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1

Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.

Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.

1987-01-01

2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transition of the laminar boundary layer into the turbulent state, which results in an increased drag, can be avoided by sucking of the boundary layer particles near the wall. The technically-interesting case of sucking the particles using individual slits is investigated for bodies of revolution in incompressible flow. The results of the variational calculations show that there is an optimum suction height, where the slot separations are maximum. Combined with favorable shaping of the body, it is possible to keep the boundary layer over bodies of revolution laminar at high Reynolds numbers using relatively few suction slits and small amounts of suction flow.

Thiede, P.

1978-01-01

3

Incompressible laminar flow through hollow fibers: a general study by means of a two-scale approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a hollow fiber, whose walls are porous. We write the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the inner channel and Darcy's law for the flow in the fiber, coupling them by means of the Beavers-Joseph condition which accounts for the (possible) slip at the membrane surface. Then, we introduce a small parameter {\\varepsilon ? 1} (the ratio between the radius and the length of the fiber) and expand all relevant quantities in powers of ?. Averaging over the fiber cross section, we find the velocity profiles for the longitudinal flow and for the cross-flow, and eventually, we determine the explicit expression of the permeability of the system. This work is also preliminary to the study of more complex systems comprising a large number of identical fibers (e.g., ultrafiltration modules and dialysis).

Borsi, Iacopo; Farina, Angiolo; Fasano, Antonio

2011-08-01

4

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis is presented on the possible similarity solutions of the three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, boundary-layer equations referred to orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate systems. Requirements of the existence of similarity solutions are obtained for the following: flow over developable surface and flow over non-developable surfaces with proportional mainstream velocity components.

Hansen, Arthur G.

1958-01-01

5

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entropy generation due to steady laminar forced convection fluid flow through parallel plates microchannel is investigated numerically. The effect of Knudsen, Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference on entropy generation within the microchannel is discussed. The fraction of the entropy generation due to heat transfer to the total entropy generation within the microchannel is studied in terms of Bejan number. The entropy generation within the microchannel is found to decrease as Knudsen number increases, and it is found to increase as Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference increase. The contribution of the viscous dissipation in the total entropy generation increases as Knudsen number increases over wide ranges of the flow controlling parameters.

Haddad, Osamah; Abuzaid, Mohammad; Al-Nimr, Mohammad

2004-12-01

6

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program was developed to calculate laminar layers along inviscid surface streamlines over inclined axisymmetric bodies. The inviscid surface streamlines are computed from experimental pressure data using a doubly quadratic spline interpolation technique if an analytical potential solution is not provided. By application of the axisymmetric analog, or small cross flow assumption, the properties of this 3-D flow field may be approximated by solving the axisymmetric boundary layer equations over an equivalent axisymmetric body for each inviscid surface streamline. Hall's and Blottner's boundary layer solution methods, both of which utilize a finite difference technique to obtain the local velocity profile, were incorporated into the computational code. Results are presented for a sphere, an ellipsoid of revolution with thickness ratio of 1/4 at 12 and 30 degrees angle of attack, and a sphere-ogive-cylinder configuration at 45 degrees angle of attack. The latter case utilized experimental pressure data while an analytical potential solution was available for the other configurations. A technique for calculating the streamline metric along an inviscid surface streamline was developed. Boundary layer profiles were calculated along the streamlines from the stagnation point to the separation point. Calculations using the axisymmetric analog and ellipsoid of revolution at angle of attack.

Dejarnette, Fred R.; Kania, Lee H.

1989-02-01

7

Study of the development of natural instabilities in a laminar boundary layer in incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural instabilities which are created in a laminar boundary layer and which consist of intermittent wave trains were studied. The spectral analysis of these fluctuations makes it possible to localize them in terms of frequency and to isolate their spectrum of amplitude modulation. The variation in terms of abscissa value and ordinate value of these instabilities is compared with the results derived from the solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation.

Burnel, S.; Gougat, P.

1981-01-01

8

Summary An exact solution of pulsating laminar flow superposed on the steady motion in a circular pipe is presented under the assumption of parallel flow to the axis of pipe. Total mass of flow on time average is found to be identified with that given byHagen-Poiseuille's low calculated on the steady component of pressure gradient. The phase lag of velocity

Shigeo Uchida

1956-01-01

9

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

10

For the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, an explicit Runge-Kutta finite-volume solver was created. The gradients due to the viscous terms were approximated in the cells by surface integrals along the cell boundaries. A stability analysis for the condition of the local time step for the Runge-Kutta scheme was performed. Results for external and internal flow in two dimensions

Peter Eliasson

1987-01-01

11

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a novel, efficient and accurate algorithm for laminar and turbulent flow simulations. The spatial discretisation is performed with help of the compact difference schemes (up to 10th order) for collocated and half-staggered grid arrangements. The time integration is performed by a predictor-corrector approach combined with the projection method for pressure-velocity coupling. At this stage a low order discretisation is introduced which considerably decreases the computational costs. It is demonstrated that such approach does not deteriorate the solution accuracy significantly. Following Boersma B.J. [13] the interpolation formulas developed for staggered uniform meshes are used also in the computations with a non-uniform strongly varying nodes distribution. In the proposed formulation of the projection method such interpolation is performed twice. It is shown that it acts implicitly as a high-order low pass filter and therefore the resulting algorithm is very robust. Its accuracy is first demonstrated based on simple 2D and 3D problems: an inviscid vortex advection, a decay of Taylor-Green vortices, a modified lid-driven cavity flow and a dipole-wall interaction. In periodic flow problems (the first two cases) the solution accuracy exhibits the 10th order behaviour, in the latter cases the 3rd and the 4th order is obtained. Robustness of the proposed method in the computations of turbulent flows is demonstrated for two classical cases: a periodic channel with Re?=395 and Re?=590 and a round jet with Re=21 000. The solutions are obtained without any turbulence model and also without any explicit techniques aiming to stabilise the solution. The results are in a very good agreement with literature DNS and LES data, both the mean and r.m.s. values are predicted correctly.

Tyliszczak, Artur

2014-11-01

12

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

Joslin, Ronald D.

1998-01-01

13

Numerical solutions are presented for steady two-dimensional symmetric flow past parabolic bodies in a uniform stream parallel to its axis. For this study, the full Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation in parabolic coordinates were solved. A second order accurate finite difference scheme on a non-uniform grid was used. The solution domain does not exclude the leading edge region as it

O. M. Haddad; M. Abu-Qudais; A. M. Maqableh

2000-01-01

14

\\u000a We present numerical techniques for solving the problem of fluid structure interaction with a compressible elastic material\\u000a in a laminar incompressible viscous flow via fully coupled monolithic Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The\\u000a mathematical description and the numerical schemes are designed in such a way that more complicated constitutive relations\\u000a can be easily incorporated. The whole domain of interest is treated

Mudassar Razzaq; Jaroslav Hron; Stefan Turek

15

Development of a flow-condition-based interpolation 9-node element for incompressible flows

The Navier-Stokes equations are widely used for the analysis of incompressible laminar flows. If the Reynolds number is increased to certain values, oscillations appear in the finite element solution of the Navier-Stokes ...

Banijamali, Bahareh

2006-01-01

16

Unified approach for incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1995-01-01

17

Flight experiences with laminar flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of natural laminar flow (NLF) flight experiences over the period from the 1930's to the present has been given to provide information on the achievability and maintainability of NLF in typical airplane operating environments. Significant effects of loss of laminar flow on airplane performance have been observed for several airplanes, indicating the importance of providing information on these changes to laminar flow airplane operators. Significant changes in airplane stability and control and maximum lift were observed in flight experiments with the loss of laminar flow. However, these effects can be avoided by proper selection of airfoils. Conservative laminar flow airfoil designs should be employed which do not experience significant loss of lift (caused by flow separation) upon the loss of laminar flow. Mechanisms have been observed for the effects of insect accumulation, flight through clouds and precipitation, and propeller slipstreams on laminar flow behavior. Fixed transition testing, in addition to free transition testing, is recommended as a new standard procedure for airplanes with surfaces designed to support laminar flow.

Holmes, Bruce J.

1986-01-01

18

Unified approach for incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1993-01-01

19

Computation of viscous incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.

Kwak, Dochan

1989-01-01

20

Laminar flow in a recess of a hydrostatic bearing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow in a recess of a hydrostatic journal bearing is studied in detail. The Navier-Stokes equations for the laminar flow of an incompressible liquid are solved numerically in a two-dimensional plane of a typical bearing recess. Pressure- and shear-induced flows, as well as a combination of these two flow conditions, are analyzed. Recess friction, pressure-ram effects at discontinuities in the flow region, and film entrance pressure loss effects are calculated. Entrance pressure loss coefficients over a forward-facing step are presented as functions of the mean flow Reynolds number for pure-pressure and shear-induced laminar flows.

San Andres, Luis A.; Velthuis, Johannes F. M.

1992-01-01

21

Overview of Laminar Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) from the 1930s through the 1990s is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Early studies related to the natural laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. Although most of this publication is about slot-, porous-, and perforated-suction LFC concept studies in wind tunnel and flight experiments, some mention is made of thermal LFC. Theoretical and computational tools to describe the LFC aerodynamics are included for completeness.

Joslin, Ronald D.

1998-01-01

22

Polymer transport by laminar flows

Polymer transport is investigated for two paradigmatic laminar flows having open and closed streamlines, respectively. For both types of flows we find transport depletion owing to the action of the polymers elastic degree of freedom. For flows with closed streamlines the leading mechanism for the observed transport reduction is the (dynamical) formation of barriers. For flows with open streamlines the reduction of transport is induced by the renormalization of the bare diffusion coefficient. Results have been obtained by means of Lagrangian simulations.

M. De Lucia; A. Mazzino; A. Vulpiani

2002-02-18

23

Supersonic laminar-flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.

Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

1987-01-01

24

Laminar flow: Challenge and potential

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial air transportation has experienced revolutionary technology advances since WWII. These technology advances have resulted in an explosive growth in passenger traffic. Today, however, many technologies have matured, and maintaining a similar growth rate will be a challenge. A brief history of laminar flow technology and its application to subsonic and supersonic air transportation is presented.

Kirchner, Mark E.

1987-01-01

25

Laminar-flow flight experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

1989-01-01

26

Radiative interactions in laminar duct flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses and numerical procedures are presented for infrared radiative energy transfer in gases when other modes of energy transfer occur simultaneously. Two types of geometries are considered, a parallel plate duct and a circular duct. Fully developed laminar incompressible flows of absorbing-emitting species in black surfaced ducts are considered under the conditions of uniform wall heat flux. The participating species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O. Nongray as well as gray formulations are developed for both geometries. Appropriate limiting solutions of the governing equations are obtained and conduction-radiation interaction parameters are evaluated. Tien and Lowder's wide band model correlation was used in nongray formulation. Numerical procedures are presented to solve the integro-differential equations for both geometries. The range of physical variables considered are 300 to 2000 K for temperature, 0.1 to 100.0 atm for pressure, and 0.1 to 100 cm spacings between plates/radius of the tube. An extensive parametric study based on nongray formulation is presented. Results obtained for different flow conditions indicate that the radiative interactions can be quite significant in fully developed incompressible flows.

Trivedi, P. A.; Tiwari, S. N.

1990-01-01

27

Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

1986-01-01

28

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow equations for laminar and turbulent flat and axisymmetric wall boundary layers were investigated. The boundary layer equations are given in a curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system, with an estimation of the conservation equations. An extended Falkner-Skan equation for laminar incompressible boundary layers reveals the influence of wall curvature. Turbulent flow is treated with a Wilcox-Traci two-equation turbulence model which takes into account wall curvature effects and laminar-turbulent transition. A comparison between numerical calculation and experiments shows the influence of wall curvature on boundary layer formation. The limits of the numerical method are demonstrated, especially if laminar-turbulent transition is considered.

Podtschaske, T.

29

\\u000a As briefly discussed in Chapter 4, the motion of Newtonian fluids is described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Due to the\\u000a non-linear nature of these equations and the general complexity of the flow geometry, analytical solutions of Navier-Stoke’s\\u000a equations has been exhibiting a major problem in fluid mechanics. The continuous development in the area of computer technology\\u000a and the introduction of

Meinhard T. Schobeiri

30

Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Water

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between…

Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.

2010-01-01

31

Successes and Challenges of Incompressible Flow Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of CFD discipline. Even though incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient, CFD tools become indispensable in fluid engineering for incompressible and low speed flow. This paper is intended to review some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discuss some of the current challenges.

Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

2003-01-01

32

A flow solver originally developed for the solution of the two-dimensional unsteady inviscid incompressible equations on unstructured triangular meshes was extended to compute laminar viscous flows with a dynamic mesh adaptation method. The use of a mesh adaptation method allows one to obtain higher accuracy, lower computational cost, or both as compared with a suitably refined static mesh. Mesh derefinement

Paul Tinphone Lin

2001-01-01

33

Investigation of an incompressible flow along a corner by an alternating direction implicit method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The axial corner flow is analyzed for the incompressible laminar boundary layer flow. The governing equations are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations by neglecting second derivative terms of the axial direction. An alternating direction implicit method is used to solve the equations in primitive variables.

Goglia, G. L.; Patel, D. K.

1977-01-01

34

Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.

Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.

1989-01-01

35

FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN A HELICALLY COILED TUBE OF FINITE PITCH

Solutions for steady, fully developed, laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a helically coiled tube of finite pitch were obtained by finite difference calculations. Prior theoretical solutions have apparently been limited to toroidal flow (with zero pitch). The computed results are consistent with those for this limiting case and with prior experimental data for finite pitch. The behavior

ROMEO L. MANLAPAZ; STUART W. CHURCHILL

1980-01-01

36

Laminar Motion of the Incompressible Fluids in Self-Acting Thrust Bearings with Spiral Grooves

We analyze the laminar motion of incompressible fluids in self-acting thrust bearings with spiral grooves with inner or external pumping. The purpose of the study is to find some mathematical relations useful to approach the theoretical functionality of these bearings having magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids, in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. This theoretical study approaches the permanent motion regime. To validate the theoretical results, we compare them to some experimental results presented in previous papers. The laminar motion of incompressible fluids in bearings is described by the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics. We developed and particularized these equations by taking into consideration the geometrical and functional characteristics of these hydrodynamic bearings. Through the integration of the differential equation, we determined the pressure and speed distributions in bearings with length in the “pumping” direction. These pressure and speed distributions offer important information, both quantitative (concerning the bearing performances) and qualitative (evidence of the viscous-inertial effects, the fluid compressibility, etc.), for the laminar and permanent motion regime. PMID:24526896

Velescu, Cornel; Popa, Nicolae Calin

2014-01-01

37

Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows: Symmetry approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and, in particular, a special type of "weak" symmetries.

Cicogna, G.; Pegoraro, F.

2015-02-01

38

A faster 'transition' to laminar flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion is given of the ongoing research related to laminar flow airfoils, nacelles, and wings where the laminar flow is maintained by a favorable pressure gradient, surface suction or a combination of the two. Design methologies for natural laminar flow airfoil sections and wings for both low and high speed applications are outlined. Tests of a 7-foot chord, 23-deg sweep laminar flow-control airfoil at high subsonic Mach numbers are described, along with the associated stability theory used to design the suction system. The state-of-the-art of stability theory is simply stated and a typical calculation illustrated. In addition, recent computer simulations of transition using the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations are briefly described. Advances in wind tunnel capabilities and instrumentation will be reviewed, followed by the presentation of a few results from both wind tunnels and flight. Finally, some suggestions for future work will complete the paper.

Bobbitt, P. J.; Waggoner, E. G.; Harvey, W. D.; Dagenhart, J. R.

1985-01-01

39

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 3

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 3 of the Symposium proceedings contains papers addressing advanced airfoil development, flight research experiments, and supersonic transition/laminar flow control research. Specific topics include the design and testing of natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils, NLF wing gloves, and NLF nacelles; laminar boundary-layer stability over fuselage forebodies; the design of low noise supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels; and boundary layer instability mechanisms on swept leading edges at supersonic speeds.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

40

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A swept supercritical wing incorporating laminar flow control at transonic flow conditions was designed and tested. The definition of an experimental suction coefficient and a derivation of the compressible and incompressible formulas for the computation of the coefficient from measurable quantities is presented. The suction flow coefficient in the highest velocity nozzles is shown to be overpredicted by as much as 12 percent through the use of an incompressible formula. However, the overprediction on the computed value of suction drag when some of the suction nozzles were operating in the compressible flow regime is evaluated and found to be at most 6 percent at design conditions.

Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.

1991-01-01

41

Direct numerical simulation of incompressible turbulent flows

The paper discusses recent achievements of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible flows. The various spatial discretization techniques which can be used in the case of simple or complex geometry are referred to, along with suitable time advancement schemes. The advantage of using a staggered variable arrangement and efficient Poisson solvers is stressed before initial and boundary conditions for inflow,

R Friedrich; T. J Hüttl; M Manhart; C Wagner

2001-01-01

42

Quadratic finite elements and incompressible viscous flows.

Pressure stabilization methods are applied to higher-order velocity finite elements for application to viscous incompressible flows. Both a standard pressure stabilizing Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) method and a new polynomial pressure projection stabilization (PPPS) method have been implemented and tested for various quadratic elements in two dimensions. A preconditioner based on relaxing the incompressibility constraint is also tested for the iterative solution of saddle point problems arising from mixed Galerkin finite element approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations. The preconditioner is demonstrated for BB stable elements with discontinuous pressure approximations in two and three dimensions.

Dohrmann, Clark R.; Gartling, David K.

2005-01-01

43

On laminar steady flow in sinusoidal channels

In the present paper a perturbation method is developed in order to study viscous laminar flows through wavy-walled channels. The stream function of the flow is expanded in a series thereby the wall amplitude being the perturbation parameter. The walls of the channel are transformed into parallel straight lines in order to simplify the boundary conditions of the problem on

S. Tsangaris; E. Leiter

1984-01-01

44

Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

1996-01-01

45

Optical flow for incompressible turbulence motion estimation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose in this paper a new formulation of optical flow dedicated to 2D incompressible turbulent flows. It consists in minimizing an objective function constituted by an observation term and a regularization one. The observation term is based on the transport equation of the passive scalar field. For non-fully resolved scalar images, we propose to use the mixed model in large eddy simulation to determine the interaction between large scales and unresolved ones. The regularization term is based on the continuity equation of 2D incompressible flows. Compared to prototypical method, this regularizer preserves more vortex structures by eliminating constraints over the vorticity field. The evaluation of the proposed formulation is done over synthetic and experimental images, and the improvements in term of estimation are discussed.

Chen, Xu; Zillé, Pascal; Shao, Liang; Corpetti, Thomas

2015-01-01

46

CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows

This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Smith, B. L. (Barton L.); Martin, R. A. (Richard A.)

2001-01-01

47

Incompressible viscous flow in tubes with occlusions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscous, incompressible flow in tubes with partial occlusion is investigated using numerical and experimental procedures. The study is related to the problem of atherosclerosis, one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system. One of the computational difficulties in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the lack of pressure or vorticity boundary conditions. A finite difference approach, referred to as the interior constraint (IC) method, is proposed to resolve this difficulty. As a general numerical method, it is formulated for both the stream function-vorticity and primitive (physical) variable formulations. The procedure is explained using a one dimensional model with extensive numerical tests presented for two dimensional cases, including flow in a driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step. Results are obtained with second-order accuracy. Next, the IC method is applied to flow in a tube with an occlusion, which is used as the model for blood flow in stenosed arteries in the study of the pathology of atherosclerosis. Numerical results are obtained for both steady and pulsatile flows. Results are compared with those of SIMPLE, one of the commercially available numerical algorithms. The pulsatile flow study revealed several interesting new features. It suggested that the high shear stress is not likely to initiate atherosclerosis lesions. The recirculation region, which is a prominent feature of the unsteady flow, is more likely to cause the initiation and development of the disease. Experimental measurements for steady flow complement the numerical study and show qualitative agreement.

Huang, Huaxiong

48

a Combustion Model for Incompressible Flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the flow of a pre-mixed, reactive, incompressible, viscous fluid, using a combination of vortex methods and a flame propagation algorithm based on Huyghens' principle. The random vortex methods are lagrangian methods used to resolve the motion of incompressible fluids regulated by the Navier -Stokes equations. They are best suited for flows at high Reynolds numbers. Detailed description of the vortex blobs, and vortex sheets methods is given together with the presentation of a hybrid vortex method that relates the two. The combustion part of the problem is modeled by a variation of the SLIC (Simple Line Interface Calculation) algorithm, that involves the use of a flame dictionary which contains flame speeds and preheat thicknesses. The combined algorithms are tested on a cold flat late with different free stream velocities. The numerical results show the effects of cold boundaries, turbulence, and exothermicity on the burning process.

Calzada, Maria Eugenia

49

High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.

Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

2001-01-01

50

Algebraic multigrid and incompressible fluid flow

This paper is concerned with the development of algebraic multigrid (AMG) solution methods for the coupled vector-scalar fields of incompressible fluid flow. It addresses in particular the problems of unstable smoothing and of maintaining good vector-scalar coupling in the AMG coarse-grid approximations. Two different approaches have been adopted. The first is a direct approach based on a second-order discrete-difference formulation

R. Webster

2007-01-01

51

Preconditioned Multigrid Methods for Unsteady Incompressible Flows

A highly efficient numerical approach based on multigrid and preconditioning methods is developed for modeling 3D steady and time-dependent incompressible flows. Thek-? turbulence model is used to estimate the effects of turbulence. The model equations are solved together with the N-S equations in a strongly coupled way, and acceleration techniques like the multigrid method are also used for the turbulence

C. Liu; X. Zheng; C. H. Sung

1998-01-01

52

Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

Not Available

2014-02-01

53

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid 1970's, NASA, industry, and universities have worked together to conduct important research focused at developing laminar flow technology that could reduce fuel consumption for general aviation, commuter, and transport aircraft by as much as 40 to 50 percent. The symposium was planned in view of the recent accomplishments within the areas of laminar flow control and natural laminar flow, and the potential benefits of laminar flow technology to the civil and military aircraft communities in the United States. Included were technical sessions on advanced theory and design tool development; wind tunnel and flight research; transition measurement and detection techniques; low and high Reynolds number research; and subsonic and supersonic research.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

54

Flow Solver for Incompressible Rectangular Domains

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an extension of the Flow Solver for Incompressible 2-D Drive Cavity software described in the preceding article. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow using finite differencing on a uniform, staggered grid. There is a runtime choice of either central differencing or modified upwinding for the convective term. The domain must be rectangular, but may have a rectangular walled region within it. Currently, the position of the interior region and exterior boundary conditions are changed by modifying parameters in the code and recompiling. These features make it possible to solve a variety of classical fluid flow problems such as an L-shaped cavity, channel flow, or wake flow past a square cylinder. The code uses fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-stepping and overall second-order spatial accuracy. This software permits the walled region to be positioned such that flow past a square cylinder, an L-shaped cavity, and the flow over a back-facing step can all be solved by reconfiguration. Also, this extension has an automatic detection of periodicity, as well as use of specialized data structure for ease of configuring domain decomposition and computing convergence in overlap regions.

Kalb, Virginia L.

2008-01-01

55

Incompressible flow over delta wings

. , An Investigation of the Flow It around Slender Delta Wings with Leading-Edge Separation", Princeton Report 510, 1960. 2 Jones, R. T. , Properties of Low Aspect Ratio Pointed Wings at lt Speeds Above and Below the Speed of Sound", NACA Report 835, 1946. 3... Legendre, R. , La condition de Joukowski en ecoulement tri-dimen- II sionnel", Recherche Aerospatiale, No. 5, 1952, pp. 241-248. Brown, C. E. and Michael, W. H. , "On Slender Delta Wings with Lead- ing-Edge Separation", NACA TN-3430, 1955. Mangler, K. W...

Nathman, James Kirwin

1976-01-01

56

Feasibility study of laminar flow bodies in fully turbulent flow

One of the most important design requirements of long range autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is to minimize propulsive power. An important and relatively easy way of achieving this is by careful selection of hull shape. Two main schools of thought in this respect are: if laminar flow can be maintained for a long length of the body, the effective drag can be reduced; it is not possible to maintain laminar flow for a significant length of the body and hull design should be based on turbulent flow conditions. In this paper, a feasibility study of laminar flow designs is undertaken under the assumption that flow will be turbulent over the entire length. For comparison two laminar flow designs X-35 and F-57 are selected and results are compared with those of two typical torpedo shaped bodies, namely AFTERBODY1 and AFTERBODY2 of DTNSRDC. It has been shown that laminar flow bodies have 10--15% higher drag when flow is turbulent over the entire length. Hence there is some hydrodynamic risk involved in adopting such laminar bodies without further consideration.

Sarkar, T.; Sayer, P.G.; Fraser, S.M. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

57

Progress In Incompressible Pump Flow Calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady and unsteady flows for propulsion systems are efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard kappa - epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an advanced rocket pump impeller in steadily rotating reference frames. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of exit and shroud cavities with the leak-age flow are investigated. Time-accurate incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation with the overlapped grid scheme capability was evaluated by using MIT flapping foil experiment. The grid dependency, turbulence model effects, and the effect of order of differencing were investigated. Numerical results were compared against experimental data. The resulting procedure were applied to unsteady flapping foil calculations. Two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions to the downstream larger stationary foil. Comparison between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures will be presented.

Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

58

Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

1986-01-01

59

Laminar Flow Through Circular Tubes with Side Inlets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss experimental results on steady axisymmetric flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid through circular pipes with side inlets. Circular tubes with a set of holes along their sidewalls are used in a number of medical procedures as straight catheters to transfer fluid into or out of the human body. For example, because of the small size of the incision required, they are commonly used in peritoneal dialysis. The internal diameter and the diameter of the side holes are often 1 mm and less, and as a result, the fluid flow is laminar in a typical medical procedure. An understanding of the flow inside the catheter tube in terms of its geometric parameters will be key in designing new catheters with optimal clinical performance for specific applications. In the experiments, water is withdrawn from a smooth tube with side holes and the local axial pressure and flow rates through the side holes are measured for different flow conditions. A nondimensionalization of the data shows a power-law behavior in only some cases. Using numerical simulations, it is shown how the interaction of the axial flow with the impinging jets from the side holes can change the overall behavior of the flow for a given suction pressure.

Abedian, Behrouz; Muhlanger, Eric

2004-11-01

60

Numerical simulation of laminar flow in a curved duct

This paper describes numerical simulations that were performed to study laminar flow through a square duct with a 900 bend. The purpose of this work was two fold. First, an improved understanding was desired of the flow physics involved in the generation of secondary vortical flows in three-dimensions. Second, adaptive gridding techniques for structured grids in three- dimensions were investigated for the purpose of determining their utility in low Reynolds number, incompressible flows. It was also of interest to validate the commercial computer code CFD-ACE. Velocity predictions for both non-adaptive and adaptive grids are compared with experimental data. Flow visualization was used to examine the characteristics of the flow though the curved duct in order to better understand the viscous flow physics of this problem. Generally, moderate agreement with the experimental data was found but shortcomings in the experiment were demonstrated. The adaptive grids did not produce the same level of accuracy as the non-adaptive grid with a factor of four more grid points.

Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.

1995-01-01

61

Clothing in laminar-flow operating theatres

Bacterial shedding, wound contamination and clinical-infection rates in clean wounds are influenced by operating-theatre dress. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of hats, masks and clothing to the control of wound contamination in both ultraclean (enclosed vertical laminar-flow) and conventional (plenum ventilated) airflow theatres. Personnel wore varying combinations of dress in both types of theatre.

M. J. Hubble; A. E. Weale; J. V. Perez; K. E. Bowker; A. P. MacGowan; G. C. Bannister

1996-01-01

62

Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 of the Symposium proceedings includes papers addressing various topics in basic wind tunnel research/techniques and computational transitional research. Specific topics include: advanced measurement techniques; laminar flow control; Tollmien-Schlichting wave characteristics; boundary layer transition; flow visualization; wind tunnel tests; flight tests; boundary layer equations; swept wings; and skin friction.

Hefner, Jerry N. (compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (compiler)

1987-01-01

63

Adjoint operator approach to shape design for internal incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of determining the profile of a channel or duct that provides the maximum static pressure rise is solved. Incompressible, laminar flow governed by the steady state Navier-Stokes equations is assumed. Recent advances in computational resources and algorithms have made it possible to solve the direct problem of determining such a flow through a body of known geometry. It is possible to obtain a set of adjoint equations, the solution to which permits the calculation of the direction and relative magnitude of change in the diffuser profile that leads to a higher pressure rise. The solution to the adjoint problem can be shown to represent an artificially constructed flow. This interpretation provides a means to construct numerical solutions to the adjoint equations that do not compromise the fully viscous nature of the problem. The algorithmic and computational aspects of solving the adjoint equations are addressed. The form of these set of equations is similar but not identical to the Navier-Stokes equations. In particular some issues related to boundary conditions and stability are discussed.

Cabuk, H.; Sung, C.-H.; Modi, V.

1991-01-01

64

NASA supercritical laminar flow control airfoil experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and goals of experimental investigations of supercritical LFC airfoils conducted in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel beginning in March 1982 are reviewed. Topics addressed include laminarization aspects; flow-quality requirements; simulation of flight parameters; the setup of screens, honeycomb, and sonic throat; the design cycle; theoretical pressure distributions and shock-free limits; drag divergence and stability analysis; and the LFC suction system. Consideration is given to the LFC airfoil model, the air-flow control system, airfoil-surface instrumentation, liner design and hardware, and test options. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

Harvey, W. D.

1982-01-01

65

Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.

Orszag, S. A.

1981-01-01

66

Supercomputing Aspects for Simulating Incompressible Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbo-pump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the Message Passage Interface (MPI) and Multi Level Parallel (MLP) versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology, INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbo-pump simulations, moving boundary capability and efficient time-accurate integration methods are built in the flow solver, To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, an overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver so that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. Two numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are outlined for obtaining time-accurate solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The performance of the two methods is compared by obtaining unsteady solutions for the evolution of twin vortices behind a flat plate. Calculated results are compared with experimental and other numerical results. For an unsteady flow, which requires small physical time step, the pressure projection method was found to be computationally efficient since it does not require any subiteration procedure. It was observed that the artificial compressibility method requires a fast convergence scheme at each physical time step in order to satisfy the incompressibility condition. This was obtained by using a GMRES-ILU(0) solver in present computations. When a line-relaxation scheme was used, the time accuracy was degraded and time-accurate computations became very expensive.

Kwak, Dochan; Kris, Cetin C.

2000-01-01

67

Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.

Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.

1985-01-01

68

AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...

69

Flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of interstitial fluid is one of major interest in earth sciences in terms of the exploitation of water resources, the initiation of earthquakes, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), etc. Seismic waves are often known to increase the flux of interstitial fluid but the relationship between the flux and propagating seismic waves have not been well investigated in the past, although seismic stimulation has been applied in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Many observations indicated that seismic waves could stimulate the oil production due to lowering of apparent viscosity coefficient, to the coalescence and/or the dispersion of droplets of a phase in multiphase fluids. However, the detailed mechanism of seismic stimulation has not been fully understood, either. In this study, We attempt to understand the mechanism of the flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition for the simulation of interstitial flow. Here, we analyze a monophase flow in a pore throat. We first assume a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of incompressible fluid through a pore-throat in a porous medium. We adopt the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in which the motion of fluid is simulated through the variation of velocity distribution function representing the distribution of discrete particle velocities. We use an improved incompressible LBKG model (d2q9i) proposed in Zou et. al. (1995) to accurately accommodate the boundary conditions of pressure and velocity in the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. We also use an half-way bounce back boundary condition as the velocity boundary condition. Also, we assume a uniform pressure (density) difference between inlet and outlet flow, and the density difference could initiate the flow in our simulation. The oscillating boundary condition is given by the body force acting on fluid particles. In this simulation, we found that the flux change is negligible under small amplitude of oscillation in both horizontal and vertical directions of a horizontal porous tube. The vertical oscillation perpendicular to the flow direction could accelerate the flux. On the other hand, the horizontal oscillation parallel to the flow direction could either reduce or increase the flux depending on the amplitude of the oscillation. We also found that one of the important parameters in the variation of the flux would be the radius of the pore throat, i.e., the spatial scale of the model that has significant influence to the oscillating boundary condition.

Ueda, R.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.

2012-12-01

70

Simplex finite element analysis of viscous incompressible flow with penalty function formulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscous flow calculations are important for the determination of separated flows, recirculating flows, secondary flows and so on. This paper presents a penalty function approach for the finite element analysis of steady incompressible viscous flow. A simplex element is used with linear velocity and constant pressure in contrast to other works which usually employ higher order elements. Simplex elements yield analytical expressions for the element matrices which in turn lead to efficient solutions. Earlier works have partially indicated how constraint and lock-up problems might be avoided for simplex elements. This paper extends the earlier works by indicating the approach in detail and verifying that it is successful for several applications not discussed in the literature so far. Solution times and accuracy considerations are discussed for Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, a driven cavity problem, and laminar and turbulent flow over a step.

Allaire, P. E.; Rosen, M. C.; Rice, J. G.

