Science.gov

Sample records for laminin receptor activation

  1. [Expression and activity analysis of human 67kD laminin receptor in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Lian, Ji-Qin; Dai, Xu-Fang; Gan, Li-Xia; He, Feng-Tian

    2007-07-01

    To carry out the secretive expression of human 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), recombinant expression plasmid pPIC9K-67LR was constructed by inserting of 67LR cDNA into yeast expression vector pPIC9K. The 67LR protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris after induced by methanol, and about 12.56 mg electrophoresis purity 67LR could be obtained after the purification of 1L culture using affinity chromatograph column. In vitro competitive binding assay showed that target protein has an excellent biological activity. The successful expression of 67LR has placed a solid foundation for the research on structure and functions of 67LR. PMID:17822030

  2. Structure-guided identification of a laminin binding site on the laminin receptor precursor.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Kelly V; Hubbard, Stevan R; Meruelo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The 37/67-kDa human laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for laminin, prion protein, and a variety of viruses. Because of its wide range of ligands, LamR plays a role in numerous pathologies. LamR overexpression correlates with a highly invasive cell phenotype and increased metastatic ability, mediated by interactions between LamR and laminin. In addition, the specific targeting of LamR with small interfering RNAs, blocking antibodies, and Sindbis viral vectors confers anti-tumor effects. We adopted a structure-based approach to map a laminin binding site on human LamR by comparing the sequences and crystal structures of LamR and Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2p, a non-laminin-binding ortholog. Here, we identify a laminin binding site on LamR, comprising residues Phe32, Glu35, and Arg155, which are conserved among mammalian species. Mutation of these residues results in a significant loss of laminin binding. Further, recombinant wild-type LamR is able to act as a soluble decoy to inhibit cellular migration towards laminin. Mutation of this laminin binding site results in loss of migration inhibition, which demonstrates the physiological role of Phe32, Glu35, and Arg155 for laminin binding activity. Mapping of the LamR binding site should contribute to the development of therapeutics that inhibit LamR interactions with laminin and may aid in the prevention of tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:21040730

  3. Presence of Laminin Receptors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J. D.; Dos Reis, M.; Brentani, R. R.

    1985-07-01

    A characteristic feature of infection by Staphylococcus aureus is bloodstream invasion and widespread metastatic abscess formation. The ability to extravasate, which entails crossing the vascular basement membrane, appears to be critical for the organism's pathogenicity. Extravasation by normal and neoplastic mammalian cells has been correlated with the presence of specific cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Similar laminin receptors were found in Staphylococcus aureus but not in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a noninvasive pathogen. There were about 100 binding sites per cell, with an apparent binding affinity of 2.9 nanomolar. The molecular weight of the receptor was 50,000 and pI was 4.2. Eukaryotic laminin receptors were visualized by means of the binding of S. aureus in the presence of laminin. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic invasive cells might utilize similar, if not identical, mechanisms for invasion.

  4. Laminin receptor on platelets is the integrin VLA-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Modderman, Piet W.; Hogervorst, Frans

    1988-12-01

    Adhesion of platelets to the subendothelial matrix of an injured vessel wall is an essential step in triggering the formation of a haemostatic plug. Fibronectin, collagen and laminin are three major components of the subendothelial matrix which support platelet adhesion1. Receptors for fibronectin and collagen have been identified on platelets and are included in the integrin family2-11. Here we report that adhesion of platelets to laminin is inhibited by a rat monoclonal antibody against the integrin family member, VLA-6. This antibody does not affect platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, fibronectin or to type I and III collagen. Binding to laminin does not require platelet activation and is not inhibited by fibronectin and laminin cell-attachment peptides. Platelet adhesion to laminin is supported by Mn2+, Co2+and Mg2+, but not by Ca2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. This cation preference is distinct from that characteristic for other platelet-adhesive glycoproteins8,12,13.

  5. Laminin receptors on Candida albicans germ tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchara, J P; Tronchin, G; Annaix, V; Robert, R; Senet, J M

    1990-01-01

    Recent evidence for the role of laminin in cell adhesion and in the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections has led us to investigate the existence of receptors for this extracellular matrix component in Candida albicans. At first, immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of laminin-binding sites at the surface of germ tubes. Electron microscopy confirmed this result and permitted precise localization of the binding sites on the outermost fibrillar layer of the germ tube cell wall. By using 125I-radiolabeled laminin, the binding was shown to be saturable and specific, hence demonstrating characteristics of true receptors. Analysis of the data by the Scatchard equation indicated that there were about 8,000 binding sites per cell, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.3 x 10(-9) M. Binding was inhibited by prior heating or trypsinization of cells. Furthermore, of the different proteins and carbohydrates tested in competition experiments, only fibrinogen greatly reduced the laminin binding. Finally, dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide treatment of germ tubes allowed us to identify the laminin receptors through analysis of this extract by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. Two components, of 68 kilodaltons and a doublet of 60 and 62 kilodaltons, were detected. Thus, C. albicans possesses germ tube-specific surface receptors for laminin which could mediate its attachment to basement membranes and so contribute to the establishment of candidiasis. Images PMID:2136734

  6. 67-kDa Laminin Receptor-dependent Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Activation Elicits Melanoma-specific Antitumor Activity Overcoming Drug Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shuya; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment. PMID:25294877

  7. Knock-Down of the 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor LRP/LR Impedes Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Otgaar, Tyrone C.; Bernert, Martin; Ferreira, Eloise; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.; Letsolo, Boitelo T.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a major problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence and mortality rates. Both the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) and telomerase are overexpressed in cancer cells. LRP/LR enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells thereby promoting metastasis, supporting angiogenesis and hampering apoptosis. An essential component of telomerase, hTERT is overexpressed in 85–90% of most cancers. hTERT expression and increased telomerase activity are associated with tumor progression. As LRP/LR and hTERT both play a role in cancer progression, we investigated a possible correlation between LRP/LR and telomerase. LRP/LR and hTERT co-localized in the perinuclear compartment of tumorigenic breast cancer (MDA_MB231) cells and non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. FLAG® Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed an interaction between LRP/LR and hTERT. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that both cell lines displayed high cell surface and intracellular LRP/LR and hTERT levels. Knock-down of LRP/LR by RNAi technology significantly reduced telomerase activity. These results suggest for the first time a novel function of LRP/LR in contributing to telomerase activity. siRNAs targeting LRP/LR may act as a potential alternative therapeutic tool for cancer treatment by (i) blocking metastasis (ii) promoting angiogenesis (iii) inducing apoptosis and (iv) impeding telomerase activity. PMID:26545108

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate up-regulates microRNA-let-7b expression by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor signaling in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuhei; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Makio, Akiko; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Yamashita, Shuya; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in various biological processes by regulating their target genes. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits melanoma tumor growth by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) signaling. To examine the effect of EGCG on miRNA expression in melanoma cells, we performed miRNA microarray analysis. We showed that EGCG up-regulated miRNA-let-7b expression through 67LR in melanoma cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of let-7b led to down-regulation of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), a target gene related to tumor progression. 67LR-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling pathway activation was involved in the up-regulation of let-7b expression induced by EGCG. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of miRNA regulation by EGCG. PMID:26754091

  9. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate up-regulates microRNA-let-7b expression by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor signaling in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shuhei; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Makio, Akiko; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Yamashita, Shuya; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in various biological processes by regulating their target genes. Green tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits melanoma tumor growth by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) signaling. To examine the effect of EGCG on miRNA expression in melanoma cells, we performed miRNA microarray analysis. We showed that EGCG up-regulated miRNA-let-7b expression through 67LR in melanoma cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of let-7b led to down-regulation of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), a target gene related to tumor progression. 67LR-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling pathway activation was involved in the up-regulation of let-7b expression induced by EGCG. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of miRNA regulation by EGCG. PMID:26754091

  10. The Human Integrin VLA-2 is a Collagen Receptor on Some Cells and a Collagen/Laminin Receptor on Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elices, Mariano J.; Hemler, Martin E.

    1989-12-01

    The integrin heterodimer VLA-2, previously known as a collagen receptor, is now shown also to be a laminin receptor. Adhesion of the human melanoma cell line LOX to laminin was inhibited by anti-VLA ? 2 antibodies. Because VLA-2-mediated LOX cell attachment to laminin was not inhibited by digestion with collagenase, collagen contamination of laminin was not a factor. In addition, VLA-2 from LOX cells bound to immobilized laminin, and binding was disrupted by EDTA but not by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. VLA-3 also bound to laminin-Sepharose, although less avidly than VLA-2. Thus, at least four separate members of the integrin ? 1 subfamily serve as laminin receptors--i.e., VLA-2 and VLA-3 (this study) together with VLA-1 and VLA-6 (other reports). Whereas LOX and other cell lines used VLA-2 as both a laminin and collagen receptor, fibroblast VLA-2 mediated collagen but not laminin binding. Likewise, VLA-2 from platelets did not interact with laminin. Despite this functional discordancy, VLA-2 from laminin-binding and nonbinding sources was indistinguishable by all immunochemical and biochemical criteria examined. Thus, functional differences in VLA-2 may be due to cell type-specific modulation.

