong; Tu, Ji Yuan

2012-12-01

328

Scanning LDV for vibration measurement of filiform hairs in crickets in response to induced airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The microscopic nature of the hairs, the complex vibrations of excited hairs and the high damping of the system suggested that the use of Laser Doppler vibrometry could possibly improve the test performance. Two types of tests were performed: in the first case the hairs were indirectly excited using the signal obtained from a vibrating aluminium plate, whilst in the second case the hairs were directly excited using a white noise chirp. The results from the first experiment indicated that the hairs move in-phase with the exciting signal up to frequencies in the order of 10 kHz, responding to the vibration modes of the plate with a signal attenuation of 12 to 20 dB. The chirp experiment revealed the presence of rotational resonant modes at 6850 and 11300 Hz. No clear effect of hair length was perceivable on the vibration response of the filiform sensors. The obtained results proved promising to support the mechanical and vibration characterisation of the hairs and suggest that scanning Laser vibrometry can be used extensively on highly dampened biological materials.

Santulli, C.; Finn, T. J.; Seidel, R.; Jeronimidis, G.

2006-06-01

329

Simultaneous imaging of two-dimensional electron density and air-flow distribution over air-blast decaying arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitive Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensors were applied to simultaneous imaging of two-dimensional electron density and air-flow distributions over decaying arc channels under air blasting with several pressures. Our experimental results showed that higher blasting pressures facilitated the rapid reduction of arc diameters and an increase in the electron densities around the gap centre due not only to the thermal pinch effect but also to air-flow disturbances, although there were no significant effects of the air blasting on the arc conductance.

Inada, Yuki; Yamagami, Shimpei; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Hidaka, Kunihiko

2014-08-01

330

Monitoring minimization of grade B environments based on risk assessment using three-dimensional airflow measurements and computer simulation.  

PubMed

A practical, risk-based monitoring approach using the combined data collected from actual experiments and computer simulations was developed for the qualification of an EU GMP Annex 1 Grade B, ISO Class 7 area. This approach can locate and minimize the representative number of sampling points used for microbial contamination risk assessment. We conducted a case study on an aseptic clean room, newly constructed and specifically designed for the use of a restricted access barrier system (RABS). Hotspots were located using three-dimensional airflow analysis based on a previously published empirical measurement method, the three-dimensional airflow analysis. Local mean age of air (LMAA) values were calculated based on computer simulations. Comparable results were found using actual measurements and simulations, demonstrating the potential usefulness of such tools in estimating contamination risks based on the airflow characteristics of a clean room. Intensive microbial monitoring and particle monitoring at the Grade B environmental qualification stage, as well as three-dimensional airflow analysis, were also conducted to reveal contamination hotspots. We found representative hotspots were located at perforated panels covering the air exhausts where the major piston airflows collect in the Grade B room, as well as at any locations within the room that were identified as having stagnant air. However, we also found that the floor surface air around the exit airway of the RABS EU GMP Annex 1 Grade A, ISO Class 5 area was always remarkably clean, possibly due to the immediate sweep of the piston airflow, which prevents dispersed human microbes from falling in a Stokes-type manner on settling plates placed on the floor around the Grade A exit airway. In addition, this airflow is expected to be clean with a significantly low LMAA. Based on these observed results, we propose a simplified daily monitoring program to monitor microbial contamination in Grade B environments. To locate hotspots we propose using a combination of computer simulation, actual airflow measurements, and intensive environmental monitoring at the qualification stage. Thereafter, instead of particle or microbial air monitoring, we recommend the use of microbial surface monitoring at the main air exhaust. These measures would be sufficient to assure the efficiency of the monitoring program, as well as to minimize the number of surface sampling points used in environments surrounding a RABS. PMID:19174953

Katayama, Hirohito; Higo, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yuji; Katoh, Shigeo; Hiyama, Yukio; Morikawa, Kaoru

2008-01-01

331

Feasibility study of applying laminar flow control to an lta vehicle. Final report. [Lighter than air vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of applying laminar boundary-layer control with body shaping to a high altitude, Lighter-Than-Air vehicle was investigated. Solar-radiation-induced surface heating was shown to have a destablizing effect on laminar flow and caused the laminar flow to break down on regions of the vehicle surface exposed to high levels of solar radiation. Aerodynamic drag estimates were made for the vehicle. Surface waviness and roughness criteria for achieving laminar flow were determined.

Warner, D.J.; Ozgur, S.A.; Haigh, W.W.

1980-04-01

332

Using Large Eddy Simulation to Study Airflows in and around Buildings Yi Jiang, Ph.D. Mingde Su, Ph.D. Qingyan Chen, Ph.D.*  

E-print Network

the effectiveness and energy performance of ventilation systems, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, smoke on building structure systems. The properties of building airflows, such as velocity, temperature, pressure arrangements, and weather conditions. Correct prediction of building airflows is very challenging. Measurements

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

333

Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

334

The Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an incompletely re- versible limitation in airflow. A physiological variable — the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) — is often used to grade the severity of COPD. However, patients with COPD have systemic manifestations that are not reflected by the FEV 1 . We hypoth- esized that

Bartolome R. Celli; Claudia G. Cote; Jose M. Marin; Ciro Casanova; Maria Montes de Oca; Reina A. Mendez; Victor Pinto Plata; Howard J. Cabral

2004-01-01

335

Methods for controlling airflow in and around a building under cross-ventilation to improve indoor thermal comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates methods for controlling airflow in and around a building in order to improve indoor thermal comfort by utilizing cross-ventilation. In the first part of the study, field measurements are carried out to evaluate the effects of cross-ventilation on indoor thermal comfort. It was confirmed that a comfortable indoor thermal environment could be attained in a considerable part

Akashi Mochida; Hiroshi Yoshino; Tomoya Takeda; Toshimasa Kakegawa; Satoshi Miyauchi

2005-01-01

336

Assessment of various CFD models for predicting airflow and2 pressure drop through pleated filter system3  

E-print Network

1 1 Assessment of various CFD models for predicting airflow and2 pressure drop through pleated, and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) models, for14 simulating the pressure drop and transitional flows through indicate that the v2f, LES and DES17 (Spalart­Allmaras) can accurately predict the pressure drop and flow

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

337

Experimental and Numerical Study on Effects of Airflow and Aqueous Ammonium Solution Temperature on Ammonia Mass Transfer Coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using

Li Rong; Peter V. Nielsen; Guoqiang Zhang; Glauber Mariano; Ani Torres; Wellington Jesus; Walter Nakaema; Maria Jorge; Rauda Mariani; Klara Slezakova; Dionísia Castro; Maria Pereira; Simone Morais; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Maria Alvim-Ferraz; Catherine Barton; Charles Zarzecki; Mark Russell; Marjaleena Aatamila; Pia Verkasalo; Maarit Korhonen; Marja Viluksela; Kari Pasanen; Pekka Tiittanen; Aino Nevalainen; Yi-Ming Kuo; Juu-En Chang; Kun-Yu Chang; Chih-C. Chao; Yeu-Juin Tuan; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; Arhontoula Chatzilazarou; Evangelos Katsoyannos; Olga Gortzi; Stavros Lalas; Yiannis Paraskevopoulos; Euthalia Dourtoglou; John Tsaknis; Tarek Abichou; Jeremy Clark; Sze Tan; Jeffery Chanton; Gary Hater; Roger Green; Doug Goldsmith; Morton Barlaz; Nathan Swan; Gang Sun; Huiqing Guo; Jonathan Peterson; Zhengmin Qian; Hung-Mo Lin; Walter Stewart; Nirav Shah; Linli Kong; Fen Xu; Denjin Zhou; Zhicao Zhu; Qingci He; Shengwen Liang; Weiqing Chen; Chungsying Lu; Hsunling Bai; Fengsheng Su; Wenfa Chen; Jyh Hwang; Hsiu-Hsia Lee; Judith Chow; John Watson; Douglas Lowenthal; Lung-Wen Chen; Nehzat Motallebi

2010-01-01

338

Radar Observations of Precipitation and Airflow on the Mediterranean Side of the Alps: Autumn 1998 and 1999  

E-print Network

converged with synoptic-scale up-valley flow. #12;2 1. INTRODUCTION The European Alps are notoriousRadar Observations of Precipitation and Airflow on the Mediterranean Side of the Alps: Autumn 1998 Maggiore region on the Mediterranean side of the Alps during autumn 1998 and 1999. Mean patterns

Houze Jr., Robert A.

339

Airflow-terrain interactions through a mountain gap, with an example of eolian activity beneath an atmospheric hydraulic jump  

SciTech Connect

The integration of atmospheric soundings from a fully instrumented aircraft with detailed sedimentary and geomorphic analyses of eolian features in the Ferris dune field of south-central Wyoming lends insight into the manner in which topography interacts with airflow to modify eolian activity. Topographically modified airflow results in zones of airflow deceleration, acceleration, and enhanced atmospheric turbulence, all of which influence the surface morphology and sedimentology. Extreme lateral confluence of prevailing airflow produces accelerated, unidirectional winds. These winds correlate with unusually continuous and elongate parabolic dunes that extend into a mountain gap (Windy Gap). Persistently heightened winds produced at the entrance to Windy Gap have resulted in a concentration of active sand dunes that lack slipfaces. Common development of a strongly amplified atmospheric wave analogous to a hydraulic jump in the gap contributes to the formation of a variety of eolian features that mantle the surface of Windy Gap and the Ferris dune field tail. Heightened, unidirectional winds in this zone promote grain-size segregation, the formation of elongated and aligned sand drifts, climbing and falling dunes, elongate scour streaks, and parabolic dunes that have low-angle (< 20/sup 0/) cross-stratification. Deflation of bedrock and loose sediment has been enhanced in the zone of maximum turbulence beneath the hydraulic jump.

Gaylord, D.R.; Dawson, P.J.

1987-09-01

340

Airflow and Particle Deposition Simulations in Health and Emphysema: From In-Vivo to In-Silico Animal Experiments  

E-print Network

Airflow and Particle Deposition Simulations in Health and Emphysema: From In-Vivo to In, such as in emphysema. In this study, the respiratory resistance and compliance were obtained by solving an inverse problem; a 0D global model based on healthy and emphysema- tous rat experimental data. Multi-scale CFD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS:April 13, 1995 Submitted to ASTM: Airflow Performance Conference 10/93 LBL-32115  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS:April 13, 1995 Submitted to ASTM: Airflow Performance Conference 10/93 LBL-32115 UNCERTAINTIES IN FAN PRESSURIZATION MEASUREMENTS Max Sherman1 Energy of building enve- lopes using fan pressurization.Uncertainty is introduced in the process from the uncer

342

ES174, Stage 2, 2013: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of airflow around a simple car model using Solidworks Flow  

E-print Network

ES174, Stage 2, 2013: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of airflow around a simple car model.denissenko@warwick Step-by-step instructions 1. Build a car of a basic shape. It should be recognisable as a car, but not necessarily with all the shape features and not necessarily well streamlined. Choose the realistic car

Davies, Christopher

343

Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of boundary-layer properties at the point are obtained from a steady-state solution of a fluid flow in a region adjacent to the point. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For each instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined, which is the covariance of a predicted local growth rate with the known instability growth rates. Each covariance vector is used with the vector of regressor weights to determine a predicted local growth rate at the point. Based on the predicted local growth rates, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.

Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

2013-01-01

344

Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation.

Byrne, Erin; Bortz, David M.; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John

2011-04-01

345

Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

Waggoner, Edgar G.

1986-01-01

346

A viscous instability in axially symmetric laminar shear flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A viscous instability in shearing laminar axisymmetric hydrodynamic flows around a gravitating centre is described. In the linearized hydrodynamic equations written in the Boussinesq approximation with microscopic molecular transport coefficients, the instability arises when the viscous dissipation is taken into account in the energy equation. Using the local WKB approximation, we derive a third-order algebraic dispersion equation with two modes representing the modified Rayleigh modes R+ and R-, and the third X-mode. We show that in thin accretion flows the viscosity destabilizes one of the Rayleigh modes in a wide range of wavenumbers, while the X-mode always remains stable. In Keplerian flows, the instability increment is found to be a few Keplerian rotational periods at wavelengths with kr ˜ 10-50. This instability may cause turbulence in astrophysical accretion discs even in the absence of magnetic field.

Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.

2015-04-01

347

Fluerics 42: Some commonly used laminar fluidic gain blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents data and operating experience information on many commonly used laminar gain blocks from two to eight stages. In addition, as an aid to design, a short computer program is presented, suitable for use with a pocket programmable calculator. Outputs from this program are individual stage data including nominal supply pressures and flows and staged gain. Also available is the net gain and the bandwidth at 90 deg of phase shift. Several examples of this program are given to cover multiple-stage gain blocks. As an example of the utility of the program, a step-by-step tradeoff study is presented for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology fluidic servovalve, for which an attempt is made to maximize bandwidth and minimize leakage flow.

Drzewiecki, T. M.

1982-09-01

348

Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.

Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.

1979-01-01

349

A theoretical study of a laminar diffusion flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame are discussed, with an emphasis on the behavior of such flames at increasing pressures. The flame-sheet or Burke-Schumann model (in terms of Bessel functions) and various boundary layer numerical solutions are presented and their results compared with experimental data. The most promising theoretical model combines the numerical flow field solution of the Patankar-Spalding computer code with the Pratt-Wormeck chemical reaction subroutine. The flame shapes for pressures of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 atmospheres were computed and agree remarkably well with experimental data. There is a noticeable shape change with pressure, believed to be a result of buoyancy effects. The chemical concentration profiles do not exhibit much dependence on pressure, a reflection of the fact that only one chemical mechanism was utilized at all pressures.