1985-01-01

71

Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems

Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems Diplomarbeit zur, discussion and analysis of the Hybrid (exactly divergence-free) Discontinuous Galerkin method which results of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods is proposed resulting in the Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin Method which

72

Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n?=?3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

2014-01-01

73

Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n?=?3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration—similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

2014-01-01

74

Advanced stability theory analyses for laminar flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments of the SALLY computer code for stability analysis of laminar flow control wings are summarized. Extensions of SALLY to study three dimensional compressible flows, nonparallel and nonlinear effects are discussed.

Orszag, S. A.

1980-01-01

75

Laminar flow control perforated wing panel development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many structural concepts for a wing leading edge laminar flow control hybrid panel were analytically investigated. After many small, medium, and large tests, the selected design was verified. New analytic methods were developed to combine porous titanium sheet bonded to a substructure of fiberglass and carbon/epoxy cloth. At -65 and +160 F test conditions, the critical bond of the porous titanium to the composite failed at lower than anticipated test loads. New cure cycles, design improvements, and test improvements significantly improved the strength and reduced the deflections from thermal and lateral loadings. The wave tolerance limits for turbulence were not exceeded. Consideration of the beam column midbay deflections from the combinations of the axial and lateral loadings and thermal bowing at -65 F, room temperature, and +160 F were included. Many lap shear tests were performed at several cure cycles. Results indicate that sufficient verification was obtained to fabricate a demonstration vehicle.

Fischler, J. E.

1986-01-01

76

Acoustic waves superimposed on incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of incompressible approximations in deriving solutions to the Lighthill wave equation was investigated for problems where an analytical solution could be found. A particular model problem involves the determination of the sound field of a spherical oscillating bubble in an ideal fluid. It is found that use of incompressible boundary conditions leads to good approximations in the important region of high acoustic wave number.

Hodge, Steve

1990-01-01

77

Laminar bubbly flow in a vertical channel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the buoyant rise of many nearly spherical bubbles in laminar flows in vertical channels. The lift force on spherical bubbles leads to a very simple flow structure in terms of the void fraction distribution and the average liquid velocity. The numerical results show that at steady state the number density of bubbles in the center of the channel is always such that the fluid mixture there is in hydrostatic equilibrium and the velocity is uniform. For upflow, excess bubbles are pushed to the walls, forming a bubble rich layer, one bubble diameter thick. For downflow, bubbles are drawn into the channel core, leading to a wall layer with no bubbles, of a thickness determined by the pressure gradient and the average void fraction. For the downflow, the void fraction profile and the velocity profile can be predicted analytically, but for upflow the velocity increase across the wall-layer must be obtained from the simulations. The behaviour of the bubbles in the middle of the channel, including the slip velocity and their velocity fluctuations, is well predicted by results for homogeneous flows in fully periodic domains.

Lu, Jiacai

2005-11-01

78

Algebraic multigrid and incompressible fluid flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of algebraic multigrid (AMG) solution methods for the coupled vector-scalar fields of incompressible fluid flow. It addresses in particular the problems of unstable smoothing and of maintaining good vector-scalar coupling in the AMG coarse-grid approximations. Two different approaches have been adopted. The first is a direct approach based on a second-order discrete-difference formulation in primitive variables. Here smoothing is stabilized using a minimum residual control harness and velocity-pressure coupling is maintained by employing a special interpolation during the construction of the inter-grid transfer operators. The second is an indirect approach that avoids the coupling problem altogether by using a fourth-order discrete-difference formulation in a single scalar-field variable, primitive variables being recovered in post-processing steps. In both approaches the discrete-difference equations are for the steady-state limit (infinite time step) with a fully implicit treatment of advection based on central differencing using uniform and non-uniform unstructured meshes. They are solved by Picard iteration, the AMG solvers being used repeatedly for each linear approximation.Both classical AMG (C-AMG) and smoothed-aggregation AMG (SA-AMG) are used. In the direct approach, the SA-AMG solver (with inter-grid transfer operators based on mixed-order interpolation) provides an almost mesh-independent convergence. In the indirect approach for uniform meshes, the C-AMG solver (based on a Jacobi-relaxed interpolation) provides solutions with an optimum scaling of the convergence rates. For non-uniform meshes this convergence becomes mesh dependent but the overall solution cost increases relatively slowly with increasing mesh bandwidth.

Webster, R.

2007-02-01

79

Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow

Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of kappa-epsilon modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy kappa, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation epsilon, for each material. Hence a set of kappa and epsilon equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both kappa and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a pipe.

Kashiwa, B.

1987-10-01

80

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A velocity-pressure integrated, mixed interpolation, Galerkin finite element method for the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. In the method, the velocity variables were interpolated using complete quadratic shape functions and the pressure was interpolated using linear shape functions. For the two dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a triangular element which is contained inside the complete biquadratic element for velocity variables; and for the three dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a tetrahedral element which is again contained inside the complete tri-quadratic element. Thus the pressure is discontinuous across the element boundaries. Example problems considered include: a cavity flow for Reynolds number of 400 through 10,000; a laminar backward facing step flow; and a laminar flow in a square duct of strong curvature. The computational results compared favorable with those of the finite difference methods as well as experimental data available. A finite elememt computer program for incompressible, laminar flows is presented.

Kim, Sang-Wook

1988-01-01

81

Numerical study of laminar and turbulent flows inside a turnaround duct with and without guide vanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to examine in detail incompressible laminar and turbulent flows inside a turnaround duct with and without guide vanes and to investigate the effects of vanes on the flow characteristics. To perform this study, an implicit finite difference code cast in general curvilinear coordinates is further developed. The code is based on the method of pseudo-compressibility and utilize ADI or implicit approximate factorization algorithm to achieve computational efficiency. Method of segmental sweeping is developed to overcome the multiple-zone problem due to imposition of guide vanes. In the present study, several test cases have been computed. These test cases include laminar and turbulent flows inside a turnaround duct without and with two or three guide vanes. The study reveals that: (1) there exists large recirculation zones inside the duct if no vanes are present; (2) properly shaped and positional guide vanes are effective in eliminating flow separation; and (3) laminar and turbulent flows have similar flow features. But turbulent flow has less total pressure drop.

Lin, S.-J.; Chang, James L. C.

1987-01-01

82

Natural laminar flow airfoil analysis and trade studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of an airfoil for a large commercial transport cruising at Mach 0.8 and the use of advanced computer techniques to perform the analysis are described. Incorporation of the airfoil into a natural laminar flow transport configuration is addressed and a comparison of fuel requirements and operating costs between the natural laminar flow transport and an equivalent turbulent flow transport is addressed.

1979-01-01

83

Current Laminar Flow Control Experiments at NASA Dryden

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to demonstrate laminar flow over the swept wing of a subsonic transport is being developed. Discrete Roughness Elements are being used to maintain laminar flow over a substantial portion of a wing glove. This passive laminar flow technology has only come to be recognized as a significant player in airliner drag reduction in the last few years. NASA is implementing this experiment and is planning to demonstrate this technology at full-scale Bight cruise conditions of a small-to-medium airliner.

Bowers, Al

2010-01-01

84

Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

1988-01-01

85

A redefined hydraulic diameter for laminar flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For laminar, steady flow in ducts, the current definition of hydraulic diameter, Dh, does not accurately depict the non-uniform wall shear stress distribution around the perimeter of non-circular duct shapes. In this investigation, a new hydraulic diameter Dh(1), was empirically determined. It correlated friction factor data for many non-circular shapes to within approximately 2.4 % of the circular duct value. An experiment, using the AFIT oil Flow Rig Set-Up, was run to determine the effect of transition Reynolds number, Re(tr), and hydrodynamic entrance length, L(+), of replacing Dh with Dh(1). Transition Reynolds number and L(+) were determined, based on Dh and Dh(1) for a circular, square, and concentric annular duct. Transition Reynolds numbers, based on Dh, for the square and concentric annular ducts were approximately 12.5% lower than the circular duct Re(tr). The Re(tr), based on Dh(1), did not correlate well for the concentric annulus, but did correlate for the square duct.

Sutherland, Bruce J.

1986-12-01

86

Laminar flow between a stationary and a rotating disk with radial throughflow

The problem of axisymmetric laminar flow of a viscous incompressible fluid that occurs between a stationary and a rotating disk subjected to a uniform radial throughflow has been numerically investigated for a large range of flow parameters. Results show that the basic flow structure is rather complex and depends strongly on both the rotational and the flow structure is rather complex and depends strongly on both the rotational and the throughflow Reynolds numbers. In general, the basic unicellular structure has been observed. With the increase of the throughflow Reynolds number, a multicellular flow structure may be found. The phenomenon of multiple solutions has been clearly observed for cases with sufficiently high rational Re and/or high throughflow Re. Among these solutions, stable as well as unstable solutions have been determined by applying Rayleigh`s stability criterion. The influence of the starting conditions on the stability of the flow has also been investigated for various ranges of flow parameters.

Nesreddine, H.; Nguyen, C.T.; Vo-Ngoc, D. [Univ. de Moncton, New Brunswick (Canada). School of Engineering

1995-05-01

87

Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

2010-01-01

88

Incipient particle motion in laminar shear flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally the critical conditions for incipient motion of spherical particles deposited on a regular substrate under laminar flow conditions. The substrates consist of a monolayer of wall-fixed spheres uniformly sized and regularly arranged in triangular and quadratic configurations. To highlight the effects of exposure, the distance between the substrate spheres is varied in the quadratic arrangement. We found that for particle Reynolds numbers of order one and smaller, the critical Shields parameter is independent from the particle density and from the particle Reynolds numbers but it depends significantly on the geometry of the substrate. We show how different geometrical parameters like the particle arrangement and exposure affect the critical Shields parameter. We particularly focus on the effect of neighboring particles on the onset of particle motion. Unlike single rolling particles, we observe switching between rolling and sliding motion as a consequence of friction between the moving neighbors. In our experiments, this two-particle interaction is the basic difference between the incipient motion of a single and multiple particles, resulting in a significant increment of the critical Shields number.

Rodríguez Agudo, José Alberto; Wierschem, Andreas

2013-04-01

89

On the characteristics-based ACM for incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the revised characteristics-based (CB) method for incompressible flows recently derived by Neofytou [P. Neofytou, Revision of the characteristic-based scheme for incompressible flows, J. Comput. Phys. 222 (2007) 475-484] has been further investigated. We have derived all the formulas for pressure and velocities from this revised CB method, which is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) [A.J. Chorin, A numerical solution for solving incompressible viscous flow problems, J. Comput. Phys. 2 (1967) 12]. Then we analyze the formulations of the original CB method [D. Drikakis, P.A. Govatsos, D.E. Papatonis, A characteristic based method for incompressible flows, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 19 (1994) 667-685; E. Shapiro, D. Drikakis, Non-conservative and conservative formulations of characteristics numerical reconstructions for incompressible flows, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 66 (2006) 1466-1482; D. Drikakis, P.K. Smolarkiewicz, On spurious vortical structures, J. Comput. Phys. 172 (2001) 309-325; F. Mallinger, D. Drikakis, Instability in three-dimensional, unsteady stenotic flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23 (2002) 657-663; E. Shapiro, D. Drikakis, Artificial compressibility, characteristics-based schemes for variable density, incompressible, multi-species flows. Parts I. Derivation of different formulations and constant density limit, J. Comput. Phys. 210 (2005) 584-607; Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, A high-order characteristics upwind FV method for incompressible flow and heat transfer simulation on unstructured grids, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 190 (5-7) (2000) 733-756] to investigate their consistency with the governing flow equations after convergence has been achieved. Furthermore we have implemented both formulations in an unstructured-grid finite volume solver [Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, A high-order characteristics upwind FV method for incompressible flow and heat transfer simulation on unstructured grids, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 190 (5-7) (2000) 733-756]. Detailed numerical experiments show that both methods give almost identical solutions and convergence rates. Both can generate solutions which agree well with published results and experimental measurements. We thus conclude that both methods, being upwind schemes designed for the ACM, have the same performances in terms of accuracy and convergence speed, even though the revised method is more complex with less stringent assumptions made, while the original CB method is simpler due to the use of extra simplifying assumptions.

Su, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yong; Huang, Xiaoyang

2007-11-01

90

ENHANCEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE METHOD FOR PREDICTING INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOWS

Variations of the SIMPLE method of Patankar and Spalding have been widely used over the past decade to obtain numerical solutions to problems involving incompressible flows. The present paper shows several modifications to the method which both simplify its implementation and reduce solution costs. The performances of SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and SIMPLEC (the present method) are compared for two recirculating flow

J. P. Van Doormaal; G. D. Raithby

1984-01-01

91

A Multilevel Adaptive Projection Method for Unsteady Incompressible Flow \\Lambda

jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variableA Multilevel Adaptive Projection Method for Unsteady Incompressible Flow \\Lambda Louis H. Howell for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate

92

Selected experiments in laminar flow: An annotated bibliography

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1930s, there have been attempts to reduce drag on airplanes by delaying laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Experiments conducted during the 1940's, while successful in delaying transition, were discouraging because of the careful surface preparation necessary to meet roughness and waviness requirements. The resulting lull in research lasted nearly 30 years. By the late 1970s, airframe construction techniques had advanced sufficiently that the high surface quality required for natural laminar flow (NLF) and laminar flow control (LFC) appeared possible on production aircraft. As a result, NLF and LFC research became widespread. This report is an overview of that research. The experiments summarized herein were selected for their applicability to small transonic aircraft. Both flight and wind tunnel tests are included. The description of each experiment is followed by corresponding references. Part One summarizes NLF experiments; Part Two deals with LFC and hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiments.

Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.

1992-01-01

93

Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

1986-01-01

94

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers [28–30] are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. The local stoichiometric axial velocity, Ust, and scalar dissipation rate, ?st, are obtained at points that are upstream of the stabilization

Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

2000-01-01

95

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows

Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. Jet exit velocity, nozzle diameter, coflow air velocity as well as partial jet premixing with air are varied to obtain the local

Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

2000-01-01

96

Laminar and intermittent flow in a tilted heat pipe.

Heat transfer measurements performed by Riedinger et al. (Phys. Fluids, 25, 015117 (2013)) showed that in an inclined channel, heated from below and cooled from above with adiabatic walls, the flow is laminar or intermittent (local bursts can occur in the laminar flow) when the inclination angle is sufficiently high and the applied power sufficiently low. In this case, gravity plays a crucial role in the characteristics of the flow. In this paper, we present velocity measurements, and their derived tensors, obtained with Particle Image Velocimetry inside the channel. We, also, propose a model derived from a jet interpretation of the flow. Comparison between experiment and model shows a fair agreement. PMID:24464137

Rusaouen, E; Riedinger, X; Tisserand, J-C; Seychelles, F; Salort, J; Castaing, B; Chillà, F

2014-01-01

97

Unsaturated incompressible flows in adsorbing porous media V. Solonnikov

study a free boundary problem modelling the penetration of a liquid through a porous material the first stage of penetration of a liquid through a porous material in which hydrophile granules absorbUnsaturated incompressible flows in adsorbing porous media A. Fasano V. Solonnikov Abstract We

Fasano, Antonio

98

An update on projection methods for transient incompressible viscous flow

Introduced in 1990 was the biharmonic equation (for the pressure) and the concomitant biharmonic miracle when transient incompressible viscous flow is solved approximately by a projection method. Herein is introduced the biharmonic catastrophe that sometimes occurs with these same projection methods.

Gresho, P.M.; Chan, S.T.

1995-07-01

99

Lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible flows through porous media.

In this paper a lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for isothermal incompressible flow in porous media. The key point is to include the porosity into the equilibrium distribution, and add a force term to the evolution equation to account for the linear and nonlinear drag forces of the medium (the Darcy's term and the Forcheimer's term). Through the Chapman-Enskog procedure, the generalized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow in porous media are derived from the present lattice Boltzmann model. The generalized two-dimensional Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and lid-driven cavity flow are simulated using the present model. It is found the numerical results agree well with the analytical and/or the finite-difference solutions. PMID:12366250

Guo, Zhaoli; Zhao, T S

2002-09-01

100

Lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible flows through porous media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for isothermal incompressible flow in porous media. The key point is to include the porosity into the equilibrium distribution, and add a force term to the evolution equation to account for the linear and nonlinear drag forces of the medium (the Darcy's term and the Forcheimer's term). Through the Chapman-Enskog procedure, the generalized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow in porous media are derived from the present lattice Boltzmann model. The generalized two-dimensional Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and lid-driven cavity flow are simulated using the present model. It is found the numerical results agree well with the analytical and/or the finite-difference solutions.

Guo, Zhaoli; Zhao, T. S.

2002-09-01

101

Lockheed laminar-flow control systems development and applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is summarized from 1974 to the present in the practical application of laminar-flow control (LFC) to subsonic transport aircraft. Those efforts included preliminary design system studies of commercial and military transports and experimental investigations leading to the development of the leading-edge flight test article installed on the NASA JetStar flight test aircraft. The benefits of LFC on drag, fuel efficiency, lift-to-drag ratio, and operating costs are compared with those for turbulent flow aircraft. The current activities in the NASA Industry Laminar-Flow Enabling Technologies Development contract include summaries of activities in the Task 1 development of a slotted-surface structural concept using advanced aluminum materials and the Task 2 preliminary conceptual design study of global-range military hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to obtain data at high Reynolds numbers and at Mach numbers representative of long-range subsonic transport aircraft operation.

Lange, Roy H.

1987-01-01

102

Laminar flow control, 1976 - 1982: A selected annotated bibliography

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar Flow Control technology development has undergone tremendous progress in recent years as focused research efforts in materials, aerodynamics, systems, and structures have begun to pay off. A virtual explosion in the number of research papers published on this subject has occurred since interest was first stimulated by the 1976 introduction of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Laminar Flow Control Program. The purpose of this selected bibliography is to list available, unclassified laminar flow (both controlled and natural) research completed from about 1975 to mid 1982. Some earlier pertinent reports are included but listed separately in the Appendix. Reports listed herein emphasize aerodynamics and systems studies, but some structures work is also summarized. Aerodynamic work is mainly limited to the subsonic and transonic sped regimes. Because wind-tunnel flow qualities, such as free stream disturbance level, play such an important role in boundary-layer transition, much recent research has been done in this area and it is also included.

Tuttle, M. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

1982-01-01

103

Brief history of laminar flow clean room systems

This paper reviews the development and evolution of laminar flow clean rooms and hoods and describes the underlying principles and rationales associated with development of this type of clean room system and Federal Standard No. 209. By the mid 1970's, over a thousand hospitals in the US had installed laminar flow equipment in operating rooms. During the past several years a great deal of attention has been focused on conserving energy in clean rooms. Some gains in energy conservation have been achieved by improved design, off hours shutdown, and closer evaluation of requirements for clean rooms. By the early 1970's, the laminar flow principle had been carried from the Laboratory and applied to production hardware to create a mature industry producing and marketing a variety of laminar flow equipment in less than 10 years time. This achievement was made possible by literally dozens of persons in industry, government, military, and private individuals who developed hardware, added numerous innovations, and had the foresight to apply the technology to many fields other than industrial clean rooms. Now, with laminar flow devices available, class 100 levels are readily achievable and maintained, and at the same time require fewer operating restrictions than previously possible.

Whitfield, W J

1981-01-01

104

Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.

Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

2011-01-01

105

Laminar flow integration: Flight tests status and plans

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the Aircraft Energy Efficiency - Laminar Flow Control Program, there are currently three flight test programs under way to address critical issues concerning laminar flow technology application to commercial transports. The Leading-Edge Flight Test (LEFT) with a JetStar aircraft is a cooperative effort with the Ames/Dryden Flight Research Facility to provide operational experience with candidate leading-edge systems representative of those that might be used on a future transport. In the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE), also a cooperative effort between Langley and Ames/Dryden, basic transition data on an F-14 wing with variable sweep will be obtained to provide a data base for laminar flow wing design. Finally, under contract to the Boeing Company, the acoustic environment on the wing of a 757 aircraft will be measured and the influence of engine noise on laminar flow determined with a natural laminar flow glove on the wing. The status and plans for these programs are reported.

Wagner, R. D.; Fisher, D. F.; Fischer, M. C.; Bartlett, D. W.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.

1986-01-01

106

A velocity decomposition method for viscous incompressible flow calculations. II

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical method in which the velocity field is decomposed into two parts (a gradient of a scalar function plus a rotational correction) is used to calculate viscous incompressible flows. The three-dimensional flow in a cavity has been simulated using a finite difference scheme on a staggered grid and a vectorizable block relaxation method. The results are found to agree well with previous numerical and experimental data.

Hafez, M.; Soliman, M.

107

Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

Hartshom, Fletcher

2012-01-01

108

Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The wing was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

2014-01-01

109

Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.

Stack, John P. (inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (inventor)

1989-01-01

110

Laminar/turbulent oscillating flow in circular pipes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted simulating the gas flow inside Stirling engine heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10,800 (Va = 272), 19,300 (Va = 272), and 60,800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Predictions of the flow regime are also checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase difference with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, the performance of the k-epsilon model was evaluated to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

1992-01-01

111

Some observations regarding steady laminar flows past bluff bodies.

Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder or a sphere, have been studied for well over a century. Theoretical, experimental and numerical methods have all contributed fundamentally towards our understanding of the resulting flows. This article focuses on developments during the past few decades, when mostly numerical and asymptotical advances have provided insights also for steady, although unstable, high-Reynolds-numbers flow regimes. PMID:24936017

Fornberg, Bengt; Elcrat, Alan R

2014-07-28

112

Incompressible Navier-Stokes computations of vortical flows over double-delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implicit flux-difference splitting scheme is used to compute incompressible laminar vortical flows about a thin round-edged double-delta wing with 80 deg and 60 deg leading-edged sweep for the strake and the main wing respectively. The numerical scheme combines approximate factorization in crossflow planes with a symmetric planar Gauss-Seidel relaxation in the remaining spatial direction. It is second-order accurate spatially by applying TVD-like upwind discretization to the inviscid fluxes and central differencing to the viscous shear fluxes. The interaction between the two primary vortices emanating from the apex and kink leading-edges is successfully simulated. The computed trajectories of vortical cores compare well with experimental data.

Hsu, Chung-Hao; Hartwich, Peter-Michael; Liu, C. H.

1987-01-01

113

F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

1999-01-01

114

Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

Maschke, A.W.

1984-04-16

115

Application of laminar flow control to supersonic transport configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and impact of implementing a laminar flow control system on a supersonic transport configuration were investigated. A hybrid laminar flow control scheme consisting of suction controlled and natural laminar flow was developed for a double-delta type wing planform. The required suction flow rates were determined from boundary layer stability analyses using representative wing pressure distributions. A preliminary design of structural modifications needed to accommodate suction through a perforated titanium skin was carried out together with the ducting and systems needed to collect, compress and discharge the suction air. The benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag were weighed against the weight, volume and power requirement penalties of suction system installation in a mission performance and sizing program to assess the net benefits. The study showed a feasibility of achieving significant laminarization of the wing surface by use of a hybrid scheme, leading to an 8.2 percent reduction in the cruise drag. This resulted in an 8.5 percent reduction in the maximum takeoff weight and a 12 percent reduction in the fuel burn after the inclusion of the LFC system installation penalties. Several research needs were identified for a resolution of aerodynamics, structural and systems issues before these potential benefits could be realized in a practical system.

Parikh, P. G.; Nagel, A. L.

1990-01-01

116

Application of porous materials for laminar flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.

Pearce, W. E.

1978-01-01

117

Design optimization of natural laminar flow bodies in compressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimization method has been developed to design axisymmetric body shapes such as fuselages, nacelles, and external fuel tanks with increased transition Reynolds numbers in subsonic compressible flow. The new design method involves a constraint minimization procedure coupled with analysis of the inviscid and viscous flow regions and linear stability analysis of the compressible boundary-layer. In order to reduce the computer time, Granville's transition criterion is used to predict boundary-layer transition and to calculate the gradients of the objective function, and linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method is used to calculate the objective function at the end of each design iteration. Use of a method to design an axisymmetric body with extensive natural laminar flow is illustrated through the design of a tiptank of a business jet. For the original tiptank, boundary layer transition is predicted to occur at a transition Reynolds number of 6.04 x 10(exp 6). For the designed body shape, a transition Reynolds number of 7.22 x 10(exp 6) is predicted using compressible linear stability theory coupled with the e(exp n)-method.

Dodbele, Simha S.

1992-01-01

118

Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.

Gunzburger, M. D.

1986-01-01

119

Coarse grain parallel finite element simulations for incompressible flows

Parallel simulation of incompressible fluid flows is considered on networks of homogeneous work-stations. Coarse-grain parallelization of a Taylor-Galerkin\\/pressure-correction finite element algorithm are discussed, taking into account network communication costs. The main issues include the parallelization of system assembly, and iterative and direct solvers, that are of com-mon interest to finite element and general numerical computation. The parallelization strategies are implemented

P. W. Grant; M. F. Webster; X. Zhang

1998-01-01

120

RIPPLE - A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the continuum surface force model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a higher-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE's unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.

1991-01-01

121

Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free-stream flow. The lateral curvature of the wing/strat causes the oncoming turbulent layer to skew about am axis (x-axis) parallel to the plane (xz-plane) of the mean shear. This is the principle mechanism for the generation of secondary flow. Such skew-induced secondary flows are slow to be attenuated by Reynolds stresses. Additional contribution to the generation of secondary flow comes from anisotropies in Reynolds stresses. Upstream of the strut, the mean-vorticity is directed span wise (along the y-direction). The presence of secondary flow in the vicinity of the strut causes the vorticity to stretch around the obstacle in a horse-shoe shape, with each leg having a vorticity of the opposite sense. The blockage effect of the strut imposes a severe adverse pressure gradient on the oncoming turbulent shear layer, causing boundary layer separation ahead of the leading edge, resulting in a vortex that rolls up and flows downstream into the juncture region. The separation vortices trailing in the wake of the wing can alter the lift or drag characteristics of the surfaces downstream of the wing-body juncture. Likewise, on submarines, the wake flow behind the appendage can degrade the performance of the propeller located downstream. The complex nature of this flow is caused by the presence of all six components of Reynolds stresses. Devenport and Simpson report that in the vicinity of the horse-shoe vortex there is intense recirculation with turbulent stresses being much larger than those normally observed in turbulent flows. These features contribute to making this flow a challenge to predict numerically. Some of the past studies provide useful insights into this flow that would guide our numerical efforts. In measurements reported by Shabaka and Bradshaw, the eddy viscosity tensor is seen to be non-isotropic and has negative components in certain regions. In an effort to evaluate the closure assumptions of various turbulence models, Devenport and Simpson used their own extensive measurements in juncture flows around the nose of a wing-body junction. Measured values of me

Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.

1998-01-01

122

Structural Bifurcation of 2-D Incompressible Flows

to problems in fluid mechanics and other areas of the physical sciences. Fluid flows can be described as an independent science. A new impetus was given to the application of topological methods in fluid mechanics study in this article the structural bifurcation of divergence-free vector fields on a two

Ghil, Michael

123

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of previous boundary-layer transition experiments over axisymmetric bodies indicates a potential for achieving substantial amounts of laminar flow over such shapes. Achievement of natural laminar flow over portions of nonlifting aircraft geometries, such as fuselage forebodies, tip tanks or engine nacelles, could significantly contribute to the reduction of total aircraft viscous drag. A modern surface-panel method, a streamwise boundary-layer analysis method and streamwise linear stability theory (e^{rm n}-method) are used to correlate several previous transition measurements along axisymmetric geometries. To study the transition characteristics of a nonaxisymmetric body geometry, a flight investigation was conducted to measure the transition location and analyze the mode of transition over the nonaxisymmetric forebody of an existing light twin-engine propeller-driven airplane. A summary of the inviscid flow field over the forebody of the aircraft at various body angles is presented, indicating the relatively small magnitude of inviscid crossflow along the forebody at typical cruising attitudes. The transition instrumentation installed in the airplane fuselage is described, together with relative surface-waviness measurements along the forebody. Comparison of predicted and measured longitudinal and circumferential surface-pressure distributions along the forebody show good agreement in regions not affected by surface waviness and the propeller flow field. The macroscopic location of the transition front, obtained from arrayed hot-film sensors, is presented for a matrix of flight conditions with various unit-Reynolds numbers, angles of attack and sideslip, and engine power settings. The measured axial extent of laminar flow (maximum of 4.9 ft along the side) demonstrates the achievability of laminar flow on the smoothed nonaxisymmetric fuselage forebody of a typical twin-engine light airplane in the presence of engine acoustic disturbances and surface waviness. Spectral analysis of measured hot-film signals revealed amplified disturbances in the range of predicted Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) instabilities. The computed logarithmic T-S amplitude ratios ("n-factors") using the axisymmetric-analogue e^{rm n }-method are found to be generally lower than from the axisymmetric transition correlations. The relatively low "n-factors" on both the side and the top of the forebody may result from the waviness of the test surface. The proximity of the propeller-propulsion system appears to have affected the location of transition onset along the side of the fuselage forebody in some flight conditions. The flow visualization did not reveal evidence of transition caused by crossflow-vorticity instability on the forebody side; however, neither the axisymmetric-analogue method predicts possible crossflow-instability growth along the forebody.

Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

124

Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.

Smith, Brooke Edward

1993-01-01

125

Laminar backward-facing step flow using the finite element method

Laminar, incompressible flow over a backward-facing step is calculated using a finite element spatial discretization with a piecewise continuous pressure approximation and an explicit time marching algorithm. The time-accurate evolution to steady state is demonstrated for both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. This approach is shown to accurately predict the lengths of the recirculation zone on the top wall and at the step for various meshes and domain lengths, for a Reynolds number of 800 based on the average inlet velocity and twice the inlet channel height. The instantaneous and steady-state results are investigated. The steady-state solutions are evaluated by comparison to published numerical and experimental results.

Kornblum, B.; McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Christon, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kollmann, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States) Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering] [and others

1995-11-01

126

Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.

Kwak, Dochan

2001-01-01

127

Dumb-bell model for polymer transport in laminar flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer transport is investigated, in the limit of the so-called dumb-bell model, for two paradigmatic laminar flows having open and closed streamlines, respectively. For both types of flows we find transport depletion owing to the action of the polymers elastic degree of freedom. For flows with closed streamlines the leading mechanism for the observed transport reduction is the (dynamical) formation of barriers. For flows with open streamlines the reduction of transport is induced by the renormalization of the bare diffusion coefficient. Results have been obtained by means of Lagrangian simulations.

DeLucia, M.; Mazzino, A.; Vulpiani, A.

2002-10-01

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of previous boundary-layer transition experiments over axisymmetric bodies indicates a potential for achieving substantial amounts of laminar flow over such shapes. Achievement of natural laminar flow over portions of nonlifting aircraft geometries, such as fuselage to forebodies, tip tanks or engine nacelles, could significantly contribute to the reduction of total aircraft viscous drag. A modern surface-panel method, a streamwise boundary-layer analysis method, and streamwise linear stability theory (E(sup n)-method) are used to correlate several previous transition measurements along axisymmetric geometries to study the transition characteristics of a nonaxisymmetric body geometry, a flight investigation was conducted to measure the transition location and analyze the mode of transition over the nonaxisymmetric forebody of an existing light twin-engine propeller-driven airplane. A summary of the inviscid flow field over the forebody of the aircraft at various body angles is presented, indicating the relatively small magnitude of inviscid crossflow along the forebody at typical cruising attitudes. The transition instrumentation installed in the airplane fuselage is described, together with relative surface-waviness measurements along the forebody. The macroscopic location of the transitional front, obtained from arrayed hot-film sensors, is presented for a matrix of flight conditions with various unit-Reynolds numbers, angles of attack and sideslip, and engine power settings.

Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

1990-11-01

129

Self-pumping suction/propulsion for laminar flow bodies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented to investigate the feasibility of a self-pumping suction system for a very low drag suction laminar flow control (SLFC) underwater test body. The nose and afterbody of a torpedo-like body are contoured such that a prominent low-pressure region in the aft part of the body can serve as a suction pump to suck the boundary layer fluid through the circumferential surface-slots and thus laminarize the entire body length forward of the aft low-pressure peak. The results indicate that it is feasible to laminarize a test body in this fashion at a design speed, such as 40 knots; but that the laminarization of a particular configuration is limited to a band of speeds at and near the design speed. If an SLFC test body with a wide range of speed capability is desired, then a controllable-speed suction pump and controllable suction distribution along the body are indicated. The analysis includes a suction system design calculation example and should be a useful reference for future development of undersea SLFC vehicles.

Rogers, K. H.; King, D. A.

1984-06-01

130

Development of laminar flow control wing surface porous structure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that the chordwise air collection method, which actually combines chordwise and spanwise air collection, is the best of the designs conceived up to this time for full chord laminar flow control (LFC). Its shallower ducting improved structural efficiency of the main wing box resulting in a reduction in wing weight, and it provided continuous support of the chordwise panel joints, better matching of suction and clearing airflow requirements, and simplified duct to suction source minifolding. Laminar flow control on both the upper and lower surfaces was previously reduced to LFC suction on the upper surface only, back to 85 percent chord. The study concludes that, in addition to reduced wing area and other practical advantages, this system would be lighter because of the increase in effective structural wing thickness.