  11. Distinct distribution of laminin and its integrin receptors in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Naselli, Gaetano; Harrison, Leonard C

    2002-12-01

    Tissue function is regulated by the extracellular microenvironment including cell basement membranes, in which laminins are a major component. Previously, we found that laminin-1 promotes differentiation and survival of pancreatic islet cells. Here we characterize the expression pattern of laminins and their integrin receptors in adult pancreas. Although they are expressed in the basement membrane of acinar cells and duct epithelium, no laminin chains examined were detected extracellularly in the pancreatic islets. In contrast to laminin beta(1)- and gamma(1)-chains, the alpha(1)-chain, unique to laminin-1, was not detected. Laminin-10 (alpha(5)beta(1)gamma(1)) was expressed in acinar tissue, whereas laminins-2 (alpha(2)beta(1)gamma(1)) and -10 were expressed in the blood vessels. The laminin connector molecule, nidogen-1, had a distribution similar to that of laminin beta(1) and gamma(1), whereas fibulin-1 and -2, which compete with nidogen-1, were mostly confined to blood vessels. Integrin subunits alpha(6) and alpha(3) were detected in acinar cells and duct epithelial cells, but alpha(6) was absent in islet cells. Integrin alpha(6)beta(4) was detected only in duct cells, alpha(6)beta(1) in both acinar and ductal cells, and alpha(3)beta(1) in acinar, duct, and islet cells. These findings are a basis for further investigation of the role of extracellular matrix molecules and their receptors in pancreas function. PMID:12486084

  12. 67-kDa laminin receptor increases cGMP to induce cancer-selective apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kumazoe, Motofumi; Sugihara, Kaori; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Tsurudome, Yukari; Suzuki, Takashi; Suemasu, Yumi; Ueda, Naoki; Yamashita, Shuya; Kim, Yoonhee; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-02-01

    The 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a laminin-binding protein overexpressed in various types of cancer, including bile duct carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical cancer, and breast carcinoma. 67LR plays a vital role in growth and metastasis of tumor cells and resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we show that 67LR functions as a cancer-specific death receptor. In this cell death receptor pathway, cGMP initiated cancer-specific cell death by activating the PKC?/acid sphingomyelinase (PKC?/ASM) pathway. Furthermore, upregulation of cGMP was a rate-determining process of 67LR-dependent cell death induced by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a natural ligand of 67LR. We found that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), a negative regulator of cGMP, was abnormally expressed in multiple cancers and attenuated 67LR-mediated cell death. Vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, significantly potentiated the EGCG-activated 67LR-dependent apoptosis without affecting normal cells and prolonged the survival time in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that PDE5 inhibitors could be used to elevate cGMP levels to induce 67LR-mediated, cancer-specific cell death. PMID:23348740

  13. Two Domains of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Bind the Cellular Receptor, Laminin Receptor Precursor Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    McNichol, Beth A.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; Carvalho, Humberto M.; Meysick, Karen C.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2007-01-01

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) and CNF2 are highly homologous toxins that are produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. These 1,014-amino-acid toxins catalyze the deamidation of a specific glutamine residue in RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 and consist of a putative N-terminal binding domain, a transmembrane region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. To define the regions of CNF1 that are responsible for binding of the toxin to its cellular receptor, the laminin receptor precursor protein (LRP), a series of CNF1 truncated toxins were characterized and assessed for toxin binding. In particular, three truncated toxins, ΔN63, ΔN545, and ΔC469, retained conformational integrity and in vitro enzymatic activity and were immunologically reactive against a panel of anti-CNF1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Based on a comparison of these truncated toxins with wild-type CNF1 and CNF2 in LRP and HEp-2 cell binding assays and in MAb and LRP competitive binding inhibition assays and based on the results of confocal microscopy, we concluded that CNF1 contains two major binding regions: one located within the N terminus, which contained amino acids 135 to 164, and one which resided in the C terminus and included amino acids 683 to 730. The data further indicate that CNF1 can bind to an additional receptor(s) on HEp-2 cells and that LRP can also serve as a cellular receptor for CNF2. PMID:17709415

  14. Chemical inhibition of prometastatic lysyl-tRNA synthetaselaminin receptor interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Gyu; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Fang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Young, Nicolas L.; Guo, Min; Cho, Hye Young; Mushtaq, AmeeqUl; Jeon, Young Ho; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Jung Min; Kang, Ho Woong; Joo, Jae Eun; Hur, Youn; Kang, Wonyoung; Yang, Heekyoung; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Aree; Kim, Kibom; Kim, Doyeun; Kang, Eun Joo; Moon, Youngji; Rhee, Kyung Hee; Han, Byung Woo; Yang, Jee Sun; Han, Gyoonhee; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Wang, Ming-Wei; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS), a protein synthesis enzyme in the cytosol, relocates to the plasma membrane after a laminin signal and stabilizes a 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) that is implicated in cancer metastasis; however, its potential as an antimetastatic therapeutic target has not been explored. We found that the small compound BC-K-YH16899, which binds to KRS, impinged on interaction of KRS with 67LR and suppressed metastasis in 3 different mouse models. The compound inhibited KRS67LR interaction in two ways. First, it directly blocked the association between KRS and 67LR. Second, it suppressed the dynamic movement of the N-terminal extension of KRS and reduced membrane localization of KRS. However, it did not affect the catalytic activity of KRS. Our results suggest that specific modulation of a cancer-related KRS67LR interaction may offer a way to control metastasis while avoiding the toxicities associated with inhibition of the normal functions of KRS. PMID:24212136

  15. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane protein genes, we identified the laminin receptor (LamR) to be another attachment receptor. We demonstrate the involvement of LamR together with HS in virus attachment, and we elucidate the relationship between LamR and HS. LamR also serves as an attachment receptor for many viral pathogens, including dengue virus, a fatal human flavivirus. The study will help to enhance our understanding of the life cycle of flaviviruses and the development of antiviral strategies for flaviviruses. PMID:25694590

  16. Discovery of new small molecules inhibiting 67 kDa laminin receptor interaction with laminin and cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Ada; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Alfano, Daniela; Formisano, Luigi; Ragno, Pia; Selleri, Carmine; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a non-integrin receptor for laminin (LM) that derives from a 37 kDa precursor (37LRP). 67LR expression is increased in neoplastic cells and correlates with an enhanced invasive and metastatic potential. We used structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) to search for 67LR inhibitory small molecules, by focusing on a 37LRP sequence, the peptide G, able to specifically bind LM. Forty-six compounds were identified and tested on HEK-293 cells transfected with 37LRP/67LR (LR-293 cells). One compound, NSC47924, selectively inhibited LR-293 cell adhesion to LM with IC50 and Ki values of 19.35 and 2.45 ?mol/L. NSC47924 engaged residues W176 and L173 of peptide G, critical for specific LM binding. Indeed, NSC47924 inhibited in vitro binding of recombinant 37LRP to both LM and its YIGSR fragment. NSC47924 also impaired LR-293 cell migration to LM and cell invasion. A subsequent hierarchical similarity search with NSC47924 led to the identification of additional four compounds inhibiting LR-293 cell binding to LM: NSC47923, NSC48478, NSC48861, and NSC48869, with IC50 values of 1.99, 1.76, 3.4, and 4.0 ?mol/L, respectively, and able to block in vitro cancer cell invasion. These compounds are promising scaffolds for future drug design and discovery efforts in cancer progression. PMID:26062445

  17. Articular chondrocytes interact with basement membrane Matrigel through laminin active binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bulić, K

    1996-01-01

    Laminin-like molecules are detected during the differentiation of embryonic mesenchyme into cartilage and in cartilage during amphibian limb regeneration and fracture repair. Since primary articular chondrocytes in culture recognize and respond to laminin from basement membrane, the author studied the effect of laminin-derived peptides, which are thought to be responsible for biological activities of laminin. The biologically active peptides from both the laminin B1 and A chains containing YIGSR, RGD and IKVAV sequences all promoted chondrocyte attachment, and blocked laminin mediated cell attachment, with the IKVAV-containing peptide being the most effective. Laminin promoted cell migration with a maximum activity at 20 micrograms/ml. YIGSR at 100 micrograms/ml was the most active peptide exhibiting about 48% of the chemotactic activity of laminin, whereas the IKVAV-and RGD-containing peptides were much less active. When added in solution to the primary chondrocytes grown on Matrigel, YIGSR-containing peptides prevented cell alignment, whereas in the presence of peptides containing IKVAV sequence the cells spread rapidly and proliferated for 24 h. RGD-containing peptides had no effect on cell behavior on Matrigel. PMID:8688602

  18. Production, safety and antitumor efficacy of recombinant Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Adel L; Liu, Bainan; Rohrer, James W; Coggin, Joseph H; Tucker, J Allan; Pannell, Lewis K; Schwarzenberger, Paul O

