Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.
1987-01-01
Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thiede, P.
1978-01-01
The transition of the laminar boundary layer into the turbulent state, which results in an increased drag, can be avoided by sucking of the boundary layer particles near the wall. The technically-interesting case of sucking the particles using individual slits is investigated for bodies of revolution in incompressible flow. The results of the variational calculations show that there is an optimum suction height, where the slot separations are maximum. Combined with favorable shaping of the body, it is possible to keep the boundary layer over bodies of revolution laminar at high Reynolds numbers using relatively few suction slits and small amounts of suction flow.
Cochran, R.J.
1992-01-01
A study of the finite element method applied to two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer is performed using a mixed Galerkin finite element method with the primitive variable form of the model equations. Four biquadratic, quadrilateral elements are compared in this study--the serendipity biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2(8)-Q1) and the Lagrangian biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2-Q1) of the Taylor-Hood form. A modified form of the Q2-Q1 element is also studied. The pressure interpolation is augmented by a discontinuous constant shape function for pressure (Q2-Q1+). The discontinuous pressure element formulation makes use of biquadratic shape functions and a discontinuous linear interpolation of the pressure (Q2-P1(3)). Laminar flow solutions, with heat transfer, are compared to analytical and computational benchmarks for flat channel, backward-facing step and buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity. It is shown that the discontinuous pressure elements provide superior solution characteristics over the continuous pressure elements. Highly accurate heat transfer solutions are obtained and the Q2-P1(3) element is chosen for extension to turbulent flow simulations. Turbulent flow solutions are presented for both low turbulence Reynolds number and high Reynolds number formulations of two-equation turbulence models. The following three forms of the length scale transport equation are studied; the turbulence energy dissipation rate ([var epsilon]), the turbulence frequency ([omega]) and the turbulence time scale (tau). It is shown that the low turbulence Reynolds number model consisting of the K - [tau] transport equations, coupled with the damping functions of Shih and Hsu, provides an optimal combination of numerical stability and solution accuracy for the flat channel flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochran, Robert James
A study of the finite element method applied to two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer is performed using a mixed Galerkin finite element method with the primitive variable form of the model equations. Four biquadratic, quadrilateral elements are compared in this study--the serendipity biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2(8)-Q1) and the Lagrangian biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2-Q1) of the Taylor-Hood form. A modified form of the Q-2Q1 element is also studied. The pressure interpolation is augmented by a discontinuous constant shape function for pressure (Q2-Q1+). The discontinuous pressure element formulation makes use of biquadratic shape functions and a discontinuous linear interpolation of the pressure (Q2-P1(3)). Laminar flow solutions, with heat transfer, are compared to analytical and computational benchmarks for flat channel, backward-facing step and buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity. It is shown that the discontinuous pressure elements provide superior solution characteristics over the continuous pressure elements. Highly accurate heat transfer solutions are obtained and the Q2-P1(3) element is chosen for extension to turbulent flow simulations. Turbulent flow solutions are presented for both low turbulence Reynolds number and high Reynolds number formulations of two equation turbulence models. The following three forms of the length scale transport equation are studied: the turbulence energy dissipation rate (epsilon), the turbulence frequency (omega) and the turbulence time scale (tau). It is shown that the low turbulence Reynolds number model consisting of the k-tau transport equations, coupled with the damping functions of Shih and Hsu, provides an optimal combination of numerical stability and solution accuracy for the flat channel flow. Attempts to extend the formulation beyond the flat channel were not successful due to oscillatory
Incompressible laminar flow through hollow fibers: a general study by means of a two-scale approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsi, Iacopo; Farina, Angiolo; Fasano, Antonio
2011-08-01
We study the laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a hollow fiber, whose walls are porous. We write the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the inner channel and Darcy's law for the flow in the fiber, coupling them by means of the Beavers-Joseph condition which accounts for the (possible) slip at the membrane surface. Then, we introduce a small parameter {\\varepsilon ≪ 1} (the ratio between the radius and the length of the fiber) and expand all relevant quantities in powers of ɛ. Averaging over the fiber cross section, we find the velocity profiles for the longitudinal flow and for the cross-flow, and eventually, we determine the explicit expression of the permeability of the system. This work is also preliminary to the study of more complex systems comprising a large number of identical fibers (e.g., ultrafiltration modules and dialysis).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, Arthur G.
1958-01-01
Analysis is presented on the possible similarity solutions of the three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, boundary-layer equations referred to orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate systems. Requirements of the existence of similarity solutions are obtained for the following: flow over developable surface and flow over non-developable surfaces with proportional mainstream velocity components.
Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)
1986-01-01
Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, David F.
1992-10-01
The major thrust of this book is to present a technique of analysis that aids the formulation, understanding, and solution of problems of viscous flow. The intent is to avoid providing a "canned" program to solve a problem, offering instead a way to recognize the underlying physical, mathematical, and modeling concepts inherent in the solutions. The reader must first choose a mathematical model and derive governing equations based on realistic assumptions, or become aware of the limitations and assumptions associated with existing models. An appropriate solution technique is then selected. The solution technique may be either analytical or numerical. Computer-aided analysis algorithms supplement the classical analyses. The book begins by deriving the Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous compressible variable property fluid. The second chapter considers exact solutions of the incompressible hydrodynamic boundary layer equations solved with and without mass transfer at the wall. Forced convection, free convection, and the compressible laminar boundary layer are discussed in the remaining chapters. The text unifies the various topics by tracing a logical progression from simple to complex governing differential equations and boundary conditions. Numerical, parametric, and directed analysis problems are included at the end of each chapter.
Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-02-01
NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, Ronald D.
1998-01-01
Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.
Unified approach for incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Tyne-Hsien
1995-01-01
A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.
Unified approach for incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Tyne-Hsien
1993-01-01
An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.
Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.
Computation of viscous incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
1989-01-01
Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.
Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helenbrook, B. T.
2010-01-01
The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models
Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.
1996-01-01
The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; Effects of a conducted-vs-pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.
Flight experiences with laminar flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.
1986-01-01
A review of natural laminar flow (NLF) flight experiences over the period from the 1930's to the present has been given to provide information on the achievability and maintainability of NLF in typical airplane operating environments. Significant effects of loss of laminar flow on airplane performance have been observed for several airplanes, indicating the importance of providing information on these changes to laminar flow airplane operators. Significant changes in airplane stability and control and maximum lift were observed in flight experiments with the loss of laminar flow. However, these effects can be avoided by proper selection of airfoils. Conservative laminar flow airfoil designs should be employed which do not experience significant loss of lift (caused by flow separation) upon the loss of laminar flow. Mechanisms have been observed for the effects of insect accumulation, flight through clouds and precipitation, and propeller slipstreams on laminar flow behavior. Fixed transition testing, in addition to free transition testing, is recommended as a new standard procedure for airplanes with surfaces designed to support laminar flow.
Laminar flow in a recess of a hydrostatic bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
San Andres, Luis A.; Velthuis, Johannes F. M.
1992-01-01
The flow in a recess of a hydrostatic journal bearing is studied in detail. The Navier-Stokes equations for the laminar flow of an incompressible liquid are solved numerically in a two-dimensional plane of a typical bearing recess. Pressure- and shear-induced flows, as well as a combination of these two flow conditions, are analyzed. Recess friction, pressure-ram effects at discontinuities in the flow region, and film entrance pressure loss effects are calculated. Entrance pressure loss coefficients over a forward-facing step are presented as functions of the mean flow Reynolds number for pure-pressure and shear-induced laminar flows.
Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lo, C. F.; Wiberg, Clark G.
1996-01-01
The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques are developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique are studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; (3) Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; (4) Effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and (5) Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.
Overview of Laminar Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, Ronald D.
1998-01-01
The history of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) from the 1930s through the 1990s is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Early studies related to the natural laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. Although most of this publication is about slot-, porous-, and perforated-suction LFC concept studies in wind tunnel and flight experiments, some mention is made of thermal LFC. Theoretical and computational tools to describe the LFC aerodynamics are included for completeness.
Computational Challenges of Viscous Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Kim, Chang Sung
2004-01-01
Over the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discipline. Although incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to the rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low-speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient CFD took become increasingly important in fluid engineering for incompressible and low-speed flow. This paper reviews some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discusses some of the current challenges faced in computing incompressible flows.
Laminar flow control is maturing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Richard D.; Bartlett, Dennis W.; Maddalon, Dal V.
1988-01-01
Recent research demonstrates that laminar flow (LF) can be reliable in flight and that the support system need not be complex. Shaping produces favorable pressure gradients for maintaining natural laminar flow (NLF), and laminar flow control (LFC) techniques such as full chord suction promise a fuel-saving payoff of up to 30 percent on long-range missions. For large aircraft, current research is concentrated on hybrid LFC concepts which combine suction and pressure-gradient control. At NASA Ames, an F-14 with variable wing sweep has been flight tested with smooth surface gloves on the wings; preliminary results indicate high transition Reynolds numbers to sweep angles as large as 25 deg. In addition, a 757 was flight tested with an NLF glove on the right wing just outboard of the engine pylon; and the LF was found to be suprisingly robust.
Hybrid laminar flow control study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in which leading edge suction is used in conjunction with wing pressure distribution tailoring to postpone boundary layer transition and reduce friction drag was examined. Airfoil design characteristics required for laminar flow control (LFC) were determined. The aerodynamic design of the HLFC wing for a 178 passenger commercial turbofan transport was developed, and a drag was estimated. Systems changes required to install HLFC were defined, and weights and fuel economy were estimated. The potential for 9% fuel reduction for a 3926-km (2120-nmi) mission is identified.
Supersonic laminar-flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1987-01-01
Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.
Successes and Challenges of Incompressible Flow Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2003-01-01
During the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of CFD discipline. Even though incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient, CFD tools become indispensable in fluid engineering for incompressible and low speed flow. This paper is intended to review some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discuss some of the current challenges.
Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, R. D.
1986-01-01
The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.
Laminar flow: Challenge and potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirchner, Mark E.
1987-01-01
Commercial air transportation has experienced revolutionary technology advances since WWII. These technology advances have resulted in an explosive growth in passenger traffic. Today, however, many technologies have matured, and maintaining a similar growth rate will be a challenge. A brief history of laminar flow technology and its application to subsonic and supersonic air transportation is presented.
Laminar-flow flight experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.
1989-01-01
The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.
Radiative interactions in laminar duct flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trivedi, P. A.; Tiwari, S. N.
1990-01-01
Analyses and numerical procedures are presented for infrared radiative energy transfer in gases when other modes of energy transfer occur simultaneously. Two types of geometries are considered, a parallel plate duct and a circular duct. Fully developed laminar incompressible flows of absorbing-emitting species in black surfaced ducts are considered under the conditions of uniform wall heat flux. The participating species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O. Nongray as well as gray formulations are developed for both geometries. Appropriate limiting solutions of the governing equations are obtained and conduction-radiation interaction parameters are evaluated. Tien and Lowder's wide band model correlation was used in nongray formulation. Numerical procedures are presented to solve the integro-differential equations for both geometries. The range of physical variables considered are 300 to 2000 K for temperature, 0.1 to 100.0 atm for pressure, and 0.1 to 100 cm spacings between plates/radius of the tube. An extensive parametric study based on nongray formulation is presented. Results obtained for different flow conditions indicate that the radiative interactions can be quite significant in fully developed incompressible flows.
Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows with Moving Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medale, Marc; Jaeger, Marc
1997-03-01
A numerical model has been developed for the 2D simulation of free surface flows or, more generally speaking, moving interface ones. The bulk fluids on both sides of the interface are taken into account in simulating the incompressible laminar flow state. In the case of heat transfer the whole system, i.e. walls as well as possible obstacles, is considered. This model is based on finite element analysis with an Eulerian approach and an unstructured fixed mesh. A special technique to localize the interface allows its temporal evolution through this mesh. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the model.
Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.
1986-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.
Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steers, L. L.
1981-01-01
A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows: Symmetry approach
Cicogna, G.; Pegoraro, F.
2015-02-15
We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and, in particular, a special type of “weak” symmetries.
Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Water
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.
2010-01-01
There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between…
Laminar Motion of the Incompressible Fluids in Self-Acting Thrust Bearings with Spiral Grooves
Velescu, Cornel; Popa, Nicolae Calin
2014-01-01
We analyze the laminar motion of incompressible fluids in self-acting thrust bearings with spiral grooves with inner or external pumping. The purpose of the study is to find some mathematical relations useful to approach the theoretical functionality of these bearings having magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids, in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. This theoretical study approaches the permanent motion regime. To validate the theoretical results, we compare them to some experimental results presented in previous papers. The laminar motion of incompressible fluids in bearings is described by the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics. We developed and particularized these equations by taking into consideration the geometrical and functional characteristics of these hydrodynamic bearings. Through the integration of the differential equation, we determined the pressure and speed distributions in bearings with length in the “pumping” direction. These pressure and speed distributions offer important information, both quantitative (concerning the bearing performances) and qualitative (evidence of the viscous-inertial effects, the fluid compressibility, etc.), for the laminar and permanent motion regime. PMID:24526896
Efficient solutions of two-dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, J. H.; Napolitano, M.
1986-01-01
A simple, efficient, and robust numerical technique is provided for solving two dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows at moderate to high Reynolds numbers. The proposed approach employs an incremental multigrid method and an extrapolation procedure based on minimum residual concepts to accelerate the convergence rate of a robust block-line-Gauss-Seidel solver for the vorticity-stream function Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for the driven cavity flow problem using uniform and nonuniform grids and for the flow past a backward facing step in a channel. For this second problem, mesh refinement and Richardson extrapolation are used to obtain useful benchmark solutions in the full range of Reynolds numbers at which steady laminar flow is established.
Computing Incompressible Flows With Free Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kothe, D.
1994-01-01
RIPPLE computer program models transient, two-dimensional flows of incompressible fluids with surface tension on free surfaces of general shape. Surface tension modeled as volume force derived from continuum-surface-force model, giving RIPPLE both robustness and accuracy in modeling surface-tension effects at free surface. Also models wall adhesion effects. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis
Kuiroukidis, Ap E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr
2015-08-15
We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.
Maximal mixing by incompressible fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seis, Christian
2013-12-01
We consider a model for mixing binary viscous fluids under an incompressible flow. We prove the impossibility of perfect mixing in finite time for flows with finite viscous dissipation. As measures of mixedness we consider a Monge-Kantorovich-Rubinstein transportation distance and, more classically, the H-1 norm. We derive rigorous a priori lower bounds on these mixing norms which show that mixing cannot proceed faster than exponentially in time. The rate of the exponential decay is uniform in the initial data.
Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.
1989-01-01
Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.
High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2001-01-01
The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.
Laminar and turbulent flow in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.
2010-05-01
There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between turbulent and laminar flow, and let, in an accessible way, data be taken to analyse the conditions under which both flows are present. We found research articles about turbulence measurements, using sophisticated equipment, but they do not use the perturbation of the free surface of the flowing liquid to show or measure the turbulence.
Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
Part 3 of the Symposium proceedings contains papers addressing advanced airfoil development, flight research experiments, and supersonic transition/laminar flow control research. Specific topics include the design and testing of natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils, NLF wing gloves, and NLF nacelles; laminar boundary-layer stability over fuselage forebodies; the design of low noise supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels; and boundary layer instability mechanisms on swept leading edges at supersonic speeds.
Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.
Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.
1959-01-01
Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.
1991-01-01
A swept supercritical wing incorporating laminar flow control at transonic flow conditions was designed and tested. The definition of an experimental suction coefficient and a derivation of the compressible and incompressible formulas for the computation of the coefficient from measurable quantities is presented. The suction flow coefficient in the highest velocity nozzles is shown to be overpredicted by as much as 12 percent through the use of an incompressible formula. However, the overprediction on the computed value of suction drag when some of the suction nozzles were operating in the compressible flow regime is evaluated and found to be at most 6 percent at design conditions.
Conditions for laminar flow in geophysical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiedler, Brian H.
1989-01-01
The sufficient condition for inviscid, helical instability at large wavenumbers is applied to solutions for columnar vortices arising from the vortical flow of an end-wall boundary layer. The end-wall vortex arising from the laminar boundary layer under a potential vortex will be unstable at sufficiently high Reynolds number. Hoewever, if the end-wall boundary layer is turbulent, the end-wall vortex can be stable and laminar even at very high Reynolds number; therefore, stable, laminar tornadoes and waterspouts are suggested as theoretical possibilities.