Klotzsche, M.; Pearce, W.; Anderson, C.; Thelander, J.; Boronow, W.; Gallimore, F.; Brown, W.; Matsuo, T.; Christensen, J.; Primavera, G.

1984-01-01

131

Laminar flow test installation in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the initial wind tunnels tests in the 5- by 8-ft Boeing Research Wind Tunnel of a near full-scale (20-foot chord) swept wing section having laminar flow control (LFC) by slot suction over its first 30 percent chord. The model and associated test apparatus were developed for use as a testbed for LFC-related experimentation in support of preliminary design studies done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper contains the description of the model and associated test apparatus as well as the results of the initial test series in which the proper functioning of the test installation was demonstrated and new data were obtained on the sensitivity of suction-controlled laminar flow to surface protuberances in the presence of crossflow due to sweep.

George-Falvy, Dezso

1990-01-01

132

Numerical simulations of incompressible viscous flows in realistic configurations are increasingly important in many scientific and engineering fields. In Aeronautics, for instance, relatively cheap numerical computations ...

Marques, Alexandre Noll

2012-01-01

133

Flow Solver for Incompressible 2-D Drive Cavity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. The code uses second-order finite differencing on a staggered grid using the Chorin projection method. The resulting intermediate Poisson equation is efficiently solved using the fast Fourier transform. Time stepping is done using fourth-order Runge-Kutta for stability at high Reynolds numbers. Features include check-pointing, periodic field snapshots, ongoing reporting of kinetic energy and changes between time steps, time histories at selected points, and optional streakline generation.

Kalb, Virginia L.

2008-01-01

134

Visualization tools for vorticity transport analysis in incompressible flow.

Vortices are undesirable in many applications while indispensable in others. It is therefore of common interest to understand their mechanisms of creation. This paper aims at analyzing the transport of vorticity inside incompressible flow. The analysis is based on the vorticity equation and is performed along pathlines which are typically started in upstream direction from vortex regions. Different methods for the quantitative and explorative analysis of vorticity transport are presented and applied to CFD simulations of water turbines. Simulation quality is accounted for by including the errors of meshing and convergence into analysis and visualization. The obtained results are discussed and interpretations with respect to engineering questions are given. PMID:17080821

Sadlo, Filip; Peikert, Ronald; Sick, Mirjam

2006-01-01

135

A boundary element method for steady incompressible thermoviscous flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A boundary element formulation is presented for moderate Reynolds number, steady, incompressible, thermoviscous flows. The governing integral equations are written exclusively in terms of velocities and temperatures, thus eliminating the need for the computation of any gradients. Furthermore, with the introduction of reference velocities and temperatures, volume modeling can often be confined to only a small portion of the problem domain, typically near obstacles or walls. The numerical implementation includes higher order elements, adaptive integration and multiregion capability. Both the integral formulation and implementation are discussed in detail. Several examples illustrate the high level of accuracy that is obtainable with the current method.

Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.

1991-01-01

136

Rotating incompressible flow with a pressure Neumann condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers the internal flow of an incompressible viscous fluid contained in a rectangular duct subject to a rotation. A direct velocity-pressure algorithm in primitive variables with a Neumann condition for the pressure is employed. The spatial discretization is made with finite central differences on a staggered grid. The pressure and velocity fields are directly updated without any iteration. Numerical simulations with several Reynolds numbers and rotation rates were performed for ducts of aspect ratios 2:1 and 8:1.

Claeyssen, Julio R.; Bravo Asenjo, Elba; Rubio, Obidio

2006-01-01

137

Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.

Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.

2013-03-01

138

Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible thermal flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is proposed and extended to include incompressible thermal flows. A new equilibrium solution is found in the improved FMLB model, which is derived from the Hermite expansion. As a result, the velocity-dependent pressure is removed, which is an inherent defect of Somers's FMLB model. In addition, the improved model is extended to include incompressible thermal flows by introducing a class of temperature-distribution function for evaluating the temperature field. Two different temperature-distribution functions are discussed. The improved FMLB model and the temperature-evaluation equation are combined into one coupled model. Numerical simulations are performed on the two-dimensional (2D) lid-driven square cavity flow and the 2D natural convection flow in a square cavity using the improved FMLB model and the two coupled models, respectively. The numerical results of the 2D lid-driven square cavity flow show that the improved FMLB model is superior to the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model in terms of both accuracy and stability. When compared with the multi-relaxation-time (MRT) model, the similar accuracy and slightly enhanced stability can be obtained by the improved model. The advantage of the improved model is that it no longer relies on difficult selection of the free parameters requested by the MRT model; in addition, the force term is already included in the collision operator of the improved model. In the case of 2D natural convection flow, the numerical results of the two present models are almost the same, and both exhibit good agreement with the benchmark solution.

Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen; Cao, Jun

2012-04-01

139

Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible thermal flows.

In this study, a new filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is proposed and extended to include incompressible thermal flows. A new equilibrium solution is found in the improved FMLB model, which is derived from the Hermite expansion. As a result, the velocity-dependent pressure is removed, which is an inherent defect of Somers's FMLB model. In addition, the improved model is extended to include incompressible thermal flows by introducing a class of temperature-distribution function for evaluating the temperature field. Two different temperature-distribution functions are discussed. The improved FMLB model and the temperature-evaluation equation are combined into one coupled model. Numerical simulations are performed on the two-dimensional (2D) lid-driven square cavity flow and the 2D natural convection flow in a square cavity using the improved FMLB model and the two coupled models, respectively. The numerical results of the 2D lid-driven square cavity flow show that the improved FMLB model is superior to the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model in terms of both accuracy and stability. When compared with the multi-relaxation-time (MRT) model, the similar accuracy and slightly enhanced stability can be obtained by the improved model. The advantage of the improved model is that it no longer relies on difficult selection of the free parameters requested by the MRT model; in addition, the force term is already included in the collision operator of the improved model. In the case of 2D natural convection flow, the numerical results of the two present models are almost the same, and both exhibit good agreement with the benchmark solution. PMID:22680602

Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen; Cao, Jun

2012-04-01

140

Natural laminar flow experiments on modern airplane surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight and wind-tunnel natural laminar flow experiments have been conducted on various lifting and nonlifting surfaces of several airplanes at unit Reynolds numbers between 0.63 x 10 to the 6th power/ft and 3.08 x 10 to the 6th power/ft, at Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.7, and at lifting surface leading-edge sweep angles from 0 deg to 63 deg. The airplanes tested were selected to provide relatively stiff skin conditions, free from significant roughness and waviness, on smooth modern production-type airframes. The observed transition locations typically occurred downstream of the measured or calculated pressure peak locations for the test conditions involved. No discernible effects on transition due to surface waviness were observed on any of the surfaces tested. None of the measured heights of surface waviness exceeded the empirically predicted allowable surface waviness. Experimental results consistent with spanwise contamination criteria were observed. Large changes in flight-measured performance and stability and control resulted from loss of laminar flow by forced transition. Rain effects on the laminar boundary layer caused stick-fixed nose-down pitch-trim changes in two of the airplanes tested. No effect on transition was observed for flight through low-altitude liquid-phase clouds. These observations indicate the importance of fixed-transition tests as a standard flight testing procedure for modern smooth airframes.

Holmes, B. J.; Obara, C. J.; Yip, L. P.

1984-01-01

141

Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow

We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

2011-04-27

142

The numerical solution of confined laminar flow past a moving boundary

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution of the time-dependent, viscous, incompressible, 2-D, confined flow past a moving boundary is considered. The problem is modeled as a laminar flow in the entry region of a rectangular channel with uniform inlet velocity upstream and a fully-developed parabolic profile downstream. A numerical solution is obtained from the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations and the appropriate boundary conditions. It provides an exact solution over the entire domain, in the sense that it utilizes all terms in the describing equations. The vorticity-stream function formulation is selected for the treatment of the problem. After discretizing the nondimensional governing equations in finite difference form, the Alternating Direction Implicit Method is used to solve the vorticity equation while the iterative Successive Over Relaxation Method is used to solve the stream function equation. The vorticity wall condition is derived by expanding in a Taylor series. This second order scheme maintains the diagonal dominance of the system of equations at high Reynolds number, thereby expanding the domain of convergence. The vorticity, stream function, and velocity components are calculated at each grid point for Reynolds numbers ranging between 10 and 5000. The plane channel flow is investigated first, and this steady flow solution is obtained as the asymptotic solution for a large portion of the unsteady flow. The results of this investigation are presented.

Abdulnour, Bashar Sulaiman

1990-08-01

143

By introducing four characteristic parameters defined for a pulsating turbulent pipe flow, the flow pattern diagrams for a pulsating laminar pipe flow are shown. The flow patterns are classified into three quasi-steady, intermediate, and inertia dominant types with respect to the dimensionless frequency and the limits between these three regions are determined. An alternative analytical representation for wall shear stress

M. Ohmi; M. Iguchi; T. Usui

1981-01-01

144

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) program encompasses the development of refined CFD methods and boundary layer stability codes for the highly 3D supersonic flow conditions encountered by the F-16XL technology demonstration aircraft and the prospective High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). While the F-16XL-1 aircraft continues to gather SLFC data, work is under way on the F-16XL-2 aircraft: which will furnish attach-line design criteria, code-calibration data, and an improved understanding of the flowfield over a wing that will add confidence to the design of HSCTs' boundary layer-controlling air-suction panels.

Fischer, Michael C.; Vemuru, Chandra S.

1991-01-01

145

Preprint of the paper "On the resolution of the viscous incompressible flow for various SUPG finite

Preprint of the paper "On the resolution of the viscous incompressible flow for various SUPG finite-14 September 2000 Â© ECCOMAS ON THE RESOLUTION OF THE VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR VARIOUS SUPG FINITE Stokes, SUPG. Abstract. A Finite Element based program has been released to solve the steady 2D Navier

Colominas, Ignasi

146

Three-layer interactive method for computing supersonic laminar separated flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive model for numerical computation of complicated two-dimensional flowfields including regions of reversed flow is proposed. The present approach is one of dividing the flowfield into three regions, in each of which a simplified mathematical model is applied: (1) outer, supersonic flow for which the full potential equation (hyperbolic) is used; (2) viscous, laminar layer in which the compressible boundary-layer model (parabolic) is used; and (3) recirculating flow modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (elliptic). For matching of the numerical solutions in the three layers, two interaction models are developed: one for pressure interaction, the other for interaction between the shear layer and the recirculating flow. The uniform solution for the whole flowfield is then obtained by iteration of the local solutions under the constraints imposed by matching. The three-layer interactive model is used for solution of the flowfield past an asymmetric cavity. The method is shown to be capable of dealing with backflow without encountering problems at separation, characteristic to the boundary-layer approach.

Brandeis, J.; Rom, J.

1980-01-01

147

A viscous instability in axially symmetric laminar shear flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A viscous instability in shearing laminar axisymmetric hydrodynamic flows around a gravitating centre is described. In the linearized hydrodynamic equations written in the Boussinesq approximation with microscopic molecular transport coefficients, the instability arises when the viscous dissipation is taken into account in the energy equation. Using the local WKB approximation, we derive a third-order algebraic dispersion equation with two modes representing the modified Rayleigh modes R+ and R-, and the third X-mode. We show that in thin accretion flows the viscosity destabilizes one of the Rayleigh modes in a wide range of wavenumbers, while the X-mode always remains stable. In Keplerian flows, the instability increment is found to be a few Keplerian rotational periods at wavelengths with kr ˜ 10-50. This instability may cause turbulence in astrophysical accretion discs even in the absence of magnetic field.

Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.

2015-04-01

148

Transition-Sensitized Turbulence Models for Compressible and Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period from January 1,2002 to December 31,2002 work was carried out on three projects to extend the range of applicability of advanced turbulence models. First, a new transition-sensitized turbulence model was tested and refined. Second, the influence of compressibility on the pressure-strain rate correlation was studied. Third, the relationship between time-filtered large eddy simulation (TLES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling was investigated leading to submission of the article. The transition-sensitized turbulence model encompasses the early-stage transition and turbulent flow regimes describing the evolution of the ensemble mean disturbance energy and dissipation rate. It is founded on a consistent mathematical description of the laminar regime with its linear disturbances and the fully turbulent regime with its stochastic fluctuations. The unified description is provided by the ensemble viewpoint.

Thacker, William D.

2003-01-01

149

Computation of incompressible viscous flows through turbopump components

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the fuel pump impeller, the effect of downstream boundary conditions is investigated. Flow analyses at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design conditions are presented.

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon

1993-01-01

150

Incompressible Navier-Stokes Calculations in Pump Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

151

A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow

There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. The first of these requirements is satisfied with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of the author`s algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. The author discusses features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator -- a multigrid method has been found for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.

Howell, L.H.

1993-05-17

152

A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow

There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. The first of these requirements is satisfied with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of the author's algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. The author discusses features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator -- a multigrid method has been found for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.

Howell, L.H.

1993-05-17

153

A Note on the Wave Action Density of a Viscous Instability Mode on a Laminar Free-shear Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the assumptions of an incompressible and viscous flow at large Reynolds number, we derive the evolution equation for the wave action density of an instability wave traveling on top of a laminar free-shear flow. The instability is considered to be viscous; the purpose of the present work is to include the cumulative effect of the (locally) small viscous correction to the wave, over length and time scales on which the underlying base flow appears inhomogeneous owing to its viscous diffusion. As such, we generalize our previous work for inviscid waves. This generalization appears as an additional (but usually non-negligible) term in the equation for the wave action. The basic structure of the equation remains unaltered.

Balsa, Thomas F.

1994-01-01

154

A robust iterative solver in simulation of unsteady incompressible NavierStokes flow

, and spatial mesh size parameters, it should be readily implemented for 3D, complex geometries, and different incompressible NavierÂStokes equations in a bounded 2D or 3D domain W: @u @t \\Gamma Å¡Du + (u\\Deltar)u +rp = fA robust iterative solver in simulation of unsteady incompressible NavierÂStokes flow Maxim A

Olshanskii, Maxim A.

155

Predicting Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow over a Surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction of whether a point on a computer-generated surface is adjacent to laminar or turbulent flow is made using a transition prediction technique. A plurality of boundary-layer properties at the point are obtained from a steady-state solution of a fluid flow in a region adjacent to the point. A plurality of instability modes are obtained, each defined by one or more mode parameters. A vector of regressor weights is obtained for the known instability growth rates in a training dataset. For each instability mode in the plurality of instability modes, a covariance vector is determined, which is the covariance of a predicted local growth rate with the known instability growth rates. Each covariance vector is used with the vector of regressor weights to determine a predicted local growth rate at the point. Based on the predicted local growth rates, an n-factor envelope at the point is determined.

Rajnarayan, Dev (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

2013-01-01

156

Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.

Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.

1979-01-01

157

Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IR thermography was used to characterize the transition front on a S-NLF test article at chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million Changes in transition due to Mach number, Reynolds number, and surface roughness were investigated - Regions of laminar flow in excess of 80% chord at chord Reynolds numbers greater than 14 million IR thermography clearly showed the transition front and other flow features such as shock waves impinging upon the surface A series of parallel oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, were found to cause premature transition at higher Reynolds numbers. NASA has a current goal to eliminate barriers to the development of practical supersonic transport aircraft Drag reduction through the use of supersonic natural laminar flow (S-NLF) is currently being explored as a means of increasing aerodynamic efficiency - Tradeoffs work best for business jet class at M<2 Conventional high-speed designs minimize inviscid drag at the expense of viscous drag - Existence of strong spanwise pressure gradient leads to crossflow (CF) while adverse chordwise pressure gradients amplifies and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities Aerion Corporation has patented a S-NLF wing design (US Patent No. 5322242) - Low sweep to control CF - dp/dx < 0 on both wing surfaces to stabilize TS - Thin wing with sharp leading edge to minimize wave drag increase due to reduction in sweep NASA and Aerion have partnered to study S-NLF since 1999 Series of S-NLF experiments flown on the NASA F-15B research test bed airplane Infrared (IR) thermography used to characterize transition - Non-intrusive, global, good spatial resolution - Captures significant flow features well

Frederick, Mike; Banks, Dan; Garzon, Andres; Matisheck, Jason

2014-01-01

158

Electrochimica Acta 50 (2005) 5390Â5398 Membraneless laminar flow-based micro fuel cells operating) in membraneless, laminar flow-based micro fuel cells (LF-FCs) eliminates several PEM-related issues such as fuel the anode is in acidic media while the cathode is in alkali, or vice versa. Operating a fuel cell under

Kenis, Paul J. A.

159

Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow

Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow David Moxey1 and Dwight) When fluid flows through a channel, pipe, or duct, there are two basic forms of motion: smooth laminar numerical computations in pipes of variable lengths up to 125 diameters to investigate the nature of transi

Barkley, Dwight

160

Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

1984-01-01

161

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the solution of the incompressible nonviscous flow through a centrifugal impeller, including the inlet region, is presented. Several numerical solutions are obtained for four weight flows through an impeller at one operating speed. These solutions are refined in the leading-edge region. The results are presented in a series of figures showing streamlines and relative velocity contours. A comparison is made with the results obtained by using a rapid approximate method of analysis.

Kramer, James J; Prian, Vasily D; Wu, Chung-Hua

1956-01-01

162

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The confined flows in tubes with permeable surfaces are associated to tangential filtration processes (microfiltration or ultrafiltration). The complexity of the phenomena do not allow for the development of exact analytical solutions, however, approximate solutions are of great interest for the calculation of the transmembrane outflow and estimate of the concentration polarization phenomenon. In the present work, the generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was employed in solving the laminar and permanent flow in permeable tubes of Newtonian and incompressible fluid. The mathematical formulation employed the parabolic differential equation of chemical species conservation (convective-diffusive equation). The velocity profiles for the entrance region flow, which are found in the connective terms of the equation, were assessed by solutions obtained from literature. The velocity at the permeable wall was considered uniform, with the concentration at the tube wall regarded as variable with an axial position. A computational methodology using global error control was applied to determine the concentration in the wall and concentration boundary layer thickness. The results obtained for the local transmembrane flux and the concentration boundary layer thickness were compared against others in literature.

Venezuela, A. L.; Pérez-Guerrero, J. S.; Fontes, S. R.

2009-03-01

163

Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation.

Byrne, Erin; Bortz, David M.; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John

2011-04-01

164

Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

Waggoner, Edgar G.

1986-01-01

165

Progress Toward Efficient Laminar Flow Analysis and Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-fidelity system of computer codes for the analysis and design of vehicles having extensive areas of laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall approach consists of the loose coupling of a flow solver, a transition prediction method and a design module using shell scripts, along with interface modules to prepare the input for each method. This approach allows the user to select the flow solver and transition prediction module, as well as run mode for each code, based on the fidelity most compatible with the problem and available resources. The design module can be any method that designs to a specified target pressure distribution. In addition to the interface modules, two new components have been developed: 1) an efficient, empirical transition prediction module (MATTC) that provides n-factor growth distributions without requiring boundary layer information; and 2) an automated target pressure generation code (ATPG) that develops a target pressure distribution that meets a variety of flow and geometry constraints. The ATPG code also includes empirical estimates of several drag components to allow the optimization of the target pressure distribution. The current system has been developed for the design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings, but may be extendable to other speed ranges and components. Several analysis and design examples are included to demonstrate the current capabilities of the system.

Campbell, Richard L.; Campbell, Matthew L.; Streit, Thomas

2011-01-01

166

Eddy genesis and manipulation in plane laminar shear flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy formation and presence in a plane laminar shear flow configuration consisting of two infinitely long plates orientated parallel to each other is investigated theoretically. The upper plate, which is planar, drives the flow; the lower one has a sinusoidal profile and is fixed. The governing equations are solved via a full finite element formulation for the general case and semianalytically at the Stokes flow limit. The effects of varying geometry (involving changes in the mean plate separation or the amplitude and wavelength of the lower plate) and inertia are explored separately. For Stokes flow and varying geometry, excellent agreement between the two methods of solution is found. Of particular interest with regard to the flow structure is the importance of the clearance that exists between the upper plate and the tops of the corrugations forming the lower one. When the clearance is large, an eddy is only present at sufficiently large amplitudes or small wavelengths. However, as the plate clearance is reduced, a critical value is found, which triggers the formation of an eddy in an otherwise fully attached flow for any finite amplitude and arbitrarily large wavelength. This is a precursor to the primary eddy to be expected in the lid-driven cavity flow, which is formed in the limit of zero clearance between the plates. The influence of the flow driving mechanism is assessed by comparison with corresponding solutions for the case of gravity-driven fluid films flowing over an undulating substrate. When inertia is present, the flow generally becomes asymmetrical. However, it is found that for large mean plate separations the flow local to the lower plate becomes effectively decoupled from the inertia dominated overlying flow if the wavelength of the lower plate is sufficiently small. In such cases the local flow retains its symmetry. A local Reynolds number based on the wavelength is shown to be useful in characterizing these large-gap flows. As the mean plate separation is reduced, the form of the asymmetry caused by inertia changes and becomes strongly dependent on the plate separation. For lower plate wavelengths which do not exhibit a kinematically induced secondary eddy, an inertially induced secondary eddy can be created if the mean plate separation is sufficiently small and the global Reynolds number is sufficiently large.

Scholle, M.; Haas, A.; Aksel, N.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Thompson, H. M.; Gaskell, P. H.

2009-07-01

167

An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows

Aug 7, 2014 ... motion of a mixture of N (N ? 2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with ... conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. .... and require expensive Newton-type nonlinear algebraic solvers; see ...

S. Dong

2014-08-20

168

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao

1951-01-01

169

The feasibility of applying laminar boundary-layer control with body shaping to a high altitude, Lighter-Than-Air vehicle was investigated. Solar-radiation-induced surface heating was shown to have a destablizing effect on laminar flow and caused the laminar flow to break down on regions of the vehicle surface exposed to high levels of solar radiation. Aerodynamic drag estimates were made for the vehicle. Surface waviness and roughness criteria for achieving laminar flow were determined.

Warner, D.J.; Ozgur, S.A.; Haigh, W.W.

1980-04-01

170

Air-Breathing Laminar Flow-Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Alkaline Electrolyte

Air-Breathing Laminar Flow-Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Alkaline Electrolyte Ranga S Power Systems, Cary, North Carolina 27513, USA We report the performance of an air-breathing laminar of an air-breathing gas diffusion electrode GDE as the cathode, which resulted in a fivefold improvement

Kenis, Paul J. A.

171

Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

Wright, A. S.

1979-01-01

172

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of natural laminar flow for significant drag reduction and improved efficiency for aircraft is assessed. Past experience with natural laminar flow as reported in published and unpublished data and personal observations of various researchers is summarized. Aspects discussed include surface contour, waviness, and smoothness requirements; noise and vibration effects on boundary layer transition, boundary layer stability criteria; flight experience with natural laminar flow and suction stabilized boundary layers; and propeller slipstream, rain, frost, ice and insect contamination effects on boundary layer transition. The resilient leading edge appears to be a very promising method to prevent leading edge insect contamination.

Carmichael, B. H.

1979-01-01

173

Erosion of a granular bed driven by laminar fluid flow

Motivated by examples of erosive incision of channels in sand, we investigate the motion of individual grains in a granular bed driven by a laminar fluid to give us new insights into the relationship between hydrodynamic stress and surface granular flow. A closed cell of rectangular cross-section is partially filled with glass beads and a constant fluid flux $Q$ flows through the cell. The refractive indices of the fluid and the glass beads are matched and the cell is illuminated with a laser sheet, allowing us to image individual beads. The bed erodes to a rest height $h_r$ which depends on $Q$. The Shields threshold criterion assumes that the non-dimensional ratio $\\theta$ of the viscous stress on the bed to the hydrostatic pressure difference across a grain is sufficient to predict the granular flux. Furthermore, the Shields criterion states that the granular flux is non-zero only for $\\theta >\\theta_c$. We find that the Shields criterion describes the observed relationship $h_r \\propto Q^{1/2}$ when the bed height is offset by approximately half a grain diameter. Introducing this offset in the estimation of $\\theta$ yields a collapse of the measured Einstein number $q^*$ to a power-law function of $\\theta - \\theta_c$ with exponent $1.75 \\pm 0.25$. The dynamics of the bed height relaxation are well described by the power law relationship between the granular flux and the bed stress.

A. E. Lobkovsky; A. V. Orpe; R. Molloy; A. Kudrolli; D. H. Rothman

2008-05-01

174

LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT: ITS USE AS A FLOW STANDARD

A standard device to measure flows accurately and precisely was required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish an air pollution field auditing system capable of generating pollutant concentrations in the parts per million and parts per billion range. he e...

175

An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an efficient algorithm within the phase field framework for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N?2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with possibly very different physical properties such as densities, viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The algorithm employs a physical formulation for the N-phase system that honors the conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. We present a method for uniquely determining the mixing energy density coefficients involved in the N-phase model based on the pairwise surface tensions among the N fluids. Our numerical algorithm has several attractive properties that make it computationally very efficient: (i) it has completely de-coupled the computations for different flow variables, and has also completely de-coupled the computations for the (N-1) phase field functions; (ii) the algorithm only requires the solution of linear algebraic systems after discretization, and no nonlinear algebraic solve is needed; (iii) for each flow variable the linear algebraic system involves only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices, which can be pre-computed during pre-processing, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the N-phase mixture; (iv) within a time step the semi-discretized system involves only individual de-coupled Helmholtz-type (including Poisson) equations, despite the strongly-coupled phase-field system of fourth spatial order at the continuum level; (v) the algorithm is suitable for large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts among the N fluids. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts. In particular, we compare our simulations with the de Gennes theory, and demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. We also demonstrate the significant and sometimes dramatic effects of the gravity, density ratios, pairwise surface tensions, and drop sizes on the N-phase configurations and dynamics. The numerical results show that the method developed herein is capable of dealing with N-phase systems with large density ratios, large viscosity ratios, and pairwise surface tensions, and that it can be a powerful tool for studying the interactions among multiple types of fluid interfaces.

Dong, S.

2014-11-01

176

Diffuse interface model for incompressible two-phase flows with large density ratios

We investigate the applicability of an incompressible diffuse interface model for two-phase incompressible fluid flows with large viscosity and density contrasts. Diffuse-interface models have been used previously primarily for density-matched fluids, and it remains unclear to what extent such models can be used for fluids of different density, thereby potentially limiting the application of these models. In this paper, the

Hang Ding; Peter D. M. Spelt; Chang Shu

2007-01-01

177

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.

Bui, Trong

2013-01-01

178

Study of Laminar Flow Forced Convection Heat Transfer Behavior of a Phase Change Material Fluid

The heat transfer behavior of phase change material fluid under laminar flow conditions in circular tubes and internally longitudinal finned tubes are presented in this study. Two types of boundary conditions, including uniform axial heat flux...

Ravi, Gurunarayana

2010-01-14

179

The antiinflammatory effect of laminar flow: The role of PPAR , epoxyeicosatrienoic acids,

The antiinflammatory effect of laminar flow: The role of PPAR , epoxyeicosatrienoic acids of California, Riverside, CA 92521; Department of Entomology and Cancer Research Center, University- matory effect, which indicates that PPAR is an effector of EETs. endothelial cells shear stress

Hammock, Bruce D.

180

A flight test of laminar flow control leading-edge systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for development of a laminar flow technology base for application to commercial transports has made significant progress since its inception in 1976. Current efforts are focused on development of practical reliable systems for the leading-edge region where the most difficult problems in applying laminar flow exist. Practical solutions to these problems will remove many concerns about the ultimate practicality of laminar flow. To address these issues, two contractors performed studies, conducted development tests, and designed and fabricated fully functional leading-edge test articles for installation on the NASA JetStar aircraft. Systems evaluation and performance testing will be conducted to thoroughly evaluate all system capabilities and characteristics. A simulated airline service flight test program will be performed to obtain the operational sensitivity, maintenance, and reliability data needed to establish that practical solutions exist for the difficult leading-edge area of a future commercial transport employing laminar flow control.

Fischer, M. C.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.

1983-01-01

181

Design and operation of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column

This report deals with the design principles involved in the design of a laminar-flow electrostatic-quadrupole-focused acceleration column. In particular, attention will be paid to making the parameters suitable for incorporation into a DC MEQALAC design.

Maschke, A.W.

1983-06-20

182

A perspective of laminar-flow control. [aircraft energy efficiency program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historical review of the development of laminar flow control technology is presented with reference to active laminar boundary-layer control through suction, the use of multiple suction slots, wind-tunnel tests, continuous suction, and spanwise contamination. The ACEE laminar flow control program is outlined noting the development of three-dimensional boundary-layer codes, cruise-noise prediction techniques, airfoil development, and leading-edge region cleaning. Attention is given to glove flight tests and the fabrication and testing of wing box designs.

Braslow, A. L.; Muraca, R. J.

1978-01-01

183

Development of laminar flow control wing surface composite structures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments under NAS1-16235 LFC Laminar-Flow-Control Wing Panel Structural Design And Development (WSSD); Design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joints were demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. Cost of the baseline LFC aircraft was estimated and compared to the turbulent aircraft. The mission fuel weight was 21.7 percent lower for the LFC aircraft. The calculation shows that the lower fuel costs for LFC offset the higher incremental costs of LFC in less than six months.

Lineberger, L. B.

1984-01-01

184

Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

185

Homogeneous water nucleation in a laminar flow diffusion chamber

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous nucleation rates of water at temperatures between 240 and 270 K were measured in a laminar flow diffusion chamber at ambient pressure and helium as carrier gas. Being in the range of 102-106 cm-3 s-1, the experimental results extend the nucleation rate data from literature consistently and fill a pre-existing gap. Using the macroscopic vapor pressure, density, and surface tension for water we calculate the nucleation rates predicted by classic nucleation theory (CNT) and by the empirical correction function of CNT by Wölk and Strey [J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 11683 (2001)]. As in the case of other systems (e.g., alcohols), CNT predicts a stronger temperature dependence than experimentally observed, whereas the agreement with the empirical correction function is good for all data sets. Furthermore, the isothermal nucleation rate curves allow us to determine the experimental critical cluster sizes by use of the nucleation theorem. A comparison with the critical cluster sizes calculated by use of the Gibbs-Thomson equation is remarkably good for small cluster sizes, for bigger ones the Gibbs-Thomson equation overestimates the cluster sizes.

Manka, Alexandra A.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Lihavainen, Heikki; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard

2010-06-01

186

Distributed acoustic receptivity in laminar flow control configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model problem related to distributed receptivity to free-stream acoustic waves in laminar flow control (LFC) configurations is studied, within the Orr-Sommerfield framework, by a suitable extension of the Goldstein-Ruban theory for receptivity due to localized disturbances on the airfoil surface. The results, thus, complement the earlier work on the receptivity produced by local variations in the surface suction and/or surface admittance. In particular, we show that the cumulative effect of the distributed receptivity can be substantially larger than that of a single, isolated suction strip or slot. Furthermore, even if the receptivity is spread out over very large distances, the most effective contributions come from a relatively short region in vicinity of the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. The length scale of this region is intermediate to that of the mean of these two length scales. Finally, it is found that the receptivity is effectively dominated by a narrow band of Fourier components from the wall-suction and admittance distributions, roughly corresponding to a detuning of less than ten percent with respect to the neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration. The results suggest that the drop-off in receptivity magnitudes away from the resonant wavenumber is nearly independent of the frequency parameter.

Choudhari, Meelan

1992-01-01

187

A preliminary design study on an acoustic muffler for the laminar flow transition research apparatus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic muffler design of a research tool for studying laminar flow and the mechanisms of transition, the Laminar Flow and Transition Research Apparatus (LFTRA) is investigated. Since the presence of acoustic pressure fluctuations is known to affect transition, low background noise levels in the test section of the LFTRA are mandatory. The difficulties and tradeoffs of various muffler design concepts are discussed and the most promising candidates are emphasized.

Abrahamson, A. L.

1984-01-01

188

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

Srokowski, A. J.

1994-01-01

189

Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newton`s method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.

McHugh, P.R.

1995-10-01

190

An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

Green, Bradford E.

1997-01-01

191

A front-tracking method for viscous, incompressible, multi-fluid flows

Attention is given to a method to simulate unsteady multifluid flows in which a sharp interface or a front separate incompressible fluids of different density and viscosity. The flow field is discretized by a conservative finite difference approximation on a stationary grid, and the interface is explicitly represented by a separate, unstructured grid that moves through the stationary grid. Since

Salih O. Unverdi; Gretar Tryggvason

1992-01-01

192

Front Speed Enhancement by Incompressible Flows in Three or Higher Dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study, in dimensions N ? 3, the family of first integrals of an incompressible flow: these are functions whose level surfaces are tangential to the streamlines of the advective incompressible field. One main motivation for this study comes from earlier results proving that the existence of nontrivial first integrals of an incompressible flow q is the main key that leads to a "linear speed up" by a large advection of pulsating traveling fronts solving a reaction-advection-diffusion equation in a periodic heterogeneous framework. The family of first integrals is not well understood in dimensions N ? 3 due to the randomness of the trajectories of q and this is in contrast with the case N = 2. By looking at the domain of propagation as a union of different components produced by the advective field, we provide more information about first integrals and we give a class of incompressible flows which exhibit "ergodic components" of positive Lebesgue measure (and hence are not shear flows) and which, under certain sharp geometric conditions, speed up the KPP fronts linearly with respect to the large amplitude. In the proofs, we establish a link between incompressibility, ergodicity, first integrals and the dimension to give a sharp condition about the asymptotic behavior of the minimal KPP speed in terms of the configuration of ergodic components.