Frair, K. L.

1978-01-01

350

The numerical calculation of laminar boundary-layer separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iterative finite-difference techniques are developed for integrating the boundary-layer equations, without approximation, through a region of reversed flow. The numerical procedures are used to calculate incompressible laminar separated flows and to investigate the conditions for regular behavior at the point of separation. Regular flows are shown to be characterized by an integrable saddle-type singularity that makes it difficult to obtain numerical solutions which pass continuously into the separated region. The singularity is removed and continuous solutions ensured by specifying the wall shear distribution and computing the pressure gradient as part of the solution. Calculated results are presented for several separated flows and the accuracy of the method is verified. A computer program listing and complete solution case are included.

Klineberg, J. M.; Steger, J. L.

1974-01-01

351

Metal-metal laminar composites for high-temperature applications.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to obtain indications of the potentialities of laminar metal-metal composites for elevated-temperature use. Most of the composites consisted of multiple layers or laminae of tungsten alternated with laminae of Nichrome V, a ductile, weaker, but oxidation-resistant alloy. Composites with 50 vol % of each phase made from 0.0025 cm, 0.0125 cm, or 0.050 cm laminae, were tested in tension and stress rupture at temperatures of 871 and 1093 C and in impact at 23 and 524 C. A tension and a short-time stress-rupture test was conducted on specimens of 77 vol % W-Re-Hf-C/23 vol % Inconel Alloy 600 at 1093 C.

Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.

1973-01-01

352

Metal-metal laminar composites for high temperature applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to obtain indications of the potentialities of laminar metal-metal composites for elevated temperature use. Most of the composites consisted of multiple layers or laminae of tungsten alternated with laminae of Nichrome V, a ductile, weaker but oxidation-resistant alloy. Composites with 50 volume percent of each phase were tested in tension and stress rupture at temperatures of 871 and 1093 C (1600 and 2000 F) and in impact at 23 and 524 C (73 and 975 F). A tension and a short time stress-rupture test was conducted on specimens of 77 v/o W-Re-Hf-C/23 v/o Inconel alloy 600 at 1093 C (2000 F).

Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.

1972-01-01

353

The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.

Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.

1987-01-01

354

Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect

Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1999-09-01

355

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-print Network

for the velocities. In the vicinity of the walls, it will apply wall functions to bridge the core of turbulence and the sub-layer of flow regime. In our paper, in order to compute and compare convenience, the wall functions recommended by Launder and Spalding... and Measurement [M]. London: Wiley. 1996, 15-25. [5] JONES W, LAUNDER B E. The prediction of laminarization with two-equation model turbulence [J]. International Journal of Heat and Mass ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol...

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01

356

Laminar separation control effects of shortfin mako shark skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shark skin is investigated as a means of laminar flow separation control due to its preferential flow direction as well as the potential for scales to erect and obstruct low-momentum backflow resulting from an adverse pressure gradient acting on the boundary layer. In this study, the effect of the scales on flow reversal is observed in laminar flow conditions. This is achieved by comparing the flow over a pectoral fin from a shortfin mako shark to that over the same fin that is painted to neutralize the effect of the scales on the flow. The effect of the scales on flow reversal is also observed by comparing the flow over a smooth PVC cylinder to that over the same cylinder with samples of mako shark skin affixed to the entire circumference of the cylinder. These samples were taken from the flank region of the shark because the scales at this location have been shown to have the greatest angle of erection compared to the scales on the rest of the shark's body. Scales at this location have an average crown length of 220 microm with a maximum bristling angle of proximately 50 degrees. Because these scales have the highest bristling angle, they have the best potential for separation control. All data was taken using time-resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow over the pectoral fin was analyzed at multiple angles of attack. It was found that the shark skin had the effect of decreasing the size of the separated region over both the pectoral fin and the cylinder as well as decreasing the magnitudes of the reversing flow found in these regions. For all Reynolds numbers tested, drag reduction over 28% was found when applying the sharkskin to the cylinder.

Bradshaw, Michael Thomas

357

Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IR thermography was used to characterize the transition front on a S-NLF test article at chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million Changes in transition due to Mach number, Reynolds number, and surface roughness were investigated - Regions of laminar flow in excess of 80% chord at chord Reynolds numbers greater than 14 million IR thermography clearly showed the transition front and other flow features such as shock waves impinging upon the surface A series of parallel oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, were found to cause premature transition at higher Reynolds numbers. NASA has a current goal to eliminate barriers to the development of practical supersonic transport aircraft Drag reduction through the use of supersonic natural laminar flow (S-NLF) is currently being explored as a means of increasing aerodynamic efficiency - Tradeoffs work best for business jet class at M<2 Conventional high-speed designs minimize inviscid drag at the expense of viscous drag - Existence of strong spanwise pressure gradient leads to crossflow (CF) while adverse chordwise pressure gradients amplifies and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities Aerion Corporation has patented a S-NLF wing design (US Patent No. 5322242) - Low sweep to control CF - dp/dx < 0 on both wing surfaces to stabilize TS - Thin wing with sharp leading edge to minimize wave drag increase due to reduction in sweep NASA and Aerion have partnered to study S-NLF since 1999 Series of S-NLF experiments flown on the NASA F-15B research test bed airplane Infrared (IR) thermography used to characterize transition - Non-intrusive, global, good spatial resolution - Captures significant flow features well

Frederick, Mike; Banks, Dan; Garzon, Andres; Matisheck, Jason

2014-01-01

358

Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer—Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-? transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

De Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

2011-09-01

359

Airflow Dynamics of Coughing in Healthy Human Volunteers by Shadowgraph Imaging: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control  

PubMed Central

Cough airflow dynamics have been previously studied using a variety of experimental methods. In this study, real-time, non-invasive shadowgraph imaging was applied to obtain additional analyses of cough airflows produced by healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 women, mean age 32.2±12.9 years; 10 men, mean age 25.3±2.5 years) were asked to cough freely, then into their sleeves (as per current US CDC recommendations) in this study to analyze cough airflow dynamics. For the 10 females (cases 1–10), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.16–0.55 m, with maximum derived velocities of 2.2–5.0 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.010–0.11 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.15–0.55 m2/s. For the 10 males (cases 11–20), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.31–0.64 m, with maximum derived velocities of 3.2–14 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.04–0.14 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.25–1.4 m2/s. These peak velocities were measured when the visibility of the exhaled airflows was optimal and compare favorably with those reported previously using other methods, and may be seen as a validation of these previous approaches in a more natural setting. However, the propagation distances can only represent a lower limit due to the inability of the shadowgraph method to visualize these cough airflows once their temperature cools to that of the ambient air, which is an important limitation of this methodology. The qualitative high-speed video footage of these volunteers coughing into their sleeves demonstrates that although this method rarely completely blocks the cough airflow, it decelerates, splits and redirects the airflow, eventually reducing its propagation. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on optimum positioning of the arm over the nose and mouth during coughing, though unsightly stains on sleeves may make it unacceptable to some. PMID:22536332

Tang, Julian W.; Nicolle, Andre; Pantelic, Jovan; Koh, Gerald C.; Wang, Liang De; Amin, Muhammad; Klettner, Christian A.; Cheong, David K. W.; Sekhar, Chandra; Tham, Kwok Wai

2012-01-01

360

Flame Shapes of Luminous NonBuoyant Laminar Coflowing Jet Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar diffusion flames are of interest as model flame systems that are more tractable for analysis and experiments than practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly understanding laminar flames must precede understanding more complex turbulent flames while man'y laminar diffusion flame properties are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar diffusion flame shapes have been of interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they involve a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Motivated by these observations, the shapes of laminar flames were considered during the present investigation. The present study was limited to nonbuoyant flames because most practical flames are not buoyant. Effects of buoyancy were minimized by observing flames having large flow velocities at small pressures. Present methods were based on the study of the shapes of nonbu,3yant round laminar jet diffusion flames of Lin et al. where it was found that a simple analysis due to Spalding yielded good predictions of the flame shapes reported by Urban et al. and Sunderland et al.

Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

361

Numerical investigation of airflow in an idealised human extra-thoracic airway: a comparison study  

PubMed Central

Large eddy simulation (LES) technique is employed to numerically investigate the airflow through an idealised human extra-thoracic airway under different breathing conditions, 10 l/min, 30 l/min, and 120 l/min. The computational results are compared with single and cross hot-wire measurements, and with time-averaged flow field computed by standard k-? and k-?-SST Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models and the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM). The LES results are also compared to root-mean-square (RMS) flow field computed by the Reynolds stress model (RSM) and LBM. LES generally gives better prediction of the time-averaged flow field than RANS models and LBM. LES also provides better estimation of the RMS flow field than both the RSM and the LBM. PMID:23619907

Chen, Jie; Gutmark, Ephraim

2013-01-01

362

Snoring can be reduced when the nasal airflow is increased by the nasal dilator Nozovent.  

PubMed

The ability to breath through the nose can be increased above normal by dilating the narrow nasal valve area with the plastic nasal device Nozovent. For 10 nights, 10 patients used Nozovent every other night, and the sleeping partners of the patients judged the snoring sound level using a snoring score. The results showed a significant decrease in snoring, from moderate to slight, when Nozovent was used, or from a barely tolerable to a tolerable noise level. In about 1 night out of 4, when the nostrils were dilated, the sleeping partners did not note any snoring at all. An increased nasal airflow is achieved with less negative intrathoracic pressure, which presumably results in less opportunities for vibrations of the soft palate. PMID:2317330

Petruson, B

1990-04-01

363

Contam airflow models of three large buildings: Model descriptions and validation  

SciTech Connect

Airflow and pollutant transport models are useful for several reasons, including protection from or response to biological terrorism. In recent years they have been used for deciding how many biological agent samplers are needed in a given building to detect the release of an agent; to figure out where those samplers should be located; to predict the number of people at risk in the event of a release of a given size and location; to devise response strategies in the event of a release; to determine optimal trade-offs between sampler characteristics (such as detection limit and response time); and so on. For some of these purposes it is necessary to model a specific building of interest: if you are trying to determine optimal sampling locations, you must have a model of your building and not some different building. But for many purposes generic or 'prototypical' building models would suffice. For example, for determining trade-offs between sampler characteristics, results from one building will carry over other, similar buildings. Prototypical building models are also useful for comparing or testing different algorithms or computational pproaches: different researchers can use the same models, thus allowing direct comparison of results in a way that is not otherwise possible. This document discusses prototypical building models developed by the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The models are implemented in the Contam v2.4c modeling program, available from the National Institutes for Standards and Technology. We present Contam airflow models of three virtual buildings: a convention center, an airport terminal, and a multi-story office building. All of the models are based to some extent on specific real buildings. Our goal is to produce models that are realistic, in terms of approximate magnitudes, directions, and speeds of airflow and pollutant transport. The three models vary substantially in detail. The airport model is the simplest; the onvention center model is more detailed; and the large office building model is quite complicated. We give several simplified floor plans in this document, to explain basic features of the buildings. The actual models are somewhat more complicated; for instance, spaces that are represented as rectangles in this document sometimes have more complicated shapes in the models. (However, note that the shape of a zone is irrelevant in Contam). Consult the Contam models themselves for detailed floor plans. Each building model is provided with three ventilation conditions, representing mechanical systems in which 20%, 50%, or 80% of the building air is recirculated and the rest is provided from outdoors. Please see the section on 'Use of the models' for important information about issues to consider if you wish to modify the models to provide no mechanical ventilation or eliminate provision of outdoor air.

Black, Douglas R.; Price, Phillip N.

2009-09-30

364

A theoretical study on accurate measurements of thoron with airflow-through scintillation cell method.  

PubMed

For accurate measurements of (220)Rn concentration with airflow-through scintillation cell method, a theoretical study was performed for discussing the influences of sampling flow rate, volumes of sampling tube and scintillation cell on the measurements. It is found that a high flow rate and a large inner volume of scintillation cell as well as a small inner volume of sampling tube are not only preferable for measuring low levels of (220)Rn, but also helpful for enhancing the measurement accuracy. In calibration experiments, both the sampling flow rate and the sampling tube volume should be noted. The variations of the flow rate and tube volume should be considered for accurate measurements in the fields. PMID:20876070

Tang, F; Zhuo, W; Zhao, C; Chen, B; Xu, Y; He, L

2010-10-01

365

Phonation threshold pressure estimation using electroglottography in an airflow redirection system  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis The present study proposed to estimate phonation threshold pressure (PTP) non-invasively using airflow redirection into a pneumatic capacitance system. Study Design Prospective study. Methods Subjects phonated into the device, which interrupts airflow mechanically and redirects the flow into a pneumatic capacitor. Five interruptions were effected per trial. PTP was estimated as the difference between subglottal pressure (SGP) and transglottal pressure at phonation offset. The novel method was tested for consistency in 20 normal human subjects at low (75 dB) and high (85 dB) sound pressure levels. The device was tested for validity on a tracheotomy patient. Results Mean SGP was 9.02 ± 3.27 cm H2O and mean PTP was 3.68 ± 1.41 cm H2O. Intrasubject coefficient of variation, a measure of intrasubject consistency, was 0.33 ± 0.23. Statistically significant differences existed between the means of SGP but not PTP at 75 dB and 85 dB. The correlation coefficient between accepted and experimental SGP in a tracheotomy patient was 0.947 (p<0.001). Conclusions Measurements corresponded well to previously reported values, and intrasubject variability was low, indicating the device was consistent. Testing on a tracheotomy patient demonstrated validity. More research is needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the device in differentiating between normal and pathological voices. This device may have clinical application as a non-invasive and reliable method of estimating PTP and indicating that laryngeal health is likely abnormal. PMID:19688842

Rieves, Adam L.; Regner, Michael F.; Jiang, Jack J.