Continental Lower-crustal Flow: Channel Flow and Laminar Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LI, Dewei
Numerous geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations and finite element modeling indicate that crustal flow layers exist in the continental crust. Both channel flow model and laminar flow model have been created to explain the flow laws and flow mechanisms. As revealed by the channel flow model, a low-viscosity channel in middle to lower crust in orogen or plateau with thick crust and high elevation would flow outward from mountain root in response to lateral pressure gradient resulted from topographic loading or to denudation. However, according to the laminar flow model proposed based on investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, circulative movement of crustal lithologies with different rheological properties between basin and orogen would occur, under the driving forces resulted from dehydration and melting of subduction plate on active continental margin and from thermal energy related to upwelling and diapiring of intercontinental mantle plume or its gravitational interactions. Similarly, when driven by gravity, the softened or melted substances of the lower crust in a basin would flow laterally toward adjacent mountain root, which would result in a thinned basin crust and a thickened orogenic crust. Partially melted magma within the thickened orogenic lower crust would cause vertical movement of metamorphic rocks of lower to middle crust due to density inversion, and the vertical main stress induced by thermal underplating of lower crust would in turn lead to formation of metamorphic core complexes and low-angle detachment fault systems. Lateral spreading of uplifting mountain due to gravitation potential would result in thrust fault systems on the border between mountain and basin. Meanwhile, detritus produced synchronously by intense erosion of uplifting mountain would be transported and deposited along the marginal deep depression in the foreland basin dragged by lower crust flow. Channel flow is similar to laminar flow in a variety of aspects
Three-dimensional incompressible flow calculations with alternative discretization schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamamidis, Panos; Assanis, Dennis N.
1993-08-01
A finite-volume calculation procedure for steady, incompressible, elliptic flows in complex geometries is presented. The methodology uses generalized body-fitted coordinates to model the shape of the boundary accurately. All variables are stored at the centroids of the elements, thus achieving simplicity and low cost of computations. Turbulence is modeled by using the standard two-equation k-epsilon model. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance and accuracy of flow calculations under different discretization schemes in the light of experimental results. The discretization schemes that are incorporated in the code include the classical hybrid scheme, the third-order QUICK scheme, and a fifth-order upwind scheme. Benchmark tests are performed for laminar and turbulent flows in 90 deg curved ducts of square and circular cross sections. Flaw solutions obtained using the classical hybrid scheme are compared with solutions obtained with the higher-order schemes. The results show that accurate solutions can be efficiently obtained on grids of moderate size by using high-order-accuracy schemes. Overall, the potential of the methodology for calculating real-life engineering flows is demonstrated.
Supercomputing Aspects for Simulating Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kris, Cetin C.
2000-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbo-pump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the Message Passage Interface (MPI) and Multi Level Parallel (MLP) versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology, INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbo-pump simulations, moving boundary capability and efficient time-accurate integration methods are built in the flow solver, To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, an overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver so that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. Two numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are outlined for obtaining time-accurate solutions of the incompressible Navier
Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.
1996-01-01
An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.
Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.
1985-01-01
A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.
Adjoint operator approach to shape design for internal incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cabuk, H.; Sung, C.-H.; Modi, V.
1991-01-01
The problem of determining the profile of a channel or duct that provides the maximum static pressure rise is solved. Incompressible, laminar flow governed by the steady state Navier-Stokes equations is assumed. Recent advances in computational resources and algorithms have made it possible to solve the direct problem of determining such a flow through a body of known geometry. It is possible to obtain a set of adjoint equations, the solution to which permits the calculation of the direction and relative magnitude of change in the diffuser profile that leads to a higher pressure rise. The solution to the adjoint problem can be shown to represent an artificially constructed flow. This interpretation provides a means to construct numerical solutions to the adjoint equations that do not compromise the fully viscous nature of the problem. The algorithmic and computational aspects of solving the adjoint equations are addressed. The form of these set of equations is similar but not identical to the Navier-Stokes equations. In particular some issues related to boundary conditions and stability are discussed.
A vectorized solution for incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, N. R.; Thompson, J. F.
1984-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain solutions to the unsteady Reynolds-averaged incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates on a vector processor. The governing equations are in nonconservative form with the velocity and pressure as dependent variables. Two momentum equations and the Poisson equation for pressure form a set of three governing equations for three flow field unknowns: u, v, and p. The governing equations and boundary conditions are expressed in terms of boundary-conforming curvilinear coordinates, and a checkerboard SOR iteration is used to solve the governing equations. Several possible sequences for a checkerboard SOR iteration are investigated for finding the best overall convergence rate. The efficiency and capability of the present algorithm was assessed using the example of an 18 percent thick NACA 66(3)018 airfoil at zero degree angle of attack for chord Reynolds number range 1000-40,000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, C.; Habashi, W. G.; Hafez, M. M.
The conference presents papers on laminar and turbulent flow, flow with separation, vortex-dominated flow, viscous and inviscid interaction, low- and high-speed aerodynamics, transonic and supersonic flow, grid generation and adaptive grids, non-Newtonian and electromagnetic flows, natural and forced convection, wave propagation and meteorology, compressible flow, flow with heat transfer, turbomachinery, and general applications. Particular attention is given to improved numerical codes for solving three-dimensional unsteady flows, finite-element methods for a Ladyzhenskaya model of incompressible viscous flow, and a finite-element method for vorticity formulations of incompressible viscous flow. Other topics include an efficient nonlinear multigrid procedure for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, a finite difference scheme for three-dimensional steady laminar incompressible flow, and computation of turbulent channel flow using a large-eddy interaction model.
Pulsating laminar fully developed channel and pipe flows.
Haddad, Kais; Ertunç, Ozgür; Mishra, Manoranjan; Delgado, Antonio
2010-01-01
Analytical investigations are carried out on pulsating laminar incompressible fully developed channel and pipe flows. An analytical solution of the velocity profile for arbitrary time-periodic pulsations is derived by approximating the pulsating flow variables by a Fourier series. The explicit interdependence between pulsations of velocity, mass-flow rate, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress are shown by using the proper dimensionless parameters that govern the flow. Utilizing the analytical results, the scaling laws for dimensionless pulsation amplitudes of the velocity, mass-flow rate, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress are analyzed as functions of the dimensionless pulsation frequency. Special attention has been given to the scaling laws describing the flow reversal phenomenon occurring in pulsating flows, such as the condition for flow reversal, the dependency of the reversal duration, and the amplitude. It is shown that two reversal locations away from the wall can occur in pulsating flows in pipes and channels and the reversed amount of mass per period reaches a maximum at a certain dimensionless frequency for a given amplitude of mass-flow rate fluctuations. These analyses are numerically conducted for pipe and channel flows over a large frequency range in a comparative manner. PMID:20365456
Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2014-02-01
The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.
Research in natural laminar flow and laminar-flow control, part 1
Hefner, J.N.; Sabo, F.E.
1987-12-01
Since the mid 1970's, NASA, industry, and universities have worked together to conduct important research focused at developing laminar flow technology that could reduce fuel consumption for general aviation, commuter, and transport aircraft by as much as 40 to 50 percent. The symposium was planned in view of the recent accomplishments within the areas of laminar flow control and natural laminar flow, and the potential benefits of laminar flow technology to the civil and military aircraft communities in the United States. Included were technical sessions on advanced theory and design tool development; wind tunnel and flight research; transition measurement and detection techniques; low and high Reynolds number research; and subsonic and supersonic research.
Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
Since the mid 1970's, NASA, industry, and universities have worked together to conduct important research focused at developing laminar flow technology that could reduce fuel consumption for general aviation, commuter, and transport aircraft by as much as 40 to 50 percent. The symposium was planned in view of the recent accomplishments within the areas of laminar flow control and natural laminar flow, and the potential benefits of laminar flow technology to the civil and military aircraft communities in the United States. Included were technical sessions on advanced theory and design tool development; wind tunnel and flight research; transition measurement and detection techniques; low and high Reynolds number research; and subsonic and supersonic research.
AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...
HELENA code with incompressible parallel plasma flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Throumoulopoulos, George; Poulipoulis, George; Konz, Christian; EFDA ITM-TF Team
2015-11-01
It has been established that plasma rotation in connection to both zonal and equilibrium flow can play a role in the transitions to the advanced confinement regimes in tokamaks, as the L-H transition and the formation of Internal Transport Barriers. For incompressible rotation the equilibrium is governed by a generalized Grad-Shafranov (GGS) equation and a decoupled Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure. For parallel flow the GGS equation can be transformed to one identical in form with the usual Grad-Shafranov equation. In the present study on the basis of the latter equation we have extended HELENA, an equilibrium fixed boundary solver integrated in the ITM-TF modeling infrastructure. The extended code solves the GGS equation for a variety of the two free-surface-function terms involved for arbitrary Afvén Mach functions. We have constructed diverted-boundary equilibria pertinent to ITER and examined their characteristics, in particular as concerns the impact of rotation. It turns out that the rotation affects noticeably the pressure and toroidal current density with the impact on the current density being stronger in the parallel direction than in the toroidal one. Also, the linear stability of the equilibria constructed is examined This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfuion Consortium and has received funding from the National Programme for the Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, Hellenic Republic.
Laminar Flow in the Ocean Ekman Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, J. T. H.
INTRODUCTION THE EFFECT OF A STABLE DENSITY GRADIENT THE FATAL FLAW FLOW VISUALIZATION THE DISCOVERY OF LAMINAR FLOW FINE STRUCTURE WAVE-INDUCED SHEAR INSTABILITY BILLOW TURBULENCE REVERSE TRANSITION REVISED PARADIGM ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF THE UPPER OCEAN DIURNAL VARIATION BUOYANT CONVECTION BILLOW TURBULENCE IN THE DIURNAL THERMOCLINE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE EKMAN CURRENT PROFILE SOLAR RADIATION APPLICATIONS Slippery Seas of Acapulco Pollution Afternoon Effect in Sonar Patchiness Fisheries Climate DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES
Design method for the flow field and drag of bodies of revolution in incompressible flow
Wolfe, W.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1982-01-01
A design method has been developed for determining the flow field, pressure distribution, boundary layer separation point, and drag of bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack in incompressible flow. The approach taken is the classical coupling of potential and boundary solutions to obtain the flow field about the body. The potential solution is obtained by modeling the body with an axial distribution of source/sink elements whose strengths vary linearly along their length. The laminar and turbulent boundary layer solutions are obtained from conventional solutions of the momentum integral equation. An approximate method is used to estimate the boundary layer transition point on the body. An empirical base pressure correlation is used to determine the base drag. Body surface pressure distributions and drag predictions are compared with experimental measurements.
Laminar flow instability in nuclear rockets
Black, D.L. )
1993-01-20
Laminar flow instability (LFI) is a rarely encountered phenomenon, occurring in gaseous heated channels with high exit-to-inlet temperature ratios and a laminar Reynolds Number at the channel exit, as may be experienced in a nuclear rocket. Analytical techniques were developed and programmed for parametric evaluation that had been previously validated by comparison with available experimental data. The four types of transients associated with LFI are described in terms of the governing equations. Parametric evaluations of solid core prismatic and particle bed fuel configurations were made to determine their sensitivities to LFI from temperature ratio, flow rate, orificing, transition Reynolds Number, pressure level, presence of an exit sonic nozzle, power density and heat flux shape. The flow rate at the point of neutral stability and the growth rate of the excursive transient are calculated. The full power design point and the cooldown phases of operation were both evaluated.
Acoustic waves superimposed on incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodge, Steve
1990-01-01
The use of incompressible approximations in deriving solutions to the Lighthill wave equation was investigated for problems where an analytical solution could be found. A particular model problem involves the determination of the sound field of a spherical oscillating bubble in an ideal fluid. It is found that use of incompressible boundary conditions leads to good approximations in the important region of high acoustic wave number.
Smoothed Two-Dimensional Edges for Laminar Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.; Liu, C. H.; Martin, G. L.; Domack, C. S.; Obara, C. J.; Hassan, A.; Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.
1986-01-01
New concept allows passive method for installing flaps, slats, iceprotection equipment, and other leading-edge devices on natural-laminar-flow (NLF) wings without causing loss of laminar flow. Two-dimensional roughness elements in laminar boundary layers strategically shaped to increase critical (allowable) height of roughness. Facilitates installation of leading-edge devices by practical manufacturing methods.
Numerical simulation of laminar flow in a curved duct
Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1995-01-01
This paper describes numerical simulations that were performed to study laminar flow through a square duct with a 900 bend. The purpose of this work was two fold. First, an improved understanding was desired of the flow physics involved in the generation of secondary vortical flows in three-dimensions. Second, adaptive gridding techniques for structured grids in three- dimensions were investigated for the purpose of determining their utility in low Reynolds number, incompressible flows. It was also of interest to validate the commercial computer code CFD-ACE. Velocity predictions for both non-adaptive and adaptive grids are compared with experimental data. Flow visualization was used to examine the characteristics of the flow though the curved duct in order to better understand the viscous flow physics of this problem. Generally, moderate agreement with the experimental data was found but shortcomings in the experiment were demonstrated. The adaptive grids did not produce the same level of accuracy as the non-adaptive grid with a factor of four more grid points.
Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.
1986-01-01
The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.
Natural laminar flow hits smoother air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.
1985-01-01
Natural laminar flow (NLF) may be attained in aircraft with lower cost, weight, and maintenance penalties than active flow laminarization by means of a slot suction system. A high performance general aviation jet aircraft possessing a moderate degree of NLF over wing, fuselage, empennage and engine nacelles will accrue a 24 percent reduction in total aircraft drag in the cruise regime. NASA-Langley has conducted NLF research centered on the use of novel airfoil profiles as well as composite and milled aluminum alloy construction methods which minimize three-dimensional aerodynamic surface roughness and waviness. It is noted that higher flight altitudes intrinsically reduce unit Reynolds numbers, thereby minimizing turbulence for a given cruise speed.
Thermal laminarization of a stratified pipe flow
Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.
1984-01-01
The present work constitutes a new program that grew out of a scoping assessment by ANL to determine the propensity for pipe stratification to occur in the reactor outlet nozzles and hot-leg piping of a generic LMFBR during events producing reverse pipe flow. This paper focuses on the role that thermal buoyancy plays relative to being able to laminarize a turbulent stratified shear zone in a horizontal pipe. The preceeding can influence the behavior of a pipe stratified-backflow-recirculation zone (cold plenum water down into the hot pipe flow) which developes as the result of a temperature difference between the pipe flow and the plenum.
Potential flow and forces for incompressible viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chien-Cheng
1992-06-01
Forces on a finite body in an incompressible viscous flow are shown to be contributed by a potential flow and fluid elements of nonzero vorticity in a revealing formulation. The present study indicates that the potential flow pay also a geometric role in determining the contribution of the fluid elements. Consideration is given to a solid body moving through a fluid, fluid accelerating past a solid body and a solid body which oscillates in a uniform stream. The effects of induced-mass and inertial forces appear naturally in the formulation and are separated from the contribution due to the surface vorticity and that due to the vorticity within the flow. Physical significance of the present analysis for vortical flows about a finite body is illustrated by examples, e.g., flow past a circular cylinder or an ellipsoid of revolution.
Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow
Kashiwa, B.
1987-10-01
Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of kappa-epsilon modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy kappa, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation epsilon, for each material. Hence a set of kappa and epsilon equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both kappa and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a pipe.
Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.
General Equation Set Solver for Compressible and Incompressible Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.
2002-01-01
Turbomachines for propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. The flow may be incompressible, such as in the liquid hydrogen pump in a rocket engine, or supersonic, such as in the turbine which may drive the hydrogen pump. Separate codes have traditionally been used for incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The General Equation Set (GES) method can be used to solve both incompressible and compressible flows, and it is not restricted to perfect gases, as are many compressible-flow turbomachinery solvers. An unsteady GES turbomachinery flow solver has been developed and applied to both air and water flows through turbines. It has been shown to be an excellent alternative to maintaining two separate codes.
Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
Part 2 of the Symposium proceedings includes papers addressing various topics in basic wind tunnel research/techniques and computational transitional research. Specific topics include: advanced measurement techniques; laminar flow control; Tollmien-Schlichting wave characteristics; boundary layer transition; flow visualization; wind tunnel tests; flight tests; boundary layer equations; swept wings; and skin friction.
Subsonic natural-laminar-flow airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Somers, Dan M.
1992-01-01
An account is given of the development history of natural laminar-flow (NLF) airfoil profiles under guidance of an experimentally well-verified theoretical method for the design of airfoils suited to virtually all subcritical applications. This method, the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Program, contains a conformal-mapping method for airfoils having prescribed velocity-distribution characteristics, as well as a panel method for the analysis of potential flow about given airfoils and a boundary-layer method. Several of the NLF airfoils thus obtained are discussed.
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, J. L.; Heinrich, J. C.
1990-01-01
The calculation of pressures when the penalty-function approximation is used in finite-element solutions of laminar incompressible flows is addressed. A Poisson equation for the pressure is formulated that involves third derivatives of the velocity field. The second derivatives appearing in the weak formulation of the Poisson equation are calculated from the C0 velocity approximation using a least-squares method. The present scheme is shown to be efficient, free of spurious oscillations, and accurate. Examples of applications are given and compared with results obtained using mixed formulations.
Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.
1976-01-01
A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.
Flow/Soot-Formation Interactions in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dai, Z.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.
2002-01-01
This is the final report of a research program considering interactions between flow and soot properties within laminar diffusion flames. Laminar diffusion flames were considered because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for theoretical and experimental studies than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. In particular, understanding the transport and chemical reaction processes of laminar flames is a necessary precursor to understanding these processes in practical turbulent flames and many aspects of laminar diffusion flames have direct relevance to turbulent diffusion flames through application of the widely recognized laminar flamelet concept of turbulent diffusion flames. The investigation was divided into three phases, considering the shapes of nonbuoyant round laminar jet diffusion flames in still air, the shapes of nonbuoyant round laminar jet diffusion flames in coflowing air, and the hydrodynamic suppression of soot formation in laminar diffusion flames.
Flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueda, R.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.
2012-12-01
The behavior of interstitial fluid is one of major interest in earth sciences in terms of the exploitation of water resources, the initiation of earthquakes, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), etc. Seismic waves are often known to increase the flux of interstitial fluid but the relationship between the flux and propagating seismic waves have not been well investigated in the past, although seismic stimulation has been applied in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Many observations indicated that seismic waves could stimulate the oil production due to lowering of apparent viscosity coefficient, to the coalescence and/or the dispersion of droplets of a phase in multiphase fluids. However, the detailed mechanism of seismic stimulation has not been fully understood, either. In this study, We attempt to understand the mechanism of the flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition for the simulation of interstitial flow. Here, we analyze a monophase flow in a pore throat. We first assume a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of incompressible fluid through a pore-throat in a porous medium. We adopt the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in which the motion of fluid is simulated through the variation of velocity distribution function representing the distribution of discrete particle velocities. We use an improved incompressible LBKG model (d2q9i) proposed in Zou et. al. (1995) to accurately accommodate the boundary conditions of pressure and velocity in the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. We also use an half-way bounce back boundary condition as the velocity boundary condition. Also, we assume a uniform pressure (density) difference between inlet and outlet flow, and the density difference could initiate the flow in our simulation. The oscillating boundary condition is given by the body force acting on fluid particles. In this simulation, we found that the flux change is negligible under small amplitude of oscillation in both horizontal and vertical directions
Flight research on natural laminar flow applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.
1992-01-01
Natural laminar flow (NLF) is clearly one of the most potentially attractive drag reduction technologies by virtue of its relative simplicity. NLF is achieved passively, that is, by design of surface shapes to produce favorable pressure gradients. However, it is not without its challenges and limitations. This chapter describes the significant challenges to achieving and maintaining NLF and documents certain of the limitations for practical applications. A brief review of the history and of more recent NLF flight experiments is given, followed by a summary of lessons learned which are pertinent to future applications. The chapter also summarizes important progress in test techniques, particularly in flow visualization and hot-film techniques for boundary-layer measurements in flight.
Base pressure in laminar supersonic flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messiter, A. F.; Hough, G. R.; Feo, A.
1973-01-01
An asymptotic description is proposed for supersonic laminar flow over a wedge or a backward-facing step, for large Reynolds number and for a base or step height which is small compared with the boundary-layer length. The analysis is carried out for adiabatic wall conditions and a viscosity coefficient proportional to temperature. In a particular limit corresponding to a very thick boundary layer, a similarity law is obtained for the base pressure. For a thinner boundary layer an asymptotic form for the base pressure is obtained which shows the dependence on the parameters explicitly and which permits good agreement with experiment. This latter result is based on an inviscid-flow approximation for the corner expansion and for reattachment with viscous forces important primarily in a thin sublayer about the dividing streamline. A prediction of the pressure distribution at reattachment is given and the result is compared with experimental pressure distributions.
A monolithic mass tracking formulation for bubbles in incompressible flow
Aanjaneya, Mridul Patkar, Saket Fedkiw, Ronald
2013-08-15
We devise a novel method for treating bubbles in incompressible flow that relies on the conservative advection of bubble mass and an associated equation of state in order to determine pressure boundary conditions inside each bubble. We show that executing this algorithm in a traditional manner leads to stability issues similar to those seen for partitioned methods for solid–fluid coupling. Therefore, we reformulate the problem monolithically. This is accomplished by first proposing a new fully monolithic approach to coupling incompressible flow to fully nonlinear compressible flow including the effects of shocks and rarefactions, and then subsequently making a number of simplifying assumptions on the air flow removing not only the nonlinearities but also the spatial variations of both the density and the pressure. The resulting algorithm is quite robust, has been shown to converge to known solutions for test problems, and has been shown to be quite effective on more realistic problems including those with multiple bubbles, merging and pinching, etc. Notably, this approach departs from a standard two-phase incompressible flow model where the air flow preserves its volume despite potentially large forces and pressure differentials in the surrounding incompressible fluid that should change its volume. Our bubbles readily change volume according to an isothermal equation of state.
A new perturbation approach to the laminar fluid flow behind a two-dimensional solid body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kida, T.
1984-10-01
Asymptotic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow field in an incompressible laminar flow around an obstacle are obtained purely from integral representations and by means of matched asymptotic expansions. In the present approach, the principle of rapid decay is automatically satisfied. The approach has the advantage that the asymptotic solutions are obtained without using the integral theorem. It is shown that the Imai's approach is essentially the same as Chang's, and that these earlier approaches do not miss functions in an analysis.
Laminar flow control SPF/08 feasibility demonstration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ecklund, R. C.; Williams, N. R.
1981-01-01
The feasibility of applying superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) technology to laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts was demonstrated. Procedures were developed to produce smooth, flat titanium panels, using thin -0.016 inch sheets, meeting LFC surface smoothness requirements. Two large panels 28 x 28 inches were fabricated as final demonstration articles. The first was flat on the top and bottom sides demonstrating the capability of the tooling and the forming and diffusion bonding procedures to produce flat, defect free surfaces. The second panel was configurated for LFC porous panel treatment by forming channels with dimpled projections on the top side. The projections were machined away leaving holes extending into the panel. A perforated titanium sheet was adhesively bonded over this surface to complete the LFC demonstration panel. The final surface was considered flat enough to meet LFC requirements for a jet transport aircraft in cruising flight.
Toward a laminar-flow-control transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturgeon, R. F.
1978-01-01
Analyses were conducted to define a practical design for an advanced technology laminar flow control (LRC) transport for initial passenger operation in the early 1990's. Mission requirements, appropriate design criteria, and level of technology for the study aircraft were defined. The characteristics of the selected configuration were established, aircraft and LFC subsystems compatible with the mission requirements were defined, and the aircraft was evaluated in terms of fuel efficiency. A wing design integrating the LFC ducting and metering system into advanced composite wing structure was developed, manufacturing procedures for the surface panel design were established, and environmental and structural testing of surface panel components were conducted. Test results revealed a requirement for relatively minor changes in the manufacturing procedures employed, but have shown the general compatibility of both the selected design and the use of composite materials with the requirements of LFC wing surface panels.
Laminar flow control perforated wing panel development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischler, J. E.
1986-01-01
Many structural concepts for a wing leading edge laminar flow control hybrid panel were analytically investigated. After many small, medium, and large tests, the selected design was verified. New analytic methods were developed to combine porous titanium sheet bonded to a substructure of fiberglass and carbon/epoxy cloth. At -65 and +160 F test conditions, the critical bond of the porous titanium to the composite failed at lower than anticipated test loads. New cure cycles, design improvements, and test improvements significantly improved the strength and reduced the deflections from thermal and lateral loadings. The wave tolerance limits for turbulence were not exceeded. Consideration of the beam column midbay deflections from the combinations of the axial and lateral loadings and thermal bowing at -65 F, room temperature, and +160 F were included. Many lap shear tests were performed at several cure cycles. Results indicate that sufficient verification was obtained to fabricate a demonstration vehicle.
Minimal surfaces, incompressible flows and the geometric phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, J. C.
1995-02-01
We show that the Berry phase may be associated with an incompressible flow issuing through a minimal surface. An example based on the linear Jahn-Teller effect is given and found to be related to a Clifford torus rather than the usual magnetic monopole in S 3.
Characteristics of electrohydrodynamic roll structures in laminar planar Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourmatzis, Agisilaos; Shrimpton, John S.
2016-02-01
The behaviour of an incompressible dielectric liquid subjected to a laminar planar Couette flow with unipolar charge injection is investigated numerically in two dimensions. The computations show new morphological characteristics of roll structures that arise in this forced electro-convection problem. The charge and velocity magnitude distributions between the two parallel electrodes are discussed as a function of the top wall velocity and the EHD Rayleigh number, T for the case of strong charge injection. A wide enough parametric space is investigated such that the observed EHD roll structures progress through three regimes. These regimes are defined by the presence of a single or double-roll free convective structure as observed elsewhere (Vazquez et al 2008 J. Phys. D 41 175303), a sheared or stretched roll structure, and finally by a regime where the perpendicular velocity gradient is sufficient to prevent the generation of a roll. These three regimes have been delineated as a function of the wall to ionic drift velocity {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E , and the T number. In the stretched regime, an increase in {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E can reduce charge and momentum fluctuations whilst in parallel de-stratify charge in the region between the two electrodes. The stretched roll regime is also characterised by a substantial influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the steady development time, however in the traditional non-stretched roll structure regime, no influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the development time is noted.
Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.
Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland
2014-01-01
Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089
Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings
Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland
2014-01-01
Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration—similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089
Advanced stability theory analyses for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1980-01-01
Recent developments of the SALLY computer code for stability analysis of laminar flow control wings are summarized. Extensions of SALLY to study three dimensional compressible flows, nonparallel and nonlinear effects are discussed.
Incompressible and anelastic flow simulations on numerically generated grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharman, R. D.; Keller, T. L.; Wurtele, M. G.
1988-01-01
In the numerical simulation of incompressible and anelastic flows, it is necessary to solve an elliptic equation at each time step. When the boundaries of such flows are nonrectangular, it may be advantageous to solve the equations on a new, numerically generated coordinate grid, in which the property of orthogonality has been preserved. Flow equations in general curvilinear coordinates maintaining the conservative form are given for both anelastic models using the momentum equations, and for incompressible models, using the vorticity equation. The general problem of grid-generation in two dimensions is presented, and a quasi-conformal transformation technique is discussed in detail. Some examples of grids generated by this technique are exhibited. Three examples of the flow of a stratified fluid over obstacles are presented, in which the grid-generation permits some new results to be obtained.
Inductively coupled plasma torch with laminar flow cooling
Rayson, Gary D.; Shen, Yang
1991-04-30
An improved inductively coupled gas plasma torch. The torch includes inner and outer quartz sleeves and tubular insert snugly fitted between the sleeves. The insert includes outwardly opening longitudinal channels. Gas flowing through the channels of the insert emerges in a laminar flow along the inside surface of the outer sleeve, in the zone of plasma heating. The laminar flow cools the outer sleeve and enables the torch to operate at lower electrical power and gas consumption levels additionally, the laminar flow reduces noise levels in spectroscopic measurements of the gaseous plasma.
The NASA Langley laminar flow control airfoil experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, W. D.; Pride, J. D.
1982-01-01
A large chord swept supercritical LFC airfoil has been constructed for NASA-Langley's research program to determine the compatibility of supercritical airfoils with suction laminarization and to establish a technology base for future transport designs. Features include a high design Mach number and shock-free flow, as well as the minimization of the laminarization suction through a choice of airfoil geometry and pressure distribution. Two suction surface concepts and a variety of hybrid suction concepts involving combinations of natural and forced laminar flow are to be investigated. The test facility has been modified to insure achievement of required flow quality and transonic interference-free flow over the yawed LFC airfoil.
Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.
2013-09-01
A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.
F-111 TACT natural laminar flow glove flight results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.; Trujillo, B.
1981-01-01
Improvements in cruise efficiency on the order of 15 to 40% are obtained by increasing the extent of laminar flow over lifting surfaces. Two methods of achieving laminar flow are being considered, natural laminar flow and laminar flow control. Natural laminar flow (NLF) relies primarily on airfoil shape while laminar flow control involves boundary layer suction or blowing with mechanical devices. The extent of natural laminar flow that could be achieved with consistency in a real flight environment at chord Reynolds numbers in the range of 30 x 10(6) power was evaluated. Nineteen flights were conducted on the F-111 TACT airplane having a NLF airfoil glove section. The section consists of a supercritical airfoil providing favorable pressure gradients over extensive portions of the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Boundary layer measurements were obtained over a range of wing leading edge sweep angles at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85. Data were obtained for natural transition and for a range of forced transition locations over the test airfoil.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook
1988-01-01
A velocity-pressure integrated, mixed interpolation, Galerkin finite element method for the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. In the method, the velocity variables were interpolated using complete quadratic shape functions and the pressure was interpolated using linear shape functions. For the two dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a triangular element which is contained inside the complete biquadratic element for velocity variables; and for the three dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a tetrahedral element which is again contained inside the complete tri-quadratic element. Thus the pressure is discontinuous across the element boundaries. Example problems considered include: a cavity flow for Reynolds number of 400 through 10,000; a laminar backward facing step flow; and a laminar flow in a square duct of strong curvature. The computational results compared favorable with those of the finite difference methods as well as experimental data available. A finite elememt computer program for incompressible, laminar flows is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greene, G. C.
1974-01-01
A comparison of the measured and calculated velocity profiles of a laminar, incompressible, low Reynolds number jet is presented. The experimental jet was produced by a nozzle which consists of a porous metal plate covering the end of a pipe. This nozzle produces a uniform exit velocity profile at Reynolds numbers well below those at which conventional contoured nozzles are completely filled by the boundary layer. A jet mixing analysis based on the boundary-layer equations accurately predicted the velocity field for each test condition. The Reynolds number based on nozzle diameter ranged from 50 to 1000 with jet exit velocity either 30 or 61 m/s (100 or 200 ft/sec).
Conservative properties of finite difference schemes for incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morinishi, Youhei
1995-01-01
The purpose of this research is to construct accurate finite difference schemes for incompressible unsteady flow simulations such as LES (large-eddy simulation) or DNS (direct numerical simulation). In this report, conservation properties of the continuity, momentum, and kinetic energy equations for incompressible flow are specified as analytical requirements for a proper set of discretized equations. Existing finite difference schemes in staggered grid systems are checked for satisfaction of the requirements. Proper higher order accurate finite difference schemes in a staggered grid system are then proposed. Plane channel flow is simulated using the proposed fourth order accurate finite difference scheme and the results compared with those of the second order accurate Harlow and Welch algorithm.
Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces
Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K.
1995-09-01
A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.
Laminar flow between a stationary and a rotating disk with radial throughflow
Nesreddine, H.; Nguyen, C.T.; Vo-Ngoc, D.