El Smaily, Mohammad; Kirsch, Stéphane

2014-07-01

193

A fundamental study of suction for Laminar Flow Control (LFC)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period forming the first year of the project. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of suction as a technique for Laminar Flow Control. Experiments are to be performed which require substantial modifications to be made to the experimental facility. Considerable effort has been spent developing new high performance constant temperature hot-wire anemometers for general purpose use in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. Twenty instruments have been delivered. An important feature of the facility is that it is totally automated under computer control. Unprecedently large quantities of data can be acquired and the results examined using the visualization tools developed specifically for studying the results of numerical simulations on graphics works stations. The experiment must be run for periods of up to a month at a time since the data is collected on a point-by-point basis. Several techniques were implemented to reduce the experimental run-time by a significant factor. Extra probes have been constructed and modifications have been made to the traverse hardware and to the real-time experimental code to enable multiple probes to be used. This will reduce the experimental run-time by the appropriate factor. Hot-wire calibration drift has been a frustrating problem owing to the large range of ambient temperatures experienced in the laboratory. The solution has been to repeat the calibrations at frequent intervals. However the calibration process has consumed up to 40 percent of the run-time. A new method of correcting the drift is very nearly finalized and when implemented it will also lead to a significant reduction in the experimental run-time.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1992-01-01

194

Multi-material incompressible flow simulation using the moment-of-fluid method

The Moment-of-Fluid interface reconstruction technique is implemented in a second order accurate, unstructured finite element variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. For flows with multiple materials, MOF significantly outperforms existing first and second order interface reconstruction techniques. For two material flows, the performance of MOF is similar to other interface reconstruction techniques. For strongly driven bouyant flows, the errors in the flow solution dominate and all the interface reconstruction techniques perform similarly.

Garimella, R V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, R B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swartz, B K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, M A [SIMULIA; Dyadechko, V [EXXON-MOBIL

2009-01-01

195

Hybrid laminar flow control tests in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept has undergone wind tunnel testing at near full-scale Reynolds number on an infinite wing of 30-deg sweep on which boundary-layer suction was furnished over the first 20 percent of chord of the upper surface. Depending on the external pressure distribution, the HLFC extended the laminarity of the boundary layer as far back as 45 percent of chord; this corresponds to a transition Reynolds number of about 11 million. The maximum chordwise extent of laminar run was found to be insensitive to the suction level over a wide range.

Parikh, P. G.; Lund, D. W.; George-Falvy, D.; Nagel, A. L.

1990-01-01

196

Force field particle filter, combining ultrasound standing waves and laminar flow

A continuous flow microparticle filter that combines megahertz frequency ultrasonic standing waves and laminar flow is described. The filter has a 0.25mm, single half wavelength, acoustic pathlength at right angles to the flow. Standing wave radiation pressure on suspended particles drives them towards the centre of the acoustic pathlength. Clarified suspending phase from the region closest to the filter wall

Jeremy J Hawkes; W. Terence Coakley

2001-01-01

197

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. Laminar flow control was one such technology. Two approaches for achieving laminar flow were designed and manufactured under NASA sponsored programs: the perforated skin concept used at McDonnell Douglas and the slotted design used at Lockheed-Georgia. Both achieved laminar flow, with the slotted design to a lesser degree (JetStar flight test program). The latter design had several fabrication problems concerning springback and adhesive flow clogging the air flow passages. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments is documented in designing and fabricating a small section of a leading edge article addressing a simpler fabrication method to overcome the previous program's manufacturing problems, i.e., design and fabrication using advanced technologies such as diffusion bonding of aluminum, which has not been used on aerospace structures to date, and the superplastic forming of aluminum.

Goodyear, M. D.

1987-01-01

198

Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.

Stack, John P. (inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (inventor)

1990-01-01

199

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the study of laminar and turbulent force convection heat transfer and pressure drop between horizontal parallel plates with a nanofluid composed of Al2O3 and water. A set of governing equations are solved using a non-staggered SIMPLE procedure for the velocity-pressure coupling. For the convection-diffusion terms a power-law scheme is employed. A modified k-? model with a two-layer technique for the near-wall region has been used to predict the turbulent viscosity. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction in the base fluid on laminar and turbulent flow variables are presented and discussed. The velocity and temperature profiles, friction factor, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number at different Reynolds numbers in the entrance region for both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes are reported under different thermal boundary conditions. The results show that the effect of the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid on hydraulic and thermal parameters for the turbulent flow is not very significant, while the rate of heat transfer for the laminar flow with nanoparticles is greater than that of the base liquid. Furthermore, the thermal boundary layer and consequently the Nusselt number more quickly reach their fully developed values by increasing the percentage of nanoparticles in the base fluid for the laminar flow regime, while no changes in the trend are observed for the turbulent flow.

Ziaei-Rad, Masoud

2013-07-01

200

A comparison of two incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for unsteady internal flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study of two different incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for solving an unsteady, incompressible, internal flow problem is performed. The first algorithm uses an artificial compressibility method coupled with upwind differencing and a line relaxation scheme. The second algorithm uses a fractional step method with a staggered grid, finite volume approach. Unsteady, viscous, incompressible, internal flow through a channel with a constriction is computed using the first algorithm. A grid resolution study and parameter studies on the artificial compressibility coefficient and the maximum allowable residual of the continuity equation are performed. The periodicity of the solution is examined and several periodic data sets are generated using the first algorithm. These computational results are compared with previously published results computed using the second algorithm and experimental data.

Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

201

Time-accurate, fully 3D numerical simulations and particle image velocity laboratory experiments are carried out for flow through a fully open bileaflet mechanical heart valve under steady (nonpulsatile) inflow conditions. Flows at two different Reynolds numbers, one in the laminar regime and the other turbulent (near-peak systole flow rate), are investigated. A direct numerical simulation is carried out for the laminar flow case while the turbulent flow is investigated with two different unsteady statistical turbulence modeling approaches, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached-eddy simulation (DES) approach. For both the laminar and turbulent cases the computed mean velocity profiles are in good overall agreement with the measurements. For the turbulent simulations, however, the comparisons with the measurements demonstrate clearly the superiority of the DES approach and underscore its potential as a powerful modeling tool of cardiovascular flows at physiological conditions. The study reveals numerous previously unknown features of the flow. PMID:16248308

Ge, Liang; Leo, Hwa-Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P

2005-10-01

202

Laminar thermally developing flow inside right-angularly triangular ducts

An analytical approach based on the generalized integral transform technique is presented, for the solution of laminar forced convection within the thermal entry region of ducts with arbitrarily shaped cross-sections. The analysis is illustrated through consideration of a right triangular duct subjected to constant wall temperature boundary condition. Critical comparisons are made with results available in the literature, from direct

J. B. Aparecido; R. M. Cotta

1992-01-01

203

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper contains the following sections: Foreword; Preface; Laminar-Flow Control Concepts and Scope of Monograph; Early Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control (Research from the 1930s through the War Years; Research from after World War II to the Mid-1960s); Post X-21 Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control; Status of Laminar-Flow Control Technology in the Mid-1990s; Glossary; Document 1-Aeronautics Panel, AACB, R&D Review, Report of the Subpanel on Aeronautic Energy Conservation/Fuels; Document 2-Report of Review Group on X-21A Laminar Flow Control Program; Document 3-Langley Research Center Announcement, Establishment of Laminar Flow Control Working Group; Document 4-Intercenter Agreement for Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Glove Flights, LaRC and DFRC; Document 5-Flight Report NLF-144, of AFTIF-111 Aircraft with the TACT Wing Modified by a Natural Laminar Flow Glove; Document 6-Flight Record, F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Aircraft; Index; and About the Author.

Braslow, A. L.

1999-01-01

204

Stability Analysis of Large-Scale Incompressible Flow Calculations on Massively Parallel Computers

A set of linear and nonlinear stability analysis tools have been developed to analyze steady state incompressible flows in 3D geometries. The algorithms have been implemented to be scalable to hundreds of parallel processors. The linear stability of steady state flows are determined by calculating the rightmost eigenvalues of the associated generalize eigenvalue problem. Nonlinear stability is studied by bifurcation analysis techniques. The boundaries between desirable and undesirable operating conditions are determined for buoyant flow in the rotating disk CVD reactor.

LEHOUCQ,RICHARD B.; ROMERO,LOUIS; SALINGER,ANDREW G.

1999-10-25

205

Boundary-Layer Transition Results from the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Boundary-layer transition data have been obtained on the titanium glove primarily at Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 53,000-55,000 ft. The objectives of this supersonic laminar flow control flight experiment have been to achieve 50- to 60-percent-chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point (Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 50,000 ft). At Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 53,000 ft, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of 22.7 X 10(exp 6), optimum suction levels have allowed long runs of a minimum of 46-percent-chord laminar flow to be achieved. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

Marshall, Laurie A.

1999-01-01

206

A History of Suction-Type Laminar Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar-flow control is an area of aeronautical research that has a long history at NASA's Langley Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Center, their predecessor organizations, and elsewhere. In this monograph, the author, who spent much of his career at Langley working with this research, presents a history of that portion of laminar-flow technology known as active laminar-flow control, which employs suction of a small quantity of air through airplane surfaces. This important technique offers the potential for significant reduction in drag and, thereby, for large increases in range or reductions in fuel usage for aircraft. For transport aircraft, the reductions in fuel consumed as a result of laminar-flow control may equal 30 percent of present consumption. Given such potential, it is obvious that active laminar-flow control with suction is an important technology. In this study, the author covers the early history of the subject and brings the story all the way to the mid-1990s with an emphasis on flight research, much of which has occurred at Dryden. This is an important monograph that not only encapsulates a lot of history in a brief compass but also does so in language that is accessible to non-technical readers. NASA is publishing it in a format that will enable it to reach the wide audience the subject deserves.

Braslow, Albert L.

1999-01-01

207

Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low-speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6-series airfoils was achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge was also met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show excellent agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils, both laminar flow and turbulent flow, confirm the achievement of the basic objective.

Somers, D. M.

1981-01-01

208

ON THE RESOLUTION OF THE VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR VARIOUS SUPG FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATIONS

A Finite Element based program has been released to solve the steady 2D Navier - Stokes equations. The mixed-variable algorithm is used as a first approach to solve the differential problem. In order to reduce the number of equations, both a penalty and segregated formulation are implemented to give solution to the viscous incompressible flow and their results are compared

P. Vellando; J. Puertas; J. Bonillo; J. Fe

2000-01-01

209

An adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids

for the parabolic terms, such as the heat equation and Navier-Stokes viscosity. The most intricate aspect of anyAn adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids R such discretization is the method used in order to solve the elliptic equation for the Navier-Stokes pressure

Bejerano, Gill

210

An adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids

, an implicit temporal discretization is used for the parabolic terms including Navier-Stokes viscosity which we for the Navier-Stokes pressure or that resulting from the temporal discretization of parabolic terms. We addressAn adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids R

Fedkiw, Ron

211

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.

Kiris, Cetin

1995-01-01

212

We present an LES-type variational multiscale theory of turbulence. Our approach derives completely from the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations and does not employ any ad hoc devices, such as eddy viscosities. We tested the formulation on forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence and turbulent channel flows. In the calculations, we employed linear, quadratic and cubic NURBS. A dispersion analysis of simple model problems

Y. Bazilevs; V. M. Calo; J. A. Cottrell; T. J. R. Hughes; A. Reali; G. Scovazzi

2007-01-01

213

A segregated finite element algorithm for the solution of the SUPG formulation of the incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations is investigated in this paper. The method features equal order interpolation for all the flow variables. The SIMPLEST algorithm is employed which results in symmetric coefficient matrices for the momentum equations. The same iterative linear equation solver can therefore be employed for

C. G. du Toit

1998-01-01

214

The simulation of 3D unsteady incompressible flows with moving boundaries on unstructured meshes

The development of a computational model for the simulation of three-dimensional unsteady incompressible viscous fluid flows with moving boundaries is presented. The numerical model is based upon the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations on unstructured meshes using the artificial compressibility approach. An ALE formulation is adopted and the equations are discretized using a cell vertex finite volume method. The formulation

Z. Zhang; A. J. Gil; O. Hassan; K. Morgan

2008-01-01

215

INFORMATION ISSN 1343-4500 Computing an Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Using Neural Network Based

INFORMATION ISSN 1343-4500 Computing an Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Using Neural Network Neural Networks (ANN) with Modified Adaptive Smoothing Errors (MASE) based on back-propagation algorithm [6]. More recently, are envisioned neural networks approaches as an effective way of developing

216

Numerical simulation of the incompressible internal flow through a tilting disk valve

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical simulation of the incompressible viscous flow through a prosthetic tilting disk heart valve is presented in order to demonstrate the current capability to model unsteady flows with moving boundaries. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations are performed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensional generalized curvilinear coordinates. In order to handle the moving boundary problems, the chimera grid embedding scheme which decomposes a complex computational domain into several simple subdomains is used. An algebraic turbulence model for internal flows is incorporated to reach the physiological values of Reynolds number. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental measurements. It is found that the tilting disk valve causes large regions of separated flow, and regions of high shear.

Chang, I-Dee; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

1990-01-01

217

Verification of Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipe by Color-Dye Experiment

Investigations of the flow phenomena in circular pipes have been performed by many researchers. However, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in circular pipes is still not well understood, since the main cause of the transition depends on the growth or decay of invisible infinitesimal disturbances. Many experiments carried out in the past were performed in order to identify

Hidesada Kanda; Yanagiya Takayuki

2003-01-01

218

Conjugate heat transfer in fully developed laminar pipe flow and thermally induced stresses

Thermal stresses developed in pipes due to conjugate heat transfer are important in engineering applications. In the present study, fully developed laminar flow through a pipe is considered. Uniform heat flux from the external surface of the pipe is introduced. The thermal stresses developed due to conjugate heating are analyzed. The governing flow and energy equations are solved numerically using

I. T Al-Zaharnah; B. S Yilbas; M. S. J Hashmi

2000-01-01

219

A Laminar-Flow, Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter (WCPC)

A new water-based condensation particle counter (WCPC) is presented. The WCPC is a thermally diffusive, laminar flow instrument. Condensational enlargement is achieved through the introduction of a saturated airflow into a “growth tube” with wetted walls held at a temperature higher than that of the entering flow. An unsheathed, 1 L\\/min instrument utilizing this principle has been evaluated with various

Susanne V. Hering; Mark R. Stolzenburg; Frederick R. Quant; Derek R. Oberreit; Patricia B. Keady

2005-01-01

220

A new method is presented for the enlargement of particle size through condensation of water vapor in a laminar, thermally diffusive flow. The method involves the introduction of an air flow at temperature Ti into a wet-walled tube at a temperature Tw > Ti. This approach yields higher supersaturation values than either mixing or cold-walled condensers when operating between the

Susanne V. Hering; Mark R. Stolzenburg

2005-01-01

221

Numerical simulations have been undertaken for the benchmark problem of natural convection flow in a square cavity. The control volume method is used to solve the conservation equations for laminar and turbulent flows for a series of Rayleigh numbers (Ra) reaching values up to 10(exp 10). The k-epsilon model has been used for turbulence modelling with and without logarithmic wall

G. Barakos; E. Mitsoulis; D. Assimacopoulos

1994-01-01

222

Laminar oscillatory flow of Maxwell and Oldroyd-B fluids: Theoretical analysis

We study the laminar oscillatory flow of Maxwell and Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids. We consider two basic geometries (rectangular and cylindrical), under two different modes of driving. Our results show that in the inertialess regime (Re?1) the flow properties depend only on three characteristic lengths: the wavelength ?0 and damping length x0 of viscoelastic shear waves, and the characteristic transverse size

L. Casanellas; J. Ort?´n

2011-01-01

223

For microfluidic applications the residence time distribution (RTD) of laminar flow in rectangular channels is of interest. The exact velocity profile for this type of flow consists of an infinite series and does not allow analytical evaluation of the RTD curve. In this paper we adopt a simpler binomial product profile which was proposed in literature and serves as good

Martin Wörner

2010-01-01

224

Summary of Transition Results From the F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-porosity suction glove has been flown on the F-16XL-2 aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport. Boundary-layer transition data on the titanium glove primarily have been obtained at speeds of Mach 2.0 and altitudes of 15,240-16,764 m (50,000-55,000 ft). The objectives of this flight experiment have been to achieve 0.50-0.60 chord laminar flow on a highly swept wing at supersonic speeds and to provide data to validate codes and suction design. The most successful laminar flow results have not been obtained at the glove design point, a speed of Mach 1.9 at an altitude of 15,240 m (50,000 ft); but rather at a speed of Mach 2.0 and an altitude of 16,154 m (53,000 ft). Laminar flow has been obtained to more than 0.46 wing chord at a Reynolds number of 22.7 x 10(exp 6). A turbulence diverter has been used to initially obtain a laminar boundary layer at the attachment line. A lower-surface shock fence was required to block an inlet shock from the wing leading edge. This paper discusses research variables that directly impact the ability to obtain laminar flow and techniques to correct for these variables.

Marshall, Laurie A.

2000-01-01

225

An approach to the constrained design of natural laminar flow airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integml turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the larninar flow toward the desired amounl An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

Green, Bradford Earl

1995-01-01

226

Parametric study on laminar flow for finite wings at supersonic speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar flow control has been identified as a key element in the development of the next generation of High Speed Transports. Extending the amount of laminar flow over an aircraft will increase range, payload, and altitude capabilities as well as lower fuel requirements, skin temperature, and therefore the overall cost. A parametric study to predict the extent of laminar flow for finite wings at supersonic speeds was conducted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with a boundary layer stability code. The parameters investigated in this study were Reynolds number, angle of attack, and sweep. The results showed that an increase in angle of attack for specific Reynolds numbers can actually delay transition. Therefore, higher lift capability, caused by the increased angle of attack, as well as a reduction in viscous drag, due to the delay in transition, can be expected simultaneously. This results in larger payload and range.

Garcia, Joseph Avila

1994-01-01

227

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.

1999-01-01

228

Free convective laminar flow within the Trombe wall channel

A line-by-line forward marching implicit finite-difference method is used to study the laminar free convection between vertical parallel plates of different temperatures. A uniform inlet velocity profile and the dynamic contribution to the inlet pressure reduction are selected as the starting conditions. Local Nusselt numbers at each surface, the rate of heat absorption by the fluid, and the mixed-mean fluid

H. Akbari; T. R. Borgers

1979-01-01

229

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary studies have shown that maintenance of laminar flow through active boundary-layer control is viable. Current research activity at NASA Langley and NASA Dryden is utilizing the F-16XL-1 research vehicle fitted with a laminar-flow suction glove that is connected to a vacuum manifold in order to create and control laminar flow at supersonic flight speeds. This experimental program has been designed to establish the feasibility of obtaining laminar flow at supersonic speeds with highly swept wing and to provide data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code calibration. Flight experiments conducted as supersonic speeds have indicated that it is possible to achieve laminar flow under controlled suction at flight Mach numbers greater than 1. Currently this glove is fitted with a series of pressure belts and flush mounted hot film sensors for the purpose of determining the pressure distributions and the extent of laminar flow region past the stagnation point. The present mode of data acquisition relies on out-dated on board multi-channel FM analogue tape recorder system. At the end of each flight, the analogue data is digitized through a long laborious process and then analyzed. It is proposed to replace this outdated system with an on board state-of-the-art digital data acquisition system capable of a through put rate of up to 1 MegaHertz. The purpose of this study was three-fold: (1) to develop a simple algorithm for acquiring data via 2 analogue-to-digital convertor boards simultaneously (total of 32 channels); (2) to interface hot-film/wire anemometry instrumentation with a PCAT type computer; and (3) to characterize the frequency response of a flush mounted film sensor. A brief description of each of the above tasks along with recommendations are given.

Ostowari, Cyrus

1992-01-01

230

Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite-difference, three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. In this work, the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady-state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two. Included in the appendix is a paper on incompressible viscous flow through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries. Time-accurate calculations, such as impeller and diffusor interaction, will be reported in future work.

Kiris, Cetin

1992-01-01

231

Start of fluidization of a bulk granular material in laminar flow

This report examines the usage and transformation of an equation of the form Re/sub cr/=Ar(1400+5.22/Ar) which is used in design calculations for determination of the velocity of the start of fluidization of a granular material bearing initial voidage e/sub o/=0.4. Variations of the Reynold's number corresponding to the Critical Fluidization velocity at various voidages of the granular bed and different values of the Archimedes number in laminar flow are presented. Results indicate that the equation cannot be recommended for use even for rough estimates of the bulk materials in laminar flow.

Rozhdestvenskii, O.I.; Bednyakov, G.E.; Zayats, E.I.; Kirillov, I.N.; Serebryakova, T.V.

1982-04-20

232

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lately it has been proposed to reduce the friction drag of a body in a flow for the technically important large Reynolds numbers by the following expedient: the boundary layer, normally turbulent, is artificially kept laminar up to high Reynolds numbers by suction. The reduction in friction drag thus obtained is of the order of magnitude of 60 to 80 percent of the turbulent friction drag, since the latter, for large Reynolds numbers, is several times the laminar friction drag. In considering the idea mentioned one has first to consider whether suction is a possible means of keeping the boundary layer laminar. This question can be answered by a theoretical investigation of the stability of the laminar boundary layer with suction. A knowledge, as accurate as possible, of the velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer with suction forms the starting point for the stability investigation. E. Schlichting recently gave a survey of the present state of calculation of the laminar boundary layer with suction.

Iglisch, Rudolf

1949-01-01

233

SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INCOMPRESSIBLE TURBULENT FLOW INSIDE TUBES WITH HELICAL FINS

A stabilized finite-element solver is used to solve turbulent flows and heat transfer in complex, three-dimensional geometries. Selected turbulence models are implemented and evaluated for their performance. Particular attention is given to the initial conditions for k and ? necessary to facilitate convergence. Details of the stabilized finite-element formulations for incompressible flow are also presented, and cost-effective model simplifications are

Je-Hoon Kim; Kenneth E. Jansen; Michael K. Jensen

2004-01-01

234

A manufactured solution for a two-dimensional steady wall-bounded incompressible turbulent flow

This paper presents a manufactured solution (MS), resembling a two-dimensional, steady, wall-bounded, incompressible, turbulent flow for RANS codes verification. The specified flow field satisfies mass conservation, but requires additional source terms in the momentum equations. To also allow verification of the correct implementation of the turbulence models transport equations, the proposed MS exhibits most features of a true near-wall turbulent

L. Eça; M. Hoekstra; A. Hay; D. Pelletier

2007-01-01

235

On a modification of GLS stabilized FEM for solving incompressible viscous flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deal with 2D flows of incompressible viscous fluids with high Reynolds numbers. Galerkin Least Squares technique of stabilization of the finite element method is studied and its modification is described. We present a number of numerical results obtained by the developed method, showing its contribution to solving flows with high Reynolds numbers. Several recommendations and remarks are included. We are interested in positive as well as negative aspects of stabilization, which cannot be divorced.

Burda, P.; Novotný, J.; Ístek, J.

2006-07-01

236

Direct pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media

We present a dynamic particle-based model for direct pore-level modeling of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution micro-CT images of rock samples. It is based on moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability for flow in porous media problems. Using the micro-CT image of a rock sample, the entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is discretized into particles. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are then solved for each particle using the MPS summations. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. An algorithm to split and merge fluid particles is also introduced. To handle the computational load, we present a parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters. The accuracy of the model is validated against the analytical, numerical, and experimental data available in the literature. The validated model is then used to simulate both unsteady- and steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid directly in a representative elementary volume (REV) size micro-CT image of a naturally-occurring sandstone with 3.398 {mu}m resolution. We analyze the quality and consistency of the predicted flow behavior and calculate absolute permeability using the steady-state flow rate.

Ovaysi, Saeed, E-mail: sovaysi@uwyo.ed [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-2000 (United States); Piri, Mohammad, E-mail: mpiri@uwyo.ed [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-2000 (United States)

2010-09-20

237

Manufacturing all-polymer laminar flow-based fuel cells A.S. Hollinger, P.J.A. Kenis*

Manufacturing all-polymer laminar flow-based fuel cells A.S. Hollinger, P.J.A. Kenis* Department laminar flow fuel cell. Bonding strategy eliminates the need for heavy metal plates and clamping. Developed a strategy to encapsulate fuel cell electrodes in Kapton windows. Designs can be scaled

Kenis, Paul J. A.

238

Feasibility and benefits of laminar flow control on supersonic cruise airplanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation was made of the applicability and benefits of laminar flow control (LFC) technology to supersonic cruise airplanes. Ancillary objectives were to identify the technical issues critical to supersonic LFC application, and to determine how those issues can be addressed through flight and wind-tunnel testing. Vehicle types studied include a Mach 2.2 supersonic transport configuration, a Mach 4.0 transport, and two Mach 2-class fighter concepts. Laminar flow control methodologies developed for subsonic and transonic wing laminarization were extended and applied. No intractible aerodynamic problems were found in applying LFC to airplanes of the Mach 2 class, even ones of large size. Improvements of 12 to 17 percent in lift-drag ratios were found. Several key technical issues, such as contamination avoidance and excresence criteria were identified. Recommendations are made for their resolution. A need for an inverse supersonic wing design methodology is indicated.

Powell, A. G.; Agrawal, S.; Lacey, T. R.

1989-01-01

239

DRE-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete roughness elements (DRE) technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural laminar flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg, free-stream Mach number of 0.75 and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 x 10(exp 6), 24 x 10(exp 6) and 30 x 10(exp 6) suggest that DRE could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., DRE) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fe; Choudhari, Meelan

2013-01-01

240

Biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction in laminar and turbulent flows.

Biomimetics allows one to mimic nature to develop materials and devices of commercial interest for engineers. Drag reduction in fluid flow is one of the examples found in nature. In this study, nano, micro, and hierarchical structures found in lotus plant surfaces, as well as shark skin replica and a rib patterned surface to simulate shark skin structure were fabricated. Drag reduction efficiency studies on the surfaces were systematically carried out using water flow. An experimental flow channel was used to measure the pressure drop in laminar and turbulent flows, and the trends were explained in terms of the measured and predicted values by using fluid dynamics models. The slip length for various surfaces in laminar flow was also investigated based on the measured pressure drop. For comparison, the pressure drop for various surfaces was also measured using air flow. PMID:21386280

Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

2010-01-27

241

Dispersion of swimming algae in laminar and turbulent channel flows: theory and simulations

Algal swimming is often biased by environmental cues, e.g. gravitational and viscous torques drive cells towards downwelling fluid (gyrotaxis). In view of biotechnological applications, it is important to understand how such biased swimming affects cell dispersion in a flow. Here, we study the dispersion of gyrotactic swimming algae in laminar and turbulent channel flows. By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cell motion within upwelling and downwelling channel flows, we evaluate time-dependent measures of dispersion for increasing values of the flow Peclet (Reynolds) numbers, Pe (Re). Furthermore, we derive an analytical `swimming Taylor-Aris dispersion' theory, using flow-dependent transport parameters given by existing microscopic models. In the laminar regime, DNS results and analytical predictions compare very well, providing the first confirmation that cells' response to flow is best described by the generalized-Taylor-dispersion microscopic model. We predict that cells drift along a channel faster th...

Croze, O A; Ahmed, M; Bees, M A; Brandt, L

2012-01-01

242

Laminar convection in binary mixture of hydromagnetic flow with radiative heat transfer, I

The paper studies the hydromagnetic flow of a thermally-radiating binary mixture of an incompressible fluid. Both the Soret and Dufour effects are considered when the fluid is not chemically reacting. When the gas is optically thin the resultant system of ordinary differential equations could be solved in a closed form. Generally the problem is reduced to a set of integral

M. A. Alabraba; A. R. Bestman; A. Ogulu

1992-01-01

243

Laminar convection in binary mixture of hydromagnetic flow with radiative heat transfer. I, II

The hydromagnetic flow of a thermally radiating binary mixture of an incompressible fluid is studied. Both the Soret and Dufour effects are considered when the fluid is not chemically reacting. When the gas is optically thin the resultant system of ordinary differential equations could be solved in a closed form. Generally, the problem is reduced to a set of integral

M. A. Alabraba; A. R. Bestman; A. Ogulu

1992-01-01

244

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods are discussed with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow-solver code was used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.

Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.

1988-01-01

245

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method is presented for the computation of the flow field about an axisymmetric body operating in a viscous, incompressible fluid. A potential flow method was used to determine the inviscid flow field and to yield the boundary conditions for the boundary layer solutions. Boundary layer effects in the forces of displacement thickness and empirically modeled separation streamlines are accounted for in subsequent potential flow solutions. This procedure is repeated until the solutions converge. An empirical method was used to determine base drag allowing configuration drag to be computed.

Beatty, T. D.

1975-01-01

246

A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow

There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. The first of these requirements is satisfied with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for

Louis H. Howell

1993-01-01

247

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite-difference program is described for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain the factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free-stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile.

Albers, J. A.; Gregg, J. L.

1974-01-01

248

Laboratory and Numerical Investigations of Residence Time Distribution of Fluids in Laminar Flow Stirred Annular Photoreactor E. Sahle-Demessie1, Siefu Bekele2, U. R. Pillai1 1U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory Sustainable Technology Division,...

249

The effective thermal conductivity of suspensions of 50? and 100-?-diam polystyrene spheres in aqueous sodium chloride or glycerine, flowing in laminar motion, has been shown to be a function of the state of the motion (unlike single-phase fluids) and has been seen to be as much as 3 times the thermal conductivity of stationary suspensions. Detailed experiments have indicated its

Avtar Singh Ahuja

1975-01-01

250

LAMINAR FLOW BASED MICROREACTOR FOR EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF NICOTINAMIDE COFACTORS FOR BIOCATALYIS

LAMINAR FLOW BASED MICROREACTOR FOR EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF NICOTINAMIDE COFACTORS of the microreactor. Two methods were used to fabricate the microreactor studied in this paper. The first method used. Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 4974-4984). The microreactor channel was designed using CAD software (Freehand 9

Kenis, Paul J. A.

251

Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow

Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance 11 October 2005. [1] We investigate the formation of three-dimensional sand patterns under a steady in the infinite depth case and in the long-wavelength approximation. The sand transport is described using two

252

Formation of Two-Dimensional Sand Ripples under Laminar Shear Flow Vincent Langlois and Alexandre 20 June 2005) The process of ripple formation on a two-dimensional sand bed sheared by a viscous fluid is investigated theoretically. The sand transport is described taking into account both the local

253

EXPERIMENTS WITH HEAVY GAS JETS IN LAMINAR AND TURBULENT CROSS-FLOWS

A wind tunnel study was performed to determine the dispersion characteristics of gas jets with densities heavier than that of air. he experiments were done in a laminar cross-flow and then repeated in a turbulent boundary layer. ll major boundary-layer characteristics were measur...

254

Development Length Requirements for Fully Developed Laminar Pipe Flow of Yield Stress Fluids

In this technical brief, we report the results of a systematic numerical investigation of developing laminar pipe flow of yield stress fluids obeying models of the Bingham type. We are able to show that using a suitable choice of the Reynolds number allows, for high Reynolds number values at least, the development length to collapse to the Newtonian correlation. On

R. J. Poole; R. P. Chhabra

2010-01-01

255

Investigation of fuel and media flexible laminar flow-based fuel cells

We investigate the performance of air-breathing laminar flow-based fuel cells (LFFCs) operated with five different fuels (formic acid, methanol, ethanol, hydrazine, and sodium borohydride) in either acidic or alkaline media. The membraneless LFFC architecture enables interchangeable operation with different fuel and media combinations that are only limited by the actual anode catalyst used. Furthermore, operating under alkaline conditions significantly improves

Fikile R. Brushett; Ranga S. Jayashree; Wei-Ping Zhou; Paul J. A. Kenis

2009-01-01

256

The heat transfer behavior of phase change material fluid (PCM) under laminar flow conditions in circular tubes and internally longitudinal finned tubes was studied. An effective specific heat technique was used to model the phase change process. Heat transfer results for a smooth circular tube with PCM fluid were obtained under hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed conditions. Results for the

Gurunarayana Ravi; Jorge L. Alvarado; Charles Marsh; David A. Kessler

2009-01-01

257

Design of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for Business-Jet Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 14-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S204, for light business-jet applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The drag-divergence Mach number is predicted to be greater than 0.70.

Somers, Dan M.