2009-01-01

366

Computational simulations of airflow in an in vitro model of the pediatric upper airways.  

PubMed

In order to understand mechanisms of gas and aerosol transport in the human respiratory system airflow in the upper airways of a pediatric subject (male aged 5) was calculated using Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques. An in vitro reconstruction of the subject's anatomy was produced from MRI images. Flow fields were solved for steady inhalation at 6.4 and 8 LPM. For validation of the numerical solution, airflow in an adult cadaver based trachea was solved using identical numerical methods. Comparisons were made between experimental results and computational data of the adult model to determine solution validity. It was found that numerical simulations can provide an accurate representation of axial velocities and turbulence intensity. Data on flow resistance, axial velocities, secondary velocity vectors, and turbulent kinetic energy are presented for the pediatric case. Turbulent kinetic energy and axial velocities were heavily dependant on flow rate, whereas turbulence intensity varied less over the flow rates studied. The laryngeal jet from an adult model was compared to the laryngeal jet in the pediatric model based on Tracheal Reynolds number. The pediatric case indicated that children show axial velocities in the laryngeal jet comparable to adults, who have much higher tracheal Reynolds numbers than children due to larger characteristic dimensions. The intensity of turbulence follows a similar trend, with higher turbulent kinetic energy levels in the pediatric model than would be expected from measurements in adults at similar tracheal Reynolds numbers. There was reasonable agreement between the location of flow structures between adults and children, suggesting that an unknown length scale correlation factor could exist that would produce acceptable predictions of pediatric velocimetry based off of adult data sets. A combined scale for turbulent intensity as well may not exist due to the complex nature of turbulence production and dissipation. PMID:15648813

Allen, G M; Shortall, B P; Gemci, T; Corcoran, T E; Chigier, N A

2004-10-01

367

Peripheral resistance: a link between global airflow obstruction and regional ventilation distribution  

PubMed Central

Airflow obstruction and heterogeneities in airway constriction and ventilation distribution are well-described prominent features of asthma. However, the mechanistic link between these global and regional features has not been well defined. We speculate that peripheral airway resistance (Rp) may provide such a link. Structural and functional parameters are estimated from PET and HRCT images of asthmatic (AS) and nonasthmatic (NA) subjects measured at baseline (BASE) and post-methacholine challenge (POST). Conductances of 35 anatomically defined proximal airways are estimated from airway geometry obtained from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. Compliances of sublobar regions subtended by 19 most distal airways are estimated from changes in regional gas volume between two lung volumes. Specific ventilations (sV?) of these sublobar regions are evaluated from 13NN-washout PET scans. For each pathway connecting the trachea to sublobar region, values of Rp required to explain the sV? distribution and global airflow obstruction are computed. Results show that Rp is highly heterogeneous within each subject, but has average values consistent with global values in the literature. The contribution of Rp to total pathway resistance (RT) increased substantially for POST (P < 0.0001). The fraction Rp/RT was higher in AS than NA at POST (P < 0.0001) but similar at BASE (range: 0.960–0.997, median: 0.990). For POST, Rp/RT range was 0.979–0.999 (NA) and 0.981–0.995 (AS). This approach allows for estimations of peripheral airway resistance within anatomically defined sublobar regions in vivo human lungs and may be used to evaluate peripheral effects of therapy in a subject specific manner. PMID:23123354

Harris, R. S.; Greenblatt, E.; Winkler, T.; Venegas, J. G.

2013-01-01

368

Response characteristics for thermal and pressure devices commonly used for monitoring nasal and oral airflow during sleep studies.  

PubMed

We examined thermocouple and pressure cannulae responses to oral and nasal airflow using a polyester model of a human face, with patent nasal and oral orifices instrumented with a dual thermocouple (F-ONT2A, Grass) or a dual cannula (0588, Braebon) pressure transducer (± 10 cm H2O, Celesco) system. Tidal airflow was generated using a dual compartment facemask with pneumotachographs (Fleisch 2) connected to the model orifices. During nasal breathing: thermocouple amplitude = 0.38 Ln [pneumotachograph amplitude] + 1.31 and pressure cannula amplitude = 0.93 [pneumotachograph amplitude](2.15); during oral breathing: thermocouple amplitude = 0.44 Ln [pneumotachograph amplitude] + 1.07 and pressure cannula amplitude = 0.33 [pneumotachograph amplitude](1.72); (all range ? 0.1-? 4.0 L s(-1); r(2) > 0.7). For pneumotachograph amplitudes <1 L s(-1) (linear model) change in thermocouple amplitude/unit change in pneumotachograph amplitude was similar for nasal and oral airflow, whereas nasal pressure cannula amplitude/unit change in pneumotachograph amplitude was almost four times that for oral. Increasing oral orifice area from 0.33 cm(2) to 2.15 cm(2) increased oral thermocouple amplitude/unit change in pneumotachograph amplitude by ? 58% but decreased pressure cannula amplitude/unit change in pneumotachograph amplitude by 49%. For pneumotachograph amplitudes up to 1 L s(-1), alterations in inspiratory/expiratory ratios or total respiratory time did not affect the sensitivity of either nasal or oral pressure cannulae or the nasal thermocouple, but the oral thermocouple sensitivity was influenced by respiratory cycle time. Different nasal and oral responses influence the ability of these systems to quantitatively assess nasal and oral airflow and oro-nasal airflow partitioning. PMID:24557006

Gehring, J M; Cho, J-G; Wheatley, J R; Amis, T C

2014-03-01

369

A Study of Laminar Separation Bubble in the Concave Region of an Airfoil Using Laser Velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser velocimetry (LV) was used to study the nature of laminar separation bubbles in the concave region of a 1.83-meter airfoil model which was tested in the NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Three component, coincident data from LV measurements including histograms of particle velocity, mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stresses within the shear layer were used to determine the locations of laminar separation, transition, and turbulent reattachment. Boundary-layer parameters determined from velocity profiles were used to compare the results with existing empirical relations for describing the laminar separation bubble.

Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan; Meyers, James F.; Dagenhart, John R.; Harvey, William D.

1985-01-01

370

Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

Wright, A. S.

1979-01-01

371

A perspective of laminar-flow control. [aircraft energy efficiency program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historical review of the development of laminar flow control technology is presented with reference to active laminar boundary-layer control through suction, the use of multiple suction slots, wind-tunnel tests, continuous suction, and spanwise contamination. The ACEE laminar flow control program is outlined noting the development of three-dimensional boundary-layer codes, cruise-noise prediction techniques, airfoil development, and leading-edge region cleaning. Attention is given to glove flight tests and the fabrication and testing of wing box designs.

Braslow, A. L.; Muraca, R. J.

1978-01-01

372

Hybrid laminar flow control tests in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept has undergone wind tunnel testing at near full-scale Reynolds number on an infinite wing of 30-deg sweep on which boundary-layer suction was furnished over the first 20 percent of chord of the upper surface. Depending on the external pressure distribution, the HLFC extended the laminarity of the boundary layer as far back as 45 percent of chord; this corresponds to a transition Reynolds number of about 11 million. The maximum chordwise extent of laminar run was found to be insensitive to the suction level over a wide range.

Parikh, P. G.; Lund, D. W.; George-Falvy, D.; Nagel, A. L.

1990-01-01

373

Numerical calculation of finite amplitude effects in unstable laminar boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study of one stage of the transition region from laminar to turbulent flow of the boundary layer over a flat plate is performed. Benney-Lin theory is applied to the laminar profile, which is closer to that of the experiment, i.e., the Blasius profile. Several laminar profiles are studied, all belonging to the Falkner-Skan family. The flow is found to depend principally upon the disturbance spanwise wavenumber, beta, whose variation results, in some instances, in a system of counter-rotating vortices, one on top of the other, for the mean secondary flow.

Antar, B. N.; Collins, F. G.

1975-01-01

374

Summary of past experience in natural laminar flow and experimental program for resilient leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of natural laminar flow for significant drag reduction and improved efficiency for aircraft is assessed. Past experience with natural laminar flow as reported in published and unpublished data and personal observations of various researchers is summarized. Aspects discussed include surface contour, waviness, and smoothness requirements; noise and vibration effects on boundary layer transition, boundary layer stability criteria; flight experience with natural laminar flow and suction stabilized boundary layers; and propeller slipstream, rain, frost, ice and insect contamination effects on boundary layer transition. The resilient leading edge appears to be a very promising method to prevent leading edge insect contamination.

Carmichael, B. H.

1979-01-01

375

Throat stability-by pass systems to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 60-percent internal contraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to increase the stable airflow range (without unstart) of a supersonic mixed-compression inlet are presented. Various stability bypass entrances were located on the cowl side of the inlet throat. The types of entrance were distributed porous (normal holes), forward-slanted slot, and distributed educated slots. A large stable airflow range was obtained for each entrance type if a constant pressure was maintained in the stability bypass plenum. The distributed porous entrance provided the largest stable airflow range. Inlet unstart angle of attack was unaffected by the entrances.

Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.; Shaw, R. J.

1974-01-01

376

Distributed porous throat stability bypass to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 60 percent internal contraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to increase the stable airflow operating range of a supersonic, mixed-compression inlet with 60-percent internal contraction are presented. Various distributed-porous, throat stability-bypass entrance configurations were tested. In terms of diffuser-exit corrected airflow, a large inlet stable airflow range of about 25 percent was obtained with the optimum configuration if a constant pressure was maintained in the by-pass plenum. The location of the centerbody bleed region had a decided effect on the overall inlet performance. Limited unstart angle-of-attack data are presented.

Shaw, R. J.; Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

1974-01-01

377

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.

Bui, Trong

2013-01-01

378

CFD Investigations of a Transonic Swept-Wing Laminar Flow Control Flight Experiment  

E-print Network

. In order to achieve the desired Reynolds numbers, high-speed descents were conducted to gather flight data. Once the test conditions were reached, infrared (IR) thermography was used to identify regions that were laminar or turbulent. Gartenberg et al...

Neale, Tyler P.

2011-08-08

379

Sooting Behaviour Dynamics of a Non-Bouyant Laminar Diffusion Flame   

E-print Network

Local soot concentrations in non-buoyant laminar diffusion flames have been demonstrated to be the outcome of two competitive processes, soot formation and soot oxidation. It was first believed that soot formation was the ...

Fuentes, Andres; Legros, Guillaume; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Joulain, Pierre; Vantelon, Jean-Pierre; Torero, Jose L; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

2007-01-01

380

Influence of suprathermal background electrons on strong auroral double layers: Laminar and turbulent regimes  

SciTech Connect

A series of one-dimensional Vlasov simulations [Newman et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 072902 (2008), this issue] show that a sufficiently dense and hot suprathermal electron population can stabilize strong laminar double layers over long periods while regulating their strength and velocity. When suprathermals are less dense or absent, the double layers tend to be sporadic and turbulent. A detailed comparison of the laminar and turbulent regimes reveals that the disruption of the laminar state can be triggered by kinetically modified Buneman instabilities on the low-potential side of the double layer, and by density perturbations that develop into nonlinear coherent shocklike structures on the high-potential side. These findings suggest that the suprathermal electrons may be responsible for suppressing both of these routes to disruption of the laminar state.

Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.; Sen, N. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2008-07-15

381

An investigation of the effects of the propeller slipstream of a laminar wing boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is in progress to study the effects of the propeller slipstream on natural laminar flow. Flight and wind tunnel measurements of the wing boundary layer have been made using hot-film velocity sensor probes. The results show the boundary layer, at any given point, to alternate between laminar and turbulent states. This cyclic behavior is due to periodic external flow turbulence originating from the viscous wake of the propeller blades. Analytic studies show the cyclic laminar/turbulent boundary layer to result in a significantly lower wing section drag than a fully turbulent boundary layer. The application of natural laminar flow design philosophy yields drag reduction benefits in the slipstream affected regions of the airframe, as well as the unaffected regions.

Howard, R. M.; Miley, S. J.; Holmes, B. J.

1985-01-01

382

An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

Green, Bradford E.

1997-01-01

383

Soot Volume Fraction Measurements in a Three-Dimensional Laminar Diffusion Flame established in Microgravity   

E-print Network

A methodology for the estimation of the soot volume fraction in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame is presented. All experiments are conducted in microgravity and have as objective producing quantitative data ...

Legros, Guillaume; Joulain, Pierre; Jean-Pierre, Vantelon; Fuentes, Andres; Bertheau, Denis; Torero, Jose L

2005-05-03

384

Study of Laminar Flow Forced Convection Heat Transfer Behavior of a Phase Change Material Fluid  

E-print Network

The heat transfer behavior of phase change material fluid under laminar flow conditions in circular tubes and internally longitudinal finned tubes are presented in this study. Two types of boundary conditions, including uniform axial heat flux...

Ravi, Gurunarayana

2010-01-14

385

Modified Trajectory of C2 Laminar Screw - Double Bicortical Purchase of the Inferiorly Crossing Screw  

PubMed Central

The crossing laminar screw fixation might be the most recently developed approach among various fixation techniques for C2. The new construct has stability comparable to transarticular or transpedicular screw fixation without risk of vertebral artery injury. Quantitative anatomical studies about C2 vertebra suggest significant variation in the thickness of C2 lamina as well as cross sectional area of junction of lamina and spinous process. We present an elderly patient who underwent an occipito-cervical stabilization incorporating crossed C2 laminar screw fixation. We preoperatively recognized that she had low profiles of C2 lamina, and thus made a modification of trajectory for the inferiorly crossing screw. We introduce a simple modification of crossing C2 laminar screw technique to improve stability in patients with low laminar profiles. PMID:19096618

You, Seung-Hoon; Jang, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Youl

2008-01-01

386

The antiinflammatory effect of laminar flow: The role of PPAR , epoxyeicosatrienoic acids,  

E-print Network

The antiinflammatory effect of laminar flow: The role of PPAR , epoxyeicosatrienoic acids of California, Riverside, CA 92521; Department of Entomology and Cancer Research Center, University- matory effect, which indicates that PPAR is an effector of EETs. endothelial cells shear stress

Hammock, Bruce D.