1995-05-01
The problem of axisymmetric laminar flow of a viscous incompressible fluid that occurs between a stationary and a rotating disk subjected to a uniform radial throughflow has been numerically investigated for a large range of flow parameters. Results show that the basic flow structure is rather complex and depends strongly on both the rotational and the flow structure is rather complex and depends strongly on both the rotational and the throughflow Reynolds numbers. In general, the basic unicellular structure has been observed. With the increase of the throughflow Reynolds number, a multicellular flow structure may be found. The phenomenon of multiple solutions has been clearly observed for cases with sufficiently high rational Re and/or high throughflow Re. Among these solutions, stable as well as unstable solutions have been determined by applying Rayleigh`s stability criterion. The influence of the starting conditions on the stability of the flow has also been investigated for various ranges of flow parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.
1989-01-01
A swept, supercritical laminar flow control (LFC) airfoil designated NASA SCLFC(1)-0513F was tested at subsonic and transonic speeds in the NASA Langley eight-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. This paper examines Tollmien-Schlichting and crossflow disturbance amplification for this airfoil using the linear stability method. The design methodology using linear stability analysis is evaluated and the results of the incompressible and compressible methods are compared. Experimental data on the swept, supercritical LFC airfoil and reference wind tunnel and flight results are used to correlate and evaluate the N-factor method for transition prediction over a speed range M(infinity) from zero to one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y. S.
1986-01-01
In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.
Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.
Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.
1988-01-01
Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.
Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.
1998-01-01
The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free
Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.
2010-01-01
A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.
Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.
1998-01-01
The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows.
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified. PMID:27627407
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Optimized profiles for incompressible flow metering nozzles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakshminarayanan, R.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, D. Y. S.; Spindler, M.
1988-04-01
The Euler-Lagrange equation was used to minimize shear stress in designing a flow-metering nozzle. The flow field in the nozzle was computed by solving the momentum equation in integral form. The profile of the nozzle was obtained by minimizing the shear losses in the converging section of the nozzle. Following computation of the profile, a metering nozzle was designed, constructed, and subsequently tested to evaluate the validity of the analysis. The nozzle was designed for a pipe diameter of 15.24 cm (6 in.) and a throat diameter of 9.266 cm (3.648 in.). The test results indicated a marked increase in the value of the discharge coefficient when it is compared with that for the ASME standard nozzle. The computed pressure distribution is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Application of natural laminar flow to a supersonic transport concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuhrmann, Henri D.
1993-01-01
Results are presented of a preliminary investigation into an application of supersonic natural laminar flow (NLF) technology for a high speed civil transport (HSCT) configuration. This study focuses on natural laminar flow without regard to suction devices which are required for laminar flow control (LFC) or hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC). An HSCT design is presented with a 70 deg inboard leading-edge sweep and a 20 deg leading-edge outboard crank to obtain NLF over the outboard crank section. This configuration takes advantage of improved subsonic performance and NLF on the low-sweep portion of the wing while minimizing the wave drag and induced drag penalties associated with low-sweep supersonic cruise aircraft. In order to assess the benefits of increasing natural laminar flow wetted area, the outboard low-sweep wing area is parametrically increased. Using a range of supersonic natural laminar flow transition Reynolds numbers, these aircraft are then optimized and sized for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW) subject to mission constraints. Results from this study indicate reductions in TOGW for the NLF concepts, due mainly to reductions in wing area and total wing weight. Furthermore, significant reductions in block fuel are calculated throughout the range of transition Reynolds numbers considered. Observations are made on the benefits of unsweeping the wingtips with all turbulent flow.
RIPPLE - A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.
1991-01-01
A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the continuum surface force model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a higher-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE's unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.
Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Champney, Joelle Milene
1986-01-01
The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.
Selected experiments in laminar flow: An annotated bibliography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.
1992-01-01
Since the 1930s, there have been attempts to reduce drag on airplanes by delaying laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Experiments conducted during the 1940's, while successful in delaying transition, were discouraging because of the careful surface preparation necessary to meet roughness and waviness requirements. The resulting lull in research lasted nearly 30 years. By the late 1970s, airframe construction techniques had advanced sufficiently that the high surface quality required for natural laminar flow (NLF) and laminar flow control (LFC) appeared possible on production aircraft. As a result, NLF and LFC research became widespread. This report is an overview of that research. The experiments summarized herein were selected for their applicability to small transonic aircraft. Both flight and wind tunnel tests are included. The description of each experiment is followed by corresponding references. Part One summarizes NLF experiments; Part Two deals with LFC and hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiments.
Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.
1986-01-01
Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.
Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.
1986-03-01
Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.
STREMR: Numerical model for depth-averaged incompressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Bernard
1993-09-01
The STREMR computer code is a two-dimensional model for depth-averaged incompressible flow. It accommodates irregular boundaries and nonuniform bathymetry, and it includes empirical corrections for turbulence and secondary flow. Although STREMR uses a rigid-lid surface approximation, the resulting pressure is equivalent to the displacement of a free surface. Thus, the code can be used to model free-surface flow wherever the local Froude number is 0.5 or less. STREMR uses a finite-volume scheme to discretize and solve the governing equations for primary flow, secondary flow, and turbulence energy and dissipation rate. The turbulence equations are taken from the standard k-Epsilon turbulence model, and the equation for secondary flow is developed herein. Appendices to this report summarize the principal equations, as well as the procedures used for their discrete solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yankovskii, A. P.
2015-01-01
The equations were obtained for description of heat transfer in composite bodies with reinforcement with a set of smooth tubes with pumping of incompressible liquid coolant. The appropriate boundary-value problem of heat transfer was formulated with the following qualitative analysis. The steady temperature fields in cylindrical shells with spiral-shaped tube reinforcement (with liquid coolant flow) were simulated. The influence on the temperature fields from the side of reinforcement geometry parameters, flow direction and velocity, tubes cross sections was studied. It was found that these characteristics allow significant variation of temperature field in its gradients within the composite item: this open ways for effective control of temperature fields.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
Inverse solutions for laminar boundary-layer flows with separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, J. E.
1975-01-01
Numerical solutions of the laminar, incompressible boundary layer equations are presented for flows involving separation and reattachment. Regular solutions are obtained with an inverse approach in which either the displacement thickness or the skin friction is specified; the pressure is deduced from the solution. A vorticity-stream-function formulation of the boundary layer equations is used to eliminate the unknown pressure. Solutions of the resulting finite difference equations, in which the flow direction is taken into account, are obtained by several global iteration schemes which are stable and have unconditional diagonal dominance. Results are compared with Klineberg and Steger's separated boundary layer calculations, and with Briley's solution of Navier-Stokes equations for a separated region. In addition, an approximate technique is presented in which the streamwise convection of vorticity is set equal to zero in the reversed flow region; such a technique results in a quick forward marching procedure for separated flows.
Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.
Radiotracers application to determine laminar flow at a pipe
Ramirez-Garcia, F.P.; Cortes-Islas, E. )
1988-06-01
To measure gas flow in a gas venting line in an Oil Refinery the method of two points and iodine-131 labelled methyl iodide molecule was used. Forty-four complete sets of data were obtained corresponding to measurements performed in the gas venting line. Conditions of laminar and semi-turbulent flow were found. In the case of laminar flow measurement it was necessary to construct an injection equipment, consisting of a tubing with five slits to simultaneously inject the tracer into the gas stream at different points. For the laminar flow is obtained the transversal distribution of fluid velocities. The mean flow of the gas transported by the line under study was determined, and its standard deviation was calculated.
Natural Laminar Flow Design for Wings with Moderate Sweep
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Lynde, Michelle N.
2016-01-01
A new method for the aerodynamic design of wings with natural laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The approach involves the addition of new flow constraints to an existing knowledge-based design module for use with advanced flow solvers. The uniqueness of the new approach lies in the tailoring of target pressure distributions to achieve laminar flow on transonic wings with leading-edge sweeps and Reynolds numbers typical of current transports. The method is demonstrated on the Common Research Model configuration at critical N-factor levels representative of both flight and high-Reynolds number wind tunnel turbulence levels. The design results for the flight conditions matched the target extent of laminar flow very well. The design at wind tunnel conditions raised some design issues that prompted further improvements in the method, but overall has given promising results.
Lecture Series "Boundary Layer Theory". Part I - Laminar Flows. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
In the lecture series starting today author want to give a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. A great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the ideal fluid, that is the frictionless incompressibility and fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid, (potential theory) has been made possible. Actual liquids and gases satisfy the condition of incomressibility rather well if the velocities are not extremely high or, more accurately, if they are small in comparison with sonic velocity. For air, for instance, the change in volume due to compressibility amounts to about 1 percent for a velocity of 60 meters per second. The hypothesis of absence of friction is not satisfied by any actual fluid; however, it is true that most technically important fluids, for instance air and water, have a very small friction coefficient and therefore behave in many cases almost like the ideal frictionless fluid. Many flow phenomena, in particular most cases of lift, can be treated satisfactorily, - that is, the calculations are in good agreement with the test results, -under the assumption of frictionless fluid. However, the calculations with frictionless flow show a very serious deficiency; namely, the fact, known as d'Alembert's paradox, that in frictionless flow each body has zero drag whereas in actual flow each body experiences a drag of greater or smaller magnitude. For a long time the theory has been unable to bridge this gap between the theory of frictionless flow and the experimental findings about actual flow. The cause of this fundamental discrepancy is the viscosity which is neglected in the theory of ideal fluid; however, in spite of its extraordinary smallness it is decisive for the course of the flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaini, A.; Glowinski, R.; Čanić, S.
2016-01-01
This computational study shows, for the first time, a clear transition to two-dimensional Hopf bifurcation for laminar incompressible flows in symmetric plane expansion channels. Due to the well-known extreme sensitivity of this study on computational mesh, the critical Reynolds numbers for both the known symmetry-breaking (pitchfork) bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation were investigated for several layers of mesh refinement. It is found that under-refined meshes lead to an overestimation of the critical Reynolds number for the symmetry breaking and an underestimation of the critical Reynolds number for the Hopf bifurcation.
Incompressible Navier-Stokes computations of rotating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart
1993-01-01
Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high-pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. Flow analyses at 80-, 100-, and 120-percent of design conditions are presented.
High order parallel numerical schemes for solving incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Avi; Milner, Edward J.; Liou, May-Fun; Belch, Richard A.
1992-01-01
The use of parallel computers for numerically solving flow fields has gained much importance in recent years. This paper introduces a new high order numerical scheme for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically designed for parallel computational environments. A distributed MIMD system gives the flexibility of treating different elements of the governing equations with totally different numerical schemes in different regions of the flow field. The parallel decomposition of the governing operator to be solved is the primary parallel split. The primary parallel split was studied using a hypercube like architecture having clusters of shared memory processors at each node. The approach is demonstrated using examples of simple steady state incompressible flows. Future studies should investigate the secondary split because, depending on the numerical scheme that each of the processors applies and the nature of the flow in the specific subdomain, it may be possible for a processor to seek better, or higher order, schemes for its particular subcase.
Pressure boundary conditions for incompressible flow using unstructured meshes
Mathur, S.R.; Murthy, J.Y.
1997-10-01
A large variety of industrial problems require the specification of pressure boundary conditions. In many industrial pipe flows, for example, the mass flow rate is not known a priori; the flow is driven by a specified pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This article presents a numerical method for computing incompressible flows with given pressure boundary conditions. Unstructured meshes composed of arbitrary polyhedra are considered in a cell-centered, co-located pressure-velocity formulation. The SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spalding is extended to develop correction equations for boundary static pressure and boundary mass flux through an added-dissipation scheme. The procedure is validated against published benchmarks and shown to perform satisfactorily.
A multilevel approximate projections for incompressible flow calculations
Howell, L.H.
1994-12-31
An adaptive-mesh projection algorithm for unsteady, variable-density, incompressible flow at high Reynolds number has been developed in the Applied Mathematics Group at LLNL. A grid-based refinement scheme combines the theoretical efficiencies of adaptive methods with the computational advantages of uniform grids, while a second-order Godunov method provides a robust and accurate treatment of advection in the presence of discontinuities without excessive dissipation. This paper focuses on the work of the present author concerning the approximate projection itself, which involves the numerical inversion of the operator {del} {center_dot} (1/{rho}){del} on various subsets of the adaptive grid hierarchy.
New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.
1983-01-01
Several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. The role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some modifications are mentioned.
A boundary element method for steady incompressible thermoviscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
A boundary element formulation is presented for moderate Reynolds number, steady, incompressible, thermoviscous flows. The governing integral equations are written exclusively in terms of velocities and temperatures, thus eliminating the need for the computation of any gradients. Furthermore, with the introduction of reference velocities and temperatures, volume modeling can often be confined to only a small portion of the problem domain, typically near obstacles or walls. The numerical implementation includes higher order elements, adaptive integration and multiregion capability. Both the integral formulation and implementation are discussed in detail. Several examples illustrate the high level of accuracy that is obtainable with the current method.
Preconditioning and the limit to the incompressible flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.; Fiterman, A.; Vanleer, B.
1993-01-01
The use of preconditioning methods to accelerate the convergence to a steady state for both the incompressible and compressible fluid dynamic equations are considered. The relation between them for both the continuous problem and the finite difference approximation is also considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Hence, the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. For finite difference methods the preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to flow around an airfoil is presented.
Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.
1993-01-01
Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.
Laminar flow control, 1976 - 1982: A selected annotated bibliography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, M. H.; Maddalon, D. V.
1982-01-01
Laminar Flow Control technology development has undergone tremendous progress in recent years as focused research efforts in materials, aerodynamics, systems, and structures have begun to pay off. A virtual explosion in the number of research papers published on this subject has occurred since interest was first stimulated by the 1976 introduction of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Laminar Flow Control Program. The purpose of this selected bibliography is to list available, unclassified laminar flow (both controlled and natural) research completed from about 1975 to mid 1982. Some earlier pertinent reports are included but listed separately in the Appendix. Reports listed herein emphasize aerodynamics and systems studies, but some structures work is also summarized. Aerodynamic work is mainly limited to the subsonic and transonic sped regimes. Because wind-tunnel flow qualities, such as free stream disturbance level, play such an important role in boundary-layer transition, much recent research has been done in this area and it is also included.
Lockheed laminar-flow control systems development and applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lange, Roy H.
1987-01-01
Progress is summarized from 1974 to the present in the practical application of laminar-flow control (LFC) to subsonic transport aircraft. Those efforts included preliminary design system studies of commercial and military transports and experimental investigations leading to the development of the leading-edge flight test article installed on the NASA JetStar flight test aircraft. The benefits of LFC on drag, fuel efficiency, lift-to-drag ratio, and operating costs are compared with those for turbulent flow aircraft. The current activities in the NASA Industry Laminar-Flow Enabling Technologies Development contract include summaries of activities in the Task 1 development of a slotted-surface structural concept using advanced aluminum materials and the Task 2 preliminary conceptual design study of global-range military hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to obtain data at high Reynolds numbers and at Mach numbers representative of long-range subsonic transport aircraft operation.
Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2011-01-01
Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.
Brief history of laminar flow clean room systems
Whitfield, W J
1981-01-01
This paper reviews the development and evolution of laminar flow clean rooms and hoods and describes the underlying principles and rationales associated with development of this type of clean room system and Federal Standard No. 209. By the mid 1970's, over a thousand hospitals in the US had installed laminar flow equipment in operating rooms. During the past several years a great deal of attention has been focused on conserving energy in clean rooms. Some gains in energy conservation have been achieved by improved design, off hours shutdown, and closer evaluation of requirements for clean rooms. By the early 1970's, the laminar flow principle had been carried from the Laboratory and applied to production hardware to create a mature industry producing and marketing a variety of laminar flow equipment in less than 10 years time. This achievement was made possible by literally dozens of persons in industry, government, military, and private individuals who developed hardware, added numerous innovations, and had the foresight to apply the technology to many fields other than industrial clean rooms. Now, with laminar flow devices available, class 100 levels are readily achievable and maintained, and at the same time require fewer operating restrictions than previously possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hobson, G. V.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1990-01-01
A new method is presented for the solution of incompressible flow in generalized coordinates. This method is based on the substitution of the pressure weighted form of the momentum equations into the continuity equation. The algorithm is rigorously derived and a Fourier analysis is used to assess its suitability to act as an error smoother. Linear stability analysis results indicate that the performance of the new pressure substitution method (PSM) and the pressure correction method (PCM) is about the same at low Reynolds numbers, with no significant pressure gradient. At high Reynolds numbers the PSM shows much faster convergence. Likewise prediction of various flows indicate that the PSM has better accuracy for high Reynolds number flows with significant pressure gradients. Since most practical aerodynamic flows have significant pressure gradients, the PSM seems to be attractive for such flows. Solutions for both laminar and turbulent flow are compared with the experimental data. A two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence model is used to resolve the turbulent flowfield.