    2009-06-01

    We describe here for the first time an efficient high yield production method for clinical grade recombinant human Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein (OFA/iLRP). We also demonstrate significant antitumor activity for this protein when administered in liposomal delivery form in a murine model of syngeneic fibrosarcoma. OFA/iLRP is a therapeutically very promising universal tumor antigen that is expressed in all mammalian solid tumors tested so far. We have cloned the human OFA/iLRP cDNA in a bacterial expression plasmid which incorporates a 6x HIS-tag. Large scale cultures of the plasmid transformed Escherichia coli were performed and the crude HIS-tagged OFA/iLRP was isolated as inclusion bodies and solubilized in guanidine chloride. The protein was then purified by successive passage through three column chromatography steps of immobilized metal affinity, anion exchange, and gel filtration. The resulting protein was 94% pure and practically devoid of endotoxin and host cell protein. The purified OFA/iLRP was tested in mice for safety and efficacy in tumor rejection with satisfactory results. This protein will be used for loading onto autologous dendritic cells in an FDA approved phase I/II human cancer vaccine trial in OFA/iLRP-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:19268360

  19. Laminin-derived peptide AG73 regulates migration, invasion, and protease activity of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Adriane S; Gama-de-Souza, Letcia N; Arnaud, Maria Vanda C; Pinheiro, Joo J V; Jaeger, Ruy G

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a prevalent head and neck tumor with high mortality. We studied the role played by laminin alpha1 chain peptide AG73 on migration, invasion, and protease activity of cells (OSCC) from human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyzed expression of laminin alpha1 chain and MMP9 in oral squamous cells carcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Migratory activity of AG73-treated OSCC cells was investigated by monolayer wound assays and in chemotaxis chambers. AG73-induced invasion was assessed in Boyden chambers. Invasion depends on MMPs. Conditioned media from cells grown on AG73 was subjected to zymography. We searched for AG73 receptors related to these activities in OSCC cells. Immunofluorescence analyzed AG73-induced colocalization of syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin. Cells had these receptors silenced by siRNA, followed by treatment with AG73 and analysis of migration, invasion, and protease activity. Oral squamous cell carcinoma expresses laminin alpha1 chain and MMP9. OSCC cells treated with AG73 showed increased migration, invasion, and protease activity. AG73 induced colocalization of syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin. Knockdown of these receptors decreased AG73-dependent migration, invasion, and protease activity. Syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin signaling downstream of AG73 regulate migration, invasion, and MMP production by OSCC cells. PMID:20237901

  20. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.

    PubMed

    Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2011-07-01

    Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

  1. Human colon carcinoma cells use multiple receptors to adhere to laminin: involvement of alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, M M; Korzelius, C A; Mercurio, A M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we used clone A, a human colon carcinoma cell line, to characterize those integrins that mediate colon carcinoma adhesion to laminin. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the human beta 1 subunit inhibited clone A adhesion to laminin. They also precipitated a complex of surface proteins that exhibited an electrophoretic behavior characteristic of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1. A monoclonal antibody specific for alpha 2 (PIH5) blocked clone A adhesion to laminin, as well as to collagen I. An alpha 3-specific antibody (P1B5) had no effect on clone A adhesion to laminin, even though it can block the adhesion of other cell types to laminin. Thus, the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin can function as both a laminin and collagen I receptor on clone A cells. Although these cells express alpha 3 beta 1, an established laminin receptor, they do not appear to use it to mediate laminin adhesion. In addition, the monoclonal antibody GoH3, which recognizes the alpha 6 integrin subunit, also inhibited carcinoma adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen I. This antibody precipitated the alpha 6 subunit in association with the beta 4 subunit. There was no evidence of alpha 6 beta 1 association on these cells. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that multiple integrin alpha subunits, in association with two distinct beta subunits, are involved in colon carcinoma adhesion to laminin. Based on the behavior of alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, the results also suggest that cells can regulate the ability of a specific integrin to mediate adhesion. Images PMID:2100200

  2. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis. PMID:25720979

  3. Laminin-111-derived peptides and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Laminin-111 is a large trimeric basement membrane glycoprotein with many active sites. In particular, four peptides active in tumor malignancy studies have been identified in laminin-111 using a systematic peptide screening method followed by various assays. Two of the peptides (IKVAV and AG73) are found on the ?1 chain, one (YIGSR) of the ?1 chain and one (C16) on the ?1 chain. The four peptides have distinct activities and receptors. Since three of the peptides (IKVAV, AG73 and C16) strongly promote tumor growth, this may explain the potent effects laminin-111 has on malignant cells. The peptide, YIGSR, decreases tumor growth and experimental metastasis via a 32/67 kD receptor while IKVAV increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and protease activity via integrin receptors. AG73 increases tumor growth and metastases via syndecan receptors. C16 increases tumor growth and angiogenesis via integrins. Identification of such sites on laminin-111 will have use in defining strategies to develop therapeutics for cancer. PMID:23263633

  4. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  5. Calcium channels link the muscle-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to Bassoon and CAST/Erc2 to organize presynaptic active zones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Billings, Sara E; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2011-01-12

    Synapse formation requires the organization of presynaptic active zones, the synaptic vesicle release sites, in precise apposition to postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor clusters; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that P/Q-type and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play essential roles as scaffolding proteins in the organization of presynaptic active zones. The neuromuscular junction of double knock-out mice for P/Q- and N-type VDCCs displayed a normal size but had significantly reduced numbers of active zones and docked vesicles and featured an attenuation of the active-zone proteins Bassoon, Piccolo, and CAST/Erc2. Consistent with this phenotype, direct interactions of the VDCC ?1b or ?4 subunits and the active zone-specific proteins Bassoon or CAST/Erc2 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation. A decrease in the number of active zones caused by a loss of presynaptic VDCCs resembled the pathological conditions observed in the autoimmune neuromuscular disorder Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. At the synaptic cleft of double knock-out mice, we also observed a decrease of the synaptic organizer laminin ?2 protein, an extracellular ligand of P/Q- and N-type VDCCs. However, the transcription level of laminin ?2 did not decrease in double knock-out mice, suggesting that the synaptic accumulation of laminin ?2 protein required its interaction with presynaptic VDCCs. These results suggest that presynaptic VDCCs link the target-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to active-zone proteins and function as scaffolding proteins to anchor active-zone proteins to the presynaptic membrane. PMID:21228161

  6. Calcium channels link the muscle-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to Bassoon and CAST/Erc2 to organize presynaptic active zones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Billings, Sara E.; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Synapse formation requires the organization of presynaptic active zones, the synaptic vesicle release sites, in precise apposition to postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor clusters; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that P/Q-type and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play essential roles as scaffolding proteins in the organization of presynaptic active zones. The neuromuscular junction of double knockout mice for P/Q- and N-type VDCCs displayed a normal size, but had significantly reduced numbers of active zones and docked vesicles and featured an attenuation of the active zone proteins Bassoon, Piccolo, and CAST/Erc2. Consistent with this phenotype, direct interactions of the VDCC ?1b or ?4 subunits and the active zone-specific proteins Bassoon or CAST/Erc2 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation. A decrease in the number of active zones caused by a loss of presynaptic VDCCs resembled the pathological conditions observed in the autoimmune neuromuscular disorder LambertEaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). At the synaptic cleft of double knockout mice, we also observed a decrease of the synaptic organizer laminin ?2 protein, an extracellular ligand of P/Q- and N-type VDCCs. However, the transcription level of laminin ?2 did not decrease in double knockout mice, suggesting that the synaptic accumulation of laminin ?2 protein required its interaction with presynaptic VDCCs. These results suggest that presynaptic VDCCs link the target-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to active zone proteins and function as scaffolding proteins to anchor active zone proteins to the presynaptic membrane. PMID:21228161

  7. Serum laminin in malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W; Viravan, C; Looareesuwan, S; Parschalk, B; Wernsdorfer, W

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To determine serum laminin concentrations in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS--An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine serum laminin concentrations in 54 patients with acute uncomplicated P falciparum malaria during and after treatment, and in 17 control subjects in Bangkok, Thailand. RESULTS--Raised concentrations of soluble laminin were observed in patients (mean (SD) concentration 628 (225) ng/ml), compared with normal controls (490 (116) ng/ml), during the acute phase of the disease. During treatment, serum laminin concentrations decreased and returned to normal within three days. Serum laminin concentrations were correlated with parasite counts before treatment, and with the serum concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), soluble E-selectin, and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor at 55 kilodaltons. CONCLUSIONS--These findings are compatible with an increased production or release of laminin in P falciparum malaria, which could indicate a role for the subendothelial basement membrane in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525659