387

A flight test of laminar flow control leading-edge systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for development of a laminar flow technology base for application to commercial transports has made significant progress since its inception in 1976. Current efforts are focused on development of practical reliable systems for the leading-edge region where the most difficult problems in applying laminar flow exist. Practical solutions to these problems will remove many concerns about the ultimate practicality of laminar flow. To address these issues, two contractors performed studies, conducted development tests, and designed and fabricated fully functional leading-edge test articles for installation on the NASA JetStar aircraft. Systems evaluation and performance testing will be conducted to thoroughly evaluate all system capabilities and characteristics. A simulated airline service flight test program will be performed to obtain the operational sensitivity, maintenance, and reliability data needed to establish that practical solutions exist for the difficult leading-edge area of a future commercial transport employing laminar flow control.

Fischer, M. C.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.

1983-01-01

388

Design and operation of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the design principles involved in the design of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column. In particular, attention will be paid to making the parameters suitable for incorporation into a DC MEQALAC design.

Maschke, A.W.

1983-06-20

389

Hydrodynamic Suppression of Soot Formation in Laminar Coflowing Jet Diffusion Flames. Appendix C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of flow (hydrodynamic) properties on limiting conditions for soot-free laminar non-premixed hydrocarbon/air flames (called laminar soot-point conditions) were studied, emphasizing non-buoyant laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames. Effects of air/fuel-stream velocity ratios were of particular interest; therefore, the experiments were carried out at reduced pressures to minimize effects of flow acceleration due to the intrusion of buoyancy. Test conditions included reactant temperatures of 300 K; ambient pressures of 3.7-49 8 kPa; methane-, acetylene-, ethylene-, propane-, and methane-fueled flames burning in coflowing air with fuel-port diameters of 1.7, 3.2, and 6.4 mm, fuel jet Reynolds numbers of 18-121; air coflow velocities of 0-6 m/s; and air/fuel-stream velocity ratios of 0.003-70. Measurements included laminar soot-point flame lengths, laminar soot-point fuel flow rates, and laminar liftoff conditions. The measurements show that laminar soot-point flame lengths and fuel flow rates can be increased, broadening the range of fuel flow rates where the flames remain soot free, by increasing air/fuel-stream velocity ratios. The mechanism of this effect involves the magnitude and direction of flow velocities relative to the flame sheet where increased air/fuel-stream velocity ratios cause progressive reduction of flame residence times in the fuel-rich soot-formation region. The range of soot-free conditions is limited by both liftoff, particularly at low pressures, and the intrusion of effects of buoyancy on effective air/fuel-stream velocity ratios, particularly at high pressures. Effective correlations of laminar soot- and smoke-point flame lengths were also found in terms of a corrected fuel flow rate parameter, based on simplified analysis of laminar jet diffusion flame structure. The results show that laminar smoke-point flame lengths in coflowing air environments are roughly twice as long as soot-free (blue) flames under comparable conditions due to the presence of luminous soot particles under fuel-lean conditions when smoke-point conditions are approached. This is very similar to earlier findings concerning differences between laminar smoke- and sootpoint flame lengths in still environments.

Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

390

A preliminary design study on an acoustic muffler for the laminar flow transition research apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic muffler design of a research tool for studying laminar flow and the mechanisms of transition, the Laminar Flow and Transition Research Apparatus (LFTRA) is investigated. Since the presence of acoustic pressure fluctuations is known to affect transition, low background noise levels in the test section of the LFTRA are mandatory. The difficulties and tradeoffs of various muffler design concepts are discussed and the most promising candidates are emphasized.

Abrahamson, A. L.

1984-01-01

391

Unsteady Characteristics of Laminar Separation Bubbles; An Experimental and Numerical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar separation bubbles may occur in a wide range of engineering applications\\u000asuch as turbomachinery flows, wind turbines, hydrofoils etc. Much attention has been\\u000agiven to their effect on the flow over airfoils because of the importance for an accurate\\u000aprediction of lift, drag and heat transfer.\\u000aIn the aeronautical world, laminar separation bubbles have traditionally been of con-\\u000acern

M. Baragona

2004-01-01

392

Laminar hydathodes in Urticaceae : Survey of tribes and anatomical observations on Pilea pumila and Urtica dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar hydathodes are known from only three dicot families. InUrticaceae they are associated with minor vein junctions in all five tribes, as surveyed from cleared leaves of 43 species in 30 genera. Only one species lacked hydathodes. Exclusively adaxial hydathodes were found in 28 genera. In tribeElatostemeae, laminar hydathodes inPilea andPellionia species are abaxial, adaxial, or on both surfaces. Guttation

N. R. Lersten; J. D. Curtis

1991-01-01

393

Tackling a Hot Paradox: Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last place you want to be in traffic is behind the bus or truck that is belching large clouds of soot onto your freshly washed car. Besides looking and smelling bad, soot is a health hazard. Particles range from big enough to see to microscopic and can accumulate in the lungs, potentially leading to debilitating or fatal lung diseases. Soot is wasted energy, and therein lies an interesting paradox: Soot forms in a flame's hottest regions where you would expect complete combustion and no waste. Soot enhances the emissions of other pollutants (carbon monoxide and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) from flames and radiates unwanted heat to combustion chambers (a candle's yellowish glow is soot radiating heat), among other effects. The mechanisms of soot formation are among the most important unresolved problems of combustion science because soot affects contemporary life in so many ways. Although we have used fire for centuries, many fundamental aspects of combustion remain elusive, in part because of limits imposed by the effects of gravity on Earth. Hot or warm air rises quickly and draws in fresh cold air behind it, thus giving flames the classical teardrop shape. Reactions occur in a very small zone, too fast for scientists to observe, in detail, what is happening inside the flame. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiments aboard STS-107 will use the microgravity environment of space to eliminate buoyancy effects and thus slow the reactions inside a flame so they can be more readily studied. 'Laminar' means a simple, smooth fuel jet burning in air, somewhat like a butane lighter. This classical flame approximates combustion in diesel engines, aircraft jet propulsion engines, and furnaces and other devices. LSP-2 will expand on surprising results developed from its first two flights in 1997. The data suggest the existence of a universal relationship, the soot paradigm, that, if proven, will be used to model and control combustion systems on Earth. STS-107 experiments also will help set the stage for extended combustion experiments aboard the International Space Station.

Faeth, Gerard M.; Urban, David L.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

394

Exact Calculation of Laminar Boundary Layer in Longitudinal Flow over a Flat Plate with Homogeneous Suction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lately it has been proposed to reduce the friction drag of a body in a flow for the technically important large Reynolds numbers by the following expedient: the boundary layer, normally turbulent, is artificially kept laminar up to high Reynolds numbers by suction. The reduction in friction drag thus obtained is of the order of magnitude of 60 to 80 percent of the turbulent friction drag, since the latter, for large Reynolds numbers, is several times the laminar friction drag. In considering the idea mentioned one has first to consider whether suction is a possible means of keeping the boundary layer laminar. This question can be answered by a theoretical investigation of the stability of the laminar boundary layer with suction. A knowledge, as accurate as possible, of the velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer with suction forms the starting point for the stability investigation. E. Schlichting recently gave a survey of the present state of calculation of the laminar boundary layer with suction.

Iglisch, Rudolf

1949-01-01

395

Bone laminarity in the avian forelimb skeleton and its relationship to flight mode: testing functional interpretations.  

PubMed

Wing bone histology in three species of birds was characterized in order to test hypotheses related to the relationship between skeletal microstructure and inferred wing loading during flight. Data on the degree of laminarity (the proportion of circular vascular canals) and the occurrence of secondary osteons were obtained from three species that utilize different primary flight modes: the Double-crested cormorant, a continuous flapper; the Brown pelican, a static soarer; and the Laysan albatross, a dynamic soarer. Laminarity indices were calculated for four quadrants for each of the three main wing elements. Ulnae and carpometacarpi were predicted to exhibit quadrant specific patterns of laminarity due to hypothesized differences in locally applied loads related to the attachment of flight feathers. However, few differences among the quadrants were identified. No significant differences were identified among the three elements, which is notable as different bones are likely experiencing different loading conditions. These results do not support the concept of bone functional adaptation in the primary structure of the wing elements. Significant differences in laminarity were found among the three primary flight modes. The dynamic soaring birds exhibited significantly lower laminarity than the flapping and static soaring birds. These results support the proposed hypothesis that laminarity is an adaptation for resisting torsional loading. This may be explained by overall wing shape: whereas dynamic soaring birds have long slender wings, flappers and static soaring birds have broader wings with a larger wing chord that would necessarily impart a higher torsional moment on the feather-bearing bones. PMID:22241723

Simons, Erin L R; O'connor, Patrick M

2012-03-01

396

Vasorelaxation responses to insulin in laminar vessel rings from healthy, lean horses.  

PubMed

Hyperinsulinemia causes laminitis experimentally and is a risk factor for naturally occurring laminitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on laminar vascular relaxation and to induce insulin-associated vascular dysfunction in vitro. Relaxation responses of isolated laminar arterial and venous rings to acetylcholine and insulin were evaluated. To alter vascular function in response to insulin, all vessel rings were incubated with insulin or vehicle, submaximally contracted, administered insulin again and relaxation responses recorded. Laminar arteries were also incubated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, PD-98059. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine was not different between arteries and veins, but veins relaxed less in response to insulin than arteries. In arteries incubated with insulin, the subsequent relaxation response to insulin was blunted. Veins had minimal relaxation to insulin regardless of incubation. Arteries incubated with PD-98059 relaxed more in response to insulin than arteries not exposed to PD-98059, indicating that MAPK plays a role in maintenance of basal tone in laminar arteries. A differing response of laminar veins and arteries to insulin-induced relaxation may be important in understanding the link between hyperinsulinemia and laminitis. In vitro induction of vascular dysfunction in response to insulin in laminar arteries may be useful for testing therapeutic interventions and for understanding the pathophysiology of laminitis. PMID:25155219

Wooldridge, A A; Waguespack, R W; Schwartz, D D; Venugopal, C S; Eades, S C; Beadle, R E

2014-10-01

397

Laminar and columnar auditory cortex in avian brain  

PubMed Central

The mammalian neocortex mediates complex cognitive behaviors, such as sensory perception, decision making, and language. The evolutionary history of the cortex, and the cells and circuitry underlying similar capabilities in nonmammals, are poorly understood, however. Two distinct features of the mammalian neocortex are lamination and radially arrayed columns that form functional modules, characterized by defined neuronal types and unique intrinsic connections. The seeming inability to identify these characteristic features in nonmammalian forebrains with earlier methods has often led to the assumption of uniqueness of neocortical cells and circuits in mammals. Using contemporary methods, we demonstrate the existence of comparable columnar functional modules in laminated auditory telencephalon of an avian species (Gallus gallus). A highly sensitive tracer was placed into individual layers of the telencephalon within the cortical region that is similar to mammalian auditory cortex. Distribution of anterograde and retrograde transportable markers revealed extensive interconnections across layers and between neurons within narrow radial columns perpendicular to the laminae. This columnar organization was further confirmed by visualization of radially oriented axonal collaterals of individual intracellularly filled neurons. Common cell types in birds and mammals that provide the cellular substrate of columnar functional modules were identified. These findings indicate that laminar and columnar properties of the neocortex are not unique to mammals and may have evolved from cells and circuits found in more ancient vertebrates. Specific functional pathways in the brain can be analyzed in regard to their common phylogenetic origins, which introduces a previously underutilized level of analysis to components involved in higher cognitive functions. PMID:20616034

Wang, Yuan; Brzozowska-Prechtl, Agnieszka; Karten, Harvey J.

2010-01-01

398

Development of laminar flow control wing surface composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments under NAS1-16235 LFC Laminar-Flow-Control Wing Panel Structural Design And Development (WSSD); Design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joints were demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. Cost of the baseline LFC aircraft was estimated and compared to the turbulent aircraft. The mission fuel weight was 21.7 percent lower for the LFC aircraft. The calculation shows that the lower fuel costs for LFC offset the higher incremental costs of LFC in less than six months.

Lineberger, L. B.

1984-01-01

399

Laminar dust flames in a reduced-gravity environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of laminar dust flames in suspensions of iron in gaseous oxidizers was studied in a low-gravity environment onboard a parabolic flight aircraft. The reduction of buoyancy-induced convective flows and particle settling permitted the measurement of fundamental combustion parameters, such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. Experimentally measured flame speeds and quenching distances were found in good agreement with theoretical predictions of a simplified analytical model that assumes particles burning in a diffusive mode. However, the comparison of flame speeds in oxygen-argon and oxygen-helium iron suspensions indicates the possibility that fine micron-sized particles burn in the kinetic mode. Furthermore, when the particle spacing is large compared to the scale of the reaction zone, a theoretical analysis suggests the existence of a new so-called discrete flame propagation regime. Discrete flames are strongly dependent on particle density fluctuations and demonstrate directed percolation behavior near flame propagation limits. The experimental observation of discrete flames in particle suspensions will require low levels of gravity over extended periods available only on orbital platforms.

Goroshin, Samuel; Tang, Francois-David; Higgins, Andrew J.; Lee, John H. S.