Nonsimilar solution of compressible laminar boundary layer flows by a semi-discretization method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, C.-C.; Liakopoulos, A.
The finite-element-differential method of Hsu (1980) for steady 2D incompressible laminar boundary-layer flows is applied to more complex boundary-layer flows of ideal gases past submerged bodies. The governing equations are derived and subjected to Illingworth-Stewartson, Falkner-Skan, von Mises, and undimensionalizing transformations; the resulting initial-value problem is solved by the Hsu method and integrated numerically using the technique of Gear (1969) for stiff equations. The method is applied to supersonic flow past a circular cylinder, and the results of heat-transfer-coefficient calculations at various values of the Mach and Prandtl numbers are compared to the experimental data of Beckwith and Cohen (1961) in a graph.
THE BERNOULLI EQUATION AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORIES
The incompressible Bernoulli equation is an analytical relationship between pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy. As perhaps the simplest and most useful statement for describing laminar flow, it buttresses numerous incompressible flow models that have been developed ...
Application of stability theory to laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, J. N.; Bushnell, D. M.
1979-01-01
The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art for application of stability theory to laminar flow control using suction, wall temperature and/or favorable pressure gradient ('natural laminar flow'). Discussions include current LFC problem areas requiring stability analyses, methods of relating stability theory to transition with results from data and theory comparisons available thus far, and a summary of low disturbance data available for theory calibration on swept wings. Critical issues highlighted are problems peculiar to suction LFC on high performance transonic wings and application of the e-to-the-n-power method to both low and high speed flight data.
Roughness and waviness requirements for laminar flow surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obara, Clifford J.; Holmes, Bruce J.
1986-01-01
Many modern metal and composite airframe manufacturing techniques can provide surface smoothness which is compatible with natural laminar flow (NLF) requirements. An important consideration is manufacturing roughness of the surface in the form of steps and gaps perpendicular to the freestream. The principal challenge to the design and manufacture of laminar flow surfaces today appears to be in the installation of leading-edge panels on wing, nacelle, and empennage surfaces. A similar challenge is in the installation of access panels, doors, windows, fuselage noses, and engine nacelles. Past work on roughness and waviness manufacturing tolerances and comparisons with more recent experiments are reviewed.
Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.
2015-06-01
A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.
Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederick, Michael A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.
2015-01-01
A flight-test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.
Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.
2014-01-01
A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The wing was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.
Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartshom, Fletcher
2012-01-01
Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karageorghis, Andreas; Phillips, Timothy N.
1990-01-01
The numerical simulation of steady planar two-dimensional, laminar flow of an incompressible fluid through an abruptly contracting channel using spectral domain decomposition methods is described. The key features of the method are the decomposition of the flow region into a number of rectangular subregions and spectral approximations which are pointwise C(1) continuous across subregion interfaces. Spectral approximations to the solution are obtained for Reynolds numbers in the range 0 to 500. The size of the salient corner vortex decreases as the Reynolds number increases from 0 to around 45. As the Reynolds number is increased further the vortex grows slowly. A vortex is detected downstream of the contraction at a Reynolds number of around 175 that continues to grow as the Reynolds number is increased further.
Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.
Laminar/turbulent oscillating flow in circular pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1992-12-01
A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted simulating the gas flow inside Stirling engine heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10,800 (Va = 272), 19,300 (Va = 272), and 60,800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Predictions of the flow regime are also checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase difference with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, the performance of the k-epsilon model was evaluated to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
Nested Cartesian grid method in incompressible viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yih-Ferng; Mittal, Rajat; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.
2010-09-01
In this work, the local grid refinement procedure is focused by using a nested Cartesian grid formulation. The method is developed for simulating unsteady viscous incompressible flows with complex immersed boundaries. A finite-volume formulation based on globally second-order accurate central-difference schemes is adopted here in conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects that needed to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are proper imposition of interface conditions on the nested-block boundaries, and accurate discretization of the governing equations in cells that are with block-interface as a control-surface. The interpolation procedure adopted in the study allows systematic development of a discretization scheme that preserves global second-order spatial accuracy of the underlying solver, and as a result high efficiency/accuracy nested grid discretization method is developed. Herein the proposed nested grid method has been widely tested through effective simulation of four different classes of unsteady incompressible viscous flows, thereby demonstrating its performance in the solution of various complex flow-structure interactions. The numerical examples include a lid-driven cavity flow and Pearson vortex problems, flow past a circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a channel, flow past an elliptic cylinder at an angle of attack, and flow past two tandem circular cylinders of unequal diameters. For the numerical simulations of flows past bluff bodies an immersed boundary (IB) method has been implemented in which the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The main advantages of the implemented immersed boundary method are that the simulations could be performed on a regular Cartesian grid and applied to multiple nested-block (Cartesian) structured grids without any difficulty. Through the numerical experiments the strength of the solver in effectively
Theory of laminar viscous jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martynenko, O. G.; Korovkin, V. N.; Sokovishin, Iu. A.
Results of recent theoretical studies of laminar jet flows of a viscous incompressible fluid are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to plane, fan-shaped, axisymmetric, and swirling jet flows; jet flows behind bodies; and slipstream jet flows. The discussion also covers dissipation of mechanical energy in jet flows, jet flows with a zero excess momentum, and asymptotic series expansions in the theory of jet flows.
Design optimization of natural laminar flow bodies in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodbele, Simha S.
1992-01-01
An optimization method has been developed to design axisymmetric body shapes such as fuselages, nacelles, and external fuel tanks with increased transition Reynolds numbers in subsonic compressible flow. The new design method involves a constraint minimization procedure coupled with analysis of the inviscid and viscous flow regions and linear stability analysis of the compressible boundary-layer. In order to reduce the computer time, Granville's transition criterion is used to predict boundary-layer transition and to calculate the gradients of the objective function, and linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method is used to calculate the objective function at the end of each design iteration. Use of a method to design an axisymmetric body with extensive natural laminar flow is illustrated through the design of a tiptank of a business jet. For the original tiptank, boundary layer transition is predicted to occur at a transition Reynolds number of 6.04 x 10(exp 6). For the designed body shape, a transition Reynolds number of 7.22 x 10(exp 6) is predicted using compressible linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method.
Application of laminar flow control to supersonic transport configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parikh, P. G.; Nagel, A. L.
1990-01-01
The feasibility and impact of implementing a laminar flow control system on a supersonic transport configuration were investigated. A hybrid laminar flow control scheme consisting of suction controlled and natural laminar flow was developed for a double-delta type wing planform. The required suction flow rates were determined from boundary layer stability analyses using representative wing pressure distributions. A preliminary design of structural modifications needed to accommodate suction through a perforated titanium skin was carried out together with the ducting and systems needed to collect, compress and discharge the suction air. The benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag were weighed against the weight, volume and power requirement penalties of suction system installation in a mission performance and sizing program to assess the net benefits. The study showed a feasibility of achieving significant laminarization of the wing surface by use of a hybrid scheme, leading to an 8.2 percent reduction in the cruise drag. This resulted in an 8.5 percent reduction in the maximum takeoff weight and a 12 percent reduction in the fuel burn after the inclusion of the LFC system installation penalties. Several research needs were identified for a resolution of aerodynamics, structural and systems issues before these potential benefits could be realized in a practical system.
The Prospects for Laminar Flow on Hypersonic Airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seiff, Alvin
1958-01-01
The factors which affect the extent of laminar flow on airplanes for hypersonic flight are discussed on the basis of the available data. Factors considered include flight Reynolds number, surface roughness, angle of attack, angle of leading-edge sweepback, and aerodynamic interference. Test data are presented for one complete configuration.
Application of porous materials for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearce, W. E.
1978-01-01
Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.
Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam
Maschke, Alfred W.
1985-01-01
A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.
Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam
Maschke, A.W.
1984-04-16
A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
Nested Grid Iteration for Incompressible Viscous Flow and Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirk, B.; Lipnikov, K.; Carey, G. F.
2003-07-01
We investigate the use of one-way cascadic multigrid strategies (CMG) in the solution of incompressible viscous flow using the finite element method. First we describe the basic CMG approach for representative elliptic boundary value problems and summarize the theoretical error estimates from approximation theory, desired smoother properties, and arithmetic complexity of the method. The extension of these error and complexity estimates to adaptive grids is also given. Then we present the mathematical formulation and the finite element approximation scheme for the class of fluid-thermal problems of interest. In supporting numerical experiments, we examine performance of the algorithm on both serial and distributed parallel systems. We carry out comparison studies with a standard BCG solution strategy on the fine level grid and study diagonal treatments for the zero pressure block.
F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.
1999-01-01
The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.
A computational study of laminar and turbulent flows in rotating rectangular ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asan, Habip
This work is concerned with fully developed incompressible laminar and turbulent flows through rectangular straight ducts rotating in an orthogonal mode. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method for low to high rotation rates. Solutions are obtained for aspect ratios 1, 2, and 3. For laminar flow, predictions have been performed for Reynolds number of 2000 and for turbulent flow the computations were carried out for a Reynolds number of 20000. The standard k-epsilon model is used to model the turbulence. Low rotational speeds cause the formation of a pair of symmetric vortices on the cross-section. At higher rotational speeds, a more complex four-vortex structure develops. The transition point depends on the cross-sectional geometry. Moreover, over a range of Rossby numbers, either two- or four-vortex solutions are possible. The rotation leads to significant differences between the values of friction factor and Nusselt number on the suction and pressure sides of the duct.
Possible coseismic laminar and non-laminar flow along subduction megathrusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ujiie, K.; Noguchi, K.; Saito, T.; Tsutsumi, A.
2014-12-01
Coseismic deformation mechanisms during subduction earthquakes remained unclear other than frictional melting recorded in pseudotachylytes. However, the recent mineralogical studies in the shallow plate-boundary thrust in the Nankai subduction zone and the underplating-related duplex-fault zone in the Shimanto accretionary complex exhumed from 4-6 km depth have identified increased heating along the 2 mm-thick, clay-rich fault gouge and the few-centimeters-thick, basalt-derived ultracataclasite, respectively. The microstructures of the fault gouge are characterized by strong preferred orientation of clay particles along the gouge, while those of the ultracataclasite show the random fabric. High-velocity friction experiments were conducted on the disaggregated fault rocks under wet (water-saturated) conditions at different normal stresses, using the rotary shear frictional testing apparatus. The results show the rapid slip weakening with low peak and steady-state shear stress, and a very small slip weakening distance and fracture energy, suggesting the ease of earthquake rupture propagation through the fault materials. The steady-state shear stress is almost independent of normal stress, indicating that the gouge behaved like a fluid during high-velocity shearing. The microstructures after the experiments are marked by the development of foliated zone in the gouge layer, but the random fabric develops in the outermost region of the circular gouge layer. Given the nearly independence of steady-state shear stress on normal stress and the increase in the rotation velocity from the center of the rotation axis during the rotary shear, the change from foliated zone to non-foliated, random fabric in the circular gouge layer could represent the change from laminar to non-laminar (or turbulent) flow associated with the increase in the Reynolds number. The implications for the fault rocks are that the development of foliated and non-foliated zones may represent coseismic
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows.
Liang, H; Shi, B C; Chai, Z H
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems. PMID:26871191
Incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations in pump flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan
1993-07-01
Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.
Incompressible Navier-Stokes Calculations in Pump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan
1993-01-01
Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, H.; Shi, B. C.; Chai, Z. H.
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems.
A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Louis H.
1993-01-01
There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.
Computation of incompressible viscous flows through turbopump components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon
1993-02-01
Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the fuel pump impeller, the effect of downstream boundary conditions is investigated. Flow analyses at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design conditions are presented.
Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Brooke Edward
1993-01-01
This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2016-02-01
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in the simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2015-12-15
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in the simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, we have attempted some form of solution verification to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and to suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2015-12-15
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in themore » simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, we have attempted some form of solution verification to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and to suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.« less
Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.
1986-01-01
Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuehn, Donald M.
1980-01-01
The turbulent, incompressible reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step has been studied by many researchers over the years. One of the principal quantities determined in these experiments has been the distance from the step to the point (or region) where the separated shear layer reattaches to the surface (x(r)). The values for x(r)/h, where h is the step height, have covered a wider range than can reasonably be attributed to experimental technique or inaccuracy. Often the reason for a largely different value of x(r)/h can be attributed to an incompletely developed turbulent layer, or a transitional or laminar boundary layer. However, for the majority of experiments where the boundary layer is believed to be fully developed and turbulent, x(r)/h still varies several step heights; generally, 5 1/2 approximately < x(r)/h approximately < 7 1/2. This observed variation has usually been attributed to such variables as l/h (step length to height, h/delta (step height to initial boundary-layer thickness), R(e)(theta)), or the experimental technique for determining reattachment location. However, there are so many different combinations of variables in the previous experiments that it was not possible to sort out the effects of particular conditions on the location of reattachment. In the present experiment velocity profiles have been measured in and around the region of separated flow. Results show a large influence of adverse pressure gradient on the reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step that has not been reported previously. Further, the many previous experiments for fully developed, turbulent flow in parallel-walled channels have shown a range of reattachment location that has not been explained by differences in initial flow conditions. Although these initial flow conditions might contribute to the observed variation of reattachment location, it appears that the pressure gradient effect can explain most of that variation.
Consistent and conservative framework for incompressible multiphase flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier
2015-11-01
We present a computational methodology for convection that handles discontinuities with second order accuracy and maintains conservation to machine precision. We use this method in the context of an incompressible gas-liquid flow to transport the phase interface, momentum, and scalars. Using the same methodology for all the variables ensures discretely consistent transport, which is necessary for robust and accurate simulations of turbulent atomizing flows with high-density ratios. The method achieves conservative transport by computing consistent fluxes on a refined mesh, which ensures all conserved quantities are fluxed with the same discretization. Additionally, the method seamlessly couples semi-Lagrangian fluxes used near the interface with finite difference fluxes used away from the interface. The semi-Lagrangian fluxes are three-dimensional, un-split, and conservatively handle discontinuities. Careful construction of the fluxes ensures they are divergence-free and no gaps or overlaps form between neighbors. We have tested and used the scheme for many cases and demonstrate a simulation of an atomizing liquid jet.
Implicit lower-upper/approximate-factorization schemes for incompressible flows
Briley, W.R.; Neerarambam, S.S.; Whitfield, D.L.
1996-10-01
A lower-upper/approximate-factorization (LU/AF) scheme is developed for the incompressible Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. The LU/AF scheme contains an iteration parameter that can be adjusted to improve iterative convergence rate. The LU/AF scheme is to be used in conjunction with linearized implicit approximations and artificial compressibility to compute steady solutions, and within sub-iterations to compute unsteady solutions. Formulations based on time linearization with and without sub-iteration and on Newton linearization are developed using spatial difference operators. The spatial approximation used includes upwind differencing based on Roe`s approximate Riemann solver and van Leer`s MUSCL scheme, with numerically computed implicit flux linearizations. Simple one-dimensional diffusion and advection/diffusion problems are first studied analytically to provide insight for development of the Navier-Stokes algorithm. The optimal values of both time step and LU/AF parameter are determined for a test problem consisting of two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil, with a highly stretched grid. The optimal parameter provides a consistent improvement in convergence rate for four test cases having different grids and Reynolds numbers and, also, for an inviscid case. The scheme can be easily extended to three dimensions and adapted for compressible flows. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Laminar flow test installation in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George-Falvy, Dezso
1990-01-01
This paper describes the initial wind tunnels tests in the 5- by 8-ft Boeing Research Wind Tunnel of a near full-scale (20-foot chord) swept wing section having laminar flow control (LFC) by slot suction over its first 30 percent chord. The model and associated test apparatus were developed for use as a testbed for LFC-related experimentation in support of preliminary design studies done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper contains the description of the model and associated test apparatus as well as the results of the initial test series in which the proper functioning of the test installation was demonstrated and new data were obtained on the sensitivity of suction-controlled laminar flow to surface protuberances in the presence of crossflow due to sweep.