  8. Deciphering the complex three-way interaction between the non-integrin laminin receptor, galectin-3 and Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Fulwah; Mahdavi, Jafar; Wheldon, Lee M.; Vassey, Matthew; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Qarani, Suzan M.; Morroll, Shaun; Stoof, Jeroen; Holliday, Nicholas D.; Teo, Siew Y.; Oldfield, Neil J.; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The non-integrin laminin receptor (LAMR1/RPSA) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are multi-functional host molecules with roles in diverse pathological processes, particularly of infectious or oncogenic origins. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and confocal imaging, we demonstrate that the two proteins homo- and heterodimerize, and that each isotype forms a distinct cell surface population. We present evidence that the 37 kDa form of LAMR1 (37LRP) is the precursor of the previously described 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR), whereas the heterodimer represents an entity that is distinct from this molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the single cysteine (C173) of Gal-3 or lysine (K166) of LAMR1 are critical for heterodimerization. Recombinant Gal-3, expressed in normally Gal-3-deficient N2a cells, dimerized with endogenous LAMR1 and led to a significantly increased number of internalized bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis), confirming the role of Gal-3 in bacterial invasion. Contact-dependent cross-linking determined that, in common with LAMR1, Gal-3 binds the meningococcal secretin PilQ, in addition to the major pilin PilE. This study adds significant new mechanistic insights into the bacterialhost cell interaction by clarifying the nature, role and bacterial ligands of LAMR1 and Gal-3 isotypes during colonization. PMID:25274119

  9. Presynaptic calcium channels and ?3-integrins are complexed with synaptic cleft laminins, cytoskeletal elements and active zone components.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Steven S; Valdez, Gregorio; Sanes, Joshua R

    2010-11-01

    At chemical synapses, synaptic cleft components interact with elements of the nerve terminal membrane to promote differentiation and regulate function. Laminins containing the ?2 subunit are key cleft components, and they act in part by binding the pore-forming subunit of a pre-synaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)?) (Nishimune et al. 2004). In this study, we identify Ca(v)?-associated intracellular proteins that may couple channel-anchoring to assembly or stabilization of neurotransmitter release sites called active zones. Using Ca(v)?-antibodies, we isolated a protein complex from Torpedo electric organ synapses, which resemble neuromuscular junctions but are easier to isolate in bulk. We identified 10 components of the complex: six cytoskeletal proteins (?2/?2 spectrins, plectin 1, AHNAK/desmoyokin, dystrophin, and myosin 1), two active zone components (bassoon and piccolo), synaptic laminin, and a calcium channel ? subunit. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these proteins in electric organ synapses, and PCR analysis revealed their expression by developing mammalian motor neurons. Finally, we show that synaptic laminins also interact with pre-synaptic integrins containing the ?3 subunit. Together with our previous finding that a distinct synaptic laminin interacts with SV2 on nerve terminals (Son et al. 2000), our results identify three paths by which synaptic cleft laminins can send developmentally important signals to nerve terminals. PMID:20731762

  10. PRESYNAPTIC CALCIUM CHANNELS AND ?3-INTEGRINS ARE COMPLEXED WITH SYNAPTIC CLEFT LAMININS, CYTOSKELETAL ELEMENTS AND ACTIVE ZONE COMPONENTS

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Steven S.; Valdez, Gregorio; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    At chemical synapses, synaptic cleft components interact with elements of the nerve terminal membrane to promote differentiation and regulate function. Laminins containing the ?2 subunit are key cleft components, and they act in part by binding the pore-forming subunit of a presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav?) (Nishimune, et al., 2004). Here, we identify Cav?-associated intracellular proteins that may couple channel-anchoring to assembly or stabilization of neurotransmitter release sites called active zones. Using Cav?antibodies, we isolated a protein complex from Torpedo electric organ synapses, which resemble neuromuscular junctions but are easier to isolate in bulk. We identified 10 components of the complex: six cytoskeletal proteins (?2/?2 spectrins, plectin 1, AHNAK/desmoyokin, dystrophin, and myosin 1), two active zone components (bassoon and piccolo), synaptic laminin, and a calcium channel ? subunit. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these proteins in electric organ synapses, and PCR analysis revealed their expression by developing mammalian motor neurons. Finally, we show that synaptic laminins also interact with presynaptic integrins containing the ?3 subunit. Together with our previous finding that a distinct synaptic laminin interacts with SV2 on nerve terminals (Son, et al., 2000), our results identify three paths by which synaptic cleft laminins can send developmentally important signals to nerve terminals. PMID:20731762

  11. α-Dystroglycan Is a Laminin Receptor Involved in Extracellular Matrix Assembly on Myotubes and Muscle Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Federica; Lindenbaum, Michael; Carbonetto, Salvatore

    1999-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) is a laminin-binding protein and member of a glycoprotein complex associated with dystrophin that has been implicated in the etiology of several muscular dystrophies. To study the function of DG, C2 myoblasts were transfected stably with an antisense DG expression construct. Myotubes from two resulting clones (11F and 11E) had at least a 40–50% and 80–90% reduction, respectively, in α-DG but normal or near normal levels of α-sarcoglycan, integrin β1 subunit, acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) when compared with parental C2 cells or three clones (11A, 9B, and 10C) which went through the same transfection and selection procedures but expressed normal levels of α-DG. Antisense DG-expressing myoblasts proliferate at the same rate as parental C2 cells and differentiate into myotubes, however, a gradual loss of cells was observed in these cultures. This loss correlates with increased apoptosis as indicated by greater numbers of nuclei with condensed chromatin and more nuclei labeled by the TUNEL method. Moreover, there was no sign of increased membrane permeability to Trypan blue as would be expected with necrosis. Unlike parental C2 myotubes, 11F and 11E myotubes had very little laminin (LN) on their surfaces; LN instead tended to accumulate on the substratum between myotubes. Exogenous LN bound to C2 myotubes and was redistributed into plaques along with α-DG on their surfaces but far fewer LN/α-DG plaques were seen after LN addition to 11F or 11E myotubes. These results suggest that α-DG is a functional LN receptor in situ which is required for deposition of LN on the cell and, further, implicate α-DG in the maintenance of myotube viability. PMID:10366602

  12. Modulation of the Metastatic Activity of Melanoma Cells by Laminin and Fibronectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Victor P.; Williams, Jeannette E.; Liotta, Lance A.; Martin, George R.

    1984-11-01

    Metastatic mouse melanoma cells have a high affinity for the basement membrane and the ability to degrade it; these properties may allow tumor cells to invade the membrane and disseminate. In this study it was found that the metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells varied when the cells were exposed in culture to fibronectin or laminin. After removal of fibronectin or exposure to laminin, the cells had an increased affinity for basement membrane collagen, were more invasive of basement membranes in vitro, and produced more lung colonies in vivo. These changes are correlated with and may be due to an increase in the laminin-binding capacity of the tumor cell surface.

  13. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  14. INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is reduced by the downregulation of the 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Dubiel, Evan A; Kuehn, Carina; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Vermette, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Understanding β cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions can advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and improve culture methods used in islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes. Laminin is the main constituent of the basement membrane and is involved in pancreatic β cell survival and function, even enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Most of the studies on cell responses towards laminin have focused on integrin-mediated interactions, while much less attention has been paid on non-integrin receptors, such as the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). The specificity of the receptor-ligand interaction through the adhesion of INS-1 cells (a rat insulinoma cell line) to CDPGYIGSR-, GRGDSPC- or CDPGYIGSR + GRGDSPC-covered surfaces was evaluated. Also, the effects of the 67LR knocking down over glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were investigated. Culture of the INS-1 cells on the bioactive surfaces was improved compared to the low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces, while downregulation of the 67LR resulted in reduced cell adhesion to surfaces bearing the CDPGYIGSR peptide. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was hindered by downregulation of the 67LR, regardless of the biological motif available on the biomimetic surfaces on which the cells were cultured. This finding illustrates the importance of the 67LR in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and points to a possible role of the 67LR in the mechanisms of insulin secretion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23362185

  15. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles ((AuNP)-Au-198-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Katti, Kavita; Upendran, Anandhi; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Nune, Satish K.; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, C. J.; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. D.; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, John R.; Cutler, Cathy; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2012-07-31

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechingallate( EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), will circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein provide unequivocal validation of our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from Au-198 isotope; the range of 198Au β-particle ( ~ 11 mm in tissue or ~1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed ~72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 days demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative “green nanotechnological“approach serves as a basis for designing target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors.