2011-04-01

400

Progress Toward Efficient Laminar Flow Analysis and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-fidelity system of computer codes for the analysis and design of vehicles having extensive areas of laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall approach consists of the loose coupling of a flow solver, a transition prediction method and a design module using shell scripts, along with interface modules to prepare the input for each method. This approach allows the user to select the flow solver and transition prediction module, as well as run mode for each code, based on the fidelity most compatible with the problem and available resources. The design module can be any method that designs to a specified target pressure distribution. In addition to the interface modules, two new components have been developed: 1) an efficient, empirical transition prediction module (MATTC) that provides n-factor growth distributions without requiring boundary layer information; and 2) an automated target pressure generation code (ATPG) that develops a target pressure distribution that meets a variety of flow and geometry constraints. The ATPG code also includes empirical estimates of several drag components to allow the optimization of the target pressure distribution. The current system has been developed for the design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings, but may be extendable to other speed ranges and components. Several analysis and design examples are included to demonstrate the current capabilities of the system.

Campbell, Richard L.; Campbell, Matthew L.; Streit, Thomas

2011-01-01

401

Erosion of a granular bed driven by laminar fluid flow  

E-print Network

Motivated by examples of erosive incision of channels in sand, we investigate the motion of individual grains in a granular bed driven by a laminar fluid to give us new insights into the relationship between hydrodynamic stress and surface granular flow. A closed cell of rectangular cross-section is partially filled with glass beads and a constant fluid flux $Q$ flows through the cell. The refractive indices of the fluid and the glass beads are matched and the cell is illuminated with a laser sheet, allowing us to image individual beads. The bed erodes to a rest height $h_r$ which depends on $Q$. The Shields threshold criterion assumes that the non-dimensional ratio $\\theta$ of the viscous stress on the bed to the hydrostatic pressure difference across a grain is sufficient to predict the granular flux. Furthermore, the Shields criterion states that the granular flux is non-zero only for $\\theta >\\theta_c$. We find that the Shields criterion describes the observed relationship $h_r \\propto Q^{1/2}$ when the bed height is offset by approximately half a grain diameter. Introducing this offset in the estimation of $\\theta$ yields a collapse of the measured Einstein number $q^*$ to a power-law function of $\\theta - \\theta_c$ with exponent $1.75 \\pm 0.25$. The dynamics of the bed height relaxation are well described by the power law relationship between the granular flux and the bed stress.

A. E. Lobkovsky; A. V. Orpe; R. Molloy; A. Kudrolli; D. H. Rothman

2008-05-01

402

Structure of confined laminar spray diffusion flames: Numerical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of confined laminar spray diffusion flames is investigated numerically by solving the gas-phase conservation equations for mass species, continuity, momentum, and energy and the liquid-phase equations for droplet position, velocity, size, and temperature. A one-step global reaction scheme along with six equilibrium reactions are employed to model the flame chemistry. Monodisperse as well as polydisperse sprays are considered. The numerical results demonstrate that liquid spray flames substantially differ from gaseous flames in their structure, i.e., temperature, concentration, and velocity fields, shape, and dimensions under the same conditions. Spray flames are predicted to be taller and narrower than their counterpart gaseous ones and their shapes are almost cylindrical. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The numerical computations also show that the use of the equilibrium reactions with the one-step reaction scheme decreases the flame temperature compared to the one-step reaction scheme without the equilibrium reactions and more importantly increases the surface area of the flame zone due to a phenomenon termed 'equilibrium broadening.' The spray flames also possess a finite thickness with minimal overlap of the fuel and oxygen species. A case for which a fuel-mixture consisting of 20 to 80 percent gas-liquid by mass is introduced into the combustor is also investigated and compared with predictions using only gaseous or liquid fuel.

Mawid, M. A.; Bulzan, D. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

1993-02-01

403

Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

404

Design optimization of natural laminar flow bodies in compressible flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimization method has been developed to design axisymmetric body shapes such as fuselages, nacelles, and external fuel tanks with increased transition Reynolds numbers in subsonic compressible flow. The new design method involves a constraint minimization procedure coupled with analysis of the inviscid and viscous flow regions and linear stability analysis of the compressible boundary-layer. In order to reduce the computer time, Granville's transition criterion is used to predict boundary-layer transition and to calculate the gradients of the objective function, and linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method is used to calculate the objective function at the end of each design iteration. Use of a method to design an axisymmetric body with extensive natural laminar flow is illustrated through the design of a tiptank of a business jet. For the original tiptank, boundary layer transition is predicted to occur at a transition Reynolds number of 6.04 x 10(exp 6). For the designed body shape, a transition Reynolds number of 7.22 x 10(exp 6) is predicted using compressible linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method.

Dodbele, Simha S.

1992-01-01

405

Dynamics of laminar circular jet impingement upon convex cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow dynamics associated with a laminar circular jet impinging upon a convex cylinder has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence and digital particle-image velocimetry techniques. Cylinder-to-jet diameter ratios of 1, 2, and 4 were investigated, while the jet-to-cylinder separation distance was kept at four jet diameters throughout. Flow visualization and ?2 criterion results show that once the jet ring-vortices impinge upon the cylindrical surface, they move away from the impingement point by wrapping themselves partially around the surface. As the cylinder diameter increases, wall boundary layer separation, vortex dipole formation, and separation locations are initiated earlier along the cylindrical surface, producing significantly larger wakes. Along the cylinder straight-edges, ring-vortex cores are significantly smaller after impingement. This is due to accentuated vortex-stretching caused by partial wrapping around the cylindrical surface by the ring-vortices, on top of their movement away from the impingement point. Interestingly, vortex dipoles demonstrate a strong tendency to travel upstream and interact with other upstream vortex dipoles, instead of moving downstream gradually seen for flat-surface jet-impingements. Wall shear stress results are also presented to quantify the effects of cylinder diameter-ratio on surface skin friction distribution. Finally, these preceding observations are corroborated and explained in a three-dimensional flow dynamics model presented here.

New, T. H.; Long, J.

2015-02-01

406

Computation of forced laminar convection in rotating cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite difference solutions are presented for forced laminar convection in a rotating cylindrical cavity with radial outflow. This forms a simple model of the cooling flow between two compressor disks in a gas turbine engine. If the fluid enters the cavity from a uniform radial source, it is shown that the local Nusselt number changes from that of a 'free disk' near the center of the cavity to that for Ekman layer flow at larger radii. With an axial inlet, the flow, and consequently, the heat transfer, is more complex. If vortex breakdown occurs, then the results are very similar to those for the radial inlet case, but otherwise a wall jet forms on the downstream disk, and the heat transfer from this disk may be several times that for the upstream disk. Variation of mean Nusselt number with rotational speed is qualitatively similar to previously published experimental measurements in turbulent flow. The effect of Prandtl number on heat transfer has also been demonstrated.

Chew, J. W.

1985-05-01

407

Cortical Membrane Potential Dynamics and Laminar Firing during Object Motion  

PubMed Central

When an object is introduced moving in the visual field of view, the object maps with different delays in each of the six cortical layers in many visual areas by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We combined voltage sensitive dye (VSD) recordings with laminar recordings of action potentials in visual areas 17, 18, 19 and 21 in ferrets exposed to stationary and moving bars. At the area 17/18 border a moving bar first elicited an ON response in layer 4 and then ON responses in supragranular and infragranular layers, identical to a stationary bar. Shortly after, the moving bar mapped as moving synchronous peak firing across layers. Complex dynamics evolved including feedback from areas 19/21, the computation of a spatially restricted pre-depolarization (SRP), and firing in the direction of cortical motion prior to the mapping of the bar. After 350?ms, the representations of the bar (peak firing and peak VSD signal) in areas 19/21 and 17/18 moved over the cortex in phase. The dynamics comprise putative mechanisms for automatic saliency of novel moving objects, coherent mapping of moving objects across layers and areas, and planning of catch-up saccades. PMID:19753323

Harvey, Michael A.; Valentiniene, Sonata; Roland, Per E.

2009-01-01

408

Homogeneous water nucleation in a laminar flow diffusion chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous nucleation rates of water at temperatures between 240 and 270 K were measured in a laminar flow diffusion chamber at ambient pressure and helium as carrier gas. Being in the range of 102-106 cm-3 s-1, the experimental results extend the nucleation rate data from literature consistently and fill a pre-existing gap. Using the macroscopic vapor pressure, density, and surface tension for water we calculate the nucleation rates predicted by classic nucleation theory (CNT) and by the empirical correction function of CNT by Wölk and Strey [J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 11683 (2001)]. As in the case of other systems (e.g., alcohols), CNT predicts a stronger temperature dependence than experimentally observed, whereas the agreement with the empirical correction function is good for all data sets. Furthermore, the isothermal nucleation rate curves allow us to determine the experimental critical cluster sizes by use of the nucleation theorem. A comparison with the critical cluster sizes calculated by use of the Gibbs-Thomson equation is remarkably good for small cluster sizes, for bigger ones the Gibbs-Thomson equation overestimates the cluster sizes.

Manka, Alexandra A.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Lihavainen, Heikki; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard

2010-06-01

409

Laminar Flow Through Circular Tubes with Side Inlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss experimental results on steady axisymmetric flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid through circular pipes with side inlets. Circular tubes with a set of holes along their sidewalls are used in a number of medical procedures as straight catheters to transfer fluid into or out of the human body. For example, because of the small size of the incision required, they are commonly used in peritoneal dialysis. The internal diameter and the diameter of the side holes are often 1 mm and less, and as a result, the fluid flow is laminar in a typical medical procedure. An understanding of the flow inside the catheter tube in terms of its geometric parameters will be key in designing new catheters with optimal clinical performance for specific applications. In the experiments, water is withdrawn from a smooth tube with side holes and the local axial pressure and flow rates through the side holes are measured for different flow conditions. A nondimensionalization of the data shows a power-law behavior in only some cases. Using numerical simulations, it is shown how the interaction of the axial flow with the impinging jets from the side holes can change the overall behavior of the flow for a given suction pressure.

Abedian, Behrouz; Muhlanger, Eric

2004-11-01

410

Numerical simulation of laminar flow in a curved duct  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes numerical simulations that were performed to study laminar flow through a square duct with a 900 bend. The purpose of this work was two fold. First, an improved understanding was desired of the flow physics involved in the generation of secondary vortical flows in three-dimensions. Second, adaptive gridding techniques for structured grids in three- dimensions were investigated for the purpose of determining their utility in low Reynolds number, incompressible flows. It was also of interest to validate the commercial computer code CFD-ACE. Velocity predictions for both non-adaptive and adaptive grids are compared with experimental data. Flow visualization was used to examine the characteristics of the flow though the curved duct in order to better understand the viscous flow physics of this problem. Generally, moderate agreement with the experimental data was found but shortcomings in the experiment were demonstrated. The adaptive grids did not produce the same level of accuracy as the non-adaptive grid with a factor of four more grid points.

Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.

1995-01-01

411

Distributed acoustic receptivity in laminar flow control configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model problem related to distributed receptivity to free-stream acoustic waves in laminar flow control (LFC) configurations is studied, within the Orr-Sommerfield framework, by a suitable extension of the Goldstein-Ruban theory for receptivity due to localized disturbances on the airfoil surface. The results, thus, complement the earlier work on the receptivity produced by local variations in the surface suction and/or surface admittance. In particular, we show that the cumulative effect of the distributed receptivity can be substantially larger than that of a single, isolated suction strip or slot. Furthermore, even if the receptivity is spread out over very large distances, the most effective contributions come from a relatively short region in vicinity of the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. The length scale of this region is intermediate to that of the mean of these two length scales. Finally, it is found that the receptivity is effectively dominated by a narrow band of Fourier components from the wall-suction and admittance distributions, roughly corresponding to a detuning of less than ten percent with respect to the neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration. The results suggest that the drop-off in receptivity magnitudes away from the resonant wavenumber is nearly independent of the frequency parameter.

Choudhari, Meelan

1992-01-01

412

On the collision of laminar jets: fluid chains and fishbones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the family of free-surface flows generated by obliquely colliding laminar jets. We present a parameter study of the flow, and describe the rich variety of forms observed. When the jet Reynolds number is sufficiently high, the jet collision generates a thin fluid sheet that evolves under the combined influence of surface tension and fluid inertia. The resulting flow may take the form of a fluid chain: a succession of mutually orthogonal links, each composed of a thin oval film bound by relatively thick fluid rims. The dependence of the form of the fluid chains on the governing parameters is examined experimentally. An accompanying theoretical model describing the form of a fluid sheet bound by stable rims is found to yield good agreement with the observed chain shapes. In another parameter regime, the fluid chain structure becomes unstable, giving rise to a striking new flow structure resembling fluid fishbones. The fishbones are demonstrated to be the result of a Rayleigh Plateau instability of the sheet's bounding rims being amplified by the centripetal force associated with the flow along the curved rims.

Bush, John W. M.; Hasha, Alexander E.

2004-07-01

413

Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts. The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

Wirth, A.

2012-05-01

414

Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts. The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

Wirth, A.

2011-09-01

415

Characterization of mixing in a laminar motionless mixer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the dependence of mixing efficiency of a motionless mixer upon viscosity ratio, volume flux ratio and Reynolds number was performed. The liquids were aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Viscosity ratios ranged from 1 to about 100, volume flux ratios ranged from 1 to 10; 0.001<= Re <= 10 ,where Reynolds number was based on mixing element gap thickness. The two transparent liquid streams were symmetrically injected side-by-side, into a pipe housing five elements of a Koch SMX laminar flow motionless mixer. One of the two streams was marked with a fluorescing dye. A downstream cross-section of pipe was evaluated using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Highly resolved spatial variations of fluorescence intensity were recorded using a CCD camera. Mathematical evaluations using goodness of mix criteria, including Danckwerts statistics, the average and variance of cross-sectional striation thickness, interfacial area growth, and cross-section averaged structure radius, will be presented. This work was supported by Dupont.