2012-01-01

258

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

1973-01-01

259

An adaptive mesh redistribution method for the incompressible mixture flows using phase-field model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase field model which describes the motion of mixtures of two incompressible fluids is presented by Liu and Shen [C. Liu, J. Shen, A phase field model for the mixture of two incompressible fluids and its approximation by a Fourier-spectral method, Phys. D 179 (2003) 211-228]. The model is based on an energetic variational formulation. In this work, we develop an efficient adaptive mesh method for solving a phase field model for the mixture flow of two incompressible fluids. It is a coupled nonlinear system of Navier-Stokes equations and Allen-Cahn phase equation (phase-field equation) through an extra stress term and the transport term. The numerical strategy is based on the approach proposed by Li et al. [R. Li, T. Tang, P.-W. Zhang, Moving mesh methods in multiple dimensions based on harmonic maps, J. Comput. Phys. 170 (2001) 562-588] to separate the mesh-moving and PDE evolution. In the PDE evolution part, the phase-field equation is numerically solved by a conservative scheme with a Lagrange multiplier, and the coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the incremental pressure-correction projection scheme based on the semi-staggered grid method. In the mesh-moving part, the mesh points are iteratively redistributed by solving the Euler-Lagrange equations with a parameter-free monitor function. In each iteration, the pressure and the phase are updated on the resulting new grid by a conservative-interpolation formula, while the velocity is re-mapped in a non-conservative approach. A simple method for preserving divergence-free is obtained by projecting the velocity onto the divergence-free space after generating the new mesh at the last iterative step. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the incompressible mixture flows.

Tan, Zhijun; Lim, K. M.; Khoo, B. C.

2007-07-01

260

Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re{sub D} = 18?100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2014-08-15

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new flow configuration has been proposed in which a bilateral mixing-layer exists in the junction between co-flowing laminar and turbulent plane Couette flows. Contrary to a classical plane mixing-layer, the present mixing-layer did neither grow in time nor in streamwise direction. However, the mixing zone varied with the distance from the stationary wall. A direct numerical simulation showed that very-large-scale flow structures were found in the turbulent part of the flow with Reynolds number 1300 based on half the velocity U1 of the fastest-moving wall and half of the distance 2h between the walls. The laminar-turbulent interface exhibited a large-scale meandering motion with frequency 0.014U1/h and wavelength about 25h. Large-scale Taylor-Görtler-like roll cells were observed in the nominally laminar flow region with Reynolds number 260. This tailor-made flow is particularly well suited for explorations of momentum transfer and intermittency in the vicinity of the laminar-turbulent interface.

Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.; Andersson, Helge I.; Pettersen, Bjørnar

2014-03-01

262

Computing three-dimensional incompressible flows with vortex elements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques, capabilities and applicability of numerical models of three-dimensional, unsteady vortical flows with high Re are assessed. Vorticity is calculated only in appropriate regions and the velocity field is derived from the boundary conditions. Vorticity is assumed to take the shape of tubes with uniform core structures in the case of turbulence. The efforts being made to simplify equations for dense collections of vortex filaments in order to make them tractable to computer simulations are described. The effectiveness of vorticity arrow representations for accurately describing vorticity fields near surfaces is discussed, along with Lagrangian vortex elements, which may be of use in modelling the rotational part of flows around bluff bodies, nonuniform density flows and chemically reacting flows.

Leonard, A.

1985-01-01

263

Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

Chiuchiolo, E. A.

1974-01-01

264

Analysis and evaluation of an integrated laminar flow control propulsion system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reduction of drag has been a major goal of the aircraft industry as no other single quantity influences the operating costs of transport aircraft more than aerodynamic drag. It has been estimated that even modest reduction of frictional drag could reduce fuel costs by anywhere from 2 to 5 percent. Current research on boundary layer drag reduction deals with various approaches to reduce turbulent skin friction drag as a means of improving aircraft performance. One of the techniques belonging to this category is laminar flow control in which extensive regions of laminar flow are maintained over aircraft surfaces by delaying transition to turbulence through the ingestion of boundary layer air. While problems of laminar flow control have been studied in some detail, the prospect of improving the propulsion system of an aircraft by the use of ingested boundary layer air has received very little attention. An initial study for the purpose of reducing propulsion system requirements by utilizing the kinetic energy of boundary layer air was performed in the mid-1970's at LeRC. This study which was based on ingesting the boundary layer air at a single location, did not yield any significant overall propulsion benefits; therefore, the concept was not pursued further. However, since then it has been proposed that if the boundary layer air were ingested at various locations on the aircraft surface instead of just at one site, an improvement in the propulsion system might be realized. The present report provides a review of laminar flow control by suction and focuses on the problems of reducing skin friction drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow over the aircraft surfaces. In addition, it includes an evaluation of an aircraft propulsion system that is augmented by ingested boundary layer air.

Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

265

Formation of a laminar electron flow for 300 GHz high-power pulsed gyrotron

This paper describes the design of a triode magnetron injection gun for use in a 200 kW, 300 GHz gyrotron. As power and frequency increase, the performance of the gyrotron becomes quite sensitive to the quality of the electron beam. Formation of a laminar electron flow is essential for the realization of a high quality beam with a small velocity spread. In this study, a new method is developed for a quantitative evaluation of the laminarity and is applied to optimize the electrode design. The laminarity depends not only on conventional design parameters such as the cathode slant angle but also on the spatial distribution of the electric field along the beam trajectory. In the optimized design, the velocity pitch factors, {alpha}, larger than 1.2 are obtained at 65 kV, 10 A with spreads, {Delta}{alpha}, less than 5%.

Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Teruo; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Mudiganti, Jagadish C.; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan)

2012-11-15

266

A cell-centered pressure based method for incompressible flow is presented in this paper, and it is implemented in a new two\\/three-dimensional parallel unstructured CFD code to meet the chal- lenges of physical problems with complex geometries and complicated boundary conditions while maintaining high computational efficiency. The method uses a second order upwinding scheme in space and a second order backward

Hua Chen; George P.-G. Huang

267

A p-version finite element method for steady incompressible fluid flow and convective heat transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new p-version finite element formulation for steady, incompressible fluid flow and convective heat transfer problems is presented. The steady-state residual equations are obtained by considering a limiting case of the least-squares formulation for the transient problem. The method circumvents the Babuska-Brezzi condition, permitting the use of equal-order interpolation for velocity and pressure, without requiring the use of arbitrary parameters. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and generality of the method.

Winterscheidt, Daniel L.

1993-01-01

268

An adaptive-grid solution procedure is developed for incompressible flow problems in which grid refinement based on an equidistribution law is performed in high-error-estimate regions that are flagged from a preliminary coarse-grid solution. Solutions on the locally refined and equidistributed meshes are obtained using boundary conditions interpolated from the preliminary coarse-grid solution, and solutions on both the refined- and coarse-grid regions

F. Moukalled; S. Acharya

1991-01-01

269

A general two-equation macroscopic turbulence model for incompressible flow in porous media

view of the practical and fundamental importance to heat and mass transfer, we present a two-equation turbulence model for incompressible flow within a fluid saturated and rigid porous medium. The derivation consists of time-averaging the general (macroscopic) transport equations and closing the model with the classical eddy diffusivity concept and the Kolmogorov-Prandtl relation. The transport equations for the turbulence kinetic

B. V. Antohe; J. L. Lage

1997-01-01

270

An overset-grid method for 3D unsteady incompressible flows

A composite-grid numerical method is developed for simulating unsteady, three-dimensional (3D), incompressible flows in complex geometries. The governing equations are solved using a second-order accurate, finite-volume method based on the dual time-stepping artificial compressibility approach. Overset grids are employed to discretize arbitrarily complex geometries, and a new interface algorithm is developed to facilitate communication between neighboring grids. The algorithm is

H. S. Tang; S. Casey Jones; Fotis Sotiropoulos

2003-01-01

271

A parallel 3D unsteady incompressible flow solver on VPP700

In this study, MIMD parallel computation of coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the mass and momentum conservation of a 3D viscous incompressible unsteady flow on distributed memory-based vector parallel processing system (VPP700) under UXP\\/VPPF90 has been discussed. The parallel numerical implementation is based on a time accurate cell centered finite volume method in conjunction with Roe's flux difference splitting

B. V. Rathish Kumar; Takami Yamaguchi; Hao Liu; Ryutaro Himeno

2001-01-01

272

Parallel finite element simulation of 3D incompressible flows: Fluid-structure interactions

SUMMARY Massively parallel finite element computations of 3D, unsteady incompressible flows, including those involving fluid-structure interactions, are presented. The computations with time-varying spatial domains are based on the deforming spatial domain\\/stabilized space-time (DSD\\/SST) finite element formulation. The capability to solve 3D problems involving fluid-structure interactions is demonstrated by investigating the dynamics of a fle~ible cantilevered pipe conveying fluid. Computations of

S. Mittal; T. E. Tezduyar

1995-01-01

273

A High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 2D Incompressible Flows

In this paper we introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional incompressible flow in the vorticity stream-function formulation. The momentum equation is treated explicitly, utilizing the efficiency of the discontinuous Galerkin method. The stream function is obtained by a standard Poisson solver using continuous finite elements. There is a natural matching between these two finite element spaces, since the

Jian-Guo Liu; Chi-Wang Shu

2000-01-01

274

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poloidal and toroidal velocities of fully ionized carbon are measured by means of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator. We present a detailed treatment of the 3D geometry and show that flow measurements, performed at different locations of the same flux surface, are compatible with flow incompressibility for the low density plasmas under study (line averaged electron densities \\bar{n}_e\\le 10^{19}\\,m^{-3} ). Furthermore, comparison with neoclassical calculations shows quantitative agreement with the measured radial electric field and ion parallel mass flow in the absence of an external momentum input.

Arévalo, J.; Alonso, J. A.; McCarthy, K. J.; Velasco, J. L.

2013-02-01

275

Multigrid Computations of 3-D Incompressible Internal and External Viscous Rotating Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents multigrid methods for solving the 3-D incompressible viscous rotating flows in a NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor and a marine propeller 4119. Numerical formulations are given in both the rotating reference frame and the absolute frame. Comparisons are made for the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness between the steady-state scheme and the time-accurate scheme for simulating viscous rotating flows for complex internal and external flow applications. Prospects for further increase in efficiency and accuracy of unsteady time-accurate computations are discussed.

Sheng, Chunhua; Taylor, Lafayette K.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Jiang, Min-Yee; Whitfield, David L.

1996-01-01

276

Comparison of rezone algorithms for incompressible fluid flow calculations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conservation of momentum approach to grids choice for finite element analysis of flows is shown to have deficiencies which can be avoided by use of algorithms based on biquadratic interpolation. Numerical experiments were performed using the ICED-ALE finite difference method with convection terms found before new pressure values and solutions gained by direct methods. Position, velocity, and pressure figures were calcualted using rezone algorithms, with nodes defined in steps of positions between changes in the parameters. Isoparametric biquadratic interpolation was configured into a 9-node biquadratic finite element. Two Jeffrey-Hamel self-similar flows with Re of 1000 and 5000 and a two-dimensional flow past a rectangular solid, yielding a vortex formation behavior, were examined. Predictions were tested in a rectangular duct with a small obstacle located slightly off centerline. Comparison of predicted natural frequency suppression in favor of the grid motion indicated a more accurate rezone scheme with the isoparametric biquadratic interpolation.

Sussman, M. M.

1982-08-01

277

Correlation of Water Frost Porosity in Laminar Flow over Flat Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dimensionless correlation has been proposed for water frost porosity expressing its dependence on frost surface temperature and Reynolds number for laminar forced flow over a flat surface. The correlation is presented in terms of a dimensionless frost surface temperature scaled with the cold plate temperature, and the freezing temperature. The flow Reynolds number is scaled with reference to the critical Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition. The proposed correlation agrees satisfactorily with the simultaneous measurements of frost density and frost surface temperature covering a range of plate temperature, ambient air velocity, humidity, and temperature. It is revealed that the frost porosity depends primarily on the frost surface and the plate temperatures and the flow Reynolds number, and is only weakly dependent on the relative humidity. The results also point out the general character of frost porosity displaying a decrease with an increase in flow Reynolds number.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

278

Response of hot element flush wall gauges in oscillating laminar flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time dependent response characteristics of flush-mounted hot element gauges used as instruments to measure wall shear stress in unsteady periodic air flows were investigated. The study was initiated because anomalous results were obtained from the gauges in oscillating turbulent flows for the phase relation of the wall shear stress variation, indicating possible gauge response problems. Flat plate laminar oscillating turbulent flows characterized by a mean free stream velocity with a superposed sinusoidal variation were performed. Laminar rather than turbulent flows were studied, because a numerical solution for the phase angle between the free stream velocity and the wall shear stress variation that is known to be correct can be obtained. The focus is on comparing the phase angle indicated by the hot element gauges with corresponding numerical prediction for the phase angle, since agreement would indicate that the hot element gauges faithfully follow the true wall shear stress variation.

Giddings, T. A.; Cook, W. J.

1986-01-01

279

Theoretical and experimental investigations of two dimensional incompressible flows containing separated regions of fluid length were conducted. Separation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layers were considered. In the case of laminar separation it was assumed that the separated free shear layer remains laminar. The separation bubbles were originated by backward facing steps with sharp or rounded edges or by

K. Gersten; H. Herwig; P. Wauschkuhn

1981-01-01

280

DIVERGENCE-FREE WAVELET PROJECTION METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW

equation solver and reduce the steps of usual methods with more accuracy. Numerical experiments conducted: oceanography, engineering, etc. Tur- bulent flows are modelized by the Navier-Stokes equations, which-Stokes equations with physical boundary conditions. The temporal discretization of the method is inspired from

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

281

Polymer brushes patterned with micrometer-scale chemical gradients using laminar co-flow.

We present a facile microfluidic method for forming narrow chemical gradients in polymer brushes. Co-flow of an alkylating agent solution and a neat solvent in a microfluidic channel forms a diffusion-driven concentration gradient, and thus a gradient in reaction rate at the interface of the two flows, leading to a quaternization gradient in the underlying poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) polymer brush. The spatial distribution of the quaternized polymer brush is characterized by confocal Raman microscopy. The quaternization gradient length in the polymer brush can be varied with the injection flow rate and the distance from the co-flow junction. A chemical gradient in the polymer brush as narrow as 5 ?m was created by controlling these parameters. The chemical gradient by laminar co-flow is compared with numerical calculations that include only one adjustable parameter: the reaction rate constant of the polymer brush quaternization. The calculated chemical gradient agrees with the experimental data, which validates the numerical procedures established in this study. Flow of multiple laminar streams of reactive agent solutions enables single-run fabrication of brush gradients with more than one chemical property. As one example, four laminar streams-neat solvent/benzyl bromide solution/propargyl bromide solution/neat solvent-generate multistep gradients of aromatic and alkyne groups. Because the alkyne functional group is a click-reaction available site, the alkyne gradient could allow small gradient formation with a wide variety of chemical properties in a polymer brush. PMID:24960623

Koo, Hyung-Jun; Waynant, Kristopher V; Zhang, Chunjie; Braun, Paul V

2014-08-27

282

A new finite element formulation for incompressible flow

A basic objective in computational fluid dynamics is the efficient solution of nonlinear systems of equations that arise in finite element modeling of convective-diffusive flow. The use of implicit Newton-like schemes to solve the coupled system of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations enables rapid convergence, although the well-known difficulty of indirect pressure linkage requires attention when forming the Jacobian matrices. Traditional approaches for overcoming this obstacle include reordering strategies, modification of diagonal terms, and changes of variables. In contrast, the author develops a primitive variable finite element formulation which employs an auxiliary pressure equation derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. This formulation extends the work of Rice and Schnipke, where a similar equation was developed in the context of a segregated solution method. Approximate Newton methods using the new finite element formulation are evaluated in terms of accuracy, convergence rate, and overall efficiency for flow problems with varying degrees of nonlinearity.

Curfman, L.V.

1995-02-01

283

Fully consistent CFD methods for incompressible flow computations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays collocated grid based CFD methods are one of the most efficient tools for computations of the flows past wind turbines. To ensure the robustness of the methods they require special attention to the well-known problem of pressure-velocity coupling. Many commercial codes to ensure the pressure-velocity coupling on collocated grids use the so-called momentum interpolation method of Rhie and Chow [1]. As known, the method and some of its widely spread modifications result in solutions, which are dependent of time step at convergence. In this paper the magnitude of the dependence is shown to contribute about 0.5% into the total error in a typical turbulent flow computation. Nevertheless if coarse grids are used, the standard interpolation methods result in much higher non-consistent behavior. To overcome the problem, a recently developed interpolation method, which is independent of time step, is used. It is shown that in comparison to other time step independent method, the method may enhance the convergence rate of the SIMPLEC algorithm up to 25 %. The method is verified using turbulent flow computations around a NACA 64618 airfoil and the roll-up of a shear layer, which may appear in wind turbine wake.

Kolmogorov, D. K.; Shen, W. Z.; Sørensen, N. N.; Sørensen, J. N.

2014-06-01

284

This article focuses on the research field of heat transfer of single-phase laminar flow and two-phase self-exciting oscillating flow in microchannels. First, to make prominent the special features of microthermal systems, the definition of the term “nanothermal systems” is discussed from the viewpoint of local equilibrium. Next, to show the special features of flow and heat transfer in microchannels, some

Shigefumi Nishio

2004-01-01

285

Actuator disk theory for incompressible highly rotating flows.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution has been obtained for a stator-rotor pair operating in an annulus with constant hub and tip radii. The stator and rotor are represented as actuator discs, and perfect fluid flow is assumed. The solutions are exact within these limitations, no linearization being required. The forms of blade loadings considered allow the introduction of large vorticity by either the rotor or stator. As a result, the rotor may be a ?nonconstant-work' row. The solutions obtained are of summational form, but many of the summations are obtained in closed form, the resultant formulas allowing rapid calculation of desired examples. An example numerical result is included.

Oates, G. C.

1971-01-01

286

A Method for the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully automated iterative design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Drag reductions have been realized using the design method over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and airfoil thicknesses. The thrusts of the method are its ability to calculate a target N-Factor distribution that forces the flow to undergo transition at the desired location; the target-pressure-N-Factor relationship that is used to reduce the N-Factors in order to prolong transition; and its ability to design airfoils to meet lift, pitching moment, thickness and leading-edge radius constraints while also being able to meet the natural laminar flow constraint. The method uses several existing CFD codes and can design a new airfoil in only a few days using a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.

Green, Bradford E.; Whitesides, John L.; Campbell, Richard L.; Mineck, Raymond E.

1996-01-01

287

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness and practicality of candidate leading edge systems for suction laminar flow control transport airplanes were investigated in a flight test program utilizing a modified JetStar airplane. The leading edge region imposes the most severe conditions on systems required for any type of laminar flow control. Tests of the leading edge systems, therefore, provided definitive results as to the feasibility of active laminar flow control on airplanes. The test airplane was operated under commercial transport operating procedures from various commercial airports and at various seasons of the year.

Maddalon, Dal V.; Braslow, Albert L.

1990-01-01

288

Stochastic finite difference lattice Boltzmann method for steady incompressible viscous flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of state-of-the-art computers and their rapid availability, the time is ripe for the development of efficient uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods to reduce the complexity of numerical models used to simulate complicated systems with incomplete knowledge and data. The spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM) which is one of the widely used UQ methods, regards uncertainty as generating a new dimension and the solution as dependent on this dimension. A convergent expansion along the new dimension is then sought in terms of the polynomial chaos system, and the coefficients in this representation are determined through a Galerkin approach. This approach provides an accurate representation even when only a small number of terms are used in the spectral expansion; consequently, saving in computational resource can be realized compared to the Monte Carlo (MC) scheme. Recent development of a finite difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) that provides a convenient algorithm for setting the boundary condition allows the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, with and without external body forces to be simulated with ease. Also, the inherent compressibility effect in the conventional lattice Boltzmann method, which might produce significant errors in some incompressible flow simulations, is eliminated. As such, the FDLBM together with an efficient UQ method can be used to treat incompressible flows with built in uncertainty, such as blood flow in stenosed arteries. The objective of this paper is to develop a stochastic numerical solver for steady incompressible viscous flows by combining the FDLBM with a SSFEM. Validation against MC solutions of channel/Couette, driven cavity, and sudden expansion flows are carried out.

Fu, S. C.; So, R. M. C.; Leung, W. W. F.

2010-08-01

289

Large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent channel flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three-dimensional, time-dependent primitive equations of motion were numerically integrated for the case of turbulent channel flow. A partially implicit numerical method was developed. An important feature of this scheme is that the equation of continuity is solved directly. The residual field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model, while the large-scale field was obtained directly from the solution of the governing equations. An important portion of the initial velocity field was obtained from the solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The pseudospectral method was used for numerical differentiation in the horizontal directions, and second-order finite-difference schemes were used in the direction normal to the walls. The large eddy simulation technique is capable of reproducing some of the important features of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The resolvable portions of the root-mean square wall pressure fluctuations, pressure velocity-gradient correlations, and velocity pressure-gradient correlations are documented.

Moin, P.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.

1978-01-01

290

A parametric study of LES on laminar-turbulent transitional flows past an airfoil

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-Reynolds-number aerodynamic performance of small-sized air vehicles is an area of increasing interest. In this study, low-Reynolds-number flows past an SD7003 airfoil are investigated to understand important viscous features of laminar separation and transitional flow followed by the complicated behavior of the flow reattachment process. In order to satisfy the three-dimensional (3D) requirement of the code, a simple “3D wing” is constructed from a two-dimensional (2D) airfoil. A parametric study of large eddy simulation (LES) on the airfoil flows at Re=60,000 is performed. Effects of grid resolution and sub-grid scale (SGS) models are investigated. Although 3D effects cannot be accurately captured owing to the limitation of the grid resolution in the spanwise direction, the preliminary LES calculations do reveal some important flow characteristics such as leading-edge laminar separation and vortex shedding from the primary laminar separation bubble on the low-Reynolds-number airfoil.

Yuan, W.; Xu, H.; Khalid, M.; Radespiel, R.

2006-01-01

291

A Quantitative Comparison of Leading-edge Vortices in Incompressible and Supersonic Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.

Wang, F. Y.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

2002-01-01

292

Oscillating aerodynamics and flutter of an aerodynamically detuned cascade in an incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed and utilized to demonstrate the enhanced torsion mode stability associated with alternate blade circumferential aerodynamic detuning of a rotor operating in an incompressible flow field. The oscillating cascade aerodynamics, including steady loading effects, are determined by developing a complete first order unsteady aerodynamic analysis. An unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is then utilized, thereby enabling the stability of both conventional uniformly spaced rotors and detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotors to be determined. To demonstrate the enhanced flutter aeroelastic stability associated with this aerodynamic detuning mechanism, this model is applied to a baseline unstable rotor with a Gostelow flow geometry.

Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

1989-01-01

293

Two-dimensional MRT LB model for compressible and incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we extend the Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model proposed in [ Europhys. Lett., 2010, 90: 54003] so that it is suitable also for incompressible flows. To decrease the artificial oscillations, the convection term is discretized by the flux limiter scheme with splitting technique. A new model is validated by some well-known benchmark tests, including Riemann problem and Couette flow, and satisfying agreements are obtained between the simulation results and analytical ones. In order to show the merit of LB model over traditional methods, the non-equilibrium characteristics of system are solved. The simulation results are consistent with the physical analysis.

Chen, Feng; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Wang, Yong-Long

2014-04-01

294

A pressure based method for the solution of viscous incompressible turbomachinery flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique was developed for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical technique, derived from a pressure substitution method (PSM), overcomes many of the deficiencies of the pressure correction method. This technique allows for the direct solution of the actual pressure in the form of a Poisson equation which is derived from the pressure weighted substitution of the full momentum equations into the continuity equation. Two dimensional internal flows are computed with this method. The prediction of cascade performance is presented. The extention of the pressure correction method for the solution of three dimensional flows is also presented.

Hobson, Garth Victor; Lakshminarayana, B.

1991-01-01

295

Unsteady laminar flow developing in a curved duct

Measurements of the time-dependent velocity in the flow developing in a U-bend of square cross section were obtained using a laser Doppler velocimeter. Autocorrelations, energy spectra, and probability distribution functions were, in turn, derived from the time records. Numerical calculations of the flow were also performed using a 3D transient fully elliptic finite-difference scheme. The oscillations observed experimentally and numerically are linked to the formation of Goertler-type vortices on the outer-radius wall in the developing flow. At higher flow rates, the vortices, produced by the centrifugal instability of the flow on the outer-radius wall, undergo a further transition to an unsteady regime. 23 refs.

Arnal, M.P.; Goering, D.J.; Humphrey, J.A.C. (California Univ., Berkeley (United States))

1992-12-01

296

High-order ALE schemes for incompressible capillary flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial discretization of problems with moving boundaries is considered, incorporating the temporal evolution of not just the mechanical variables, but also of the nodal positions of the moving mesh. The outcome is a system of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) of index 2 or, in the case of inertialess flow, just 1. From the DAE formulation it its possible to define strategies to build schemes of arbitrary accuracy. We introduce here several schemes of order 2 and 3 that avoid the solution of a nonlinear system involving simultaneously the mechanical variables and the geometrical ones. This class of schemes has been the one adopted by the majority of practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics up to now. The proposed schemes indeed achieve the design accuracy, and further show stability restrictions that are not significantly more severe than those of popular first order schemes. The numerical experimentation is performed on capillary problems, discretized by both div-stable (P2/P1, P1+/P1) and equal-order (P1/P1, stabilized) finite elements, and incorporating surface tension and triple (contact) line effects.

Montefuscolo, Felipe; Sousa, Fabricio S.; Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

2014-12-01

297

Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL) for thermal-hydraulics applications ranging from grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) to multiphase flow subcooled boiling. Currently, Hydra-TH is based on the semi-implicit projection method, which provides an excellent platform for simulation of transient single-phase thermalhydraulics problems. This algorithm however is not efficient when applied for very slow or steady-state problems, as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant to nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require fully-implicit tightly-coupling algorithms. The major technical contribution of the present report is the formulation of fully-implicit projection algorithm which will fulfill this purpose. This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques.

Robert Nourgaliev; Mark Christon; J. Bakosi

2012-09-01

298

Computation of incompressible viscous flows through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extension of computational fluid dynamics techniques to artificial heart flow simulations is illustrated. Unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates are solved iteratively at each physical time step until the incompressibility condition is satisfied. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The efficiency and robustness of the time accurate formulation of the algorithm are tested by computing the flow through model geometries. A channel flow with a moving indentation is computed and validated with experimental measurements and other numerical solutions. In order to handle the geometric complexity and the moving boundary problems, a zonal method and an overlapping grid embedding scheme are used, respectively. Steady state solutions for the flow through a tilting disk heart valve was compared against experimental measurements. Good agreement was obtained. The flow computation during the valve opening and closing is carried out to illustrate the moving boundary capability.

Kiris, Cetin; Rogers, Stuart; Kwak, Dochan; Chang, I.-DEE

1991-01-01

299

We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position. PMID:23833331

Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2013-01-01

300

Steady, incompressible, inviscid flow through a finite collapsible tube under longitudinal tension

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady, incompressible, inviscid flow through a collapsible tube under longitudinal tension held open at the ends is formulated as a two point boundary value problem for a nonlinear ordinary differential equation, describing the shape of the tube. Based on numerical calculations for various sets of values of total pressure Po and flow rate q, existence, uniqueness and multiplicity of solutions of the boundary value problem are discussed. When there is no flow, there is a unique solution for all tube lengths for Po 1; for Po 1 there is a unique solution for tube lengths up to that allowed, corresponding to the maximum inflation. For subcritical total pressures and negative inlet pressures there is a collapsed and a highly collapsed solution, which merge at the flow limitation flow rate value. For subcritical total pressures and positive inlet pressures, the occurrence of periodic solutions leads to multiplicity in the solution of the boundary value problem.

Reyn, J. W.; Bakker, P. G.

301

Calculation of laminar recirculating flows using a local non-staggered grid refinement system

A grid-embedding technique for the solution of two-dimensional incompressible flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. A finite volume method with collocated primitive variables is employed to ensure conservation at the interfaces of embedding grids as well as global conservation. The discretized equations are solved simultaneously for the whole domain, providing a strong coupling between regions of different refinement.

P. Coelho; J. C. F. Pereira; M. G. Carvalho

1991-01-01

302

Experimental study of ``laminar'' bubbly flows in a vertical pipe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different sizes. As the gas flow rate was increased, a gradual development of the liquid velocity profile from the parabolic Poiseuille flow to a flattened two-phase profile was observed. The evolution of the wall shear stress and of the velocity fluctuations were also quantified.

Kashinsky, O. N.; Timkin, L. S.; Cartellier, A.

1993-09-01

303

Experiments on laminar film flow along a periodic wall

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are reported on the structure of gravity-driven film flow along an inclined periodic wall with rectangular corrugations. A fluorescence imaging method is used to capture the evolution of film height in space and time with accuracy of a few microns. The steady flow is found to exhibit a statically deformed free surface, as predicted by previous asymptotic and numerical studies. Though usually unstable, its characteristics determine much of the subsequent non-stationary dynamics. Travelling disturbances are observed to evolve into solitary multi-peaked humps, and pronounced differences from the respective phenomena along a flat wall are noted. Finally, a remarkable stabilization of the flow at high Reynolds numbers is documented, which proceeds through the development of a three-dimensional flow structure and leads to a temporary decrease in film thickness and recession of solitary waves.

Vlachogiannis, M.; Bontozoglou, V.

2002-04-01

304

Control of airborne nickel welding fumes by means of a vertical laminar air flow system

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effeciveness of a clean room facility with laminar air flow in the control of nickel fumes released from metal inert gas (MIG) and shielded metal arc (SMA) welding operations performed on mild steel using nickel filler materials. From data observed in these experiments, it appears that the laminar flow clean room approach to controlling welding fumes can be successful in certain small table top welding operations. However, almost any interferences that obstruct the downward airflow can result in eddy currents and subsequent build-up of fumes by entrapment. Airflow patterns differ significantly when comparing table top operations to welding on large cylindrical and/or doughnut shaped items. (JGB)

Helms, T.C.

1980-12-08

305

Design aspects of long range supersonic LFC airplanes with highly swept wings. [laminar flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies on supersonic long-range LFC (laminar flow control) aircraft were performed with the aim of maximizing L/D and alleviating sonic boom during supersonic cruise. It is found that configurations with highly swept LFC wings of very high structural aspect ratio, with the sweep increasing toward the wing root and braced externally by wide chord laminarized struts, appear especially promising. In the supersonic cruise design condition the wing upper surface isobars are swept such that the flow in the direction normal to them is transonic with embedded supersonic zones and practically shock-free over most of the span, with M-perpendicular equal to the two-dimensional design values of advanced SC LFC airfoils, e.g., of the X-787 or X-6 type.

Pfenninger, W.; Vemuru, C. S.

1990-01-01

306

Design of a natural laminar flow wing for a transonic corporate transport

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two- and three-dimensional computational methods were used to design a wing for a transonic corporate transport that had significant runs of laminar flow on both upper and lower wing surfaces at the cruise condition. The airfoil was derived from a low-speed laminar-flow section. The contour was systematically modified based on results from a two-dimensional transonic code to give favorable pressure gradients to 50-percent chord on the upper surface and 65-percent chord on the lower surface. Three-dimensional transonic codes were used to determine the wing twist and to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of the complete configuration at various flight conditions. A leading-edge modification for improved stall characteristics was also designed. The theoretical pressure distributions for the final airfoil correlated well with results from wind-tunnel tests.

Campbell, R. L.; Waggoner, E. G.; Phillips, P. S.

1986-01-01

307

Experimental Investigation of a Synthetic Jet Array in a Laminar Channel Flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with an impinging synthetic jet, namely on the case of a synthetic jet array interacting with a laminar channel flow. This arrangement can be useful in many micro-scale applications, such as cooling of micro-electronics. The flow regime in micro-scale is usually laminar with very small Reynolds numbers; therefore synthetic jet array can be used for the profile disturbance and heat transfer enhancement. The paper focuses on the low Reynolds number (in order 102). The working fluid is water and a piezoceramic transducer is used as a moving membrane in the synthetic jet actuator. Experiments are performed with four experimental methods (tin ion visualization, hot wire anemometry in constant temperature mode, laser Doppler vibrometry and particle image velocimetry) in three laboratories (at the Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, at the Institute of Thermodynamics CAS, v.v.i. and Technical University of Liberec, both Czech Republic).

Dan?ová, P.; Trávní?ek, Z.; Vít, T.

2013-04-01

308

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to Reynolds number.

Goodrich, John W.

1991-01-01

309

Russian Laminar Flow Airfoils 3rd Part: Measurements on the Profile No. 2315 BIS with Ava-Nose Flap

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tests on the Russian airfoil 2315 Bis were continued. This airfoil shows, according to Moscow tests, good laminar flow characteristics. Several tests were prepared in the large wind tunnel at Gottingen; partial results were obtained.

Riegels, F.

1947-01-01

310

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the suction panel and the required support structure, ducting, valving, and high-lift system (Krueger flaps) for flight demonstration of hybrid laminar flow control on the Boeing 757 airplane.

1999-01-01

311

Laminar-to-turbulent transition in pulsatile flow through a stenosis.