  16. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Maxwell, Adam; Fay, William P; Katti, Kattesh V

    2016-01-01

    In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs) as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26938531

  17. Laminin receptor is an interacting partner for viral outer capsid protein VP5 in grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Fei; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is responsible for viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus. Through yeast two-hybrid screen, laminin receptor (LamR) was identified as a potential interacting partner for the outer capsid protein VP5 of GCRV. We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding grass carp LamR. Viral attachment assay demonstrated the involvement of membrane-associated LamR in GCRV infection. Solid-phase overlay assays demonstrated that GCRV interacted with GST-tagged LamR in vitro. In contrast to VP7, GST-tagged VP5 was shown to associate with LamR in both pull-down and solid-phase blot overlay assays. With the reduction of LamR expression in CIK cells achieved by RNAi, remarkably reduced infection efficiency of GCRV was observed. CIK cells pretreated with polyclonal antibody against LamR resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of GCRV infection. These results collectively indicated that grass carp LamR was involved in GCRV infection by interacting with viral outer capsid protein VP5. PMID:26848829

  18. Biologically-active laminin-111 fragment that modulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Horejs, Christine-Maria; Serio, Andrea; Purvis, Alan; Gormley, Adam J.; Bertazzo, Sergio; Poliniewicz, Anna; Wang, Alex J.; DiMaggio, Peter; Hohenester, Erhard; Stevens, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between the extracellular matrix and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) constitutes one of the key steps in understanding stem cell differentiation in vitro. Here we report a biologically-active laminin-111 fragment generated by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) processing, which is highly up-regulated during differentiation. We show that the ?1-chainderived fragment interacts via ?3?1-integrins, thereby triggering the down-regulation of MMP2 in mouse and human ESCs. Additionally, the expression of MMP9 and E-cadherin is up-regulated in mouse ESCskey players in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also demonstrate that the fragment acts through the ?3?1-integrin/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer complex. This study reveals a previously unidentified role of laminin-111 in early stem cell differentiation that goes far beyond basement membrane assembly and a mechanism by which an MMP2-cleaved laminin fragment regulates the expression of E-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9. PMID:24706882

  19. Axolotl pronephric duct migration requires an epidermally derived, laminin 1-containing extracellular matrix and the integrin receptor alpha6beta1.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrea R; Drawbridge, Julie; Steinberg, Malcolm S

    2003-12-01

    The epidermis overlying the migrating axolotl pronephric duct is known to participate in duct guidance. This epidermis deposits an extracellular matrix onto the migrating duct and its pathway that is a potential source of directional guidance cues. The role of this matrix in pronephric duct guidance was assayed by presenting matrix deposited on microcarriers directly to migrating pronephric ducts in situ. We found that reorientation of extracellular-matrix-bearing carriers prior to their presentation to migrating ducts caused a corresponding reorientation of pronephric duct migration. Subepidermal microinjection of function-blocking antibodies against alpha6 integrin, beta1 integrin or the laminin-1/E8 domain recognized by alpha6beta1 integrin, all of which were detected and localized here, inhibited pronephric duct migration. Moreover, pre-exposure to anti-laminin-1/E8 function-blocking antibody prevented reoriented carriers of epidermally deposited matrix from reorienting pronephric duct migration. These results are incorporated into an integrated model of pronephric duct guidance consistent with all present evidence, proposing roles for the previously implicated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor as well as for laminin 1 and alpha6beta1 integrin. PMID:14522870

  20. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Upendran, Anandhi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Nune, Satish Kumar; Casteel, Stan W; Smith, Charles Jeffrey; Vimal, Jatin; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J David; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D; Carmack, Terry L; Lever, John R; Cutler, Cathy S; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2012-07-31

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), would circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein support our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from the Au-198 isotope; the range of the (198)Au ?-particle (approximately 11 mm in tissue or approximately 1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of a radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize the radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible (198)AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors, which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed approximately 72% retention of (198)AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 d demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative nanotechnological approach serves as a basis for designing biocompatible target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable (198)AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors. PMID:22802668

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor gene from Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Chang, X Z; Li, J L; Bai, Z Y; Li, X L

    2013-01-01

    Hyriopsis cumingii is an economically important freshwater pearl mussel with high pearl quality that is endemic in China. Investigation of genes relevant to shell formation is important for increased pearl output. The substances that form mollusk shells are secreted by epithelial cells in the mantle, the proliferation of which influences secretion ability. This study focused on the proliferation-related 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) of H. cumingii. The full-length cDNA (1133 bp) encoding this 300-amino acid protein was cloned from the mantle. Quantitative fluorescence analysis showed that 37LRP expressed in eight tissues, with the highest expression observed in the liver, and its expression pattern in the mantle reflected shell repair. During repair, 37LRP expression was higher in the experimental shell repair group than that in the control group, exhibiting an initial increase followed by a decrease in expression, and returning to basal levels on completion of the repair. A similar trend was also observed with respect to immunity and cellular metabolism. Expression of the 37LRP protein in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group at the first and second days after shell injury. After 4 days, 37LRP expression in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group. In situ hybridization revealed a strong positive signal corresponding to the 37LRP mRNA at the horny grooves of the mantle, evagination, and in epithelial cells of the velum, which implicated these areas in the repair and formation of the cuticle, prismatic layer, and nacre. PMID:24338406

  2. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Upendran, Anandhi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Nune, Satish Kumar; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, Charles Jeffrey; Vimal, Jatin; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. David; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, John R.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), would circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein support our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from the Au-198 isotope; the range of the 198Au ?-particle (approximately 11mm in tissue or approximately 1100cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of a radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize the radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors, which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed approximately 72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28d demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative nanotechnological approach serves as a basis for designing biocompatible target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors. PMID:22802668

  3. Distinct and overlapping ligand specificities of the alpha 3A beta 1 and alpha 6A beta 1 integrins: recognition of laminin isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Delwel, G O; de Melker, A A; Hogervorst, F; Jaspars, L H; Fles, D L; Kuikman, I; Lindblom, A; Paulsson, M; Timpl, R; Sonnenberg, A

    1994-01-01

    The ligand specificity of the alpha 3A beta 1 integrin was analyzed using K562 cells transfected with full-length alpha 3A cDNA and was compared with that of alpha 6A beta 1 in similarly transfected K562 cells. Clones were obtained that showed comparable surface expression of either alpha 3A beta 1 or alpha 6A beta 1 integrins. Those expressing alpha 3A beta 1 attached to and spread on immunopurified human kalinin and cellular matrices containing human kalinin, which is a particular isoform of laminin. In addition, alpha 3A transfectants adhered to bovine kidney laminins possessing a novel A chain variant. Binding to kalinin was blocked by a monoclonal antibody against the A chain constituent of kalinin and adhesion to both kalinin and kidney laminins by anti-alpha 3 and beta 1 monoclonal antibodies. The alpha 3A transfected cells bound more strongly to kalinin and bovine kidney laminins after treatment with the beta 1 stimulatory antibody TS2/16. A distinctly weaker and activation-dependent adhesion of alpha 3A transfectants was observed on human placental laminins possessing the Am chain variant (merosin), and no adhesion occurred on bovine heart laminins and murine EHS tumor laminin. Further inactive substrates were fibronectin, nidogen, and collagen types IV and VI, indicating that the alpha 3A beta 1 integrin is a much less promiscuous receptor than thought before. By contrast, alpha 6A transfected cells adhered to all laminin isoforms when stimulated with TS2/16. Adhesion also occurred only on bovine kidney laminins in the absence of TS2/16. These results demonstrate that both alpha 3A beta 1 and alpha 6A beta 1 integrins are typical laminin receptors but that their affinity and activation dependence for binding to various laminin isoforms differ considerably. Images PMID:8019006

  4. Impairment of the metastatic activity of melanoma cells by transglutaminase-catalyzed incorporation of polyamines into laminin and Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Lentini, A; Provenzano, B; Caraglia, M; Shevchenko, A; Abbruzzese, A; Beninati, S

    2008-02-01

    Previously published evidences highlighted the effect of transglutaminase (TG, EC 2.3.2.13) activation on the reduction of the in vitro adhesive and invasive behaviour of murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, as well as in vivo. Here, we investigated the influence of spermidine (SPD) incorporation by TG into basement membrane components i.e. laminin (LN) or Matrigel (MG), on the adhesion and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by these TG/SPD-modified substrates. The adhesion assays showed that cell binding to the TG/SPD-modified LN was reduced by 30%, when compared to untreated LN, whereas the reduction obtained using TG/SPD-modified MG was 35%. Similarly, tumor cell invasion by the Boyden chamber system through TG/SPD modified LN or MG was respectively reduced by 45%, and by 69%. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase (gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9) activities by gel-zymography showed that MMP-2 activity was unaffected, while MMP-9 activity was reduced by about 32% using TG/SPD-modified substrate. These results strongly suggest that the observed antiinvasive effect of TG activation in the host may be ascribed to the covalent incorporation of polyamines, which led to the post-translational modification of some components of the cell basement membrane. This modification may interfere with the metastatic property of melanoma cells, affecting the proteolytic activity necessary for their migration and invasion activities. PMID:17356804

  5. Synthesis and activity of partial retro-inverso analogs of the antimetastatic laminin-derived peptide, YIGSR-NH2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Kleinman, H K; Mokotoff, M

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of six partial retro-inverso peptidomimetic analogs of YIGSR-NH2, a synthetic peptide from the beta 1 chain of laminin, which has antimetastatic activity. The intent was to improve the antimetastatic potency of YIGSR-NH2 by limiting the in vivo enzymatic degradation through the incorporation of fraudulent peptide bonds. We have prepared the following retro-inverso peptides, Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-gArg-CHO (1), Tyr-gIle-mGly-Ser-Arg-NH2 (2), Tyr-gIle-mGly-Ser-gArg-CHO (3), gTyr-D-rIle-mGly-Ser-Arg-NH2 (4), Tyr-Ile-Gly-gSer-D-rArg-CHO (5) and Tyr-gIle-rGly-D-rSer-D-rArg-CHO (6). In vitro assays for B16F10 melanoma cell adhesion showed no significant activity for these six peptides. Peptides 1-3, 5 and 6 were further tested, in vivo, for their ability to inhibit tumor metastases to the lung in mice injected in the tail vein with B16F10 melanoma cells. All five of the retro-inverso peptides tested showed statistically significant inhibition of metastasis, but the most active peptides were 5 and 6, which showed 57 and 69% inhibition of metastasis, respectively. PMID:9151257