Ventresca, Amy L.; Cao, Qing; Prasad, Ajay K.

2000-11-01

416

Investigation of Hypersonic Laminar Heating Augmentation in the Stagnation Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar stagnation region heating augmentation is investigated in the AEDC Tunnel 9 at Mach 10 by performing high frequency surface pressure and heat transfer measurements on the Orion CEV capsule at zero degree angle-of-attack for unit Reynolds numbers between 0.5 and 15 million per foot. Heating augmentation increases with Reynolds number, but is also model size dependent as it is absent on a 1.25-inch diameter model at Reynolds numbers where it reaches up to 15% on a 7-inch model. Heat transfer space-time correlations on the 7-inch model show that disturbances convect at the boundary layer edge velocity and that the streamwise integral scale increases with distance. Therefore, vorticity amplification due to stretching and piling-up in the stagnation region appears to be responsible for the stagnation point heating augmentation on the larger model. This assumption is reinforced by the f(exp -11/3) dependence of the surface pressure spectrum compared to the f(exp -1) dependence in the free stream. Vorticity amplification does not occur on the 1.25- inch model because the disturbances are too large. Improved free stream fluctuation measurements will be required to determine if significant vorticity is present upstream or mostly generated behind the bow shock.

Marineau, Eric C.; Lewis, Daniel R.; Smith, Michael S.; Lafferty, John F.; White, Molly E.; Amar, Adam J.

2012-01-01

417

Laboratory determination of compost physical parameters for modeling of airflow characteristics.  

PubMed

Physical parameters of 12 co-compost cover materials were experimentally determined and predicted variations in airflow characteristics were evaluated under varying moisture contents. Predicted air-filled porosity showed high correlation with measured air-filled porosity, facilitating development of a reliable model of air-filled porosity that makes it possible to predict the effect of varying moisture content and compost bed height on air-filled porosity and permeability. Predicted air-filled porosity decreased with increasing moisture content and compost depth for all materials. Air-filled porosity of corn stalks, oat straw, soybean straw, leaves, alfalfa hay, wheat straw, silage, wood shavings and sawdust was in the range of 38-99%. Turkey litter, soil compost blend and beef manure showed air-filled porosity values less than 30% near saturation and the bottom of pile. In concert with the findings of other researchers, effective particle size of all materials increased with increasing moisture content from 20% to 80% of water holding capacity (WHC). It increased dramatically near saturation. In general, permeability increased with increasing air-filled porosity and decreasing bulk density, but the relationship between permeability and moisture content is complex. Permeability is dependent on the balance between particle size and air-filled porosity. If the influence of aggregated particle size on the permeability is significant, it will compensate for the effect of reduced air-filled porosity caused by compaction and moisture content. In this case, permeability will increase; in the reverse case, it will decrease. Permeability decreased for corn stalks, oat straw, silage, wood shavings, soybean straw, sawdust, turkey litter and wheat straw with increasing moisture content from 20% WHC to 50% WHC, regardless of the depth of the compost bed. But the permeability increased with increasing moisture level from 50% to 80% WHC at moderate to shallow simulated bed depths. The soil compost blend and leaves showed the permeability increasing when the moisture increased not only from 50% to 80% WHC but also from 20% to 50% WHC. Permeability of alfalfa hay and beef manure always decreased with increasing moisture levels and pile depth. In this study the maximum wet bulk density and mechanical strength decreased with increasing the moisture content. The method described for determining physical properties under varying moisture contents and compost bed depths will be very useful for designing and modeling airflow characteristics of a mortality composting process with a variety of materials. PMID:17590325

Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

2008-01-01

418

Visualization of the Airflow around a Life-Sized, Heated, Breathing Mannequin at Ultralow Windspeeds  

PubMed Central

During the past two decades, there has been considerable progress in developing particle size-selective criteria for aerosol sampling and exposure assessment that relate more realistically to actual human exposures than previously. An important aspect has been the aspiration efficiency—the ‘inhalability’—with which particles enter through the nose and mouth of aerosol-exposed individuals during breathing. Most of the reported experiments to determine inhalability have been conducted in wind tunnels with life-sized, breathing mannequins, for windspeeds from 0.5 m s?1 and above. A few experiments have been reported for calm air. However, nothing has been reported for the intermediate range from 0.5 m s?1 downward, and it so happens—as we now know—that this corresponds to most industrial workplaces. The research described in this paper represents a first step toward filling this knowledge gap. It focuses on identifying the features of the airflow near the mannequin at such low windspeeds that might have important influences on the nature of particle transport, and hence on inhalability, and eventually the performances of personal aerosol samplers mounted in the breathing zone. We have carried out flow visualization experiments for the realistic range of windspeeds indicated, investigating specifically the effect of the air jet released into the freestream during expiration and the effect of the upward-moving boundary layer near the body associated with the buoyancy of air in that region as a result of heat received from the warm body. We set out to identify the combinations of conditions—external windspeed, breathing mode (nose versus mouth breathing), breathing rate and body temperature—where such factors need to be taken into account. We developed an experimental system that allowed the visualization of smoke traces, providing very good observation of how the flow was modified as conditions changed. From inspection of a large number of moving pictures, we developed a matrix of regimes—categorized by windspeed and breathing rate—where the effect of the expired air is sufficient to permanently and seriously destabilize the airflow approaching the mannequin. It was found that the effect of body temperature was minimal. Such results will be important in the interpretation of current and future inhalability experiments carried out at realistic low windspeeds. PMID:18497432

Schmees, Darrah K.; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Vincent, James H.

2008-01-01

419

Effects of cartilaginous rings on airflow and particle transport through simplified and realistic models of human upper respiratory tracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate inspiratory and expiratory airflow characteristics in the human upper respiratory tract for the purpose of identifying the probable locations of particle deposition and the wall injury. Computed tomography (CT) scan data was used to reconstruct a three dimensional respiratory tract from trachea to first generation bronchi. To compare, a simplified model of respiratory tract based on Weibel was also used in the study. The steady state results are obtained for an airflow rate of 45 L/min, corresponding to the heavy breathing condition. The velocity distribution, wall shear stress, static pressure and particle deposition are compared for inspiratory flows in simplified and realistic models and expiratory flows in realistic model only. The results show that the location of cartilaginous rings is susceptible to wall injury and local particle deposition.

Srivastav, Vivek Kumar; Paul, Akshoy Ranjan; Jain, Anuj

2013-12-01

420

The effects of airflow modulation and multi-stage defrost on the performance of an air source heat pump  

E-print Network

Modeling System Performance Cycling Losses Frosting and Defrosting Losses . Heat Pump Defrost Controls. Effects of Frost on Airflow Summary of Literature Reviewed . 7 12 16 26 34 41 TEST FACILITY. Psychrometric Rooms Test Heat Pump . . Indoor... Test Section. . Outdoor Test Section. Data Acquisition and Reduction. Experimental Procedure. 44 46 49 51 52 53 IV BASE CASE TEST RESULTS . System Performance Parameters. Frosting Period . Defrost Initiation. Melt Period . . Drain Period...

Payne, William Vance

1992-01-01

421

Aeolian fetch distance and secondary airflow effects: the influence of micro-scale variables on meso-scale foredune development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsuccessful attempts to use process-scale models to predict long-term aeolian sediment transport patterns have long been a feature of aeolian research. It has been proposed that one approach to overcome these problems is to identify micro-scale variables that are im- portant at longer timescales. This paper assesses the contribution of two system variables (secondary airflow patterns and fetch distance) to

Kevin Lynch; Derek W. T. Jackson; J. Andrew G. Cooper

2008-01-01

422

Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.  

PubMed

The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread than originally thought, and other functions, such as selective brain temperature regulation, could be important. PMID:25312371

Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

2014-11-01

423

Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify CHRNA5/3 and HTR4 in the Development of Airflow Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known. Objectives: Perform meta-analyses of GWAS for airflow obstruction, a key pathophysiologic characteristic of COPD assessed by spirometry, in population-based cohorts examining all participants, ever smokers, never smokers, asthma-free participants, and more severe cases. Methods: Fifteen cohorts were studied for discovery (3,368 affected; 29,507 unaffected), and a population-based family study and a meta-analysis of case-control studies were used for replication and regional follow-up (3,837 cases; 4,479 control subjects). Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1 and its ratio to FVC (FEV1/FVC) both less than their respective lower limits of normal as determined by published reference equations. Measurements and Main Results: The discovery meta-analyses identified one region on chromosome 15q25.1 meeting genome-wide significance in ever smokers that includes AGPHD1, IREB2, and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 genes. The region was also modestly associated among never smokers. Gene expression studies confirmed the presence of CHRNA5/3 in lung, airway smooth muscle, and bronchial epithelial cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in HTR4, a gene previously related to FEV1/FVC, achieved genome-wide statistical significance in combined meta-analysis. Top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM19, RARB, PPAP2B, and ADAMTS19 were nominally replicated in the COPD meta-analysis. Conclusions: These results suggest an important role for the CHRNA5/3 region as a genetic risk factor for airflow obstruction that may be independent of smoking and implicate the HTR4 gene in the etiology of airflow obstruction. PMID:22837378

Shrine, Nick R. G.; Loehr, Laura R.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Manichaikul, Ani; Lopez, Lorna M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smolonska, Joanna; Tang, Wenbo; Loth, Daan W.; Curjuric, Ivan; Hui, Jennie; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Henry, Amanda P.; Aldrich, Melinda; Bakke, Per; Beaty, Terri H.; Bentley, Amy R.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Burkart, Kristin M.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Couper, David; Crapo, James D.; Davies, Gail; Dupuis, Josée; Franceschini, Nora; Gulsvik, Amund; Hancock, Dana B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; James, Alan L.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lahousse, Lies; Launer, Lenore J.; Litonjua, Augusto; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K.; Lomas, David A.; Lumley, Thomas; Marciante, Kristin D.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Myers, Richard H.; North, Kari E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rochat, Thierry; Rotter, Jerome I.; Artigas, María Soler; Starr, John M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Province, Michael A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Deary, Ian J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Barr, R. Graham; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Strachan, David P.; London, Stephanie J.; Boezen, H. Marike; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Gharib, Sina A.; Hall, Ian P.; O’Connor, George T.; Tobin, Martin D.; Stricker, Bruno H.

2012-01-01

424

Numerical Simulation of Airway Dimension Effects on Airflow Patterns and Odorant Deposition Patterns in the Rat Nasal Cavity  

PubMed Central

The sense of smell is largely dependent on the airflow and odorant transport in the nasal cavity, which in turn depends on the anatomical structure of the nose. In order to evaluate the effect of airway dimension on rat nasal airflow patterns and odorant deposition patterns, we constructed two 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate models of the left nasal cavity of a Sprague-Dawley rat: one was based on high-resolution MRI images with relatively narrow airways and the other was based on artificially-widening airways of the MRI images by referencing the section images with relatively wide airways. Airflow and odorant transport, in the two models, were determined using the method of computational fluid dynamics with finite volume method. The results demonstrated that an increase of 34 µm in nasal airway dimension significantly decreased the average velocity in the whole nasal cavity by about 10% and in the olfactory region by about 12% and increased the volumetric flow into the olfactory region by about 3%. Odorant deposition was affected to a larger extent, especially in the olfactory region, where the maximum odorant deposition difference reached one order of magnitude. The results suggest that a more accurate nasal cavity model is necessary in order to more precisely study the olfactory function of the nose when using the rat. PMID:24204875

Wei, Zehong; Xu, Zhixiang; Li, Bo; Xu, Fuqiang

2013-01-01

425

Laser machining for smooth continuous 3-D contouring for micro airflow blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an innovative excimer laser fabrication approach for profiling optimally smooth airflow contours. The research merit of the process is its use in producing a new type of electrical transducer micro-turbine using a novel axial format. The necessary micro-machining precision for this was achieved by computer-controlling a laser beam using an elevating stage to step a moving mask across a fixed mask, i.e. a variant of dynamic mask-dragging or mask-aperturing. The moving mask image was projected on to a series of flat 600 ?m wide, 1000 ?m deep preform surfaces, reducing each to 50 ?m thickness with curvature. Precise control of each mask increment to ablation depth and focus allowed a range of 3-D curves to be realized. The ablation rate versus surface quality was optimized throughout by ablating just 300 nm per laser pulse and using 2000 pulses spread over 90 sites. The process represents a cost effective means of using basic masks to continuously shape flat surfaces in the axial direction with high aspect ratios, high speed and precision, and is applicable to both micro streamlining and the manufacture of micro expansion nozzles.

Heaton, Mark

2005-06-01

426

Electrical and mechanical characteristics of surface AC dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators applied to airflow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is a wide review on AC surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators applied to airflow control. Both electrical and mechanical characteristics of surface DBD are presented and discussed. The first half of the present paper gives the last results concerning typical single plate-to-plate surface DBDs supplied by a sine high voltage. The discharge current, the plasma extension and its morphology are firstly analyzed. Then, time-averaged and time-resolved measurements of the produced electrohydrodynamic force and of the resulting electric wind are commented. The second half of the paper concerns a partial list of approaches having demonstrated a significant modification in the discharge behavior and an increasing of its mechanical performances. Typically, single DBDs can produce mean force and electric wind velocity up to 1 mN/W and 7 m/s, respectively. With multi-DBD designs, velocity up to 11 m/s has been measured and force up to 350 mN/m.