Development of laminar flow control wing surface porous structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klotzsche, M.; Pearce, W.; Anderson, C.; Thelander, J.; Boronow, W.; Gallimore, F.; Brown, W.; Matsuo, T.; Christensen, J.; Primavera, G.
1984-01-01
It was concluded that the chordwise air collection method, which actually combines chordwise and spanwise air collection, is the best of the designs conceived up to this time for full chord laminar flow control (LFC). Its shallower ducting improved structural efficiency of the main wing box resulting in a reduction in wing weight, and it provided continuous support of the chordwise panel joints, better matching of suction and clearing airflow requirements, and simplified duct to suction source minifolding. Laminar flow control on both the upper and lower surfaces was previously reduced to LFC suction on the upper surface only, back to 85 percent chord. The study concludes that, in addition to reduced wing area and other practical advantages, this system would be lighter because of the increase in effective structural wing thickness.
Ground vibration test of the laminar flow control JStar airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kehoe, M. W.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Ellison, J. F.
1985-01-01
A ground vibration test was conducted on a Lockheed JetStar airplane that had been modified for the purpose of conducting laminar flow control experiments. The test was performed prior to initial flight flutter tests. Both sine-dwell and single-point-random excitation methods were used. The data presented include frequency response functions and a comparison of mode frequencies and mode shapes from both methods.
Acoustic effects on profile drag of a laminar flow airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearin, John G.; Jones, Michael G.; Baals, Robert A.
1987-09-01
A two-dimensional laminar flow airfoil (NLF-0414) was subjected to high-intensity sound (pure tones and white noise) over a frequency range of 2 to 5 kHz, while immersed in a flow of 240 ft/sec (Rn of 3 million) in a quiet flow facility. Using a wake-rake, wake dynamic pressures were determined and the deficit in momentum was used to calculate a two dimensional drag coefficient. Significant increases in drag were observed when the airfoil was subjected to the high intensity sound at critical sound frequencies. However, the increased drag was not accompanied by movement of the transition location.
Co-laminar flow cells for electrochemical energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik
2014-08-01
In this review, we present the major developments in the evolution of 'membraneless' microfluidic electrochemical cells which utilize co-laminar flow to minimize reactant mixing while producing electrical power in a compact form. Categorization of devices according to reactant phases is suggested, with further differentiation being subject to fabrication method and function, namely multi-layer sandwich structures for medium-power cell stacks and single-layer monolithic cells for low-power on-chip applications. Power density metrics reveal that recent co-laminar flow cells compare favourably with conventional membrane-based electrochemical cells and that further optimization of device architecture could be expedited through standardized testing. Current research trends indicate that co-laminar flow cell technology for power generation is growing rapidly and finding additional use as an analytical and education tool. Practical directions and recommendations for further research are provided, with the intention to guide scientific advances and technology development toward ultimate pairing with commercial applications.
The exact calculation of quadrupole sources for some incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.
1988-01-01
This paper is concerned with the application of the acoustic analogy of Lighthill to the acoustic and aerodynamic problems associated with moving bodies. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, which is an interpretation of the acoustic analogy for sound generation by moving bodies, manipulates the source terms into surface and volume sources. Quite often in practice the volume sources, or quadrupoles, are neglected for various reasons. Recently, Farassat, Long and others have attempted to use the FW-H equation with the quadrupole source and neglected to solve for the surface pressure on the body. The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of the quadrupole source to the acoustic pressure and body surface pressure for some problems for which the exact solution is known. The inviscid, incompressible, 2-D flow, calculated using the velocity potential, is used to calculate the individual contributions of the various surface and volume source terms in the FW-H equation. The relative importance of each of the sources is then assessed.
Model of Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanda, Hidesada
2001-11-01
For circular pipe flows, a model of transition from laminar to turbulent flow has already been proposed and the minimum critical Reynolds number of approximately 2040 was obtained (Kanda, 1999). In order to prove the validity of the model, another verification is required. Thus, for plane Poiseuille flow, results of previous investigations were studied, focusing on experimental data on the critical Reynolds number Rc, the entrance length, and the transition length. Consequently, concerning the natural transition, it was confirmed from the experimental data that (i) the transition occurs in the entrance region, (ii) Rc increases as the contraction ratio in the inlet section increases, and (iii) the minimum Rc is obtained when the contraction ratio is the smallest or one, and there is no-bellshaped entrance or straight parallel plates. Its value exists in the neighborhood of 1300, based on the channel height and the average velocity. Although, for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, the minimum Rc is approximately 2000, based on the pipe diameter and the average velocity, there seems to be no significant difference in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow between Hagen-Poiseuille flow and plane Poiseuille flow (Kanda, 2001). Rc is determined by the shape of the inlet. Kanda, H., 1999, Proc. of ASME Fluids Engineering Division - 1999, FED-Vol. 250, pp. 197-204. Kanda, H., 2001, Proc. of ASME Fluids Engineering Division - 2001.
Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.
2013-03-01
When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.
Natural laminar flow experiments on modern airplane surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.; Yip, L. P.
1984-01-01
Flight and wind-tunnel natural laminar flow experiments have been conducted on various lifting and nonlifting surfaces of several airplanes at unit Reynolds numbers between 0.63 x 10 to the 6th power/ft and 3.08 x 10 to the 6th power/ft, at Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.7, and at lifting surface leading-edge sweep angles from 0 deg to 63 deg. The airplanes tested were selected to provide relatively stiff skin conditions, free from significant roughness and waviness, on smooth modern production-type airframes. The observed transition locations typically occurred downstream of the measured or calculated pressure peak locations for the test conditions involved. No discernible effects on transition due to surface waviness were observed on any of the surfaces tested. None of the measured heights of surface waviness exceeded the empirically predicted allowable surface waviness. Experimental results consistent with spanwise contamination criteria were observed. Large changes in flight-measured performance and stability and control resulted from loss of laminar flow by forced transition. Rain effects on the laminar boundary layer caused stick-fixed nose-down pitch-trim changes in two of the airplanes tested. No effect on transition was observed for flight through low-altitude liquid-phase clouds. These observations indicate the importance of fixed-transition tests as a standard flight testing procedure for modern smooth airframes.
Natural laminar flow and airplane stability and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandam, Cornelis P.
1986-01-01
Location and mode of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow have a dominant effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil section. The influences of these parameters on the sectional lift and drag characteristics of three airfoils are examined. Both analytical and experimental results demonstrate that when the boundary layer transitions near the leading edge as a result of surface roughness, extensive trailing-edge separation of the turbulent boundary layer may occur. If the airfoil has a relatively sharp leading-edge, leading-edge stall due to laminar separation can occur after the leading-edge suction peak is formed. These two-dimensional results are used to examine the effects of boundary layer transition behavior on airplane longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control.
Laminar flow heat transfer downstream from U-bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelmessih, Amanie Nassif
1987-05-01
The laminar flow heat transfer downstream from the unheated, vertical bends in horizontal U-tubes with electrically heated straight tube sections was investigated. For each test section, local axial and peripheral wall temperatures were measured and the local peripheral heat transfer coefficients at the various locations were calculated. The investigation permitted a better understanding of the interaction of the primary, secondary and tertiary flow patterns, i.e., the combination of forced and natural convection with the centrifugal effects. Also, a correlation was developed, which predicts the heat transfer coefficient downstream from an unheated U-bend, and which can be extended to straight tubes.
Accurate and robust methods for variable density incompressible flows with discontinuities
Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.; Puckett, E.G.
1996-09-01
We are interested in the solution of incompressible flows which are characterized by large density variations, interfacial physics, arbitrary material topologies and strong vortical content. The issues present in constant density incompressible flow are exacerbated by the presence of density discontinuities. A much greater premium requirement is placed the positivity of computed quantities The mechanism of baroclinc vorticity generation exists ({gradient}p x {gradient}p) to further complicate the physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gladden, Herbert J.; Ko, Ching L.; Boddy, Douglas E.
1995-01-01
A higher-order finite-difference technique is developed to calculate the developing-flow field of steady incompressible laminar flows in the entrance regions of circular pipes. Navier-Stokes equations governing the motion of such a flow field are solved by using this new finite-difference scheme. This new technique can increase the accuracy of the finite-difference approximation, while also providing the option of using unevenly spaced clustered nodes for computation such that relatively fine grids can be adopted for regions with large velocity gradients. The velocity profile at the entrance of the pipe is assumed to be uniform for the computation. The velocity distribution and the surface pressure drop of the developing flow then are calculated and compared to existing experimental measurements reported in the literature. Computational results obtained are found to be in good agreement with existing experimental correlations and therefore, the reliability of the new technique has been successfully tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-08-01
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Experimental investigation of flow instabilities in a laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.
2014-06-01
The present paper reports the results of a detailed experimental study aimed at investigating the dynamics of a laminar separation bubble, from the origin of separation up to the breakdown to turbulence of the large scale coherent structures generated as a consequence of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability process. Measurements have been performed along a flat plate installed within a double contoured test section, designed to produce an adverse pressure gradient typical of Ultra-High-Lift turbine blade profiles, which induces the formation of a laminar separation bubble at low Reynolds number condition. Measurements have been carried out by means of complementary techniques: hot-wire (HW) anemometry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The high accuracy 2-dimensional LDV results allow investigating reverse flow magnitude and both Reynolds normal and shear stress distributions along the separated flow region, while the high frequency response of the HW anemometer allows analyzing the amplification process of flow oscillations induced by instability mechanisms. PIV results complement the flow field analysis providing information on the generation and evolution of the large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the separated shear layer roll-up, through instantaneous velocity vector maps. The simultaneous analysis of the data obtained by means of the different measuring techniques allows an in depth view of the instability mechanisms involved in the transition/reattachment processes of the separated shear layer.
Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended rectangular microchannels.
Yang, J; Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Kwok, D Y
2003-05-01
This paper has addressed analytically the problem of laminar flow in microchannels with rectangular cross-section subjected to a time-dependent sinusoidal pressure gradient and a sinusoidal electric field. The analytical solution has been determined based on the Debye-Hückel approximation of a low surface potential at the channel wall. We have demonstrated that Onsager's principle of reciprocity is valid for this problem. Parametric studies of streaming potential have shown the dependence of the electroviscous effect not only on the Debye length, but also on the oscillation frequency and the microchannel width. Parametric studies of electroosmosis demonstrate that the flow rate decreases due to an increase in frequency. The obtained solutions for both the streaming potential and electroosmotic flows become those for flow between two parallel plates in the limit of a large aspect ratio. PMID:12725820
Numerical simulation of laminar hypersonic flows about an ellipsoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riedelbauch, S.; Mueller, B.
The laminar hypersonic flow about a double ellipsoid, which idealizes the nose and cockpit of a spacecraft, were numerically simulated. The calculation method solves the three dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes equations in a conservative formulation on a surface oriented calculation grid using an implicit/explicit finite difference technique. The conservative formulation allows the correct calculation of embedded compression shocks, while the head wave was treated with a shock-fitting procedure. The calculated flow fields about the ellipsoid show shock-shock and shock-boundary layer interactions in connection with separated flow. Wall flow lines and heat transfer agree qualitatively very well with film-of-oil and thermographic pictures.
An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, S.
2014-11-01
We present an efficient algorithm within the phase field framework for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with possibly very different physical properties such as densities, viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The algorithm employs a physical formulation for the N-phase system that honors the conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. We present a method for uniquely determining the mixing energy density coefficients involved in the N-phase model based on the pairwise surface tensions among the N fluids. Our numerical algorithm has several attractive properties that make it computationally very efficient: (i) it has completely de-coupled the computations for different flow variables, and has also completely de-coupled the computations for the (N-1) phase field functions; (ii) the algorithm only requires the solution of linear algebraic systems after discretization, and no nonlinear algebraic solve is needed; (iii) for each flow variable the linear algebraic system involves only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices, which can be pre-computed during pre-processing, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the N-phase mixture; (iv) within a time step the semi-discretized system involves only individual de-coupled Helmholtz-type (including Poisson) equations, despite the strongly-coupled phase-field system of fourth spatial order at the continuum level; (v) the algorithm is suitable for large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts among the N fluids. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts. In particular, we compare our simulations with the de Gennes theory, and demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. We also demonstrate the significant and sometimes dramatic effects of the
An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows
Dong, S.
2014-11-01
We present an efficient algorithm within the phase field framework for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with possibly very different physical properties such as densities, viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The algorithm employs a physical formulation for the N-phase system that honors the conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. We present a method for uniquely determining the mixing energy density coefficients involved in the N-phase model based on the pairwise surface tensions among the N fluids. Our numerical algorithm has several attractive properties that make it computationally very efficient: (i) it has completely de-coupled the computations for different flow variables, and has also completely de-coupled the computations for the (N−1) phase field functions; (ii) the algorithm only requires the solution of linear algebraic systems after discretization, and no nonlinear algebraic solve is needed; (iii) for each flow variable the linear algebraic system involves only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices, which can be pre-computed during pre-processing, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the N-phase mixture; (iv) within a time step the semi-discretized system involves only individual de-coupled Helmholtz-type (including Poisson) equations, despite the strongly-coupled phase–field system of fourth spatial order at the continuum level; (v) the algorithm is suitable for large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts among the N fluids. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts. In particular, we compare our simulations with the de Gennes theory, and demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. We also demonstrate the significant and sometimes dramatic effects of the
Laminar flow control leading edge systems in simulated airline service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.
1988-01-01
The feasibility of two candidate leading-edge flow laminarization systems applicable to airline service was tested using representative airline operational conditions with respect to air traffic, weather, and airport insect infestation. One of the systems involved a perforated Ti alloy suction surface with about 1 million 0.0025-in. diameter holes drilled by electron beam, as well as a Krueger-type flap that offered protective shielding against insect impingement; the other supplied surface suction through a slotted Ti alloy skin with 27 spanwise slots on the upper and lower surface.
Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.
1977-01-01
An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.
Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For an instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined. A predicted local instability growth rate at the point is determined using the covariance vector and the vector of regressor weights. Based on the predicted local instability growth rate, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.
Manufacturing tolerances for natural laminar flow airframe surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.; Martin, G. L.; Domack, C. S.
1985-01-01
Published aircraft surface waviness and boundary layer transition measurements imply that currently achievable low levels of surface waviness are compatible with the natural laminar flow (NLF) requirements of business and commuter aircraft, in the cases of both metallic and composite material airframes. The primary challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Attention is presently given to recent NASA investigations of manufacturing tolerance requirements for NLF surfaces, including flight experiment results.
Heat Transfer Effects on Laminar Velocity Profiles in Pipe Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powell, Robert; Jenkins, Thomas
1998-11-01
Heat Transfer Effects on Laminar Velocity Profiles in Pipe Flow. Robert L. Powell, Thomas P. Jenkins Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science University of California, Davis, CA 95616 Using laser Doppler velocimetry, we have measured the axial velocity profiles for steady, pressure driven, laminar flow of water in a circular tube. The flow was established in a one inch diameter seamless glass tube. The entry length prior to the measuring section was over one hundred diameters. Reynolds numbers in the range 500-2000 were used. Under conditions where the temperature difference between the fluid and the surroundings differed by as little as 0.2C, we found significant asymmetries in the velocity profiles. This asymmetry was most pronounced in the vertical plane. Varying the temperature difference moved the velocity maximum either above or below the centerline depending upon whether the fluid was warmer or cooler than the room. These results compare well to existing calculations. Using the available theory and our experiments it is possible to identify parameter ranges where non-ideal conditions(not parabolic velocity profiles) will be found. Supported by the EMSP Program of DOE.