  6. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  7. Expression and identification of a laminin-binding protein in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    PubMed Central

    Tronchin, G; Esnault, K; Renier, G; Filmon, R; Chabasse, D; Bouchara, J P

    1997-01-01

    Adhesion of Aspergillus fumigatus, the causative agent of human aspergillosis, to the extracellular matrix protein laminin has been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the expression of laminin receptors during swelling of conidia, a step leading to germination and subsequent colonization of tissues. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the laminin binding sites were distributed over the external rodlet layer of resting conidia. During swelling, the characteristic rodlet layer progressively disintegrated and conidia surrounded by a smooth cell wall layer appeared. Flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated laminin demonstrated that expression of laminin receptors at the surface of conidia was swelling dependent. Resting conidia expressed high levels of laminin receptors on their surface. A gradual decrease of laminin binding was then observed as swelling occurred, reaching a minimum for 4-h-swollen conidia. This correlated with a loss of adherence of swollen conidia to laminin immobilized on microtiter plates. Trypsin pretreatment of conidia reduced laminin binding. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ligand blotting with laminin identified in a cell wall extract a major 72-kDa cell wall glycoprotein which binds laminin. Thus, one of the initial events in the host colonization may be the recognition of basement membrane laminin by this 72-kDa cell wall surface component. PMID:8975886

  8. Melanoma Spheroid Formation Involves Laminin-Associated Vasculogenic Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Allison R.; Lee, Chung-Wei; Lezcano, Cecilia; Zhan, Qian; Huang, John; Fischer, Andrew H.; Murphy, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a tumor where virulence is conferred on transition from flat (radial) to three-dimensional (tumorigenic) growth. Virulence of tumorigenic growth is governed by numerous attributes, including presence of self-renewing stem-like cells and related formation of patterned networks associated with the melanoma mitogen, laminin, a phenomenon known as vasculogenic mimicry. Vasculogenic mimicry is posited to contribute to melanoma perfusion and nutrition in vivo; we hypothesized that it may also play a role in stem cell–driven spheroid formation in vitro. Using a model of melanoma in vitro tumorigenesis, laminin-associated networks developed in association with three-dimensional melanoma spheroids. Real-time PCR analysis of laminin subunits showed that spheroids formed from anchorage-independent melanoma cells expressed increased α4 and β1 laminin chains and α4 laminin expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Association of laminin networks with melanoma stem cell–associated nestin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 also was documented. Moreover, knockdown of nestin gene expression impaired laminin expression and network formation within spheroids. Laminin networks were remarkably similar to those observed in melanoma xenografts in mice and to those seen in patient melanomas. These data indicate that vasculogenic mimicry–like laminin networks, in addition to their genesis in vivo, are integral to the extracellular architecture of melanoma spheroids in vitro, where they may serve as stimulatory scaffolds to support three-dimensional growth. PMID:24332013

  9. Laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic arteries from mice and man.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Uwe; Saxena, Amit; Lorkowski, Stefan; Rauterberg, Jürgen; Björkbacka, Harry; Durbeej, Madeleine; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2011-06-01

    The properties of the arterial vasculature depend to a large extent on the activities of smooth muscle cells, which, in turn, are determined by their extracellular environment. During pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, this interaction is altered. In close proximity to medial smooth muscle cells are basement membrane components, such as different isoforms of laminin. These proteins can have great impact on cellular function via interaction with cell surface integrins. However, knowledge of laminins in smooth muscle cell basement membranes during normal and pathological conditions is scarce. Therefore, we have analyzed the presence of laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. Our study revealed that the laminin chain isotype composition within atherosclerotic plaque tissue was different from the chain composition in the media. In addition, obvious differences in laminin chain composition could be observed in areas of the media, which were or were not associated with plaque tissue. Our major findings demonstrate that laminin gamma3 was exclusively present in media associated with plaque tissue. Laminin alpha2 was also enriched in these medial areas. Plaque tissue was predominantly enriched in laminin alpha5 chains. This general distribution applied to lesions both with and without a fibrous cap-like structure. The differential distribution of laminin chains were partially accompanied by changes in the presence of the integrin alpha subunits 7 and V. The distribution of laminin chains in human atherosclerotic arteries, with different size and morphology, grossly resembled their distribution in mouse arteries. PMID:21472686

  10. Endocytic trafficking of laminin is controlled by dystroglycan and is disrupted in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Huang, Ge; Akhavan, Armin; Fata, Jimmie E.; Singh, Manisha; Gray, Joe W.; Muschler, John L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dynamic interactions between cells and basement membranes serve as essential regulators of tissue architecture and function in metazoans, and perturbation of these interactions contributes to the progression of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers. Here, we reveal the pathway and mechanism for the endocytic trafficking of a prominent basement membrane protein, laminin-111 (referred to here as laminin), and their disruption in disease. Live-cell imaging of epithelial cells revealed pronounced internalization of laminin into endocytic vesicles. Laminin internalization was receptor mediated and dynamin dependent, and laminin proceeded to the lysosome through the late endosome. Manipulation of laminin receptor expression revealed that the dominant regulator of laminin internalization is dystroglycan, a laminin receptor that is functionally perturbed in muscular dystrophies and in many cancers. Correspondingly, laminin internalization was found to be deficient in aggressive cancer cells displaying non-functional dystroglycan, and restoration of dystroglycan function strongly enhanced the endocytosis of laminin in both breast cancer and glioblastoma cells. These results establish previously unrecognized mechanisms for the modulation of cellbasement-membrane communication in normal cells and identify a profound disruption of endocytic laminin trafficking in aggressive cancer subtypes. PMID:25217627

  11. Mutational analysis of the cleavage of the cancer-associated laminin receptor by stromelysin-3 reveals the contribution of flanking sequences to site recognition and cleavage efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Maria; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2008-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3) has long been implicated to play an important role in cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Using the thyroid hormone-dependent Xenopus laevis metamorphosis as a model, we have previously shown that ST3 is required for apoptosis during intestinal remodeling and that laminin receptor (LR) is an in vivo substrate of ST3 during this process. ST3 cleaves LR at two distinct sites that are conserved in mammalian LR. Human ST3 and LR are both associated with tumor development and cancer progression and human LR can also be cleaved by ST3, implicating a role of LR cleavage by ST3 in human cancers. Here, we carried out a series of mutational analyses on the two cleavage sites in LR. Our findings revealed that in addition to primary sequence at the cleavage site (positions P3-P3?, with the cleavage occurring between P1-P1?), flanking sequences/conformation also influenced the cleavage of LR by ST3. Furthermore, alanine substitution studies led to a surprising finding that surrounding sequence and/or conformation dictated the site of cleavage in LR by ST3. These results thus have important implications in our understanding of substrate recognition and cleavage by ST3 and argue for the importance of studying ST3 cleavage in the context of full-length substrates. Furthermore, the LR cleavage mutants generated here will also be valuable tools for future studies on the role of LR cleavage by ST3 in vertebrate development and cancer progression. PMID:19212658

  12. Simplified Purification Procedure of Laminin-332 and Laminin-511 from Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sroka, Isis C.; Chen, Man Ling; Cress, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins expressed in the basement membrane of multiple epithelial tissues. Previously described purification procedures for the human laminin variants laminin-5 (LN-332) and laminin-10 (LN-511) use tissue as starting material and have multiple steps. We demonstrate a two-step laminin immunoaffinity purification method to produce consistent quantities of intact and biologically active LN-332 and LN-511 from human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human lung carcinoma (A549) cell lines, respectively. The purification of LN-332 and LN-551 was demonstrated by PAGE analysis, silver staining and Western blot analysis. The purification procedure includes instruction on removing a cell adhesion contaminant known as galectin-3 binding protein from purified LN-511. The biological activity of purified laminin was tested in a standard cell adhesion assay and compared to commercially available LN-111. This rapid and reproducible purification method will contribute to understanding the role of LN-332 and LN-511 in cell behavior, signaling and gene expression. PMID:18713621

  13. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-04-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.