Laminar-to-turbulent transition in pulsatile flow through a stenosis is studied by means of three-dimensional numerical simulations. The flow transition is associated with the occurrence of a flow instability initiating in the stenosis region. The instability is manifested by a three-dimensional symmetry-breaking and leads to asymmetric separation and intense swirling motion downstream of the stenosis. The above have profound effects on the wall shear stress (WSS). The simulations reveal that the asymmetric separation is extended several radii downstream of the stenosis with substantial WSS fluctuations, in both space and time, occurring in the poststenotic region. PMID:12122264

Mallinger, Francois; Drikakis, Dimitris

2002-01-01

312

Fully developed laminar slip and no-slip flow in rough microtubes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of surface roughness on developed laminar flow in microtubes is investigated. The tube boundary is defined by {r=R[{1+\\varepsilon sin( {? ? })}]}, with R representing the reference radius and {\\varepsilon} and ? the roughness parameters. The momentum equation is solved using Fourier-Galerkin-Tau method with slip at the boundary. A novel semi-analytical method is developed to predict friction factor and pressure drop in corrugated rough microtubes for continuum flow and slip flow that are not restricted to small values of {\\varepsilon ? } . The analytical solution collapses onto the perturbation solution ofDuan and Muzychka (J. Fluids Eng., 130:031102, 2008) for small enough values of {\\varepsilon ? }.

Akyildiz, F. Talay; Siginer, Dennis A.

2011-08-01

313

Note on heat conduction in liquid metals. A comparison of laminar and turbulent flow effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difference between heat transfer in liquid metals with electric currents and magnetic fields on the one hand and heat transfer in electrically insulating fluids and in conducting solids on the other is pointed out. Laminar and turbulent flow effects in liquid metal sliding electric contacts for homopolar machines are considered. Large temperature gradients can develop within a small region of liquid metal. A model of a liquid-metal sliding electrical contact is developed and analyzed.

Talmage, G.

1994-05-01

314

The effective thermal conductivity of suspensions of 50- and 100-mu-diam polystyrene spheres in aqueous sodium chloride or glycerine, flowing in laminar motion, has been shown to be a function of the state of the motion (unlike single-phase fluids) and has been seen to be as much as 3 times the thermal conductivity of stationary suspensions. Detailed experiments have indicated its

Avtar Singh Ahuja

1975-01-01

315

Simulation of three-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer in an array of parallel microchannels

SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL LAMINAR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN AN ARRAY OF PARALLEL MICROCHANNELS A Thesis by JUSTIN DALE MLCAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... by JUSTIN DALE MLCAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, N.K. Anand Committee Members, J.C. Han...

Mlcak, Justin Dale

2009-05-15

316

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of impinging laminar jets issuing from rectangular slots of different aspect ratios have been investigated numerically through the solution of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations in steady state. The three-dimensional simulation reveals the existence of pronounced streamwise velocity off-center peaks near the impingement plate. Furthermore, the effect of these off-center velocity peaks on the

I. Sezai; A. A. Mohamad

1999-01-01

317

F-111 natural laminar flow glove flight test data analysis and boundary layer stability analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of 34 selected flight test data cases from a NASA flight program incorporating a natural laminar flow airfoil into partial wing gloves on the F-111 TACT airplane is given. This analysis determined the measured location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The report also contains the results of a boundary layer stability analysis of 25 of the selected cases in which the crossflow (C-F) and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) disturbance amplification factors are correlated with the measured transition location. The chord Reynolds numbers for these cases ranges from about 23 million to 29 million, the Mach numbers ranged from 0.80 to 0.85, and the glove leading-edge sweep angles ranged from 9 deg to 25 deg. Results indicate that the maximum extent of laminar flow varies from 56% chord to 9-deg sweep on the upper surface, and from 51% chord at 16-deg sweep to 6% chord at 25-deg sweep on the lower. The results of the boundary layer stability analysis indicate that when both C-F and T-S disturbances are amplified, an interaction takes place which reduces the maximum amplification factor of either type of disturbance that can be tolerated without causing transition.

Runyan, L. J.; Navran, B. H.; Rozendaal, R. A.

1984-01-01

318

Transonic flight test of a laminar flow leading edge with surface excrescences

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight experiment, conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, investigated the effects of surface excrescences, specifically gaps and steps, on boundary-layer transition in the vicinity of a leading edge at transonic flight conditions. A natural laminar flow leading-edge model was designed for this experiment with a spanwise slot manufactured into the leading-edge model to simulate gaps and steps like those present at skin joints of small transonic aircraft wings. The leading-edge model was flown with the flight test fixture, a low-aspect ratio fin mounted beneath an F-104G aircraft. Test points were obtained over a unit Reynolds number range of 1.5 to 2.5 million/ft and a Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.8. Results for a smooth surface showed that laminar flow extended to approximately 12 in. behind the leading edge at Mach number 0.7 over a unit Reynolds number range of 1.5 to 2.0 million/ft. The maximum size of the gap-and-step configuration over which laminar flow was maintained consisted of two 0.06-in. gaps with a 0.02-in. step at a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million/ft.

Zuniga, Fanny A.; Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.; Westphal, Russell V.

1994-01-01

319

Implicit/Multigrid Algorithms for Incompressible Turbulent Flows on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implicit code for computing inviscid and viscous incompressible flows on unstructured grids is described. The foundation of the code is a backward Euler time discretization for which the linear system is approximately solved at each time step with either a point implicit method or a preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) technique. For the GMRES calculations, several techniques are investigated for forming the matrix-vector product. Convergence acceleration is achieved through a multigrid scheme that uses non-nested coarse grids that are generated using a technique described in the present paper. Convergence characteristics are investigated and results are compared with an exact solution for the inviscid flow over a four-element airfoil. Viscous results, which are compared with experimental data, include the turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil, a three-element airfoil for which Mach number effects are investigated, and three-dimensional flow over a wing with a partial-span flap.

Anderson, W. Kyle; Rausch, Russ D.; Bonhaus, Daryl L.

1997-01-01

320

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical solutions are presented for the flow over a spherically blunted cone and hyperboloid with massive surface blowing. Time-dependent viscous shock-layer equations are used to describe the flow field. The boundary conditions on the body surface include a prescribed blowing-rate distribution. The governing equations are solved by a time-asymptotic finite-difference method. Results presented here are only for a perfect gas-type flow at zero angle of attack. Both laminar and turbulent flow solutions are obtained. It is found that the effect of the surface blowing on the laminar flow field is to smooth out the curvature discontinuity at the sphere-cone juncture point, which results in a positive pressure gradient over the body. The shock slope increases on the downstream portion of the body as the surface blowing rate is increased. The turbulent flow with surface blowing is found to redevelop a boundary-layer-like region near the surface. The effects of this boundary-layer region on the flow field and heating rates are discussed.

Kumar, A.; Twari, S. N.

1979-01-01

321

Hysteretic transition from laminar to vortex shedding flow in soap films

There are different ways for fluid flow to become turbulent, but usually many instabilities take place before that. Among these instabilities the transition from laminar flow to vortex shedding carries significant practical importance. Here we study a flow, where at high enough flow rates, vortices are generated by a fixed obstacle (cylinder), which penetrates a flowing, quasi-two dimensional soap film. We present experimental results that demonstrate that the transition from laminar flow to a periodic K\\'arm\\'an vortex street can be hysteretic, i.e. changing the mean flow rate $\\bar V$ vortices can survive at velocities lower than the velocity needed to generate them. This is an unexpected result since 3D experiments are well described by the Hopf equation, which is incompatible with hysteresis. Beyond that, our data cannot be satisfactorily fitted by the generic model of hysteresis, i.e. the 5th order Landau equation. It is found that a phenomenological model describes our experimental findings very well. Evidences are presented that wetting properties of the rod, mechanical instabilities (i.e. vibrations) of the setup, and the effect of the surrounding air are not the cause of the hysteresis. To reduce three dimensional effects, the rod was replaced by a disk having a thickness roughly eight times that of the film. The replacement of the rod by a disk increases the gap width and the shedding frequency. Behaviour of the system (for instance the unstable trajectory) in the hysteretic gap is investigated by means of transient measurements.

Viktor K. Horváth; J. Rob Cressman; Walter I. Goldburg; Xiao-Lun Wu

2000-07-21

322

Mimicking Natural Laminar to Turbulent Flow Transition: A Systematic CFD Study Using PAB3D

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For applied aerodynamic computations using a general purpose Navier-Stokes code, the common practice of treating laminar to turbulent flow transition over a non-slip surface is somewhat arbitrary by either treating the entire flow as turbulent or forcing the flow to undergo transition at given trip locations in the computational domain. In this study, the possibility of using the PAB3D code, standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and the Girimaji explicit algebraic stresses model to mimic natural laminar to turbulent flow transition was explored. The sensitivity of flow transition with respect to two limiters in the standard k-epsilon turbulence model was examined using a flat plate and a 6:1 aspect ratio prolate spheroid for our computations. For the flat plate, a systematic dependence of transition Reynolds number on background turbulence intensity was found. For the prolate spheroid, the transition patterns in the three-dimensional boundary layer at different flow conditions were sensitive to the free stream turbulence viscosity limit, the reference Reynolds number and the angle of attack, but not to background turbulence intensity below a certain threshold value. The computed results showed encouraging agreements with the experimental measurements at the corresponding geometry and flow conditions.

Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

2005-01-01

323

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we propose to study two issues associated with the use of the incremental projection method for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The first one is the combination of this time splitting algorithm with an adaptive local refinement method. The second one is the reduction of spurious velocities due to the right-hand side of the momentum balance. We propose a new variant of the incremental projection method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations with variable density and illustrate its behavior with the example of two phase flows simulations using a Cahn-Hilliard/Navier-Stokes model.

Minjeaud, Sebastian

2013-03-01

324

Energy-Conserving Simulation of Incompressible Electro-Osmotic and Pressure-Driven Flow

. A numerical model for electro-osmotic flow is described. The advecting velocity field is computed by solving the incompressible\\u000a Navier–Stokes equation. The method uses a semi-implicit multigrid algorithm to compute the divergence-free velocity at each\\u000a grid point. The finite differences are second-order accurate and centered in space; however, the traditional second-order\\u000a compact finite differencing of the Poisson equation for the pressure field

Jahrul Alam; John C. Bowman

2002-01-01

325

Wave Number Selection for Incompressible Parallel Jet Flows Periodic in Space

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temporal instability of a spatially periodic parallel flow of an incompressible inviscid fluid for various jet velocity profiles is studied numerically using Floquet Analysis. The transition matrix at the end of a period is evaluated by direct numerical integration. For verification, a method based on approximating a continuous function by a series of step functions was used. Unstable solutions were found only over a limited range of wave numbers and have a band type structure. The results obtained are analogous to the behavior observed in systems exhibiting complexity at the edge of order and chaos.

Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

1997-01-01

326

A Multiblock Approach for Calculating Incompressible Fluid Flows on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiblock approach is presented for solving two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows on unstructured grids. The artificial compressibility form of the governing equations is solved by a vertex-centered, finite-volume implicit scheme which uses a backward Euler time discretization. Point Gauss-Seidel relaxations are used to solve the linear system of equations at each time step. This work introduces a multiblock strategy to the solution procedure, which greatly improves the efficiency of the algorithm by significantly reducing the memory requirements while not increasing the CPU time. Results presented in this work shows that the current multiblock algorithm requires 70% less memory than the single block algorithm.

Sheng, Chunhua; Whitfield, David L.; Anderson, W. Kyle

1997-01-01

327

Laminar flow effects in the coil planet centrifuge

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coil planet centrifuge designed by Ito employs flow of a single liquid phase, through a rotating coiled tube in a centrifugal force field, to provide a separation of particles based on sedimentation rates. Mathematical solutions are derived for the linear differential equations governing particle behavior in the coil planet centrifuge device. These solutions are then applied as the basis of a model for optimizing particle separations.

Herrmann, F. T.

1984-01-01

328

Laminar Flow About a Rotating Body of Revolution in an Axial Airstream

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have set ourselves the problem of calculating the laminar flow on a body of revolution in an axial flow which simultaneously rotates about its axis. The problem mentioned above, the flow about a rotating disk in a flow, which we solved some time ago, represents the first step in the calculation of the flow on the rotating body of revolution in a flow insofar as, in the case of a round nose, a small region about the front stagnation point of the body of revolution may be replaced by its tangential plane. In our problem regarding the rotating body of revolution in a flow, for laminar flow, one of the limiting cases is known: that of the body which is in an axial approach flow but does not rotate. The other limiting case, namely the flow in the neighborhood of a body which rotates but is not subjected to a flow is known only for the rotating circular cylinder, aside from the rotating disk. In the case of the cylinder one deals with a distribution of the circumferential velocity according to the law v = omega R(exp 2)/r where R signifies the cylinder radius, r the distance from the center, and omega the angular velocity of the rotation. The velocity distribution as it is produced here by the friction effect is therefore the same as in the neighborhood of a potential vortex. When we treat, in what follows, the general case of the rotating body of revolution in a flow according to the calculation methods of Prandtl's boundary-layer theory, we must keep in mind that this solution cannot contain the limiting case of the body of revolution which only rotates but is not subjected to a flow. However, this is no essential limitation since this case is not of particular importance for practical purposes.

Schlichting, H.

1956-01-01

329

A microfluidic chip for generating reactive plasma at gas–gas interface formed in laminar flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas–gas interface is used for generating a localized reactive plasma flow at an atmospheric pressure. A microfluidic chip is fabricated as the reactor integrating a small plasma source located upstream. Within a Y-shaped microchannel, a discharging gas flows with a chemical gas. Owing to the small width of the microchannel, the gas flow is stabilized in a laminar flow. The resultant gas–gas interface is formed in the area where two gases flow facing each other activating the chemical gas through the energetic species in the discharging gas. A characteristic stream pattern is observed as the etching profile of a carbon film with a sub-µm sharp step change that can be explained by the spatial distribution of the reactive oxygen. This etching profile is different from that obtained when plasma discharging occurs near the channel exit being affected by the turbulent flow.

Hashimoto, Masahiro; Tsukasaki, Katsuki; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru

2015-01-01

330

Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

2013-01-01

331

Design and experimental evaluation of a swept supercritical Laminar Flow Control (LFC) airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large chord swept supercritical laminar flow control (LFC) airfoil was designed, constructed, and tested in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT). The LFC airfoil experiment was established to provide basic information concerning the design and compatibility of high-performance supercritical airfoils with suction boundary layer control achieved through discrete fine slots or porous surface concepts. It was aimed at validating prediction techniques and establishing a technology base for future transport designs and drag reduction. Good agreement was obtained between measured and theoretically designed shockless pressure distributions. Suction laminarization was maintained over an extensive supercritical zone up to high Reynolds numbers before transition gradually moved forward. Full-chord laminar flow was maintained on the upper and lower surfaces at M sub infinity = 0.82 up to R sub c is less than or equal to 12 x 10 to the 6th power. When accounting for both the suction and wake drag, the total drag could be reducted by at least one-half of that for an equivalent turbulent airfoil. Specific objectives for the LFC experiment are given.

Harvey, W. D.; Harris, C. D.; Brooks, C. W.; Clukey, P. G.; Stack, J. P.

1986-01-01

332

F-16XL Ship #2 during last flight showing titanium laminar flow glove on left wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dryden research pilot Dana Purifoy bends NASA F-16 XL #848 away from the tanker on the 44th flight in the Supersonic Laminar Flow Control program recently. The flight test portion of the program ended with the 45th and last data collection flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on Nov. 26, 1996. The project demonstrated that laminar--or smooth--airflow could be achieved over a major portion of a wing at supersonic speeds. The flight tests at Dryden involved use of a suction system which drew boundary-layer air through millions of tiny laser-drilled holes in a titanium 'glove' that was fitted to the upper surface of the F-16XL's left wing.

1996-01-01

333

F-16XL Ship #2 during last flight showing titanium laminar flow glove on left wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perforated titanium overlay mounted on the upper surface of the left wing is clearly evident on this view of NASA 848, a highly modified F-16XL aircraft flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) research program. The two-seat, single-engine craft, one of only two 'XL' F-16s built, recently concluded the SLFC project with its 45th data collection mission. The project demonstrated that laminar--or smooth--airflow could be achieved over a major portion of a wing at supersonic speeds by use of a suction system. The system drew a small part of the boundary-layer air through millions of tiny laser-drilled holes in the 'glove' fitted to the upper left wing.

1996-01-01

334

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes, originally designed for compressible flow and in general for hyperbolic conservation laws, are applied to incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions. The projection to divergence-free velocity fields is achieved by fourth order central differences through Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) and a mild high-order filtering. The objective of this work is to assess the resolution of ENO schemes for large scale features of the flow when a coarse grid is used and small scale features of the flow, such as shears and roll-ups, are not fully resolved. It is found that high-order ENO schemes remain stable under such situations and quantities related to large-scale features, such as the total circulation around the roll-up region, are adequately resolved.

Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

1992-01-01

335

Numerical studies of incompressible flow around delta and double-delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject has been jointly investigated at NASA Langley Research Center and the Aerodynamisches Institut of the RWTH Aachen over a substantial period. The aim of this investigation has been to develop numerical integration procedures for the Navier-Stokes equations - particularly for incompressible three-dimensional viscous flows about simple and double delta wings - and to study the low speed flow behavior, with its complex vortex structures on the leeward side of the wing. The low speed flight regime poses unusual problems because high incidence flight conditions may, for example, encounter symmetric and asymmetric vortex breakdown. Because of the many difficulties to be expected in solving the problem, it was divided into two - analysis of the flow without vortex breakdown and analysis of the breakdown of isolated vortices. The major results obtained so far on the two topics are briefly described.

Krause, E.; Liu, C. H.

1989-01-01

336

A spectral multidomain penalty method model for high Reynolds number incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the latest results of a spectral multidomain penalty method-based incompressible Navier Stokes solver for high Reynolds number stratified turbulent flows in doubly non-periodic domains that is currently under development. Time is discretized with a high-order stiffly stable scheme, whereas space is discretized with a Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre collocation approach in discontinuous quadrilateral subdomains. Numerical stability is guaranteed through a penalty scheme, spectral filtering and dealiasing techniques. The Poisson system of equations that arises from the temporal discretization is analyzed in detail as well as different preconditioning strategies to solve it efficiently, such as Kronecker product, deflation, multigrid, Jacobi, and finite difference based techniques. The efficiency and accuracy of the Navier Stokes solver are assessed through the solution of the driven cavity flow, Taylor vortex, and Couette flow.

Escobar-Vargas, Jorge; Diamessis, Peter

2010-11-01

337

Nonhomogeneous Incompressible Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Flows Between Two Eccentric Cylinders

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equations for the nonhomogeneous incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid are considered and existence of a weak solution is proved for a boundary-value problem which describes three-dimensional flows between two eccentric cylinders when in each two-dimensional cross-section annulus the flow characteristics are the same. The rheology of such a fluid is defined by a yield stress ?* and a discontinuous stress-strain law. A fluid volume stiffens if its local stresses do not exceed ?*, and a fluid behaves like a nonlinear fluid otherwise. The flow equations are formulated in the stress-velocity-density-pressure setting. Our approach is different from that of Duvaut-Lions developed for the classical Bingham viscoplastic fluids. We do not apply the variational inequality but make use of an approximation of the generalized Bingham fluid by a non-Newtonian fluid with a continuous constitutive law.

Amirat, Youcef; Shelukhin, Vladimir V.

2013-12-01

338

Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-22

339

Laminar film flow phenomena: Theory and application to the two phase closed thermosyphon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model is developed to predict the hydrodynamic features of asymptotic wavy flow states. The model accurately predicts published experimental data for mean film thickness, trough-to-crest dimension, wave celerity, and wavelength. The Nusselt theory for laminar film condensation is shown to significantly under-predict existing experimental data due to the presence of waves on the condensate film surface. A heat transfer model is developed incorporating the wavy film hydrodynamic model results. Other thin film phenomena are described, including continuous film breakdown, rivulet flow, and sputtering. All of these phenomena are present in the operation of a heat transfer device.

Hirshburg, R. T.; Florschuetz, L. W.

1980-05-01

340

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using porous composite materials (Kevlar, Doweave, and Leno Weave) as lightweight, efficient laminar flow control (LFC) surface materials is compared to the metallic 319L stainless Dynapore surfaces and electron beam drilled composite surfaces. Areas investigated include: (1) selection of the LFC-suitable surface materials, structural materials, and fabrication techniques for the LFC aircraft skins; (2) aerodynamic static air flow test results in terms of pressure drop through the LFC panel and the corresponding effective porosity; (3) structural design definition and analyses of the panels, and (4) contamination effects on static drop and effective porosity. Conclusions are presented and discussed.

1976-01-01

341

Numerical Solution of Supersonic Laminar Flow Over an Inclined Body of Revolution

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixed explicit-implicit scheme is used to solve the time-dependent thin-layer approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations for a supersonic laminar flow over an inclined body of revolution. Test cases for Mach 2.8 flow over a cylinder with 15-deg flare angle at angles of attack of 0,1, and 4 deg are calculated. Good agreement is obtained between the present computed results and experimental measurements of surface pressure. A pair of vortices on the leeward and a peak in the normal force distribution near the flared juncture are predicted; the role of circumferential communication is discussed.

Hung, C. M.

1980-01-01

342

Numerical solution of supersonic laminar flow over an inclined body of revolution

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixed explicit-implicit scheme is used to solve the time-dependent thin-layer approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations for a supersonic laminar flow over an inclined body of revolution. Test cases for Mach 2.8 flow over a cylinder with 15 deg flare angle at angles of attack of 0, 1, and 4 deg are calculated. Good agreement is obtained between the present computed results and experimental measurements of surface pressure. A pair of vortices on the leeward and a peak in the normal force distribution near the flared juncture are predicted; the role of circumferential communication is discussed.

Hung, C. M.

1979-01-01

343

Viscid-inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges at high Reynolds number

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method is suggested for the study of the viscid inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges with arbitrary angles. It is shown that the determination of the nearly constant pressure (base pressure) prevailing within the near wake is really the heart of the problem, and the pressure can only be established from these interactive considerations. The basic free streamline flow field is established through two discrete parameters which adequately describe the inviscid flow around the body and the wake. The viscous flow processes such as the boundary layer buildup, turbulent jet mixing, and recompression are individually analyzed and attached to the inviscid flow in the sense of the boundary layer concept. The interaction between the viscous and inviscid streams is properly displayed by the fact that the aforementioned discrete parameters needed for the inviscid flow are determined by the viscous flow condition at the point of reattachment. It is found that the reattachment point behaves as a saddle point singularity for the system of equations describing the recompressive viscous flow processes, and this behavior is exploited for the establishment of the overall flow field. Detailed results such as the base pressure, pressure distributions on the wedge, and the geometry of the wake are determined as functions of the wedge angle.

Warpinski, N. R.; Chow, W. L.

1977-01-01

344

A numerical method for multiphase incompressible thermal flows with solid–liquid and liquid–vapor phase transformations is presented. The flow is mainly driven by thermocapillary force and vaporization. Based on the level set method and mixture continuum model, a set of governing equations valid for solid, liquid, and vapor phases is derived, considering phase boundary conditions as source terms in the transport

Hyungson Ki; Pravansu S. Mohanty; Jyoti Mazumder

2005-01-01

345

Heat transport by laminar boundary layer flow with polymers

Motivated by recent experimental observations, we consider a steady-state Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer flow with polymers above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study how the heat transport might be affected by the polymers. We discuss how a set of equations can be derived for the problem and how these equations can be solved numerically by an iterative scheme. By carrying out such a scheme, we find that the effect of the polymers is equivalent to producing a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value at the plate then decreases rapidly back to the zero-shear value far from the plate. We further show that such an effective viscosity leads to an enhancement in the drag, which in turn leads to a reduction in heat transport.

Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching.; Vivien W. S. Chu

2011-04-23

346

Identification of whistling ability of a single hole orifice from an incompressible flow simulation

Pure tone noise from orifices in pipe result from vortex shedding with lock-in. Acoustic amplification at the orifice is coupled to resonant condition to create self-sustained oscillations. One key feature of this phenomenon is hence the ability of an orifice to amplify acoustic waves in a given range of frequencies. Here a numerical investigation of the linear response of an orifice is undertaken, with the support of experimental data for validation. The study deals with a sharp edge orifice. Its diameter equals to 0.015 m and its thickness to 0.005 m. The pipe diameter is 0.030 m. An air flow with a Mach number 0.026 and a Reynolds number 18000 in the main pipe is present. At such a low Mach number; the fluid behavior can reasonably be described as locally incompressible. The incompressible Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved with the help of a finite volume fluid mechanics software. The orifice is submitted to an average flow velocity, with superimposed small harmonic perturbations. The harmonic response of the orifice is the difference between the upstream and downstream pressures, and a straightforward calculation brings out the acoustic impedance of the orifice. Comparison with experiments shows that the main physical features of the whistling phenomenon are reasonably reproduced. (authors)

Lacombe, Romain; Moussou, Pierre [LaMSID - UMR EDF/CNRS/CEA, DEN-DM2S, 8193 EDF R et D, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Auregan, Yves [Universite du Maine, Le Mans, (France)

2012-07-01

347

Large-scale computation of incompressible viscous flow by least-squares finite element method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to large-scale/three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system which can be solved effectively by simple iterative methods. The first-order velocity-Bernoulli function-vorticity formulation for incompressible viscous flows is also tested. For three-dimensional cases, an additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of the vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The simple substitution of the Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. To show the validity of this scheme for large-scale computation, we give numerical results for 2D driven cavity problem at Re = 10000 with 408 x 400 bilinear elements. The flow in a 3D cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 50 x 50 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Goertler-like vortices are observed for Re = 1,000.

Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Povinelli, Louis A.

1993-01-01

348

An adaptive level set approach for incompressible two-phase flows

In Sussman, Smereka and Osher, a numerical method using the level set approach was formulated for solving incompressible two-phase flow with surface tension. In the level set approach, the interface is represented as the zero level set of a smooth function; this has the effect of replacing the advection of density, which has steep gradients at the interface, with the advection of the level set function, which is smooth. In addition, the interface can merge or break up with no special treatment. The authors maintain the level set function as the signed distance from the interface in order to robustly compute flows with high density ratios and stiff surface tension effects. In this work, they couple the level set scheme to an adaptive projection method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in order to achieve higher resolution of the interface with a minimum of additional expense. They present two-dimensional axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional results of air bubble and water drop computations.

Sussman, M.; Almgren, A.S.; Bell, J.B. [and others

1997-04-01

349

Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over multi-element airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incompressible, viscous, turbulent flow over single and multi-element airfoils is numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm employs the method of pseudo compressibility and utilizes an upwind differencing scheme for the convective fluxes, and an implicit line-relaxation scheme. The motivation for this work includes interest in studying high-lift take-off and landing configurations of various aircraft. In particular, accurate computation of lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall is desired. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil; an accurate prediction of stall is obtained. The approach used for multi-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared; a patched system of grids, and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.

Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

350

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.

Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

2014-12-01

351

Development of quiet-flow supersonic wind tunnels for laminar-turbulent transition research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant supported research into quiet-flow supersonic wind-tunnels, between May 1990 and December 1994. Quiet-flow nozzles operate with laminar nozzle-wall boundary layers, in order to provide low-disturbance flow for studies of laminar-turbulent transition under conditions comparable to flight. Major accomplishments include: (1) the design, fabrication, and performance-evaluation of a new kind of quiet tunnel, a quiet-flow Ludweig tube; (2) the integration of preexisting codes for nozzle design, 2D boundary-layer computation, and transition-estimation into a single user-friendly package for quiet-nozzle design; and (3) the design and preliminary evaluation of supersonic nozzles with square cross-section, as an alternative to conventional quiet-flow nozzles. After a brief summary of (1), a description of (2) is presented. Published work describing (3) is then summarized. The report concludes with a description of recent results for the Tollmien-Schlichting and Gortler instability in one of the square nozzles previously analyzed.

Schneider, Steven P.

1994-01-01

352

The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow. PMID:25554885

Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

2014-12-19

353

Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow

When fluid flows through a channel, pipe, or duct, there are two basic forms of motion: smooth laminar motion and complex turbulent motion. The discontinuous transition between these states is a fundamental problem that has been studied for more than 100 yr. What has received far less attention is the large-scale nature of the turbulent flows near transition once they are established. We have carried out extensive numerical computations in pipes of variable lengths up to 125 diameters to investigate the nature of transitional turbulence in pipe flow. We show the existence of three fundamentally different turbulent states separated by two distinct Reynolds numbers. Below Re 1 ? 2,300, turbulence takes the form of familiar equilibrium (or longtime transient) puffs that are spatially localized and keep their size independent of pipe length. At Re 1 the flow makes a striking transition to a spatio-temporally intermittent flow that fills the pipe. Irregular alternation of turbulent and laminar regions is inherent and does not result from random disturbances. The fraction of turbulence increases with Re until Re 2 ? 2,600 where there is a continuous transition to a state of uniform turbulence along the pipe. We relate these observations to directed percolation and argue that Re 1 marks the onset of infinite-lifetime turbulence. PMID:20404193

Moxey, David; Barkley, Dwight

2010-01-01

354

Flow/Soot-Formation Interactions in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are attractive for practical applications because they avoid the stability, autoignition, flashback, etc. problems of premixed flames. Unfortunately, soot formation in practical hydrocarbon-fueled diffusion flames reduces their attractiveness due to widely-recognized public health and combustor durability problems of soot emissions. For example, more deaths are attributed to the emission of soot (15,000-60,000 deaths annually in the U.S. alone) than any other combustion-generated pollutant. In addition, continuum radiation from soot-containing flames is the principle heat load to combustor components and is mainly responsible for engine durability problems of aircraft and gas turbine engines. As a result, there is considerable interest in controlling both soot concentrations within flames and soot emissions from flames. Thus, the objective of the present investigation is to study ways to control soot formation in diffusion flames by manipulating the mixing process between the fuel and oxidant streams. In order to prevent the intrusion of gravity from masking flow properties that reduce soot formation in practical flames (where effects of gravity are small), methods developed during past work will be exploited to minimize effects of buoyant motion.

Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

355

Mechanical and statistical study of the laminar hole formation in transitional plane Couette flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with the numerical study and modelling of two aspects the formation of laminar holes in transitional turbulence of plane Couette flow (PCF). On the one hand, we consider quenches: sudden decreases of the Reynolds number R which force the formation of holes. The Reynolds number is decreased from featureless turbulence to the range of existence of the oblique laminar-turbulent bands [Rg;Rt]. The successive stages of the quench are studied by means of visualisations and measurements of kinetic energy and turbulent fraction. The behaviour of the kinetic energy is explained using a kinetic energy budget: it shows that viscosity causes quasi modal decay until lift-up equals it and creates a new balance. Moreover, the budget confirms that the physical mechanisms at play are independent of the way the quench is performed. On the other hand we consider the natural formation of laminar holes in the bands, near Rg. The direct numerical simulations (DNS) show that holes in the turbulent bands provide a mechanism for the fragmented bands regime and orientation fluctuations near Rg. Moreover the analysis of the fluctuations of kinetic energy toward low values demonstrates that the disappearance of turbulence in the bands can be described within the framework of large deviations. A large deviation function is extracted from the probability density function of the kinetic energy.

Rolland, Joran

2015-03-01

356

Mechanical and statistical study of the laminar hole formation in transitional plane Couette flow

This article is concerned with the numerical study and modelling of two aspects the formation of laminar holes in transitional turbulence of plane Couette flow (PCF). On the one hand, we consider quenches: sudden decreases of the Reynolds number R which force the formation of holes. The Reynolds number is decreased from featureless turbulence to the range of existence of the oblique laminar-turbulent bands [Rg;Rt]. The successive stages of the quench are studied by means of visualisations and measurements of kinetic energy and turbulent fraction. The behaviour of the kinetic energy is explained using a kinetic energy budget: it shows that viscosity causes quasi modal decay until lift-up equals it and creates a new balance. Moreover, the budget confirms that the physical mechanisms at play are independent of the way the quench is performed. On the other hand we consider the natural formation of laminar holes in the bands, near Rg. The Direct Numerical simulations (DNS) show that holes in the turbulent bands pr...

Rolland, Joran

2015-01-01

357

Stability of the laminar boundary-layer flow behind a roughness element

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roughness elements in laminar boundary layers generate both high shear layers and streaky structures. Because these phenomena interact, it is difficult to precisely ascertain the dominant instability mechanisms. With the goal of explicating such interactions, we study the stability of a laminar boundary layer subject to a single roughness element at a Reynolds number subcritical of bypass transition. Our work involves two parts: bi-global linear stability theory (LST) analysis and corroborating experimental measurements. Linear stability analysis of a flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise streaks reveals the presence of several unstable modes. Of the dominant two modes, one exhibits spanwise symmetry and the other is antisymmetric. These modes are termed `varicose' and `sinuous,' respectively. Corroborating experiments were conducted in the laminar water channel of the University of Stuttgart. By simultaneously traversing two hot-film probes, we are able to confirm the presence of both eigenmodes predicted by LST and to extract relevant data for each: eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, growth rates and phase distributions. The main part of the experiments has been performed under `natural' conditions, i.e., in the absence of external forcing. As the amplitude of the sinuous part of the results is much smaller than the varicose one and hence affected by measurement noise, a case with asymmetric external forcing is presented as well. Despite some deficiencies of the setup, it is possible to enhance the sinuous mode with respect to the unforced case and to confirm its existence as an eigenmode of the flow.