Tabe, Reza; Ghalichi, Farzan; Hossainpour, Siamak; Ghasemzadeh, Kamran
2016-08-12
Laminar, turbulent, transitional, or combine areas of all three types of viscous flow can occur downstream of a stenosis depending upon the Reynolds number and constriction shape parameter. Neither laminar flow solver nor turbulent models for instance the k-ω (k-omega), k-ε (k-epsilon), RANS or LES are opportune for this type of flow. In the present study attention has been focused vigorously on the effect of the constriction in the flow field with a unique way. It means that the laminar solver was employed from entry up to the beginning of the turbulent shear flow. The turbulent model (k-ω SST Transitional Flows) was utilized from starting of turbulence to relaminarization zone while the laminar model was applied again with onset of the relaminarization district. Stenotic flows, with 50 and 75% cross-sectional area, were simulated at Reynolds numbers range from 500 to 2000 employing FLUENT (v6.3.17). The flow was considered to be steady, axisymmetric, and incompressible. Achieving results were reported as axial velocity, disturbance velocity, wall shear stress and the outcomes were compared with previously experimental and CFD computations. The analogy of axial velocity profiles shows that they are in acceptable compliance with the empirical data. As well as disturbance velocity and wall shear stresses anticipated by this new approach, part by part simulation, are reasonably valid with the acceptable experimental studies. PMID:27567769
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.; Holmes, Bruce J.
1987-01-01
Fuelled by a need to reduce viscous drag of airframes, significant advances have been made in the last decade to design lifting surface geometries with considerable amounts of laminar flow. In contrast to the present understanding of practical limits for natural laminar flow over lifting surfaces, limited experimental results are available examining applicability of natural laminar flow over axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric fuselage shapes at relevantly high length Reynolds numbers. The drag benefits attainable by realizing laminar flow over nonlifting aircraft components such as fuselages and nacelles are shown. A flight experiment to investigate transition location and transition mode over the forward fuselage of a light twin engine propeller driven airplane is examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao
1951-01-01
A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.
A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy
2016-06-01
This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2015-11-01
This work presents a novel and efficient Cartesian-grid based simulation capability for the study of an incompressible, turbulent gas layer over a liquid flow with disparate Reynolds numbers in two phases. This capability couples a turbulent gas-flow solver and a liquid-layer based on a second-order accurate Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM) at the deformable interface. The turbulent gas flow solver solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation or through turbulence closure (unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Models) for Reynolds numbers O(106). In this application, a laminar liquid layer solution is obtained from depth-integrated Navier-Stokes equations utilizing shallow water wave assumptions. The immersed boundary method (BDIM) enforces the coupling at the deformable interface, the boundary conditions to turbulence closure equations and defines the domain geometry on the Cartesian grid. Validations are made for the turbulent gas channel flow over high-viscosity liquid. This simulation capability can be applied to problems in the oil and industrial sector such as channel and pipe flows with heavy oils as well as wind wave generation in shallow waters. Sponsored by the Chevron Energy Technology Company.
Stability theory applications to laminar-flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, Mujeeb R.
1987-01-01
In order to design Laminar Flow Control (LFC) configurations, reliable methods are needed for boundary-layer transition predictions. Among the available methods, there are correlations based upon R sub e, shape factors, Goertler number and crossflow Reynolds number. The most advanced transition prediction method is based upon linear stability theory in the form of the e sup N method which has proven to be successful in predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. When transition occurs in a low disturbance environment, the e sup N method provides a viable design tool for transition prediction and LFC in both 2-D and 3-D subsonic/supersonic flows. This is true for transition dominated by either TS, crossflow, or Goertler instability. If Goertler/TS or crossflow/TS interaction is present, the e sup N will fail to predict transition. However, there is no evidence of such interaction at low amplitudes of Goertler and crossflow vortices.
Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of boundary-layer properties at the point are obtained from a steady-state solution of a fluid flow in a region adjacent to the point. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For each instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined, which is the covariance of a predicted local growth rate with the known instability growth rates. Each covariance vector is used with the vector of regressor weights to determine a predicted local growth rate at the point. Based on the predicted local growth rates, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.
High-flaps for natural laminar flow airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Harry L.
1986-01-01
A review of the NACA and NASA low-drag airfoil research is presented with particular emphasis given to the development of mechanical high-lift flap systems and their application to general aviation aircraft. These flap systems include split, plain, single-slotted, and double-slotted trailing-edge flaps plus slat and Krueger leading-edge devices. The recently developed continuous variable-camber high-lift mechanism is also described. The state-of-the-art of theoretical methods for the design and analysis of multi-component airfoils in two-dimensional subsonic flow is discussed, and a detailed description of the Langley MCARF (Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis Program) computer code is presented. The results of a recent effort to design a single- and double-slotted flap system for the NASA high speed natural laminar flow (HSNLF) (1)-0213 airfoil using the MCARF code are presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code.
Heat transport in laminar flow of erythrocyte suspensions.
Ahuja, A S
1975-07-01
Measurements of thermal conductivity were made in laminar flow of dog and turkey erythrocyte suspensions in a stainless stell tube of about 1 mm ID. These measurements were independent of the shear rate, showing that the red cell motion relative to plasma in flowing blood had no effect on the heat transfer. Measurements of thermal conductivity were further made in suspensions of polystyrene spheres of 100 mum and were found to be dependent upon the shear rate. The Graetz solution corresponding to uniform wall temperature was used for determining the value of thermal conductivity in an apparatus calibrated with tap water. The overall accuracy of the results is within 10%. A model based on the particle rotation with the entrained fluid is proposed. It is pointed out that the diffusion of platelets, red cells, and possibly plasma proteins (such as fibrinogen) will be augmented if they happen to be in the hydrodynamic field of rotating erythrocytes. PMID:1150598
Laminar Wall Jet Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shallow Cavity
Maheandera Prabu, P.; Padmanaban, K. P.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the detailed simulation of two-dimensional incompressible laminar wall jet flow over a shallow cavity. The flow characteristics of wall jet with respect to aspect ratio (AR), step length (Xu), and Reynolds number (Re) of the shallow cavity are expressed. For higher accuracy, third-order discretization is applied for momentum equation which is solved using QUICK scheme with SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Low Reynolds numbers 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 are assigned for simulation. Results are presented for streamline contour, velocity contour, and vorticity formation at wall and also velocity profiles are reported. The detailed study of vortex formation on shallow cavity region is presented for various AR, Xu, and Re conditions which led to key findings as Re increases and vortex formation moves from leading edge to trailing edge of the wall. Distance between vortices increases when the step length (Xu) increases. When Re increases, the maximum temperature contour distributions take place in shallow cavity region and highest convection heat transfer is obtained in heated walls. The finite volume code (FLUENT) is used for solving Navier-Stokes equations and GAMBIT for modeling and meshing. PMID:26413565
Laminar Wall Jet Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shallow Cavity.
Prabu, P Maheandera; Padmanaban, K P
2015-01-01
This paper presents the detailed simulation of two-dimensional incompressible laminar wall jet flow over a shallow cavity. The flow characteristics of wall jet with respect to aspect ratio (AR), step length (X u), and Reynolds number (Re) of the shallow cavity are expressed. For higher accuracy, third-order discretization is applied for momentum equation which is solved using QUICK scheme with SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Low Reynolds numbers 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 are assigned for simulation. Results are presented for streamline contour, velocity contour, and vorticity formation at wall and also velocity profiles are reported. The detailed study of vortex formation on shallow cavity region is presented for various AR, X u , and Re conditions which led to key findings as Re increases and vortex formation moves from leading edge to trailing edge of the wall. Distance between vortices increases when the step length (X u) increases. When Re increases, the maximum temperature contour distributions take place in shallow cavity region and highest convection heat transfer is obtained in heated walls. The finite volume code (FLUENT) is used for solving Navier-Stokes equations and GAMBIT for modeling and meshing. PMID:26413565
Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederick, Mike; Banks, Dan; Garzon, Andres; Matisheck, Jason
2014-01-01
IR thermography was used to characterize the transition front on a S-NLF test article at chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million Changes in transition due to Mach number, Reynolds number, and surface roughness were investigated - Regions of laminar flow in excess of 80% chord at chord Reynolds numbers greater than 14 million IR thermography clearly showed the transition front and other flow features such as shock waves impinging upon the surface A series of parallel oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, were found to cause premature transition at higher Reynolds numbers. NASA has a current goal to eliminate barriers to the development of practical supersonic transport aircraft Drag reduction through the use of supersonic natural laminar flow (S-NLF) is currently being explored as a means of increasing aerodynamic efficiency - Tradeoffs work best for business jet class at M<2 Conventional high-speed designs minimize inviscid drag at the expense of viscous drag - Existence of strong spanwise pressure gradient leads to crossflow (CF) while adverse chordwise pressure gradients amplifies and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities Aerion Corporation has patented a S-NLF wing design (US Patent No. 5322242) - Low sweep to control CF - dp/dx < 0 on both wing surfaces to stabilize TS - Thin wing with sharp leading edge to minimize wave drag increase due to reduction in sweep NASA and Aerion have partnered to study S-NLF since 1999 Series of S-NLF experiments flown on the NASA F-15B research test bed airplane Infrared (IR) thermography used to characterize transition - Non-intrusive, global, good spatial resolution - Captures significant flow features well
The solution of the two-dimensional incompressible flow equations on unstructured triangular meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Morgan
1993-05-01
A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional turbulent incompressible flow on unstructured triangular meshes is developed. A primitive variable formulation is used. The Helmholtz pressure equation algorithm is used to enforce the velocity continuity relation for incompressible flow. A careful treatment of the pressure dissipation model is presented. A standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is used to provide closure for the governing equations. A backward-facing step turbulent flow is calculated using an unstructured triangular mesh, and the results are compared to experimental and computational data.
On laminar separation at a corner point in transonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, A. I.; Turkyilmaz, I.
2000-11-01
The separation of the laminar boundary layer from a convex corner on a rigid body contour in transonic flow is studied based on the asymptotic analysis of the Navier Stokes equations at large values of the Reynolds number. It is shown that the flow in a small vicinity of the separation point is governed, as usual, by strong interaction between the boundary layer and the inviscid part of the flow. Outside the interaction region the Kármán Guderley equation describing transonic inviscid flow admits a self-similar solution with the pressure on the body surface being proportional to the cubic root of the distance from the separation point. Analysis of the boundary layer driven by this pressure shows that as the interaction region is approached the boundary layer splits into two parts: the near-wall viscous sublayer and the main body of the boundary layer where the flow is locally inviscid. It is interesting that contrary to what happens in subsonic and supersonic flows, the displacement effect of the boundary layer is primarily due to the inviscid part. The contribution of the viscous sublayer proves to be negligible to the leading order. Consequently, the flow in the interaction region is governed by the inviscid inviscid interaction. To describe this flow one needs to solve the Kármán Guderley equation for the potential flow region outside the boundary layer; the solution in the main part of the boundary layer was found in an analytical form, thanks to which the interaction between the boundary layer and external flow can be expressed via the corresponding boundary condition for the Kármán Guderley equation. Formulation of the interaction problem involves one similarity parameter which in essence is the Kármán Guderley parameter suitably modified for the flow at hand. The solution of the interaction problem has been constructed numerically.
Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended circular microchannels.
Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Yang, J
2003-05-01
This article addresses the problem of oscillating laminar electrokinetic liquid flow in an infinitely extended circular microchannel. Based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for low surface potential at the channel wall, a complex variable approach is used to obtain an analytical solution for the flow. The complex counterparts of the flow rate and the current are linearly dependent on the pressure gradient and the external electric field. This property is used to show that Onsager's principle of reciprocity continues to be valid (involving the complex quantities) for the stated problem. During oscillating pressure-driven flow, the electroviscous effect for a given value of the normalized reciprocal electrical double-layer (EDL) thickness is observed to attain a maximum at a certain normalized frequency. In general, an increasing normalized frequency results in a reduction of EDL effects, leading to (i). a volumetric flow rate in the case of streaming potential approaching that predicted by the theory without EDL effects, and (ii). a reduction in the volumetric flow rate in the case of electroosmosis. PMID:12725819
The effect of mako sharkskin on laminar flow separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradshaw, Michael; Lang, Amy; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria; Hueter, Robert
2013-11-01
Many animals possess effective performance enhancing mechanisms, such as the denticles found on the skin of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus). The shortfin mako, one of the fastest sharks on the planet, is covered by small, tooth-like scales that vary in flexibility over the body. Previous biological findings have shown that the scales increase in flexibility from the leading to trailing edge over the pectoral fin as well as on various sections of the body. It is believed that the scale bristling may provide a mechanism for flow separation control that leads to decreased drag and increased maneuverability. This study involved testing a left pectoral fin of a shortfin mako shark as well as a cylinder with a sharkskin specimen applied circumferentially in a water tunnel facility under static, laminar conditions. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to characterize the flow over the surfaces. Various Reynolds numbers were tested for both configurations, as well as several AOAs for the pectoral fin. The flow over the fin and cylinder were compared to a painted fin and a smooth PVC cylinder, respectively. The study found that the shark scales do, in fact, help to control flow separation. However, in order for the scales to bristle and trap the reversing flow, a certain magnitude of reversed flow and shear is required. This phenomenon seems to be most effective at near stall conditions and at higher Reynolds numbers. Support from REU grant 1062611 is greatfully acknowledged.
Aerodynamic study of a small wind turbine with emphasis on laminar and transition flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Crunteanu, D. E.
2016-06-01
The wind energy is huge but unfortunately, wind turbines capture only a little part of this enormous green energy. Furthermore, it is impossible to put multi megawatt wind turbines in the cities because they generate a lot of noise and discomfort. Instead, it is possible to install small Darrieus and horizontal-axis wind turbines with low tip speed ratios in order to mitigate the noise as much as possible. Unfortunately, the flow around this wind turbine is quite complex because the run at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, this flow is usually a mixture of laminar, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation that is very difficult to simulate from the numerical point of view. Usually, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation are ignored. For this reason, this paper deals with laminar and transition flows in order to provide some brightness in this field.
Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.
1984-01-01
A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.
Front Speed Enhancement by Incompressible Flows in Three or Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Smaily, Mohammad; Kirsch, Stéphane
2014-07-01
We study, in dimensions N ≥ 3, the family of first integrals of an incompressible flow: these are functions whose level surfaces are tangential to the streamlines of the advective incompressible field. One main motivation for this study comes from earlier results proving that the existence of nontrivial first integrals of an incompressible flow q is the main key that leads to a "linear speed up" by a large advection of pulsating traveling fronts solving a reaction-advection-diffusion equation in a periodic heterogeneous framework. The family of first integrals is not well understood in dimensions N ≥ 3 due to the randomness of the trajectories of q and this is in contrast with the case N = 2. By looking at the domain of propagation as a union of different components produced by the advective field, we provide more information about first integrals and we give a class of incompressible flows which exhibit "ergodic components" of positive Lebesgue measure (and hence are not shear flows) and which, under certain sharp geometric conditions, speed up the KPP fronts linearly with respect to the large amplitude. In the proofs, we establish a link between incompressibility, ergodicity, first integrals and the dimension to give a sharp condition about the asymptotic behavior of the minimal KPP speed in terms of the configuration of ergodic components.
Approximate factorization with an elliptic pressure solver for incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernard, R. S.; Thompson, J. F.
1982-01-01
Two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates are used to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in conjunction with approximate factorization for the solution of the momentum equation and the successive overrelaxation by lines method for the solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure. The combined algorithm, although not fully explicit, is marginally stable at Reynolds numbers lower than 10,000 and time increments of 0.01. Pressure distributions calculated for attack angles of zero and 6 deg are of the same shape as the experimental curves, but are shifted to one side.
Numerical Solutions of Supersonic and Hypersonic Laminar Compression Corner Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, C. M.; MacCormack, R. W.
1976-01-01
An efficient time-splitting, second-order accurate, numerical scheme is used to solve the complete Navier-Stokes equations for supersonic and hypersonic laminar flow over a two-dimensional compression corner. A fine, exponentially stretched mesh spacing is used in the region near the wall for resolving the viscous layer. Good agreement is obtained between the present computed results and experimental measurement for a Mach number of 14.1 and a Reynolds number of 1.04 x 10(exp 5) with wedge angles of 15 deg, 18 deg, and 24 deg. The details of the pressure variation across the boundary layer are given, and a correlation between the leading edge shock and the peaks in surface pressure and heat transfer is observed.
GASP cloud encounter statistics - Implications for laminar flow control flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.
1984-01-01
The cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is analyzed in order to derive the probability of cloud encounter at altitudes normally flown by commercial airliners, for application to a determination of the feasability of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) on long-range routes. The probability of cloud encounter is found to vary significantly with season. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover. The cloud encounter data are shown to be consistent with the classical midlatitude cyclone model with more clouds encountered in highs than in lows. Aircraft measurements of route-averaged time-in-clouds fit a gamma probability distribution model which is applied to estimate the probability of extended cloud encounter, and the associated loss of LFC effectiveness along seven high-density routes. The probability is demonstrated to be low.