  14. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI?] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Pampeno, Christine; Derkatch, Irina L; Meruelo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C). Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc) exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc), is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI?] and [psi?]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI?] strains. The presence of [PSI?] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI?] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI?] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases. PMID:24416454

  15. Interaction of Human Laminin Receptor with Sup35, the [PSI+] Prion-Forming Protein from S. cerevisiae: A Yeast Model for Studies of LamR Interactions with Amyloidogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pampeno, Christine; Derkatch, Irina L.; Meruelo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrPC and PrPSc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrPC. Whether LamR interacts with PrPSc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrPSc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI+] and [psi?]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI+] strains. The presence of [PSI+] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI+] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI+] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases. PMID:24416454

  16. The Laminin Binding Integrin α6β1 in Prostate Cancer Perineural Invasion

    PubMed Central

    SROKA, ISIS C.; ANDERSON, TODD A.; MCDANIEL, KATHY M.; NAGLE, RAYMOND B.; GRETZER, MATTHEW B.; CRESS, ANNE E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasizing prostate tumor cells invade along nerves innervating the encapsulated human prostate gland in a process known as perineural invasion. The extacellular matrix laminin class of proteins line the neural route and tumor cells escaping from the gland express the laminin binding integrin α6β1 as a prominent cell surface receptor. Integrin α6β1 promotes aggressive disease and supports prostate tumor cell metastasis to bone. Laminins and their integrin receptors are necessary for the development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system, indicating the potential role for integrin receptors in directing prostate tumor cell invasion on nerves during perineural invasion. PMID:20432448

  17. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate. PMID:1600626

  18. Variable region structure and staphylococcal protein A binding specificity of a mouse monoclonal IgM anti-laminin-receptor antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Feij, G C; Sabbaga, J; Carneiro, C R; Brgido, M M

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is a cell wall-attached polypeptide that acts as a B-lymphocyte superantigen. This activation correlates with specific VH gene segment usage in the B-cell receptor. B-cell receptor assembled from members of the VH3 family in humans, or S107 family in mice, has an intrinsic affinity for protein A. Human VH3-derived antibodies bind to domain D of protein A. We have characterized a mouse IgM monoclonal antibody that binds protein A. The sequencing of the variable region suggests an almost germline-encoded VH derived from S107 family and a V kappa 8-derived VL. The binding specificity of the monoclonal antibody was tested with various recombinant constructions derived from protein A. We show that, unlike human VH3-derived antibody, mouse S107-derived immunoglobulin binds to the B domain of the bacterial superantigen. PMID:9301540

  19. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation.

  20. Sialic acid-dependent recognition of laminin and fibrinogen by Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchara, J P; Sanchez, M; Chevailler, A; Marot-Leblond, A; Lissitzky, J C; Tronchin, G; Chabasse, D

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt to define the molecular basis of the adherence of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to the host tissues, a step which might be mediated by the recognition of basement membrane laminin or fibrinogen, we analyzed the binding of these glycoproteins by flow cytometry and a microtiter plate adherence assay. Flow cytometry revealed that the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled laminin to conidia was saturable and specific. Moreover, the ability of conidia to bind laminin increased with their maturation. Competition experiments showed a cross-reactivity between laminin and fibrinogen binding and a lack of interactions with glycosaminoglycans. In addition, the binding of laminin was not inhibited by the different adhesive synthetic peptides tested. Furthermore, the microtiter plate assay of adherence to chymotrypsin degradation products of laminin or fibrinogen purified by gel filtration suggested a unique binding site common to sequential degradation fragments or the presence of multiple binding sites on the two ligands. Therefore, the role of carbohydrates in the recognition process was investigated. Among the carbohydrates tested, constitutive of the conidial wall or of the oligosaccharide side chains of laminin and fibrinogen, only N-acetylneuraminic acid and sialyllactose inhibited the binding of these glycoproteins to conidia. In conclusion, these results strengthen the idea that the laminin and fibrinogen receptors in A. fumigatus are identical and suggest an interaction mediated by a sialic acid-specific lectin of the conidial wall. PMID:9199441

  1. Effect of laminin-binding BDNF on induction of recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration by miR-222 activation of mTOR signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Jin, Bin; Li, Da-Wei; Shen, Bin; Gong, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Dong, Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a common severe complication in neck surgery, which can cause varying degrees of vocal fold paralysis and respiratory tract problems. In present study, the effects of laminin-binding brain derived neurotrophic factor (LBD-BDNF) on recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration were explored and its possible mechanism was investigated. Methods: LBD-BDNF or NAT-BDNF (BDNF without LBD binding) treatment was performed in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits for sixteen weeks. The laryngeal nerve was removed, and histological examination as well as laryngeal electromyography was employed to evaluate its morphology and function of conduction. PC12 cells were cultured to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of LBD-BDNF. Neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration were determined in nerve cells. The expression of miRNAs and protein of mTOR was quantified by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. Results: In vivo experiments, LBD-BDNF significantly improved the histological structure and function of recurrent laryngeal nerve compared with NAT-BDNF. LBD-BDNF also markedly promoted neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration in PC12 cells in vitro experiments. The levels of miR-222 and p-mTOR were up-regulated by LBD-BDNF treatment in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. miR-222 inhibitor attenuated the expression of phosphorylated mTOR and miR-222 mimic enhanced its expression in PC12 cells. In addition, the improved nerve conduction by LBD-BDNF was canceled by miR-222 inhibitor, and the mTOR inhibitor reversed the effects of miR-222 inhibitor on LBD-BDNF treated cells. Conclusions: The present study revealed that LBD-BDNF promoted the recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits. The underlying mechanism was closely related to activation of p-mTOR by miR-222. PMID:26279751

  2. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina. PMID:3902534

  3. Keratinocyte-derived Laminin-332 Protein Promotes Melanin Synthesis via Regulation of Tyrosine Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake. PMID:24951591

  4. Constitutive activity in gonadotropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Reiter, Eric; Bousfield, George; Dias, James A; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2014-01-01

    Constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of gonadotropin receptors are, in general, rare conditions. Luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) CAMs provoke the dramatic phenotype of familial gonadotropin-independent isosexual male-limited precocious puberty, whereas in females, there is not yet any identified phenotype. Only one isolated follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) CAM (Asp567Gly) has so far been detected in a single male patient, besides other FSHR weak CAMs linked to pregnancy-associated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or to impaired desensitization and internalization. Several animal models have been developed for studying enhanced gonadotropin action; in addition to unraveling valuable new information about the possible phenotypes of isolated FSHR and LHCGR CAMs in women, the information obtained from these mouse models has served multiple translational goals, including the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic targets as well as the prediction of phenotypes for mutations not yet identified in humans. Mutagenesis and computational studies have shed important information on the physiopathogenic mechanisms leading to constitutive activity of gonadotropin receptors; a common feature in these receptor CAMs is the release of stabilizing interhelical interactions between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 3 and 6 leading to an increase, with respect to the wild-type receptor, in the solvent accessibility at the cytosolic extension of TMDs 3, 5, and 6, which involves the highly conserved Glu/Asp-Arg-Tyr/Trp sequence. In this chapter, we summarize the structural features, functional consequences, and mechanisms that lead to constitutive activation of gonadotropin receptor CAMs and provide information on pharmacological approaches that might potentially modulate gonadotropin receptor CAM function. PMID:24931192

  5. Laminin-based Nanomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Rebekah Anne

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing motor and sensory deficits distal to the site of injury. One option for surgical repair is the nerve conduit. Conduits currently on the market are hollow tubes into which the nerve ends are sutured. Although these conduits fill the gap, they often fail due to the slow rate of regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased speed of regeneration and greater potential for functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this dissertation, I fabricated laminin-1 and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers that mimic the geometry and functionality of the peripheral nerve basement membrane. These fibers resist hydration in aqueous media and require no harsh chemical crosslinkers. Adhesion and differentiation of both neuron-like and neuroprogenitor cells is improved on laminin nanofibrous meshes over two-dimensional laminin substrates. Blend meshes with varying laminin content were characterized for composition, tensile properties, degradation rates, and bioactivity in terms of cell attachment and axonal elongation. I have established that 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain the significant neurite-promoting effects of laminin critical in peripheral nerve repair. In addition, I utilized modified collector plate design to manipulate electric field gradients during electrospinning for the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. These aligned substrates provide enhanced directional guidance cues to the regenerating axons. Finally, I replicated the clinical problem of peripheral nerve transection using a rat tibial nerve defect model for conduit implantation. When the lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment, I observed significant recovery of sensory and motor function over six weeks. This recovery was supported by nerve conduction studies and electromyography which described impulse transmission, muscle stimulation, and foot twitch through the region of regeneration. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of natural-synthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits. The similarity in surgical technique and obvious benefit to the patient should lead to rapid translation into clinical application.

  6. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion from tumor-associated macrophage-like cells by proteolytically processed laminin-332 (laminin-5).