Benard, Nicolas; Moreau, Eric

2014-11-01

427

Investigation on oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow  

SciTech Connect

Wedge oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow was investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically in this paper. Using thermal choking model, the change in oblique shock wave was deduced, which refer that the start point of shock wave shifts upstream, the shock wave angle decreases, and its intensity weakens. Then the theoretical results were validated experimentally in a Mach 2.2 wind tunnel. On the test conditions of arc discharge power of approx1 kW and arc plasma temperature of approx3000 K, schlieren photography and gas pressure measurements indicated that the start point of shock wave shifted upstream of approx4 mm, the shock wave angle decreased 8.6%, and its intensity weakened 8.8%. The deduced theoretical results match the test results qualitatively, so thermal mechanism and thermal choking model are rational to explain the problem of oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma. Finally, numerical simulation was developed. Based on thermal mechanism, the arc discharge plasma was simplified as a thermal source term that added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The simulation results of the change in oblique shock wave were consistent with the test results, so the thermal mechanism indeed dominates the oblique shock wave control process.

Wang Jian; Li Yinghong [Engineering College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710038 (China); Xing Fei [College of Economics and Management, Northwest University of Politics and Law, Xi'an 710063 (China)

2009-10-01

428

Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber.  

PubMed

We numerically simulated the air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber induced by femtosecond laser filaments for different chopping rates. A two dimensional model was employed, where the laser filaments were treated as a heat flux source. The simulated patterns of flow fields and maximum velocity of updraft compare well with the experimental results for the chopping rates of 1, 5, 15 and 150 Hz. A quantitative inconsistency appears between simulated and experimental maximum velocity of updraft for 1 kHz repetition rate although a similar pattern of flow field is obtained, and the possible reasons were analyzed. Based on the present simulated results, the experimental observation of more water condensation/snow at higher chopping rate can be explained. These results indicate that the specific way of laser filament heating plays a significant role in the laser-induced motion of air flow, and at the same time, our previous conclusion of air flow having an important effect on water condensation/snow is confirmed. PMID:23609636

Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Zhanxin; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-04-22

429

Airflow in a Multiscale Subject-Specific Breathing Human Lung Model  

E-print Network

The airflow in a subject-specific breathing human lung is simulated with a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to about 7 generations of airways is reconstructed from the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image at the total lung capacity (TLC). Along with the segmented lobe surfaces, we can build an anatomically-consistent one-dimensional (1D) airway tree spanning over more than 20 generations down to the terminal bronchioles, which is specific to the CT resolved airways and lobes (J Biomech 43(11): 2159-2163, 2010). We then register two lung images at TLC and the functional residual capacity (FRC) to specify subject-specific CFD flow boundary conditions and deform the airway surface mesh for a breathing lung simulation (J Comput Phys 244:168-192, 2013). The 1D airway tree bridges the 3D CT-resolved airways and the registration-derived regional ventilation in the lung parenchyma, thus a multiscale model. Larg...

Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H; Lin, Ching-Long

2013-01-01

430

Laminar chemokine mRNA concentrations in horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis.  

PubMed

Chemokines play a vital role in leukocyte activation and emigration that reportedly plays a central role in laminar injury in equine laminitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of laminar chemokine expression in horses in the classical carbohydrate overload (CHO)-model of laminitis. Laminar samples were obtained 24h following water administration in the control group (CON, n=8), and at the onset of fever (? 102°F, 12-22 h post CHO, DEV group, n=8) and at the onset of lameness (20-48 h post CHO, LAM group, n=8) in induced horses. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on all samples in order to determine laminar mRNA concentrations of both CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL6, CXCL8) and CC chemokines (CCL2 [MCP-1], CCL3 [MIP-1?], and CCL8 [MCP-2]). Data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (P<0.05). Laminar mRNA concentrations for all CXC chemokines were increased (P<0.05) at both the DEV and LAM horses when compared to the control horses, whereas mRNA concentrations of CCL2 and CCL8 were only increased in the LAM horses when compared to controls and the DEV horses. When taken in context with our previous studies, CXCL1, CXCL6 and CXCL8 increases precede peak laminar leukocyte accumulation. Additionally, CCL2 and CCL8 expression corroborate previous reports of monocyte/macrophage accumulation in affected laminae. Compared with previous studies, our findings demonstrate that increased laminar CXC chemokine expression consistently precedes peak leukocyte accumulation and onset of lameness in CHO laminitis models. Chemokine antagonists may be considered as possible therapeutic targets to decrease the influx of leukocytes that occurs during the development of equine laminitis. PMID:21889804

Faleiros, Rafael R; Leise, Britta S; Watts, Mauria; Johnson, Philip J; Black, Samuel J; Belknap, James K

2011-11-15

431

History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Resrearch: Monographs in Aerospace History Number 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper contains the following sections: Foreword; Preface; Laminar-Flow Control Concepts and Scope of Monograph; Early Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control (Research from the 1930s through the War Years; Research from after World War II to the Mid-1960s); Post X-21 Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control; Status of Laminar-Flow Control Technology in the Mid-1990s; Glossary; Document 1-Aeronautics Panel, AACB, R&D Review, Report of the Subpanel on Aeronautic Energy Conservation/Fuels; Document 2-Report of Review Group on X-21A Laminar Flow Control Program; Document 3-Langley Research Center Announcement, Establishment of Laminar Flow Control Working Group; Document 4-Intercenter Agreement for Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Glove Flights, LaRC and DFRC; Document 5-Flight Report NLF-144, of AFTIF-111 Aircraft with the TACT Wing Modified by a Natural Laminar Flow Glove; Document 6-Flight Record, F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Aircraft; Index; and About the Author.

Braslow, A. L.

1999-01-01

432

The unsteady structure of two-dimensional steady laminar separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, solved by a fractional time-step method, were used to investigate separation due to the application of an adverse pressure gradient to a low-Reynolds number boundary layer flow. The inviscid pressure distribution of Gaster [AGARD CP 4, 813 (1966)] was applied in the present computations to study the development of a laminar separation bubble. In all cases studied, periodic vortex shedding occurred from the primary separation region. The shed vortices initially lifted from the boundary layer and then returned towards the surface downstream. The shedding frequency nondimensionalized by the momentum thickness was found to be independent of Reynolds number. The value of the nondimensional Strouhal number, however, was found to differ from the results of Pauley et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 220, 397 (1990)], indicating that the shedding frequency varies with the nondimensional pressure distribution, Cp. The computational results were time averaged over several shedding cycles and the results were compared with Gaster. The numerical study accurately reproduced the major characteristics of the separation found in Gaster's study such as the separation point, the pressure plateau within the upstream portion of the separation bubble, and the reattachment point. The similarity between the experimental results and the time-averaged two-dimensional computational results indicates that the low-frequency velocity fluctuations detected by Gaster are primarily due to the motion of large vortex structures. This suggests that large-scale two-dimensional structures control bubble reattachment and small-scale turbulence contributes a secondary role.

Ripley, Matthew D.; Pauley, Laura L.

1993-12-01

433

A fundamental study of suction for Laminar Flow Control (LFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period forming the first year of the project. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of suction as a technique for Laminar Flow Control. Experiments are to be performed which require substantial modifications to be made to the experimental facility. Considerable effort has been spent developing new high performance constant temperature hot-wire anemometers for general purpose use in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. Twenty instruments have been delivered. An important feature of the facility is that it is totally automated under computer control. Unprecedently large quantities of data can be acquired and the results examined using the visualization tools developed specifically for studying the results of numerical simulations on graphics works stations. The experiment must be run for periods of up to a month at a time since the data is collected on a point-by-point basis. Several techniques were implemented to reduce the experimental run-time by a significant factor. Extra probes have been constructed and modifications have been made to the traverse hardware and to the real-time experimental code to enable multiple probes to be used. This will reduce the experimental run-time by the appropriate factor. Hot-wire calibration drift has been a frustrating problem owing to the large range of ambient temperatures experienced in the laboratory. The solution has been to repeat the calibrations at frequent intervals. However the calibration process has consumed up to 40 percent of the run-time. A new method of correcting the drift is very nearly finalized and when implemented it will also lead to a significant reduction in the experimental run-time.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1992-01-01

434

Study of a 1D laminar fan near threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial sediment transport is often modelled using either linear or non linear diffusion equations. These equations are then used to study the evolution through time of alluvial systems and their dependance on various parameters (such as discharge, subsidence or uplift), initial and boundary conditions . Much of these equations though are valid only for the case when the shear stress exerted by the flow is significantly larger then the critical shear stress for motion inception. In nature however flows most often occurs at conditions where the boundary shear stress on the bed is at or near threshold shear stress. It is for instance well known that the shear stress exerted by the flow on gravel beds is only slightly (~20 %) above the critical value necessary to put grains in motion. It is therefore interesting to study alluvial sediment transport at or near incipient motion. In order to do this we here study theoretically the problem of a simple 1D laminar alluvial fan. The fan has a downstream moving boundary whereas the position of the upstream boundary remains fixed. The fan is fed with a constant flux of sediment and water. Boundary conditions are fixed by the sediment transport relationship for the upstream boundary and by assuming that all sediments are trapped within the fan for the downstream boundary. We use conservations equations together with a Charru et al. (2006) transport law to describe the evolution of the fan surface. We then derive the conservation equations of the fan. Using Taylor expansion and rescaling of coordinates we derive an self-similar solution for the fan shape and discuss the influence of the boundary conditions and parameters. This solution is amenable to experimental test and verification.

Métivier, Francois; Guérit, Laure; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Eric; Barrier, Laurie

2013-04-01

435

Mass transfer dominated by thermal diffusion in laminar boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration distribution of massive dilute species (e.g. aerosols, heavy vapours, etc.) carried in a gas stream in non-isothermal boundary layers is studied in the large-Schmidt-number limit, Sc[dbl greater-than sign]1, including the cross-mass-transport by thermal diffusion (Ludwig Soret effect). In self-similar laminar boundary layers, the mass fraction distribution of the dilute species is governed by a second-order ordinary differential equation whose solution becomes a singular perturbation problem when Sc[dbl greater-than sign]1. Depending on the sign of the temperature gradient, the solutions exhibit different qualitative behaviour. First, when the thermal diffusion transport is directed toward the wall, the boundary layer can be divided into two separated regions: an outer region characterized by the cooperation of advection and thermal diffusion and an inner region in the vicinity of the wall, where Brownian diffusion accommodates the mass fraction to the value required by the boundary condition at the wall. Secondly, when the thermal diffusion transport is directed away from the wall, thus competing with the advective transport, both effects balance each other at some intermediate value of the similarity variable and a thin intermediate diffusive layer separating two outer regions should be considered around this location. The character of the outer solutions changes sharply across this thin layer, which corresponds to a second-order regular turning point of the differential mass transport equation. In the outer zone from the inner layer down to the wall, exponentially small terms must be considered to account for the diffusive leakage of the massive species. In the inner zone, the equation is solved in terms of the Whittaker function and the whole mass fraction distribution is determined by matching with the outer solutions. The distinguished limit of Brownian diffusion with a weak thermal diffusion is also analysed and shown to match the two cases mentioned above.

García-Ybarra, Pedro L.; Castillo, Jose L.

1997-04-01

436

Laminar flamelet structure at low and vanishing scalar dissipation rate  

SciTech Connect

The laminar flamelet structures of methane/air, propane/air, and hydrogen/air nonpremixed combustion at low and vanishing scalar dissipation rates are investigated, by numerical calculations of a system of conservation equations in a counterflow diffusion flame configuration, together with a transport equation defining the mixture fraction and scalar dissipation rate. The chemical reaction mechanisms consist of 82 elementary reactions up to C{sub 3} species. In the limit of vanishing scalar dissipation rate, two types of structures are shown to appear. In one structure fuel and oxygen are consumed in a thin layer located near the stoichiometric mixture fraction, Z{sub st}, where the temperature and the major products reach their peaks. This is similar to the so-called Burke-Schumann single layer flame sheet structure. One example is the hydrogen/air diffusion flame. The second structure consists of multilayers. Fuel and oxygen are consumed at different locations. Oxygen is consumed at Z{sub l} (near Z{sub st}), where the temperature and the major products reach their peaks. Fuel is consumed at Z{sub r} (>Z{sub st}). Between Z{sub l} and Z{sub r} some intermediate and radical species are found in high concentrations. Hydrocarbon/air nonpremixed flames are of this type. It is shown that for methane/air diffusion flames, some chemical reactions which are negligible at large scalar dissipation rate near flame quenching conditions, play essential roles for the existence of the multilayer structure. This result is used to successfully explain the high CO emissions in a turbulent methane/air diffusion flame.

Bai, X.S.; Fuchs, L.; Mauss, F.

2000-02-01

437

An experimental investigation of an acoustically excited laminar premixed flame  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional laminar premixed flame is stabilized over a burner in a confined duct and is subjected to external acoustic forcing from the downstream end. The equivalence ratio of the flame is 0.7. The flame is stabilized in the central slot of a three-slotted burner. The strength of the shear layer of the cold reactive mixture through the central slot is controlled by the flow rate of cold nitrogen gas through the side slots. The frequency range of acoustic excitation is 400-1200 Hz, and the amplitude levels are such that the acoustic velocity is less than the mean flow velocity of the reactants. Time-averaged chemiluminescence images of the perturbed flame front display time-mean changes as compared to the unperturbed flame shape at certain excitation frequencies. Prominent changes to the flame front are in the form of stretching or shrinkage, asymmetric development of its shape, increased/preferential lift-off of one or both of the stabilization points of the flame, and nearly random three-dimensional fluctuations over large time scales under some conditions. The oscillations of the shear layer and the response of the confined jet of the hot products to the acoustic forcing, such as asymmetric flow development and jet spreading, are found to be responsible for the observed mean changes in the flame shape. A distinct low-frequency component ({approx}60-90 Hz) relative to the excitation frequency is observed in the fluctuations of the chemiluminescent intensity in the flame under most conditions. It is observed that fluctuations in the flame area predominantly contribute to the origin of the low-frequency component. This is primarily due to the rollup of vortices and the generation of enthalpy waves at the burner lip. Both of these processes are excited at the externally imposed acoustic time scale, but convect/propagate downstream at the flow time scale, which is much larger. (author)

Kartheekeyan, S.; Chakravarthy, S.R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

2006-08-15

438

Boundary-Layer Transition Results from the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Boundary-layer transition data have been obtained on the titanium glove primarily at Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 53,000-55,000 ft. The objectives of this supersonic laminar flow control flight experiment have been to achieve 50- to 60-percent-chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point (Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 50,000 ft). At Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 53,000 ft, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of 22.7 X 10(exp 6), optimum suction levels have allowed long runs of a minimum of 46-percent-chord laminar flow to be achieved. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

Marshall, Laurie A.