Heat Transfer to Longitudinal Laminar Flow Between Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, Ephraim M.; Loeffler, Albert L. Jr.; Hubbard, H. A.
1960-01-01
Consideration is given to the fully developed heat transfer characteristics for longitudinal laminar flow between cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The analysis is carried out for the condition of uniform heat transfer per unit length. Solutions are obtained for the temperature distribution, and from these, Nusselt numbers are derived for a wide range of spacing-to-diameter ratios. It is found that as the spacing ratio increases, so also does the wall-to-bulk temperature difference for a fixed heat transfer per unit length. Corresponding to a uniform surface temperature around the circumference of a cylinder, the circumferential variation of the local heat flux is computed. For spacing ratios of 1.5 - 2.0 and greater, uniform peripheral wall temperature and uniform peripheral heat flux are simultaneously achieved. A simplified analysis which neglects circumferential variations is also carried out, and the results are compared with those from the more exact formulation.
Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waggoner, Edgar G.
1986-01-01
Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.
Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrne, Erin; Bortz, David M.; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John
2011-04-01
The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation.
McHugh, P.R.
1995-10-01
Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newton`s method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.
Characteristics of laminar flow past a sphere in uniform shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dongjoo; Choi, Hyungseok; Choi, Haecheon
2005-10-01
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the characteristics of laminar flow past a sphere in uniform shear. The Reynolds numbers considered are Re =300, 425, and 480 based on the inlet center velocity uc and sphere diameter d. The nondimensional shear rate K of inlet uniform shear is varied from 0 to 0.15, where K =∣∇u∣d/uc (∣∇u∣) and ∣∇u∣ is the shear rate at inlet. For all Reynolds numbers investigated, the head of the hairpin vortex loop is always located on the high-velocity side in uniform shear. The flow maintains planar symmetry at Re =300. At Re =425 and 480, the temporal variation in the azimuthal angle of the hairpin vortex formation appearing in the uniform inlet flow is greatly reduced in uniform shear, but the flows still keep asymmetry for most inlet shear rates. However, in the cases of K =0.075 and 0.1, at Re =425, the flows become planar symmetric and their characteristics of formation and evolution of the hairpin vortex loops are different from those of asymmetric flows. In most cases, except the instances showing planar symmetry at Re =425, the Strouhal number and time-averaged drag and lift coefficients increase with increasing inlet shear rate. On the other hand, for K =0.075 and 0.1, showing planar symmetry at Re =425, three different vortices are shed in the wake, resulting in three distinct peak frequencies. Finally, a hysteresis phenomenon switching from planar symmetry to asymmetry (or vice versa) depending on the initial condition is observed at Re =425 and 450, implying that small variations in the flow or initial conditions change the flow field at these Reynolds numbers.
Multi-material incompressible flow simulation using the moment-of-fluid method
Garimella, R V; Schofield, S P; Lowrie, R B; Swartz, B K; Christon, M A; Dyadechko, V
2009-01-01
The Moment-of-Fluid interface reconstruction technique is implemented in a second order accurate, unstructured finite element variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. For flows with multiple materials, MOF significantly outperforms existing first and second order interface reconstruction techniques. For two material flows, the performance of MOF is similar to other interface reconstruction techniques. For strongly driven bouyant flows, the errors in the flow solution dominate and all the interface reconstruction techniques perform similarly.
Progress Toward Efficient Laminar Flow Analysis and Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Campbell, Matthew L.; Streit, Thomas
2011-01-01
A multi-fidelity system of computer codes for the analysis and design of vehicles having extensive areas of laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall approach consists of the loose coupling of a flow solver, a transition prediction method and a design module using shell scripts, along with interface modules to prepare the input for each method. This approach allows the user to select the flow solver and transition prediction module, as well as run mode for each code, based on the fidelity most compatible with the problem and available resources. The design module can be any method that designs to a specified target pressure distribution. In addition to the interface modules, two new components have been developed: 1) an efficient, empirical transition prediction module (MATTC) that provides n-factor growth distributions without requiring boundary layer information; and 2) an automated target pressure generation code (ATPG) that develops a target pressure distribution that meets a variety of flow and geometry constraints. The ATPG code also includes empirical estimates of several drag components to allow the optimization of the target pressure distribution. The current system has been developed for the design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings, but may be extendable to other speed ranges and components. Several analysis and design examples are included to demonstrate the current capabilities of the system.
Projection methods for incompressible flow problems with WENO finite difference schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Frutos, Javier; John, Volker; Novo, Julia
2016-03-01
Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite difference schemes have been recommended in a competitive study of discretizations for scalar evolutionary convection-diffusion equations [20]. This paper explores the applicability of these schemes for the simulation of incompressible flows. To this end, WENO schemes are used in several non-incremental and incremental projection methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Velocity and pressure are discretized on the same grid. A pressure stabilization Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) type of stabilization is introduced in the incremental schemes to account for the violation of the discrete inf-sup condition. Algorithmic aspects of the proposed schemes are discussed. The schemes are studied on several examples with different features. It is shown that the WENO finite difference idea can be transferred to the simulation of incompressible flows. Some shortcomings of the methods, which are due to the splitting in projection schemes, become also obvious.
A comparison of two incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for unsteady internal flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan
1993-01-01
A comparative study of two different incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for solving an unsteady, incompressible, internal flow problem is performed. The first algorithm uses an artificial compressibility method coupled with upwind differencing and a line relaxation scheme. The second algorithm uses a fractional step method with a staggered grid, finite volume approach. Unsteady, viscous, incompressible, internal flow through a channel with a constriction is computed using the first algorithm. A grid resolution study and parameter studies on the artificial compressibility coefficient and the maximum allowable residual of the continuity equation are performed. The periodicity of the solution is examined and several periodic data sets are generated using the first algorithm. These computational results are compared with previously published results computed using the second algorithm and experimental data.
Incomplete mixing and reactions in laminar shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paster, A.; Aquino, T.; Bolster, D.
2015-07-01
Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. In purely diffusive systems, for example, it is known that small initial fluctuations in reactant concentrations can lead to reactant segregation, which in the long run can reduce global reaction rates due to poor mixing. In contrast, nonuniform flows can enhance mixing between interacting solutes. Thus, a natural question arises: Can nonuniform flows sufficiently enhance mixing to restrain incomplete mixing effects and, if so, under what conditions? We address this question by considering a specific and simple case, namely, a laminar pure shear reactive flow. Two solution approaches are developed: a Lagrangian random walk method and a semianalytical solution. The results consistently highlight that if shear effects in the system are not sufficiently strong, incomplete mixing effects initially similar to purely diffusive systems will occur, slowing down the overall reaction rate. Then, at some later time, dependent on the strength of the shear, the system will return to behaving as if it were well mixed, but represented by a reduced effective reaction rate.
Direct numerical simulation of laminar-turbulent flow over a flat plate at hypersonic flow speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egorov, I. V.; Novikov, A. V.
2016-06-01
A method for direct numerical simulation of a laminar-turbulent flow around bodies at hypersonic flow speeds is proposed. The simulation is performed by solving the full three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The method of calculation is oriented to application of supercomputers and is based on implicit monotonic approximation schemes and a modified Newton-Raphson method for solving nonlinear difference equations. By this method, the development of three-dimensional perturbations in the boundary layer over a flat plate and in a near-wall flow in a compression corner is studied at the Mach numbers of the free-stream of M = 5.37. In addition to pulsation characteristic, distributions of the mean coefficients of the viscous flow in the transient section of the streamlined surface are obtained, which enables one to determine the beginning of the laminar-turbulent transition and estimate the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
Towards entropy detection of anomalous mass and momentum exchange in incompressible fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naterer, G. F.; Rinn, D.
2002-08-01
An entropy-based approach is presented for assessment of computational accuracy in incompressible flow problems. It is shown that computational entropy can serve as an effective parameter in detecting erroneous or anomalous predictions of mass and momentum transport in the flow field. In the present paper, the fluid flow equations and second law of thermodynamics are discretized by a Galerkin finite-element method with linear, isoparametric triangular elements. It is shown that a weighted entropy residual is closely related to truncation error; this relationship is examined in an application problem involving incompressible flow through a converging channel. In particular, regions exhibiting anomalous flow behaviour, such as under-predicted velocities, appear together with analogous trends in the weighted entropy residual. It is anticipated that entropy-based error detection can provide important steps towards improved accuracy in computational fluid flow. Copyright
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felderhof, B. U.
2015-11-01
A mechanical model of swimming and flying in an incompressible viscous fluid in the absence of gravity is studied on the basis of assumed equations of motion. The system is modeled as an assembly of rigid spheres subject to elastic direct interactions and to periodic actuating forces which sum to zero. Hydrodynamic interactions are taken into account in the virtual mass matrix and in the friction matrix of the assembly. An equation of motion is derived for the velocity of the geometric center of the assembly. The mean power is calculated as the mean rate of dissipation. The full range of viscosity is covered, so that the theory can be applied to the flying of birds, as well as to the swimming of fish or bacteria. As an example a system of three equal spheres moving along a common axis is studied.
Felderhof, B U
2015-11-01
A mechanical model of swimming and flying in an incompressible viscous fluid in the absence of gravity is studied on the basis of assumed equations of motion. The system is modeled as an assembly of rigid spheres subject to elastic direct interactions and to periodic actuating forces which sum to zero. Hydrodynamic interactions are taken into account in the virtual mass matrix and in the friction matrix of the assembly. An equation of motion is derived for the velocity of the geometric center of the assembly. The mean power is calculated as the mean rate of dissipation. The full range of viscosity is covered, so that the theory can be applied to the flying of birds, as well as to the swimming of fish or bacteria. As an example a system of three equal spheres moving along a common axis is studied. PMID:26651783
Enhanced mixing in laminar flows using ultrahydrophobic surfaces.
Ou, Jia; Moss, Geoffrey R; Rothstein, Jonathan P
2007-07-01
Under laminar, microscale flow conditions, rapid mixing can be difficult to achieve. In these low Reynolds number flows, mixing rates are governed by molecular diffusion, and in the absence of enhanced mixing techniques, mixing lengths and residence times can be much longer than most applications will allow. A number of active mixing techniques have been developed to improve mixing; however, they can be complex to implement and expensive to fabricate. In this paper, we describe a passive mixing method that utilizes a series of ultrahydrophobic surfaces. Our previous experiments have demonstrated that a shear-free air-water interface supported between hydrophobic microridges results in large slip velocities along these ultrahydrophobic surfaces, and significant drag reduction. By aligning the microridges and therefore the air-water interface at an oblique angle to the flow direction, a secondary flow is generated, which is shown to efficiently stretch and fold the fluid elements and reduce the mixing length by more than an order of magnitude compared to that of a smooth microchannel. The designs of the ultrahydrophobic surfaces were optimized through experiments and numerical simulations. A Y-shaped channel was used to bring two streams of water together, one tagged with a fluorescent dye. A confocal microscope was used to measure fluorescence intensity and dye concentration. Quantitative agreement between the experiments and the numerical simulations was achieved for both the flow patterns and degree of mixing. Increasing the angle of the microridges was found to reduce the mixing length up to a critical angle of about 60 degrees , beyond which the mixing length was found to increase with further increases to the angle of the microridge. The mixing enhancement was found to be much less sensitive to changes in microridge width or separation. PMID:17677560
Application of laminar flow control to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine nacelles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Y. S.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.
1991-01-01
Recently, the concept of the application of hybrid laminar flow to modern commercial transport aircraft was successfully flight tested on a Boeing 757 aircraft. In this limited demonstration, in which only part of the upper surface of the swept wing was designed for the attainment of laminar flow, significant local drag reduction was measured. This paper addresses the potential application of this technology to laminarize the external surface of large, modern turbofan engine nacelles which may comprise as much as 5-10 percent of the total wetted area of future commercial transports. A hybrid-laminar-flow-control (HLFC) pressure distribution is specified and the corresponding nacelle geometry is computed utilizing a predictor/corrector design method. Linear stability calculations are conducted to provide predictions of the extent of the laminar boundary layer. Performance studies are presented to determine potential benefits in terms of reduced fuel consumption.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin
1995-01-01
Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.
On the rotation and skew-symmetric forms for incompressible flow simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.
1991-01-01
A variety of numerical simulations of transition and turbulence in incompressible flow are presented to compare the commonly used rotation form with the skew-symmetric (and other) forms of the nonlinear terms. The results indicate that the rotation form is much less accurate than the other forms for spectral algorithms which include aliasing errors. For de-aliased methods the difference is minimal.
The pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valueva, E. P.; Purdin, M. S.
2015-11-01
The finite difference method is used to solve the task of the developed pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel. The optimum of the difference scheme parameters was determined. Data on the amplitude and phase of the longitudinal velocity oscillations, the hydraulic and friction drag coefficients, the shear stress on the wall have been obtained. Using the dimensionless value of the frequency pulsations two characteristic regimes — the quasisteady-state regime and the high-frequency regime have been identified. In the quasi-steady-state regime, the values of all hydrodynamic quantities at each instant of time correspond to the velocity value averaged over the cross section at a given moment of time. It is shown that in the high-frequency regime, the dependences on the dimensionless oscillation frequency of oscillating components of hydrodynamic quantities are identical for rectilinear channels with a different cross-sectional form (round pipe, flat and a rectangular channels). The effect of the aspect ratio of the rectangular channel sides channel on the pulsating flow dynamics has been analyzed.
Laminar-flow heat transfer downstream from U-bends
Abdelmessih, A.N
1987-01-01
The laminar-flow heat transfer downstream from the unheated, vertical bends in horizontal U-tubes with electrically heated straight tube sections was investigated. Four U-tubes with curvature ratios of 4.84, 7.66, 12.35, and 25.36 were studied. Distilled water and almost-pure ethylene glycol solutions (water content 1 to 5%) were the test fluids. For each test section, local axial and peripheral wall temperatures were measured, and the local peripheral heat-transfer coefficients at the various locations were calculated. The experiments covered the local bulk Reynolds number range of 120 to 2500. The local bulk Prandtl number varied between 4 and 110, while the Grashof number ranged from 2500 to 1,130,000. The uniform wall heat flux ranged from 900 to 4230 Btu/hr.sq.ft (3.12 to 13.33 KW/sq.m.). This investigation permitted a better understanding of the interaction of the primary, secondary, and tertiary flow patterns. Also, a correlation was developed that predicts the heat-transfer coefficient downstream from an unheated U-bend and that can be extended to straight tubes.
LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT: ITS USE AS A FLOW STANDARD
A standard device to measure flows accurately and precisely was required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish an air pollution field auditing system capable of generating pollutant concentrations in the parts per million and parts per billion range. he e...
Numerical simulation of the incompressible internal flow through a tilting disk valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, I-Dee; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
1990-01-01
A numerical simulation of the incompressible viscous flow through a prosthetic tilting disk heart valve is presented in order to demonstrate the current capability to model unsteady flows with moving boundaries. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations are performed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensional generalized curvilinear coordinates. In order to handle the moving boundary problems, the chimera grid embedding scheme which decomposes a complex computational domain into several simple subdomains is used. An algebraic turbulence model for internal flows is incorporated to reach the physiological values of Reynolds number. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental measurements. It is found that the tilting disk valve causes large regions of separated flow, and regions of high shear.
Measurements of laminar and turbulent flow in a curved duct with thin inlet boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.
1981-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the laminar and turbulent flow in a 90 deg square bend of strong curvature. The boundary layers at the inlet to the bend were approximately 25 percent and 15 percent of the hydraulic diameter for the laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. The development of the pressure driven secondary motion is more rapid for laminar flow: the maximum cross stream component measured was 60 percent of the bulk velocity in contrast to 40 percent for turbulent flow. The streamwise isotachs show that, for laminar flow, large velocities are found progressively nearer to the outer radius of the bend and along the sidewalls. For turbulent flow, the isotachs move towards the inner radius until about 60 deg around the bend where strong secondary motion results in a similar redistribution. Turbulence level and shear stress measurements are also presented.