Shin, Yong-su; Rist, Ulrich; Krämer, Ewald

2015-01-01

358

Frequency-selection mechanism in incompressible open-cavity flows via reflected instability waves.

We present an alternative perspective on nonharmonic mode coexistence, commonly found in the shear layer spectrum of open-cavity flows. Modes obtained by a local linear stability analysis of perturbations to a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inviscid sheared flow over a cavity of finite length and depth were conditioned by a so-called coincidence condition first proposed by Kulikowskii [J. Appl. Math. Mech. 30, 180 (1966)JAMMAR0021-892810.1016/0021-8928(66)90066-9] which takes into account instability wave reflection within the cavity. The analysis yields a set of discrete, nonharmonic frequencies, which compare well with experimental results [Phys. Fluids 20, 114101 (2008)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3005435; Exp. Fluids 50, 905 (2010)EXFLDU0723-486410.1007/s00348-010-0942-9]. PMID:25679706

Tuerke, F; Sciamarella, D; Pastur, L R; Lusseyran, F; Artana, G

2015-01-01

359

Frequency-selection mechanism in incompressible open-cavity flows via reflected instability waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an alternative perspective on nonharmonic mode coexistence, commonly found in the shear layer spectrum of open-cavity flows. Modes obtained by a local linear stability analysis of perturbations to a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inviscid sheared flow over a cavity of finite length and depth were conditioned by a so-called coincidence condition first proposed by Kulikowskii [J. Appl. Math. Mech. 30, 180 (1966), 10.1016/0021-8928(66)90066-9] which takes into account instability wave reflection within the cavity. The analysis yields a set of discrete, nonharmonic frequencies, which compare well with experimental results [Phys. Fluids 20, 114101 (2008), 10.1063/1.3005435; Exp. Fluids 50, 905 (2010), 10.1007/s00348-010-0942-9].

Tuerke, F.; Sciamarella, D.; Pastur, L. R.; Lusseyran, F.; Artana, G.

2015-01-01

360

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an innovative method for computing fluid solid interaction using Immersed boundary methods with two stage pressure-velocity corrections. The algorithm calculates the interactions between incompressible viscous flows and a solid shape in three-dimensional domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in finite difference schemes. Most of IBMs are concern about exchange of the momentum between the Eulerian variables (fluid) and the Lagrangian nodes (solid). To address that concern, a new algorithm to correct the pressure and the velocity using Simplified Marker and Cell method is added. This scheme is applied on staggered grid to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder and study the effect of the new stage on calculations cost. To evaluate the accuracy of the computations the results are compared with the previous software results. The paper confirms the capacity of new algorithm for accurate and robust simulation of Fluid Solid Interaction with respect to pressure field.

Sabir, O.; Ya, T. M. Y. S. Tuan; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Nukman, Y.

2013-12-01

361

Effect of shaft rotation on the incompressible flow in a labyrinth seal

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incompressible flow in a labyrinth seal at low leakage rates was computationally and experimentally investigated over a wide range of seal rotation rates. QUICK differencing was employed in the finite difference code to reduce the effects of false diffusion. The use of measured inlet boundary conditions for the axial and swirl velocity components and for the turbulent kinetic energy resulted in good agreement between velocity predictions and hot-film measurements. It was found that when the rotation rate is increased beyond a certain point, a second recirculation zone forms inside the seal cavity, altering the flow field in the cavity and resulting in a substantial increase in the pressure drop across it.

Demko, J. A.; Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

1987-01-01

362

A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 2D incompressible flows

In this paper the authors introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional incompressible flow in the vorticity stream-function formulation. The momentum equation is treated explicitly, utilizing the efficiency of the discontinuous Galerkin method. The stream function is obtained by a standard Poisson solver using continuous finite elements. There is a natural matching between these two finite element spaces, since the normal component of the velocity field is continuous across element boundaries. This allows for a correct upwinding gluing in the discontinuous Galerkin framework, while still maintaining total energy conservation with no numerical dissipation and total entropy stability. The method is efficient for inviscid or high Reynolds number flows. Optimal error estimates are proved and verified by numerical experiments.

Liu, J.G.; Shu, C.W.

2000-05-20

363

A High Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 2D Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we introduce a high order discontinuous Galerkin method for two dimensional incompressible flow in vorticity streamfunction formulation. The momentum equation is treated explicitly, utilizing the efficiency of the discontinuous Galerkin method The streamfunction is obtained by a standard Poisson solver using continuous finite elements. There is a natural matching between these two finite element spaces, since the normal component of the velocity field is continuous across element boundaries. This allows for a correct upwinding gluing in the discontinuous Galerkin framework, while still maintaining total energy conservation with no numerical dissipation and total enstrophy stability The method is suitable for inviscid or high Reynolds number flows. Optimal error estimates are proven and verified by numerical experiments.

Liu, Jia-Guo; Shu, Chi-Wang

1999-01-01

364

Laminar film flow phenomena-theory and application to the two-phase closed thermosyphon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of thin, laminar wavy-film flow are considered. A theoretical model is developed to predict the hydrodynamic features of asymptotic wavy-flow states. The mathematical closure question arising in asymptotic-state analysis satisfactorily resolved. The model accurately predicts published experimental data for mean film thickness, trough-to-crest dimension, wave clarity, and wavelength. The Nusselt theory for laminar film condensation is shown to significantly underpredict existing experimental data due to the presence of waves on the condensate film surface. Consequently, a heat transfer model is developed incorporating the wave-film hydrodynamic model results. The subsequent predictions agree well with experimental data and, in addition, indicate the appropriate data trend with flow length. Other thin-film phenomena are described, including continuous-film breakdown, rivulet flow, and sputtering. All of these phenomena are present in the operation of a heat-transfer device known as the two-phase closed thermosyphon. Accordingly, this device is experimentally investigated.

Hirshburg, R. I.

1980-12-01

365

A novel microfluidic chip with simple design, easy fabrication and low cost, coupled with high-sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection, was developed to provide continuous single-cell analysis based on dynamic cell manipulation in flowing streams. Making use of laminar flows, which formed in microchannels, single cells were aligned and continuously introduced into the sample channel and then detection channel in the chip. In order to rapidly lyse the moving cells and completely transport cellular contents into the detection channel, the angle of the side-flow channels, the asymmetric design of the channels, and the number, shape and layout of micro-obstacles were optimized for effectively redistributing and mixing the laminar flows of single cells suspension, cell lysing reagent and detection buffer. The optimized microfluidic chip was an asymmetric structure of three microchannels, with three microcylinders at the proper positions in the intersections of channels. The microchip was evaluated by detection of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and membrane surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in single leukemia K562 cells. An average throughput of 6-8 cells min(-1) was achieved. The detection results showed the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake and surface P-gp expression within K562 cells. Our researches demonstrated the feasibility and simplicity of the newly developed microfluidic chip for chemical single-cell analysis. PMID:24745743

Deng, Bin; Tian, Yu; Yu, Xu; Song, Jian; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Yuxiu; Zhang, Zhiling

2014-04-11

366

Momentum transport and laminar friction in rough-wall duct flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of experiments and numerical simulations have proved that friction factors in laminar channel flows are roughness-dependent provided that the ratios between roughness and channel height (i.e., the relative roughness) exceed some threshold values. However, it is not yet clear what are the causes that lead to this anomalous behaviour. In order to shed light into this issue, this study presents results from two-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of laminar flows in channels with rough walls. The Reynolds number, the geometry of the roughness elements and the relative roughness were varied extensively in order to provide a comprehensive set of data. The analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out within the framework of the Spatially Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, which are ideal to investigate momentum transfer mechanisms in flows over rough walls. The results show that for most of the investigated roughness geometries, the pressure gradient driving the flow is balanced by form-drag, viscous drag, and viscous shear stress whereas form-induced stresses remain largely negligible. Furthermore, it was observed that the higher the ratio between the drag acting upon the roughness elements and the total drag, the more friction factors deviate from classical theory. On the basis of these observations, we propose a formula, which predicts the shear stress partitioning and we discuss its relevance within the context of biomedical applications.

Maggiolo, Dario; Manes, Costantino; Marion, Andrea

2013-09-01

367

Moderated, Water-Based, Condensational Particle Growth in a Laminar Flow

Presented is a new approach for laminar-flow water condensation that produces saturations above 1.5 while maintaining temperatures of less than 30°C in the majority of the flow and providing an exiting dew point below 15°C. With the original laminar flow water condensation method, the particle activation and growth occurs in a region with warm, wetted walls throughout, which has the side-effect of heating the flow. The “moderated” approach presented here replaces this warm region with a two sections – a short, warm, wet-walled “initiator”, followed by a cool-walled “moderator”. The initiator provides the water vapor that creates the supersaturation, while the moderator provides the time for particle growth. The combined length of the initiator and moderator sections is the same as that of the original, warm-walled growth section. Model results show that this new approach reduces the added heat and water vapor while achieving the same peak supersaturation and similar droplet growth. Experimental measurements confirm the trends predicted by the modeling. PMID:24839342

Hering, Susanne V.; Spielman, Steven R.; Lewis, Gregory S.

2014-01-01

368

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large-chord, swept, supercritical, laminar-flow-control (LFC) airfoil was designed and constructed and is currently undergoing tests in the Langley 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The experiment was directed toward evaluating the compatibility of LFC and supercritical airfoils, validating prediction techniques, and generating a data base for future transport airfoil design as part of NASA's ongoing research program to significantly reduce drag and increase aircraft efficiency. Unique features of the airfoil included a high design Mach number with shock free flow and boundary layer control by suction. Special requirements for the experiment included modifications to the wind tunnel to achieve the necessary flow quality and contouring of the test section walls to simulate free air flow about a swept model at transonic speeds. Design of the airfoil with a slotted suction surface, the suction system, and modifications to the tunnel to meet test requirements are discussed.

Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.

1988-01-01

369

Experimental Study of Saddle Point of Attachment in Laminar Juncture Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of laminar horseshoe vortex flows upstream of a cylinder/flat plate juncture has been conducted to verify the existence of saddle-point-of-attachment topologies. In the classical depiction of this flowfield, a saddle point of separation exists on the flat plate upstream of the cylinder, and the boundary layer separates from the surface. Recent computations have indicated that the topology may actually involve a saddle point of attachment on the surface and additional singular points in the flow. Laser light sheet flow visualizations have been performed on the symmetry plane and crossflow planes to identify the saddle-point-of-attachment flowfields. The visualizations reveal that saddle-point-of-attachment topologies occur over a range of Reynolds numbers in both single and multiple vortex regimes. An analysis of the flow topologies is presented that describes the existence and evolution of the singular points in the flowfield.

Coon, Michael D.; Tobak, Murray

1995-01-01

370

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new forward-in-time advection method for nearly incompressible flow, MU, and its application to an adaptive multilevel flow solver for atmospheric flows. MU is a modification of Leonard et al.'sUTOPIA scheme. MU, like UTOPIA, is based on third-order accurate semi-Lagrangian multidimensional upwinding for constant velocity flows. For varying velocity fields, MU is a second-order conservative method. MU has greater stability and accuracy than UTOPIA and naturally decomposes into a monotone low-order method and a higher-order accurate correction for use with flux limiting. Its stability and accuracy make it a computationally efficient alternative to current finite-difference advection methods. We present a fully second-order accurate flow solver for the anelastic equations, a prototypical low Mach number flow. The flow solver is based on MU which is used for both momentum and scalar transport equations. This flow solver can also be implemented with any forward-in-time advection scheme. The multilevel flow solver conserves discrete global integrals of advected quantities and includes adaptive mesh refinement. Its second-order accuracy is verified using a nonlinear energy conservation integral for the anelastic equations. For a typical geophysical problem in which the flow is most rapidly varying in a small part of the domain, the multilevel flow solver achieves global accuracy comparable to a uniform-resolution simulation for 10% of the computational cost.

Stevens, David E.; Bretherton, S.

1996-12-01

371

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver (MLBFS) is proposed in this paper for incompressible multiphase flows with low- and large-density-ratios. In the solver, the flow variables at cell centers are given from the solution of macroscopic governing differential equations (Navier-Stokes equations recovered by multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model) by the finite volume method. At each cell interface, the viscous and inviscid fluxes are evaluated simultaneously by local reconstruction of solution for the standard lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). The forcing terms in the governing equations are directly treated by the finite volume discretization. The phase interfaces are captured by solving the phase-field Cahn-Hilliard equation with a fifth order upwind scheme. Unlike the conventional multiphase LB models, which restrict their applications on uniform grids with fixed time step, the MLBFS has the capability and advantage to simulate multiphase flows on non-uniform grids. The proposed solver is validated by several benchmark problems, such as two-phase co-current flow, Taylor-Couette flow in an annulus, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and droplet splashing on a thin film at density ratio of 1000 with Reynolds numbers ranging from 20 to 1000. Numerical results show the reliability of the proposed solver for multiphase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number.

Wang, Y.; Shu, C.; Huang, H. B.; Teo, C. J.

2015-01-01

372

We review and extend to the compressible regime an earlier parallelization of an implicit incompressible unstructured Euler code [9], and solve for flow over an M6 wing in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. While the parallelization philosophy of the compressible case is identical to the incompressible, we focus here on the nonlinear and linear convergence rates, which vary in different physical regimes, and on comparing the performance of currently important computational platforms. Multiple-scale problems should be marched out at desired accuracy limits, and not held hostage to often more stringent explicit stability limits. In the context of inviscid aerodynamics, this means evolving transient computations on the scale of the convective transit time, rather than the acoustic transit time, or solving steady-state problems with local CFL numbers approaching infinity. Whether time-accurate or steady, we employ Newton's method on each (pseudo-) timestep. The coupling of analysis with design in aerodynamic practice is another motivation for implicitness. Design processes that make use of sensitivity derivatives and the Hessian matrix require operations with the Jacobian matrix of the state constraints (i.e., of the governing PDE system); if the Jacobian is available for design, it may be employed with advantage in a nonlinearly implicit analysis, as well.

Kaushik, D. K.; Keyes, D. E.; Smith, B. F.

1999-02-24

373

Direct simulation of incompressible, viscous flow through a rotating square channel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the direct simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady flow of an incompressible viscous fluid driven by a pressure gradient through a square channel that rotates about an axis perpendicular to the channel roof. The dimensionless, three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations, written in a frame of reference rotating with the channel, are solved by a finite difference method with non-staggered variable arrangement. Central difference schemes are used for temporal and spatial discretization and are both second-order accurate. Pressure is obtained by solving a Poisson-like equation with a discrete divergence velocity minimization algorithm. An implicit residual smoothing technique is used to avoid restrictive stability conditions. The incompressibility constraint is solved, preserving numerically the mass conservation. Results have been obtained for an extended range of dynamical parameters. In a known typical steady state, the two and four vortex patterns were found. As the Rossby number is increased to 3 and the Ekmann number decreased to 0.001, a new state, at the limit of the onset of turbulence, is obtained at Reynolds number Re = 3000.

Le, T. H.; Ryan, J.; Dang-Tran, K.

374

Petrov-Galerkin finite element stabilization for two-phase flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element model for incompressible laminar two-phase flows is presented. A two-fluid model, describing the laminar non-equilibrium flow of two incompressible phases, is discretized by means of a properly designed streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element procedure. Such a procedure is consistent with a continuous pressure equation. The design and the implementation of the algorithm are presented together with its validation throughout a comparison with simulations available in the literature.

Giordano, Michele; Magi, Vinicio

2006-07-01

375

Preliminary design characteristics of a subsonic business jet concept employing laminar flow control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft configurations were developed with laminar flow control (LFC) and without LFC. The LFC configuration had approximately eleven percent less parasite drag and a seven percent increase in the maximum lift-to drag ratio. Although these aerodynamic advantages were partially offset by the additional weight of the LFC system, the LFC aircraft burned from six to eight percent less fuel for comparable missions. For the trans-atlantic design mission with the gross weight fixed, the LFC configuration would carry a greater payload for ten percent fuel per passenger mile.

Turriziani, R. V.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Quartero, C. B.; Washburn, G. F.

1978-01-01

376

Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

1987-01-01

377

Unique laminar-flow stability limit based shallow-water theory

Two approaches are generally taken in deriving the stability limit for the Froude member (Fs) for laminar sheet flow. The first approach used the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, while the second uses the cross-section-averaged equations of continuity and motion. Because both approaches are based on shallow-water theory, the values of Fs obtained from both approaches should be identical, yet in the literature they are not. This suggests that a defect exists in at least one of the two approaches. After examining the governing equations used in both approaches, one finds that the existing cross-section -averaged equation of motion is dependent on the frame of reference.

Chen, Cheng-lung

1993-01-01

378

A method for calculating heat transfer in the laminar flow region of bodies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report has been prepared to provide a practical method for determining the chordwise distribution of the rate of heat transfer from the surface of a wing or body of revolution to air. The method is limited in use to the determination of heat transfer from the forward section of such bodies when the flow is laminar. A comparison of the calculated average heat-transfer coefficient for the nose section of the wing of a Lockheed 12-A airplane with that experimentally determined shows a satisfactory agreement. A sample calculation is appended.

Allen, H Julian; Look, Bonne C

1943-01-01

379

Natural laminar flow flight experiments on a swept-wing business jet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test experiments have been conducted to measure the extent and nature of laminar flow on a smoothed test region of a swept-wing business jet. Surface hot film anemometers and sublimating chemicals were used for transition detection. Surface pressure distributions were measured using pressure belts. Instrumentation techniques and problems are presented. Correlation was obtained between the hot film and sublimating chemicals for transition detection. Taylor-Goertler vortices were observed for some flight conditions. Boundary layer stability analysis is being conducted using measured pressure distributions to determine the correlation possible for transition prediction on swept wings.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Nyenhuis, R.; Ahmed, A.

1984-01-01

380

Evaluation of laminar flow control systems concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings and reduced direct operating cost benefits would result from using LFC.

Pearce, W. E.

1983-01-01

381

The NASA Langley laminar-flow-control experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil - Drag equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Research Center has designed a swept, supercritical airfoil incorporating Laminar Flow Control for testing at transonic speeds. Analytical expressions have been developed and an evaluation made of the experimental section drag, composed of suction drag and wake drag, using theoretical design information and experimental data. The analysis shows that, although the sweep-induced boundary-layer crossflow influence on the wake drag is too large to be ignored and there is not a practical method for evaluating these crossflow effects on the experimental wake data, the conventional unswept 2-D wake-drag computation used in the reduction of the experimental data is at worst 10 percent too high.

Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.

1989-01-01

382

Natural laminar flow airfoil design considerations for winglets on low-speed airplanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winglet airfoil section characteristics which significantly influence cruise performance and handling qualities of an airplane are discussed. A good winglet design requires an airfoil section with a low cruise drag coefficient, a high maximum lift coefficient, and a gradual and steady movement of the boundary layer transition location with angle of attack. The first design requirement provides a low crossover lift coefficient of airplane drag polars with winglets off and on. The other requirements prevent nonlinear changes in airplane lateral/directional stability and control characteristics. These requirements are considered in the design of a natural laminar flow airfoil section for winglet applications and chord Reynolds number of 1 to 4 million.

Vandam, C. P.

1984-01-01

383

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings.

Pearce, W. E.

1982-01-01

384

An Exploratory Investigation of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 15-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow (SNLF) airfoil, the S103, for general aviation applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. The airfoil exhibits a rapid stall, which does not meet the design goal. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparison with the baseline, NASA NLF(1)-0215F airfoil confirms the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, Dan M.

2012-01-01

385

Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

1993-01-01

386

In the absence of applied forces, the transport of molecules and particulate reagents across laminar flowstreams in microfluidic devices is dominated by the diffusivities of the transported species. While the differential diffusional properties between smaller and larger diagnostic targets and reagents have been exploited for bioseparation and assay applications, there are limitations to methods that depend on these intrinsic size differences. Here a new strategy is described for exploiting the sharply reversible change in size and magnetophoretic mobility of “smart” magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) to perform bioseparation and target isolation under continuous flow processing conditions. The isolated 5 nm mNPs do not exhibit significant magnetophoretic velocities, but do exhibit high magnetophoretic velocities when aggregated by the action of a pH-responsive polymer coating. A simple external magnet is used to magnetophorese the aggregated mNPs that have captured a diagnostic target from a lower pH laminar flowstream (pH 7.3) to a second higher pH flowstream (pH 8.4) that induces rapid mNP dis-aggregation. In this second disaggregated state and flowstream, the mNPs continue to flow past the magnet rather than being immobilized at the channel surface near the magnet. This stimuli-responsive reagent system has been shown to transfer 81% of a model protein target from an input flowstream to a second flowstream in a continuous flow H-filter device. PMID:19568666

Lai, James J.; Nelson, Kjell; Nash, Michael A.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Yager, Paul; Stayton, Patrick S.

2010-01-01

387

Development of high-lift laminar wing using steady active flow control

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel costs represent a large fraction of aircraft operating costs. Increased aircraft fuel efficiency is thus desirable. Laminar airfoils have the advantage of reduced cruise drag and increased fuel efficiency. Unfortunately, they cannot perform adequately during high-lift situations (i.e. takeoff and landing) due to low stall angles and low maximum lift caused by flow separation. Active flow control has shown the ability to prevent or mitigate separation effects, and increase maximum lift. This fact makes AFC technology a fitting solution for improving high-lift systems and reducing the need for slats and flap elements. This study focused on experimentally investigating the effects of steady active flow control from three slots, located at 1%, 10%, and 80% chord, respectively, over a laminar airfoil with 45 degree deflected flap. A 30-inch-span airfoil model was designed, fabricated, and then tested in the Bill James 2.5'x3' Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. Pressure data were collected along the mid-span of the airfoil, and lift and drag were calculated. Five test cases with varying injection locations and varying C? were chosen: baseline, blown flap, leading edge blowing, equal blowing, and unequal blowing. Of these cases, unequal blowing achieved the greatest lift enhancement over the baseline. All cases were able to increase lift; however, gains were less than anticipated.

Clayton, Patrick J.

388

Experimental study of supersonic laminar base flow with and without suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-transfer and pressure distributions in laminar separated flows downstream of rearward-facing steps with and without mass suction were investigated at Mach numbers around 4 for the conditions when the boundary-layer thickness was comparable to or larger than the step height. In both suction and no-suction cases, an increase of the step height resulted in a sharp drop of the base heating rates, which then gradually recovered to less than or near attached-flow values obtained with flat-plate configuration. Mass suction from the step base area increased the local heating rates; this effect, however, was relatively weak for laminar flows tested, and the competing effect of the step height clearly predominated. It was found that even removal of the entire incoming boundary layer was not sufficient to raise the poststep heating rates above the flat-plate values. The base pressure in the no-suction, solid-step case correlated reasonably well with the step height-to-boundary-layer thickness ratio and with the Reynolds number based on the step height.

Jakubowski, A. K.; Lewis, C. H.

1973-01-01

389

A finite element computational method for high Reynolds number laminar flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A velocity-pressure integrated, mixed interpolation, Galerkin finite element method for the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. In the method, the velocity variables are interpolated using complete quadratic shape functions, and the pressure is interpolated using linear shape functions which are defined on a triangular element for the two-dimensional case and on a tetrahedral element for the three-dimensional case. The triangular element and the tetrahedral element are contained inside the complete bi- and tri-quadratic elements for velocity variables for two and three dimensional cases, respectively, so that the pressure is discontinuous across the element boundaries. Example problems considered include: a cavity flow of Reynolds numbers 400 through 10,000; a laminar backward facing step flow; and a laminar flow in a square duct of strong curvature. The computational results compared favorably with the finite difference computational results and/or experimental data available. It was found that the present method can capture the delicate pressure driven recirculation zones, that the method did not yield any spurious pressure modes, and that the method requires fewer grid points than the finite difference methods to obtain comparable computational results.

Kim, Sang-Wook

1987-01-01

390

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.

Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

1991-01-01

391

Attenuation of Sinusoidal Perturbations Superimposed on Laminar Flow of a Liquid in a Long Line

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attenuation constant for sinusoidal pressure and flow perturbations superimposed on the laminar flow of a viscous liquid was measured in a system consisting of a long, straight, cylindrical hydraulic line. The upstream and downstream ends of the line were securely fastened t o the ground. A sinusoidal perturbation was imposed on the mean flow at the upstream end by means of a s m a l l oscillation of a throttle valve abmt a partly open mean position. The downstream end was terminated in a restricting orifice. Pressure perturbations were measured at three locations along the line for frequencies from 15 t o 100 cps. These pressure measurements were reduced by use of a pair of complex damped acoustic one-dimensional wave equations to obtain the attenuation constant along with the phase constant and the dimensionless downstream admittance. For the range of frequencies investigated, the experimental values of the attenuation constant are in good agreement with classical theory.

Holland, Carl M.; Blade, Robert J.; Dorsch, Robert G.

1965-01-01

392

Application of Hybrid Laminar Flow Control to Global Range Military Transport Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the application of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to global range military transport aircraft. The global mission included the capability to transport 132,500 pounds of payload 6500 nautical miles, land and deliver the payload and without refueling return 6500 nautical miles to a friendly airbase. The preliminary design studies show significant performance benefits obtained for the HLFC aircraft as compared to counterpart turbulent flow aircraft. The study results at M=0.77 show that the largest benefits of HLFC are obtained with a high wing with engines on the wing configuration. As compared with the turbulent flow baseline aircraft, the high wing HLFC aircraft shows 17 percent reduction in fuel burned, 19.2 percent increase in lift-to-drag ratio, an insignificant increase in operating weight, and a 7.4 percent reduction in gross weight.

Lange, Roy H.

1988-01-01

393

Laminar-turbulent patterning in wall-bounded shear flows: a Galerkin model

On its way to turbulence, plane Couette flow - the flow between counter-translating parallel plates - displays a puzzling steady oblique laminar-turbulent pattern. We approach this problem via Galerkin modelling of the Navier-Stokes equations. The wall-normal dependence of the hydrodynamic field is treated by means of expansions on functional bases fitting the boundary conditions exactly. This yields a set of partial differential equations for the spatiotemporal dynamics in the plane of the flow. Truncating this set beyond lowest nontrivial order is numerically shown to produce the expected pattern, therefore improving over what was obtained at cruder effective wall-normal resolution. Perspectives opened by the approach are discussed.

Seshasayanan, K

2015-01-01

394

Direct Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Pipe Flow Using a B-Spline Spectral Method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method based on b-spline polynomials was developed to study incompressible flows in cylindrical geometries. A b-spline method has the advantages of possessing spectral accuracy and the flexibility of standard finite element methods. Using this method it was possible to ensure regularity of the solution near the origin, i.e. smoothness and boundedness. Because b-splines have compact support, it is also possible to remove b-splines near the center to alleviate the constraint placed on the time step by an overly fine grid. Using the natural periodicity in the azimuthal direction and approximating the streamwise direction as periodic, so-called time evolving flow, greatly reduced the cost and complexity of the computations. A direct numerical simulation of pipe flow was carried out using the method described above at a Reynolds number of 5600 based on diameter and bulk velocity. General knowledge of pipe flow and the availability of experimental measurements make pipe flow the ideal test case with which to validate the numerical method. Results indicated that high flatness levels of the radial component of velocity in the near wall region are physical; regions of high radial velocity were detected and appear to be related to high speed streaks in the boundary layer. Budgets of Reynolds stress transport equations showed close similarity with those of channel flow. However contrary to channel flow, the log layer of pipe flow is not homogeneous for the present Reynolds number. A topological method based on a classification of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor was used. Plotting iso-surfaces of the discriminant of the invariants proved to be a good method for identifying vortical eddies in the flow field.

Loulou, Patrick; Moser, Robert D.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Cantwell, Brian J.

1997-01-01

395

The effect of inlet and exit losses on free convective laminar flow in the Trombe wall channel

A numerical solution for two-dimensional free convective laminar flow in the Trombe wall channel has recently been presented by Akbari and Borgers (1). Their analysis assumed no flow losses in the channel entrance and exit, other than the exit dynamic head (loss coefficient k=1), however the actual coefficient for combined inlet and exit losses is probably 2 < k <

J. A. Tichy

1983-01-01

396

The effect of inlet and exit losses on free convective laminar flow in the trombe wall channel

A numerical solution for two-dimensional free convective laminar flow in the Trombe wall channel has recently been presented by Akbari and Borgers. Their analysis assumed no flow losses in the channel entrance and exit, other than the exit dynamic head (loss coefficient k = 1), however the actual coefficient for combined inlet and exit losses is probably 2 < k

Tichy

1982-01-01

397

An efficient numerical model for incompressible two-phase flow in fractured media Hussein Hoteit a,1

in fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs [1Â6]. In this model, the matrixÂfracture mass transfer is describedAn efficient numerical model for incompressible two-phase flow in fractured media Hussein Hoteit a,1 , Abbas Firoozabadi a,b,* a Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, USA b Yale

Firoozabadi, Abbas

398

Preprint of the paper "A 2D Finite Element approach to the problem of viscous incompressible flow"

in this summary, is the implementation of a FORTRAN code based on the various finite element schemesPreprint of the paper "A 2D Finite Element approach to the problem of viscous incompressible flow, August 1998). http:/caminos.udc.es/gmni #12;A 2D compared finite element approach to the problem

Colominas, Ignasi

399

A semi-Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin method for scalar advection by incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, conservative semi-Lagrangian formulation is proposed for the discretization of the scalar advection equation in flux form. The approach combines the accuracy and conservation properties of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with the computational efficiency and robustness of Semi-Lagrangian (SL) techniques. Unconditional stability in the von Neumann sense is proved for the proposed discretization in the one-dimensional case. A monotonization technique is then introduced, based on the Flux Corrected Transport approach. This yields a multi-dimensional monotonic scheme for the piecewise constant component of the computed solution that is characterized by a smaller amount of numerical diffusion than standard DG methods. The accuracy and stability of the method are further demonstrated by two-dimensional tracer advection tests in the case of incompressible flows. The comparison with results obtained by standard SL and DG methods highlights several advantages of the new technique.

Restelli, M.; Bonaventura, L.; Sacco, R.

2006-07-01

400

Stabilized finite element schemes with LBB-stable elements for incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stabilized FE approximations of SUPG type to the incompressible Navier-Stokes problem. Revisiting the analysis for the linearized model, we show that for conforming LBB-stable elements the design of the stabilization parameters for many practical flows differs from that commonly suggested in literature and initially designed for the case of equal-order approximation. Then we analyze a reduced SUPG scheme often used in practice for LBB-stable elements. To provide the reduced scheme with appropriate stability estimates we introduce a modified LBB condition which is proved for a family of FE approximations. The analysis is given for the linearized equations. Numerical experiments for some linear and nonlinear benchmark problems support the theoretical results.

Gelhard, Tobias; Lube, Gert; Olshanskii, Maxim A.; Starcke, Jan-Hendrik

2005-05-01

401

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the solution techniques of Tezduyar et al. (1988 and 1989) for the vorticity-streamfunction formulation of two-dimensional incompressible flows is presented. While both the viscous and inviscid cases are considered, the derivation of the proper finite-element formulations for multiply connected domains is emphasized. In all formulations associated with the vorticity transport equation, the streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin method is used. The adaptive implicit-explicit and grouped element-by-element solution strategies are employed to maximize the computational efficiency. The solutions obtained in all test cases compare well with solutions from previously published investigations. The convergence and benchmark studies performed in this paper show that the solution techniques presented are accurate, reliable, and efficient.

Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.; Ganjoo, D. K.; Behr, M.

1990-10-01

402

An efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries is presented. In the previous work [1], the calculation is performed on the Cartesian grid regardless of the immersed object, with a fictitious force evaluated on the Lagrangian points to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. However the explicit direct forcing method [1] fails to accurately impose the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed interface. In the present work, the calculation is based on the implicit treatment of the artificial force while in an effective way of system iteration. The accuracy is also improved by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the rotational incremental pressure- correction projection method of Guermond and Shen [2]. Numerical simulations performed with the proposed method are in good agreement with those in the literature.

Cai, S.-G.; Ouahsine, A.; Smaoui, H.; Favier, J.; Hoarau, Y.

2015-01-01

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider electrically driven dynamics of an incompressible binary fluid, with contrasting densities and viscosities of the two phases, flowing through narrow fluidic channel with walls with predefined surface wettabilities. Through phase field formalism, we describe the interfacial kinetics in the presence of electro-hydrodynamic coupling and address the contact line dynamics of the two-fluid system. We unveil the interplay of the substrate wettability and the contrast in the fluid properties culminating in the forms of two distinct regimes—interface breakup regime and a stable interface regime. Through a parametric study, we demarcate the effect of the density and viscosity contrasts along with the electrokinetic parameters such as the surface charge and ionic concentration on the underlying contact-line-dynamics over interfacial scales.

Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

2015-03-01

404

A fast pressure-correction method for incompressible two-fluid flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new pressure-correction method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows with large density and viscosity ratios. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation, which can be solved with an FFT-based, fast Poisson solver. This reduction is achieved by splitting the variable density pressure gradient term in the governing equations. The validity of this splitting is demonstrated from our numerical tests, and it is explained from a physical viewpoint. In this paper, the new pressure-correction method is coupled with a mass-conserving volume-of-fluid method to capture the motion of the interface between the two fluids but, in general, it could be coupled with other interface advection methods such as level-set, phase-field, or front-tracking. First, we verified the new pressure-correction method using the capillary wave test-case up to density and viscosity ratios of 10,000. Then, we validated the method by simulating the motion of a falling water droplet in air and comparing the droplet terminal velocity with an experimental value. Next, the method is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time independent of the VoF method, and it conserves mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the inviscid limit. Also, we show that for solving the two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations, the method is 10-40 times faster than the standard pressure-correction method, which uses multigrid to solve the variable coefficient Poisson equation. Finally, we show that the method is capable of performing fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence with thousands of droplets using a computational mesh of 10243 points.

Dodd, Michael S.; Ferrante, Antonino

2014-09-01

405

Data Analysis for the NASA/Boeing Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Crossflow Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hybrid-Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Crossflow Experiment, completed in 1995. generated a large database of boundary layer stability and transition data that was only partially analyzed before data analysis was abruptly ended in the late 1990's. Renewed interest in laminar flow technologies prompted additional data analysis, to integrate all data, including some post-test roughness and porosity measurements. The objective is to gain new insights into the effects of suction on boundary layer stability. A number of challenges were encountered during the data analysis, and their solutions are discussed in detail. They include the effect of the probe vibration, the effect of the time-varying surface temperature on traveling crossflow instabilities, and the effect of the stationary crossflow modes on the approximation of wall location. Despite the low turbulence intensity of the wind tunnel (0.01 to 0.02%), traveling crosflow disturbances were present in the data, in some cases at amplitudes up to 1% of the freestream velocity. However, the data suggests that transition was dominated by stationary crossflow. Traveling crossflow results and stationary data in the presence of suction are compared with linear parabolized stability equations results as a way of testing the quality of the results.

Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard

2011-01-01

406

Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong T.

2014-01-01

407

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong

2013-01-01

408

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong T.

2014-01-01

409

Optical Stimulation and Imaging of Functional Brain Circuitry in a Segmented Laminar Flow Chamber

Microfluidic technology is emerging as a useful tool for the study of brain slices, offering precise delivery of chemical factors along with robust oxygen and nutrient transport. However, continued reliance upon electrode-based physiological recording poses inherent limitations in terms of physical access as well as the number of sites that can be sampled simultaneously. In the present study, we combine a microfluidic laminar flow chamber with fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging and laser photostimulation via caged glutamate to map neural network activity across large cortical regions in living brain slices. We find that the closed microfluidic chamber results in greatly improved signal-to-noise performance for optical measurements of neural signaling. These optical tools are also leveraged to characterize laminar flow interfaces within the device, demonstrating a functional boundary width of less than 100 ?m. Finally, we utilize this integrated platform to investigate the mechanism of signal propagation for spontaneous neural activity in the developing mouse hippocampus. Through the use of localized Ca2+ depletion, we provide evidence for Ca2+-dependent synaptic transmission. PMID:23044655

Ahrar, Siavash; Nguyen, Transon V.; Shi, Yulin; Ikrar, Taruna; Xu, Xiangmin; Hui, Elliot E.

2012-01-01

410

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of a parallel fracture model with the PHREEQC-2 geochemical model was developed to simulate sequential flow and chemical transport with reactions in fractured media where both laminar and turbulent flows occur. The integration of non-laminar flow resistances in one model produced relevant effects on water flow velocities, thus improving model prediction capabilities on contaminant transport. The proposed conceptual model consists of 3D rock-blocks, separated by horizontal bedding plane fractures with variable apertures. Particle tracking solved the transport equations for conservative compounds and provided input for PHREEQC-2. For each cluster of contaminant pathways, PHREEQC-2 determined the concentration for mass-transfer, sorption/desorption, ion exchange, mineral dissolution/precipitation and biodegradation, under kinetically controlled reactive processes of equilibrated chemical species. Field tests have been performed for the code verification. As an example, the combined model has been applied to a contaminated fractured aquifer of southern Italy in order to simulate the phenol transport. The code correctly fitted the field available data and also predicted a possible rapid depletion of phenols as a result of an increased biodegradation rate induced by a simulated artificial injection of nitrates, upgradient to the sources.

Masciopinto, Costantino; Volpe, Angela; Palmiotta, Domenico; Cherubini, Claudia

2010-09-01

411

A spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for nearly incompressible flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for solving nearly incompressible flows. Decoupling the collision step from the streaming step offers numerical stability at high Reynolds numbers. In the streaming step, we employ high-order spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin discretizations using a tensor product basis of one-dimensional Lagrange interpolation polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre grids. Our scheme is cost-effective with a fully diagonal mass matrix, advancing time integration with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We present a consistent treatment for imposing boundary conditions with a numerical flux in the discontinuous Galerkin approach. We show convergence studies for Couette flows and demonstrate two benchmark cases with lid-driven cavity flows for Re = 400-5000 and flows around an impulsively started cylinder for Re = 550-9500. Computational results are compared with those of other theoretical and computational work that used a multigrid method, a vortex method, and a spectral element model.

Min, Misun; Lee, Taehun

2011-01-01

412

A sharp interface immersed boundary method for simulating incompressible viscous flow past three-dimensional immersed bodies is described. The method employs a multi-dimensional ghost-cell methodology to satisfy the boundary conditions on the immersed boundary and the method is designed to handle highly complex three-dimensional, stationary, moving and/or deforming bodies. The complex immersed surfaces are represented by grids consisting of unstructured triangular elements; while the flow is computed on non-uniform Cartesian grids. The paper describes the salient features of the methodology with special emphasis on the immersed boundary treatment for stationary and moving boundaries. Simulations of a number of canonical two- and three-dimensional flows are used to verify the accuracy and fidelity of the solver over a range of Reynolds numbers. Flow past suddenly accelerated bodies are used to validate the solver for moving boundary problems. Finally two cases inspired from biology with highly complex three-dimensional bodies are simulated in order to demonstrate the versatility of the method. PMID:20216919

Mittal, R.; Dong, H.; Bozkurttas, M.; Najjar, F.M.; Vargas, A.; von Loebbecke, A.

2010-01-01

413

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp interface immersed boundary method for simulating incompressible viscous flow past three-dimensional immersed bodies is described. The method employs a multi-dimensional ghost-cell methodology to satisfy the boundary conditions on the immersed boundary and the method is designed to handle highly complex three-dimensional, stationary, moving and/or deforming bodies. The complex immersed surfaces are represented by grids consisting of unstructured triangular elements; while the flow is computed on non-uniform Cartesian grids. The paper describes the salient features of the methodology with special emphasis on the immersed boundary treatment for stationary and moving boundaries. Simulations of a number of canonical two- and three-dimensional flows are used to verify the accuracy and fidelity of the solver over a range of Reynolds numbers. Flow past suddenly accelerated bodies are used to validate the solver for moving boundary problems. Finally two cases inspired from biology with highly complex three-dimensional bodies are simulated in order to demonstrate the versatility of the method.

Mittal, R.; Dong, H.; Bozkurttas, M.; Najjar, F. M.; Vargas, A.; von Loebbecke, A.

2008-05-01

414

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the artificial compressibility flux Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been extended to deal with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. DG implementations of the RANS and SA equations for compressible flows have already been reported in the literature, including the description of limiting or stabilization techniques adopted in order to prevent the turbulent viscosity ?˜ from becoming negative. In this paper we introduce an SA model implementation that deals with negative ?˜ values by modifying the source and diffusion terms in the SA model equation only when the working variable or one of the model closure functions become negative. This results in an efficient high-order implementation where either stabilization terms or even additional equations are avoided. We remark that the proposed implementation is not DG specific and it is well suited for any numerical discretization of the RANS-SA governing equations. The reliability, robustness and accuracy of the proposed implementation have been assessed by computing several high Reynolds number turbulent test cases: the flow over a flat plate (Re=107), the flow past a backward-facing step (Re=37400) and the flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil at different angles of attack (?=0°, 10°, 15°) and Reynolds numbers (Re=2.88×106,6×106).

Crivellini, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Valerio; Bassi, Francesco

2013-05-01

415

A spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible flows.

We present a spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for solving nearly incompressible flows. Decoupling the collision step from the streaming step offers numerical stability at high Reynolds numbers. In the streaming step, we employ high-order spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin discretizations using a tensor product basis of one-dimensional Lagrange interpolation polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre grids. Our scheme is cost-effective with a fully diagonal mass matrix, advancing time integration with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We present a consistent treatment for imposing boundary conditions with a numerical flux in the discontinuous Galerkin approach. We show convergence studies for Couette flows and demonstrate two benchmark cases with lid-driven cavity flows for Re = 400-5000 and flows around an impulsively started cylinder for Re = 550-9500. Computational results are compared with those of other theoretical and computational work that used a multigrid method, a vortex method, and a spectral element model.

Min, M.; Lee, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; City Univ. of New York

2011-01-01

416

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is described which provides solutions of two dimensional equations appropriate to laminar and turbulent boundary layers for boundary conditions with an external flow which fluctuates in magnitude. The program is based on the numerical solution of the governing boundary layer equations by an efficient two point finite difference method. An eddy viscosity formulation was used to model the Reynolds shear stress term. The main features of the method are briefly described and instructions for the computer program with a listing are provided. Sample calculations to demonstrate its usage and capabilities for laminar and turbulent unsteady boundary layers with an external flow which fluctuated in magnitude are presented.

Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.

1978-01-01

417

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic function method is developed to treat the incompressible viscous flow. Artificial compressibility coefficient, the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes are applied to construct the basic function scheme of trigonometric function type for solving three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically. To prove the method, flows in finite-length-pipe are calculated, the velocity and pressure distribution of which solved by our method quite coincide with the exact solutions of Poiseuille flow except in the areas of entrance and exit. After the method is proved elementary, the hemodynamics in two- and three-dimensional aneurysms is researched numerically by using the basic function method of trigonometric function type and unstructured grids generation technique. The distributions of velocity, pressure and shear force in steady flow of aneurysms are calculated, and the influence of the shape of the aneurysms on the hemodynamics is studied.

Shen, Fang; Wu, Wangyi

2009-06-01

418

Experimental study of the laminar-turbulent transition of a concave wall in a parallel flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instability of the laminar boundary layer flow along a concave wall was studied. Observations of these three-dimensional boundary layer phenomena were made using the hydrogen-bubble visualization technique. With the application of stereo-photogrammetric methods in the air-water system it was possible to investigate the flow processes qualitatively and quantitatively. In the case of a concave wall of sufficient curvature, a primary instability occurs first in the form of Goertler vortices with wave lengths depending upon the boundary layer thickness and the wall curvature. At the onset the amplification rate is in agreement with the linear theory. Later, during the non-linear amplification stage, periodic spanwise vorticity concentrations develop in the low velocity region between the longitudinal vortices. Then a meandering motion of the longitudinal vortex streets subsequently ensues, leading to turbulence.

Bippes, H.

1978-01-01

419

High-Re solutions for incompressible flow using the Navier-Stokes equations and a multigrid method

The vorticity-stream function formulation of the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is used to study the effectiveness of the coupled strongly implicit multigrid (CSI-MG) method in the determination of high-Re fine-mesh flow solutions. The driven flow in a square cavity is used as the model problem. Solutions are obtained for configurations with Reynolds number as high as 10,000 and meshes consisting

U. Ghia; K. N. Ghia; C. T. Shin

1982-01-01

420

\\u000a A ‘fictitious boundary method’ for computing incompressible flows with complicated small-scale and\\/or time-dependent geometric\\u000a details is presented. The underlying technique is based on a special treatment of Dirichlet boundary conditions, particularly\\u000a for FEM discretizations, together with so-called `iterative filtering techniques’ in the context of hierarchical multigrid\\u000a approaches such that the flow can be efficienctly computed on a fixed computational mesh

Stefan Turek; Decheng Wan; Liudmila S. Rivkind

421

A simple, stable, and accurate ghost cell method is developed to solve the incompressible flows over immersed bodies with heat transfer. A two-point stencil is used to build the flow reconstruction models for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the immersed surface. Tests show that the current scheme is second-order-accurate in all error norms for both types of boundary

Dartzi Pan

2010-01-01

422

A stabilized MLPG method for steady state incompressible fluid flow simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is extended to solve the incompressible fluid flow problems. The streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method is applied to overcome oscillations in convection-dominated problems, and the pressure-stabilizing Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) method is applied to satisfy the so-called Babu\\vska-Brezzi condition. The same stabilization parameter ?( ?SUPG = ?PSPG) is used in the present method. The circle domain of support, linear basis, and fourth-order spline weight function are applied to compute the shape function, and Bubnov-Galerkin method is applied to discretize the PDEs. The lid-driven cavity flow, backward facing step flow and natural convection in the square cavity are applied to validate the accuracy and feasibility of the present method. The results show that the stability of the present method is very good and convergent solutions can be obtained at high Reynolds number. The results of the present method are in good agreement with the classical results. It also seems that the present method (which is a truly meshless) is very promising in dealing with the convection- dominated problems.

Wu, Xue-Hong; Tao, Wen-Quan; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Wang

2010-11-01

423

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An immersed boundary method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in irregular domains is developed using a local ghost cell approach. This method extends the solution smoothly across the boundary in the same direction as the discretization it will be used for. The ghost cell value is determined locally for each irregular grid cell, making it possible to treat both sharp corners and thin plates accurately. The time stepping is done explicitly using a second order Runge-Kutta method. The spatial derivatives are approximated by finite difference methods on a staggered, Cartesian grid with local grid refinements near the immersed boundary. The WENO scheme is used to treat the convective terms, while all other terms are discretized with central schemes. It is demonstrated that the spatial accuracy of the present numerical method is second order. Further, the method is tested and validated for a number of problems including uniform flow past a circular cylinder, impulsively started flow past a circular cylinder and a flat plate, and planar oscillatory flow past a circular cylinder and objects with sharp corners, such as a facing square and a chamfered plate.

Berthelsen, Petter A.; Faltinsen, Odd M.

2008-04-01

424

An adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel method for discretizing the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on a multitude of moving and overlapping Cartesian grids each with an independently chosen cell size to address adaptivity. Advection is handled with first and second order accurate semi-Lagrangian schemes in order to alleviate any time step restriction associated with small grid cell sizes. Likewise, an implicit temporal discretization is used for the parabolic terms including Navier-Stokes viscosity which we address separately through the development of a method for solving the heat diffusion equations. The most intricate aspect of any such discretization is the method used in order to solve the elliptic equation for the Navier-Stokes pressure or that resulting from the temporal discretization of parabolic terms. We address this by first removing any degrees of freedom which duplicately cover spatial regions due to overlapping grids, and then providing a discretization for the remaining degrees of freedom adjacent to these regions. We observe that a robust second order accurate symmetric positive definite readily preconditioned discretization can be obtained by constructing a local Voronoi region on the fly for each degree of freedom in question in order to obtain both its stencil (logically connected neighbors) and stencil weights. Internal curved boundaries such as at solid interfaces are handled using a simple immersed boundary approach which is directly applied to the Voronoi mesh in both the viscosity and pressure solves. We independently demonstrate each aspect of our approach on test problems in order to show efficacy and convergence before finally addressing a number of common test cases for incompressible flow with stationary and moving solid bodies.

English, R. Elliot; Qiu, Linhai; Yu, Yue; Fedkiw, Ronald

2013-12-01

425

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new formulation (including the choice of variables, their non-dimensionalization, and the form of the artificial viscosity) is proposed for the numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible and incompressible flows with heat transfer. With the present approach, the same code can be used for constant as well as variable density flows. The changes of the density due to pressure and temperature variations are identified and it is shown that the low Mach number approximation is a special case. At zero Mach number, the density changes due to the temperature variation are accounted for, mainly through a body force term in the momentum equation. It is also shown that the Boussinesq approximation of the buoyancy effects in an incompressible flow is a special case. To demonstrate the new capability, three examples are tested. Flows in driven cavities with adiabatic and isothermal walls are simulated with the same code as well as incompressible and supersonic flows over a wall with and without a groove. Finally, viscous flow simulations of an oblique shock reflection from a flat plate are shown to be in good agreement with the solutions available in literature.

Hafez, M.; Soliman, M.; White, S.

1992-01-01

426

Aeroacoustic Modelling of Turbulent Flows

Summary In the paper we present a numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation of laminar and turbulent flows. The approach involves two steps comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In the turbulent case, the flow is further split into a Reynolds-averaged component and a component corresponding to the turbulent small scale fluctuations. The latter is

J. N. Sørensen; W. Z. Shen

427

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is intended to design compact heat exchangers which can transfer high heat flow for a given volume and temperature difference with high efficiency. This work presents the optimal design of heat exchangers for a given length or hydraulic diameter with a constraint of a certain pressure loss and constant wall temperature. Both volumetric heat transfer and heat transfer efficiency are taken into consideration for the design in laminar or turbulent flow regions. Equations are derived which easily enable optimal design for all shapes of ducts and for all Pr numbers. It is found that optimum conditions for turbulent flow is possible for all duct hydraulic diameters; however, it is possible to have optimum conditions till a certain dimensionless duct hydraulic diameter for laminar flow. Besides maximal volumetric heat flow, heat transfer efficiency should be taken into consideration in turbulent flow for optimum design.

Yilmaz, Alper

2015-04-01

428

Flight experiments on laminar flow control in swept-wing boundary layers.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented on boundary-layer transition to turbulence in low-disturbance environments. The measurements include infra-red thermography to study roughness related issues of boundary-layer transition in flight. A swept-wing model is mounted on the wing of a Cessna O-2 aircraft where an Euler code is used calculate the aircraft flowfield a nonlinear parabolized stability equations correlate the stability measurements and transition locations. The laminarization scheme of spanwise-periodic distributed roughness elements (DRE) is investigated at chord Reynolds numbers of 8 million. Measurements were made to determine the transition locations for clean configurations and transition locations for enhanced surface roughness that simulates an operational surface finish. For clean configurations, natural laminar flow was achieved over 80% of the surface of a 37 swept-wing model at chord Reynolds numbers of 8.1 million. With a background surface roughness of 1.1 ?m rms, transition moved forward to 30% chord. The DRE moved transition to 60% chord.

Saric, William; Carpenter, Andrew; Reed, Helen

2007-11-01

429

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermography (IR) allows global visualization of temperature distribution on surfaces with high accuracy. This potential can be used for visualization of fluid mechanics effects at the intersection of laminar and turbulent flows, where temperature jumps appear due to convection and friction i.e. for the optimization in the design of airplane geometries. In civil engineering too it is the aspiration of the modern engineer of light weight structures to meet singular loads like wind peaks rather by intelligent structures and materials than by massive structures. Therefore the "Institute of Conceptual and Structural Design" of the Technical University of Berlin (TUB) is working on the development of adaptive structures, optimized geometry and intelligent microstructures on surfaces of structural elements. The paper shows the potential of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in combination with thermography (IR) to optimize structures by visualization of laminar-tumultuous border layer currents. Therefore CFD simulations and IR wind tunnel experiments will be presented and discussed. For simulations and experiments - artificial and structural elements of the cable-stayed Strelasund Bridge, Germany, are used.

Arndt, Ralf; Gaulke, Alexander

2008-03-01

430

Computational design of natural laminar flow wings for transonic transport application

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two research programs are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wind planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first program supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. Boundary-layer and static-pressure data will be measured on this design during the supporting wind-tunnel and flight tests. These data will then be analyzed and used to infer the relationship between crossflow and Tollmein-Schlichting disturbances on laminar boundary-layer transition. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second program. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs. Wing surface pressure distributions, which support the design objective and were derived from transonic three-dimensional analyses codes, are also presented. Current status of each of the research programs is included in the summary.

Waggoner, Edgar G.; Campbell, Richard L.; Phillips, Pamela S.; Viken, Jeffrey K.

1986-01-01

431

The effective slip length and vortex formation in laminar flow over a rough surface

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow of viscous incompressible fluid over a periodically corrugated surface is considered by the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We define the effective slip length with respect to the level of the mean height of the surface roughness. With increasing corrugation amplitude the effective no-slip boundary plane is shifted towards the bulk of the fluid what implies a negative effective slip length. Analysis of the flow streamlines shows that a flow circulation is developed in the grooves of the rough surface provided that the local boundary condition is no-slip. By applying a local slip boundary condition, the location of vortex is displaced towards the bottom the grooves and the effective slip length increases. For values of the local slip length larger than the period of the surface corrugation, the vortical structure disappears, the flow streamlines are deformed to follow the surface curvature, and the effective slip length saturates to a constant value. Inertial effects promote vortex flow formation in the grooves and reduce the effective slip length.

Niavarani, Anoosheh; Priezjev, Nikolai

2008-11-01

432

Front propagation in a laminar cellular flow: shapes, velocities, and least time criterion.

We experimentally investigate the propagation of chemical fronts in steady laminar cellular flows at large Péclet numbers and large Damköhler numbers. Fronts are generated in an aqueous solution by an autocatalytic oxydoreduction reaction. They propagate in a channel in which a chain of counter-rotative parallel vortices is induced by electroconvection. We first accurately determine the form, the dynamics and the mean velocity of these fronts in the whole Hele-Shaw regime of the flow. We then address the modeling of the evolution of their mean velocity with the flow amplitude. The structure of the front wakes yields us to reject an effective reaction-diffusion wave as a relevant model for large-scale front propagation. On the other hand, analysis of the role of front heads brings us to introduce a kinematic model at the vortex scale for uncovering the front dynamics. This model addresses the propagation of the front leading point in a chain of vortices whose field is modeled by a two-dimensional solid rotation complemented by a boundary layer. Interestingly, it sensitively relies on the effective trajectory followed by the front leading point. To account for this, a competition is worked out among a one-parameter family of potential trajectories. The actual trajectory is then selected as the fastest one with quite a good agreement with measurements and observations. In particular, the measured effective front velocities are well recovered from the model, including their intrinsic dependence on the boundary layer width. Accordingly, effective front propagation in a laminar steadily stirred medium is thus understood from an optimization principle similar to the Fermat principle of ray propagation in heterogeneous media. PMID:18517508

Pocheau, A; Harambat, F

2008-03-01

433

Combined MRI and CFD analysis of fully developed steady and pulsatile laminar flow through a bend.

A combined MR and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is made of flow in a simple phantom laboratory flow rig consisting of a 180 degree bend with straight entry and exit sections. The aim was to investigate the potential of the use of MRI-linked CFD simulations for in vivo use. To this end, the experiment was set up for both steady and pulsatile laminar flow conditions, with Reynolds and Dean numbers and Womersley pulsatility parameter representative of resting flow in the human aorta. The geometrical images of the pipe and the velocity images at entry to the bend were used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of the flow. The CFD results for both steady and pulsatile cases compared favorably with velocity images obtained at exit from the bend. Additional information such as pressure and wall shear stress, which either could not be measured adequately via MRI, or could not be measured at all, was also extracted from the simulation. Overall, the results were sufficiently promising to justify pursuing subsequent in vivo studies. PMID:9786156

Weston, S J; Wood, N B; Tabor, G; Gosman, A D; Firmin, D N

1998-01-01

434

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative artificial compressibility (AC) scheme is proposed to allow the explicit simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes (INS) equations. Traditional AC schemes rely on an artificial equation of state that gives the pressure as a function of the density, which is known to enforce isentropic behavior. This behavior is nonideal, especially in viscously dominated flows. An alternative, the entropically damped artificial compressibility (EDAC) method, is proposed that employs a thermodynamic constraint to damp the pressure oscillations inherent to AC methods. The EDAC method converges to the INS in the low-Mach limit, and is consistent in both the low- and high-Reynolds-number limits, unlike standard AC schemes. The proposed EDAC method is discretized using a simple finite-difference scheme and is compared with traditional AC schemes as well as the lattice-Boltzmann method for steady lid-driven cavity flow and a transient traveling-wave problem. The EDAC method is shown to be beneficial in damping pressure and velocity-divergence oscillations when performing transient simulations. The EDAC method follows a similar derivation to the kinetically reduced local Navier-Stokes (KRLNS) method [Borok , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.76.066704 76, 066704 (2007)]; however, the EDAC method does not rely on the grand potential as the thermodynamic variable, but instead uses the more common pressure-velocity system. Additionally, a term neglected in the KRLNS is identified that is important for accurately approximating the INS equations.

Clausen, Jonathan R.

2013-01-01

435

An alternative artificial compressibility (AC) scheme is proposed to allow the explicit simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes (INS) equations. Traditional AC schemes rely on an artificial equation of state that gives the pressure as a function of the density, which is known to enforce isentropic behavior. This behavior is nonideal, especially in viscously dominated flows. An alternative, the entropically damped artificial compressibility (EDAC) method, is proposed that employs a thermodynamic constraint to damp the pressure oscillations inherent to AC methods. The EDAC method converges to the INS in the low-Mach limit, and is consistent in both the low- and high-Reynolds-number limits, unlike standard AC schemes. The proposed EDAC method is discretized using a simple finite-difference scheme and is compared with traditional AC schemes as well as the lattice-Boltzmann method for steady lid-driven cavity flow and a transient traveling-wave problem. The EDAC method is shown to be beneficial in damping pressure and velocity-divergence oscillations when performing transient simulations. The EDAC method follows a similar derivation to the kinetically reduced local Navier-Stokes (KRLNS) method [Borok et al., Phys. Rev. E 76, 066704 (2007)]; however, the EDAC method does not rely on the grand potential as the thermodynamic variable, but instead uses the more common pressure-velocity system. Additionally, a term neglected in the KRLNS is identified that is important for accurately approximating the INS equations. PMID:23410462

Clausen, Jonathan R

2013-01-01

436

A consistent projection-based SUPG/PSPG XFEM for incompressible two-phase flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a consistent projection-based streamline upwind/pressure stabilizing Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG/PSPG) extended finite element method (XFEM) is presented to model incompressible immiscible two-phase flows. As the application of linear elements in SUPG/PSPG schemes gives rise to inconsistency in stabilization terms due to the inability to regenerate the diffusive term from viscous stresses, the numerical accuracy would deteriorate dramatically. To address this issue, projections of convection and pressure gradient terms are constructed and incorporated into the stabilization formulation in our method. This would substantially recover the consistency and free the practitioner from burdensome computations of most items in the residual. Moreover, the XFEM is employed to consider in a convenient way the fluid properties that have interfacial jumps leading to discontinuities in the velocity and pressure fields as well as the projections. A number of numerical examples are analyzed to demonstrate the complete recovery of consistency, the reproduction of interfacial discontinuities and the ability of the proposed projection-based SUPG/PSPG XFEM to model two-phase flows with open and closed interfaces.

Liao, Jian-Hui; Zhuang, Zhuo

2012-10-01

437

An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-06-01

438

An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...

439

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted and a bibliography compiled on attainment of laminar flow in air through the use of favorable pressure gradient and suction. This report contains the survey, summaries of data for both ground and flight experiments, and abstracts of referenced reports. Much early information is also included which may be of some immediate use as background material for LFC applications.

Bushnell, D. M.; Tuttle, M. H.

1979-01-01

440

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this study is to develop an efficient, scalable, parallel incompressible flow solver capable of performing viscous, high Reynolds number flow simulations for complex geometries using multielement unstructured grids. The present parallel unstructured viscous flow solver is based on domain decomposition for concurrent solution within subdomains assigned to multiple processors. The solution algorithm employs iterative solution of the implicit approximation, and its software implementation uses MPI message passing for interprocessor communication. Key parallelization issues addressed in this work are (1) definition of the iteration hierarchy, (2) treatment of connectivity between subdomain interfaces, and (3) methods for coupling of subdomains. A heuristic, semiempirical performance estimate is developed and evaluated. With this performance estimate, scalability characteristics of the solution algorithm may be calculated for a particular architecture and/or predicted for a given problem a priori. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small steady and unsteady model problems with excellent agreement to experimental, theoretical, and numerical results. The present parallel flow solver is demonstrated for large-scale meshes with viscous sublayer resolution (y+ ˜ 1) and approximately 106 points or more. Complex geometry 3D applications include (1) a full-scale ship hull, (2) a SUBOFF model hull with stern appendages, (3) a fully-configured high-lift transport, and (4) a maneuvering tiltrotor aircraft. The first three computations are shown to agree well with available experimental data. The maneuvering tiltrotor aircraft simulation is a demonstration of capability for the parallel solution algorithm in the context of an extremely complex geometry and unsteady flowfield.

Hyams, Daniel Gaiennie

441

Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a 2-year study are reported which were carried out to extend the development of laminar flow control (LFC) technology and evaluate LFC systems concepts. The overall objective of the LFC program is to provide a sound basis for industry decisions on the application of LFC to future commercial transports. The study was organized into major tasks to support the stated objectives through application of LFC systems concepts to a baseline LFC transport initially generated for the study. Based on competitive evaluation of these concepts, a final selection was made for incorporation into the final design of an LFC transport which also included other advanced technology elements appropriate to the 1990 time period.

1979-01-01

442

Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year study conducted to establish a basis for industry decisions on the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to future commercial transports was presented. Areas of investigation included: (1) mission definition and baseline selection; (2) concepts evaluations; and (3) LFC transport configuration selection and component design. The development and evaluation of competing design concepts was conducted in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials, and systems. The results of supporting wind tunnel and laboratory testing on a full-scale LFC wing panel, suction surface opening concepts and structural samples were included. A final LFC transport was configured in incorporating the results of concept evaluation studies and potential performance improvements were assessed. Remaining problems together with recommendations for future research are discussed.

1978-01-01

443

Investigation of radiative interaction in laminar flows using Monte Carlo simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Monte Carlo method (MCM) is employed to study the radiative interactions in fully developed laminar flow between two parallel plates. Taking advantage of the characteristics of easy mathematical treatment of the MCM, a general numerical procedure is developed for nongray radiative interaction. The nongray model is based on the statistical narrow band model with an exponential-tailed inverse intensity distribution. To validate the Monte Carlo simulation for nongray radiation problems, the results of radiative dissipation from the MCM are compared with two available solutions for a given temperature profile between two plates. After this validation, the MCM is employed to solve the present physical problem and results for the bulk temperature are compared with available solutions. In general, good agreement is noted and reasons for some discrepancies in certain ranges of parameters are explained.

Liu, Jiwen; Tiwari, S. N.

1993-01-01

444

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The achievement of 70 percent laminar flow using modest boundary layer suction on the wings, empennage, nacelles, and struts of long-range LFC transports, combined with larger wing spans and lower span loadings, could make possible an unrefuelled range halfway around the world up to near sonic cruise speeds with large payloads. It is shown that supercritical LFC airfoils with undercut front and rear lower surfaces, an upper surface static pressure coefficient distribution with an extensive low supersonic flat rooftop, a far upstream supersonic pressure minimum, and a steep subsonic rear pressure rise with suction or a slotted cruise flap could alleviate sweep-induced crossflow and attachment-line boundary-layer instability. Wing-mounted superfans can reduce fuel consumption and engine tone noise.

Pfenninger, Werner; Vemuru, Chandra S.

1988-01-01

445

F-16XL Ship #2 in hangar for Laminar Flow Glove mounting

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's two-seat F-16XL research aircraft is shown in the modification hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during installation of a titanium 'glove' on the upper surface of its modified left wing. The aircraft subsequently concluded a 13 month-long, 45-flight research program which investigated drawing off a small portion of the boundary-layer air in order to provide laminar -- or smooth -- flow over a major portion of a wing flying at supersonic speeds. A turbo-compressor in the aircraft's fuselage provided suction to draw air through more than 10 million tiny laser-drilled holes in the glove via a manifold system employing 20 valves. Data obtained during the program could assist designers of future high-speed aircraft in developing a more efficient civil transport.

1995-01-01

446

Drag reduction using lubricant-impregnated surfaces in viscous laminar flow.

Lubricant-impregnated surfaces (LIS), where micro/nanotextured surfaces are impregnated with lubricating liquids, have received significant attention for their robust, superslippery properties. In this study, we systematically demonstrate the potential for LIS to reduce drag in laminar flows. We present a scaling model that incorporates the viscosity of the lubricant and elucidates the dependence of drag reduction on the ratio of the viscosity of the working fluid to that of the lubricant. We experimentally validate this dependence in a cone and plate rheometer and demonstrate a drag reduction of 16% and slip length of 18 ?m in the case where the ratio of working fluid viscosity to lubricant viscosity is 260. PMID:25144426

Solomon, Brian R; Khalil, Karim S; Varanasi, Kripa K

2014-09-16

447

Hybrid solution for the laminar flow of power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of two-dimensional fully-developed laminar flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts. The characteristic of the automatic and straightforward global error control procedure inherent to this approach, permits the determination of fully converged benchmark results to assess the performance of purely numerical techniques. Therefore, numerical results for the product Fanning friction factor-generalized Reynolds number are computed for different values of power-law index and aspect ratio, which are compared with previously reported results in the literature, providing critical comparisons among them as well as illustrating the powerfulness of the integral transform approach. The resulting velocity profiles computed by using this methodology are also compared with those calculated by approximated methods for power-law fluids, within the range of governing parameters studied.

Lima, J. A.; Pereira, L. M.; Macêdo, E. N.; Chaves, C. L.; Quaresma, J. N. N.