1999-01-01

439

Summary of Transition Results From the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport. Boundary-layer transition data on the titanium glove primarily have been obtained at speeds of Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 15,240-16,764 m (50,000-55,000 ft). The objectives of this flight experiment have been to achieve 0.50-0.60 chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point, a speed of Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 15,240 m (50,000 ft); but rather at a speed of Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 16,154 m (53,000 ft). Laminar flow has been obtained to more than 0.46 wing chord at a Reynolds number of 22.7 x 10(exp 6). A turbulence diverter has been used to initially obtain a laminar boundary layer at the attachment line. A lower-surface shock fence was required to block an inlet shock from the wing leading edge. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

Marshall, Laurie A.

2000-01-01

440

Numerical investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer in developing laminar and turbulent nanofluid flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the study of laminar and turbulent force convection heat transfer and pressure drop between horizontal parallel plates with a nanofluid composed of Al2O3 and water. A set of governing equations are solved using a non-staggered SIMPLE procedure for the velocity-pressure coupling. For the convection-diffusion terms a power-law scheme is employed. A modified k-? model with a two-layer technique for the near-wall region has been used to predict the turbulent viscosity. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction in the base fluid on laminar and turbulent flow variables are presented and discussed. The velocity and temperature profiles, friction factor, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number at different Reynolds numbers in the entrance region for both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes are reported under different thermal boundary conditions. The results show that the effect of the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid on hydraulic and thermal parameters for the turbulent flow is not very significant, while the rate of heat transfer for the laminar flow with nanoparticles is greater than that of the base liquid. Furthermore, the thermal boundary layer and consequently the Nusselt number more quickly reach their fully developed values by increasing the percentage of nanoparticles in the base fluid for the laminar flow regime, while no changes in the trend are observed for the turbulent flow.

Ziaei-Rad, Masoud

2013-07-01

441

Mixing with herringbone-inspired microstructures: overcoming the diffusion limit in co-laminar microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

Enhancing mixing is of uttermost importance in many laminar microfluidic devices, aiming at overcoming the severe performance limitation of species transport by diffusion alone. Here we focus on the significant category of microscale co-laminar flows encountered in membraneless redox flow cells for power delivery. The grand challenge is to achieve simultaneously convective mixing within each individual reactant, to thin the reaction depletion boundary layers, while maintaining separation of the co-flowing reactants, despite the absence of a membrane. The concept presented here achieves this goal with the help of optimized herringbone flow promoting microstructures with an integrated separation zone. Our electrochemical experiments using a model redox couple show that symmetric flow promoter designs exhibit laminar to turbulent flow behavior, the latter at elevated flow rates. This change in flow regime is accompanied by a significant change in scaling of the Sherwood number with respect to the Reynolds number from Sh ~ Re(0.29) to Sh ~ Re(0.58). The stabilized continuous laminar flow zone along the centerline of the channel allows operation in a co-laminar flow regime up to Re ~325 as we demonstrate by micro laser-induced fluorescence (?LIF) measurements. Micro particle image velocimetry (?PIV) proves the maintenance of a stratified flow along the centerline, mitigating reactant cross-over effectively. The present work paves the way toward improved performance in membraneless microfluidic flow cells for electrochemical energy conversion. PMID:25737365

Marschewski, Julian; Jung, Stefan; Ruch, Patrick; Prasad, Nishant; Mazzotti, Sergio; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

2015-03-31

442

A History of Suction-Type Laminar Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar-flow control is an area of aeronautical research that has a long history at NASA's Langley Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Center, their predecessor organizations, and elsewhere. In this monograph, the author, who spent much of his career at Langley working with this research, presents a history of that portion of laminar-flow technology known as active laminar-flow control, which employs suction of a small quantity of air through airplane surfaces. This important technique offers the potential for significant reduction in drag and, thereby, for large increases in range or reductions in fuel usage for aircraft. For transport aircraft, the reductions in fuel consumed as a result of laminar-flow control may equal 30 percent of present consumption. Given such potential, it is obvious that active laminar-flow control with suction is an important technology. In this study, the author covers the early history of the subject and brings the story all the way to the mid-1990s with an emphasis on flight research, much of which has occurred at Dryden. This is an important monograph that not only encapsulates a lot of history in a brief compass but also does so in language that is accessible to non-technical readers. NASA is publishing it in a format that will enable it to reach the wide audience the subject deserves.

Braslow, Albert L.

1999-01-01

443

Laminar distribution and co-distribution of neurotransmitter receptors in early human visual cortex.  

PubMed

The laminar distributions of 16 neurotransmitter receptor binding sites were analysed in visual cortical areas V1-V3 by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. For each receptor (glutamatergic: AMPA, kainate, NMDA; cholinergic: M1, M2, M3, nicotinic; GABAergic: GABAA, GABAB, benzodiazepine binding-sites; adrenergic: alpha1, alpha2; serotoninergic: 5-HT1A, 5-HT2; dopaminergic: D1; Adenosine: A1), density profiles extracted perpendicular to the cortical surface were compared to cyto- and myeloarchitectonic profiles sampled at corresponding cortical sites. When testing for differences in laminar distribution patterns, all receptor-density profiles differed significantly from the cyto- and myeloarchitectonic ones. These results indicate that receptor distribution is an independent feature of the cortical architecture not predictable by densities of cell bodies or myelinated fibres. Receptor co-distribution was studied by cluster analyses, revealing several groups of receptors, which showed similar laminar distribution patterns across all analysed areas (V1-V3). Other receptors were co-distributed in extrastriate but not primary visual cortex. Finally, some receptors were not co-distributed with any of the analysed other ones. A comparison of the laminar patterns of receptor binding sites in the human visual cortex with those reported for non-human primates and other mammals showed that the laminar distributions of cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors seem largely preserved, while serotoninergic and adrenergic receptors appear to be more variable between different species. PMID:17828418

Eickhoff, Simon B; Rottschy, Claudia; Zilles, Karl

2007-12-01

444

Turbojet-exhaust-nozzle secondary-airflow pumping as an exit control of an inlet-stability bypass system for a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet. [Lewis 10- by 10-ft. supersonic wind tunnel test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet that was attached to a turbojet engine was fitted with large, porous bleed areas to provide a stability bypass system that would allow a large, stable airflow range. Exhaust-nozzle, secondary-airflow pumping was used as the exit control for the stability bypass airflow. Propulsion system response and stability bypass performance were obtained for several transient airflow disturbances, both internal and external. Internal airflow disturbances included reductions in overboard bypass airflow, power lever angle, and primary-nozzle area, as well as compressor stall. Nozzle secondary pumping as a stability bypass exit control can provide the inlet with a large stability margin with no adverse effects on propulsion system performance.

Sanders, B. W.

1980-01-01

445

Comprehensive assessment of meteorological conditions and airflow connectivity during HCCT-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the meteorological conditions and atmospheric flow during the Lagrangian-type "Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010" experiment (HCCT-2010), which was performed in September and October 2010 at Mt. Schmücke in the Thuringian Forest, Germany and which used observations at three measurement sites (upwind, in-cloud, and downwind) to study physical and chemical aerosol-cloud interactions. A Lagrangian-type hill cap cloud experiment requires not only suitable cloud conditions but also connected airflow conditions (i.e. representative air masses at the different measurement sites). The primary goal of the present study was to identify time periods during the 6-week duration of the experiment in which these conditions were fulfilled and therefore which are suitable for use in further data examinations. The following topics were studied in detail: (i) the general synoptic weather situations, including the mesoscale flow conditions, (ii) local meteorological conditions and (iii) local flow conditions. The latter were investigated by means of statistical analyses using best-available quasi-inert tracers, SF6 tracer experiments in the experiment area, and regional modelling. This study represents the first application of comprehensive analyses using statistical measures such as the coefficient of divergence (COD) and the cross-correlation in the context of a Lagrangian-type hill cap cloud experiment. This comprehensive examination of local flow connectivity yielded a total of 14 full-cloud events (FCEs), which are defined as periods during which all connected flow and cloud criteria for a suitable Lagrangian-type experiment were fulfilled, and 15 non-cloud events (NCEs), which are defined as periods with connected flow but no cloud at the summit site, and which can be used as reference cases. The overall evaluation of the identified FCEs provides the basis for subsequent investigations of the measured chemical and physical data during HCCT-2010 (see http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue287.html). Results obtained from the statistical flow analyses and regional-scale modelling performed in this study indicate the existence of a strong link between the three measurement sites during the FCEs and NCEs, particularly under conditions of constant southwesterly flow, high wind speeds and slightly stable stratification. COD analyses performed using continuous measurements of ozone and particle (49 nm diameter size bin) concentrations at the three sites revealed, particularly for COD values < 0.1, very consistent time series (i.e. close links between air masses at the different sites). The regional-scale model simulations provided support for the findings of the other flow condition analyses. Cross-correlation analyses revealed typical overflow times of ~15-30 min between the upwind and downwind valley sites under connected flow conditions. The results described here, together with those obtained from the SF6 tracer experiments performed during the experiment, clearly demonstrate that (a) under appropriate meteorological conditions a Lagrangian-type approach is valid and (b) the connected flow validation procedure developed in this work is suitable for identifying such conditions. Overall, it is anticipated that the methods and tools developed and applied in the present study will prove useful in the identification of suitable meteorological and connected airflow conditions during future Lagrangian-type hill cap cloud experiments.

Tilgner, A.; Schöne, L.; Bräuer, P.; van Pinxteren, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Spindler, G.; Styler, S. A.; Mertes, S.; Birmili, W.; Otto, R.; Merkel, M.; Weinhold, K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Deneke, H.; Schrödner, R.; Wolke, R.; Schneider, J.; Haunold, W.; Engel, A.; Wéber, A.; Herrmann, H.

2014-09-01

446

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome-related symptoms and their relation to airflow limitation in an elderly population receiving home care  

PubMed Central

Background Both airflow limitation and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS)-related symptoms are most prevalent in the elderly population. Previous studies revealed significant associations between OSAHS-related symptoms and obstructive airway diseases in the general population. However, other studies showed that the frequency of OSAHS-related symptoms in patients with obstructive airway diseases decreases after the age of 60 and older. Aims To investigate the prevalence of OSAHS-related symptoms (snoring, breathing pauses, and excessive daytime sleepiness [EDS]) and their relations to airflow limitation, for people over 65 years old. Methods A full screening spirometry program was performed in a total of 490 aging participants (mean age 77.5 years – range 65–98) who were attending 16 home care settings in central Greece. Airflow limitation was assessed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria (FEV1/FVC <70%). The Berlin Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were used to screen individuals for OSAHS-related symptoms. Bivariate associations were described using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Airflow limitation prevalence was 17.1% (male 24.2% and female 9.9%) and was strongly related to male gender and smoking status. The prevalence rates of frequent snoring, breathing pauses, and EDS were 28.1%, 12.9%, and 11.6%, respectively. However, participants with airflow limitation were less likely to report breathing pauses, frequent snoring, EDS, and obesity. Finally, frequent snoring was significantly more common in males than females. Conclusion This study revealed decreased frequency of OSAHS-related symptoms in participants with airflow limitation suggesting that OSAHS-related symptoms and airflow limitation are not related in our elderly population. PMID:25336942

Kleisiaris, Christos F; Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Daniil, Zoe; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Papaioannou, Agelos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

2014-01-01

447

Modelling the dynamics of expiratory airflow to describe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by expiratory airflow limitation, but current diagnostic criteria only consider flow till the first second and are therefore strongly debated. We aimed to develop a data-based individualized model for flow decline and to explore the relationship between model parameters and COPD presence. A second-order transfer function model was chosen and the model parameters (namely the two poles and the steady state gain (SSG)) from 474 individuals were correlated with COPD presence. The capability of the model to predict disease presence was explored using 5 machine learning classifiers and tenfold cross-validation. Median (95% CI) poles in subjects without disease were 0.9868 (0.9858-0.9878) and 0.9333 (0.9256-0.9395), compared with 0.9929 (0.9925-0.9933) and 0.9082 (0.9004-0.9140) in subjects with COPD (p < 0.001 for both poles). A significant difference was also found when analysing the SSG, being lower in COPD group 3.8 (3.5-4.2) compared with 8.2 (7.8-8.7) in subjects without (p < 0.0001). A combination of all three parameters in a support vector machines corresponded with highest sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 98.1% and accuracy of 88.2% to COPD diagnosis. The forced expiration of COPD can be modelled by a second-order system which parameters identify most COPD cases. Our approach offers an additional tool in case FEV1/FVC ratio-based diagnosis is doubted. PMID:25266260

Topalovic, Marko; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Decramer, Marc; Troosters, Thierry; Berckmans, Daniel; Janssens, Wim

2014-12-01