    PubMed

    Kamoshida, Go; Ogawa, Takashi; Oyanagi, Jun; Sato, Hiroki; Komiya, Eriko; Higashi, Shouichi; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Tsuji, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages infiltrating tumor tissues (tumor-associated macrophages, TAM) affect the malignant behaviors of tumor cells. We previously reported that monocytes were differentiated into TAM-like cells secreting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by co-culture with tumor cells, and that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins played a critical role in the differentiation. In this study, we found that the monocyte differentiation was promoted by laminin-332 (laminin-5), a major epithelial ECM component. We also demonstrated that the proteolytic processing of the ?2 chain of laminin-332 was essential for its activity but that the N-terminal short arm of the ?2 chain inhibited MMP-9 secretion. These results indicate that the activity of laminin-332 for monocyte differentiation is dynamically regulated by the proteolytic processing of the ?2 chain. PMID:24292405

  7. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 ; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 ; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  8. Laminin 332 Expression in Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Young; Chae, Seoung W.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Arain, Ahmad; Carpenter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive. PMID:22427740

  9. Alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and newly deposited laminin-1 and laminin-5 form the adhesion mechanism of gastric carcinoma. Continuous expression of laminins but not that of collagen VII is preserved in invasive parts of the carcinomas: implications for acquisition of the invading phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, T.; Karttunen, T.; Kiviluoto, T.; Kivilaakso, E.; Burgeson, R. E.; Sipponen, P.; Virtanen, I.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the expression and distribution of different laminin chains, the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and type VII collagen, i.e., components of the epithelial adhesion complex, in gastric carcinomas and in suggested preneoplastic stages of this malignancy. Intestinal-type gastric carcinomas showed strong reactivity for laminin alpha 1, alpha 3, beta 1, and beta 3 chains, the components of laminin-1 and -5, at the interface between malignant cells and tumor stroma. The reactivities were continuous throughout the carcinomas, even in structures invading through the smooth muscle layers of the gastric wall. The expression of different laminin chains was accompanied by strong polarized reactivity for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, which is a receptor for both laminin-1 and laminin-5. Collagen type VII was only occasionally present at sites showing reactivity for laminin-5 and was totally absent from the cell islands invading through the gastric wall. Intestinalized gastric epithelium showed a similar expression pattern of laminins and the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin as the gastric carcinomas. Our results suggest that gastric carcinomas use the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and newly deposited laminin-1 and -5, accompanied by the disappearance of type VII collagen, as their mechanism of adhesion during the invasion through surrounding tissues. Unlike in previous studies, the reactivity for the laminin-5 protein was not restricted to the invading cells but surrounded the malignant glandular structures throughout the tumor. Our results also show that both intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, and intestinal metaplasia mimic the gastric surface epithelium in the expression pattern of laminins and the beta 4 integrin subunit. This supports previous studies proposing a pathogenetic sequence from intestinal metaplasia to gastric carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8780383

  10. Laminins: Roles and Utility in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Valentina; Troughton, Lee D.; Hamill, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Laminins are complex extracellular macromolecules that are major players in the control of a variety of core cell processes, including regulating rates of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Laminins, and related extracellular matrix components, have essential roles in tissue homeostasis; however, during wound healing, the same proteins are critical players in re-epithelialization and angiogenesis. Understanding how these proteins influence cell behavior in these different conditions holds great potential in identifying new strategies to enhance normal wound closure or to treat chronic/nonhealing wounds. Recent Advances: Laminin-derived bioactive peptides and, more recently, laminin-peptide conjugated scaffolds, have been designed to improve tissue regeneration after injuries. These peptides have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and granulation tissue, and in promoting re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Critical Issues: Although there is now a wealth of knowledge concerning laminin form and function, there are still areas of some controversy. These include the relative contribution of two laminin-based adhesive devices (focal contacts and hemidesmosomes) to the re-epithelialization process, the impact and implications of laminin proteolytic processing, and the importance of laminin polymer formation on cell behavior. In addition, the roles in wound healing of the laminin-related proteins, netrins, and LaNts are still to be fully defined. Future Directions: The future of laminin-based therapeutics potentially lies in the bioengineering of specific substrates to support laminin deposition for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells for graft formation and transplantation. Significant recent advances suggest that this goal is within sight. PMID:25945287

  11. A Review on the Potential Role of Basement Membrane Laminin in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reviewed alterations to basement membrane laminin in psoriasis and how disruption of this layer could lead to at least some of the pathological changes observed. We here postulate that basement membrane laminin is the key antigen in driving psoriasis, inducing a T cell-mediated autoimmune response. For laminin to be considered as the key autoantigen in psoriasis, it would be reasonable to expect the following to be demonstrable: (1) that autoantigens are present in psoriatic inflammation; (2) that basement membrane laminin is perturbed in involved and uninvolved skin, and that some of the pathological changes associated with psoriasis could be predicted as a sequel to this; (3) that disruption of the basement membrane is among the earliest events in the evolution of psoriatic lesions; (4) that as streptococcal pharyngitis is the most clearly defined event to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, then a T cell-mediated autoimmune response to laminin should be anticipated as a potential sequelae to streptococcal pharyngitis; (5) that T cells in psoriasis can be shown to react to peptides with homology to laminin; (6) that HLACw6, as the most closely related gene associated with psoriasis and which is involved in antigen expression, should be preferentially expressedwithin lesional psoriasis towards the basement membrane, together with other proximal associated immune activity; and (7) that there is some association between antilaminin pemphigoid, a humorally mediated autoimmune disease to skin basement membrane laminin, and psoriasis.We here review the data relevant to each of these requirements. PMID:26346598

  12. Effect of laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine peptide on the growth of human prostate cancer (PC-3) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-ning; Zhang, Lan-cui; Yang, Jun-guo; Das, Undurti N; Shen, Sheng-rong

    2009-08-15

    The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of beta1 chain, is known to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. In the present study, we observed that YIGSR not only inhibited the growth and migration of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but also decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited ATP synthesis and increased caspase-9 activity. Investigation into the interaction of YIGSR with 67LR, the receptor for laminin and polyphenol (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) employing MVD (Molegro Virtual Docker, an integrated platform for predicting protein ligand interactions), revealed that the binding site of YIGSR was the same as that of EGCG that explains as to why YIGSR is able to inhibit the cytotoxicity of EGCG against PC-3 cells. PMID:19577562

  13. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  14. Identification of endothelial cell binding sites on the laminin gamma 1 chain.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M L; Nomizu, M; Delgado, M C; Kuratomi, Y; Hoffman, M P; Powell, S; Yamada, Y; Kleinman, H K; Malinda, K M

    1999-04-01

    The laminins belong to a family of trimeric basement membrane glycoproteins with multiple domains, structures, and functions. Endothelial cells bind laminin-1 and form capillary-like structures when plated on a laminin-1-rich basement membrane matrix, Matrigel. Laminin-1 is composed of 3 chains, alpha1, beta1, and gamma1. Because laminin-1 is known to contain multiple biologically active sites, we have screened 156 synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire laminin gamma1 chain for potential angiogenic sequences. Only 7 of these peptides, designated as C16, C25, C30, C38, C64, C75, and C102, disrupted the formation of capillary-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells on Matrigel. Dose-response experiments in the presence of 50 to 200 microg/mL showed that tube formation was prevented by most peptides at 150 and 200 microg/mL, except for C16, which showed strong activity at all concentrations. Active peptides promoted vessel sprouting from aorta rings and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, the active peptides also promoted endothelial cell adhesion to dishes coated with 0.1 microg of peptide and inhibited attachment to laminin-1 but not to plastic or fibronectin. Four of the active peptides, C25, C38, C75, and C102, may have cell-type specificity with endothelial cells, since they did not promote PC12 neurite outgrowth or adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma and human submandibular gland cells. These results suggest that specific laminin gamma1-chain peptides have angiogenic activity with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:10189356

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is involved in A549 cell migration on laminin-10/11.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Nishiuchi, R; Sekiguchi, K

    2002-08-01

    We have reported that laminin-10/11 strongly promotes migration of A549 human lung carcinoma cells by activating the alpha3beta1 integrin-dependent signaling pathway. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we investigated whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in cell migration on laminin-10/11. Here, we demonstrate that laminin-10/11, but not fibronectin which does not greatly promote A549 cell movement, stimulated MMP-2 secretion approximately 3-fold. The cell migration-promoting activity of laminin-10/11 was down-regulated by an MMP inhibitor. In addition, cell motility was significantly increased when cells adhered to a mixture of fibronectin and laminin-10/11 with a concomitant decrease of focal contacts, compared with those adhering to fibronectin alone. The enhanced cell migration was partially suppressed by the MMP inhibitor. Furthermore, an anti-alpha3 integrin, but not an anti-alpha5 integrin, antibody induced the activated form of MMP-2. These data suggest that MMP-2 may play an important role in A549 cell migration on laminin-10/11 through an alpha3beta1 integrin-dependent pathway. PMID:12147229

  16. Rethinking Molecular Mimicry in Rheumatic Heart Disease and Autoimmune Myocarditis: Laminin, Collagen IV, CAR, and B1AR as Initial Targets of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Molecular mimicry theory (MMT) suggests that epitope mimicry between pathogens and human proteins can activate autoimmune disease. Group A streptococci (GAS) mimics human cardiac myosin in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and coxsackie viruses (CX) mimic actin in autoimmune myocarditis (AM). But myosin and actin are immunologically inaccessible and unlikely initial targets. Extracellular cardiac proteins that mimic GAS and CX would be more likely. Objectives: To determine whether extracellular cardiac proteins such as coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), beta 1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR), CD55/DAF, laminin, and collagen IV mimic GAS, CX, and/or cardiac myosin or actin. Methods: BLAST 2.0 and LALIGN searches of the UniProt protein database were employed to identify potential molecular mimics. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure antibody cross-reactivity. Measurements: Similarities were considered to be significant if a sequence contained at least 5 identical amino acids in 10. Antibodies were considered to be cross-reactive if the binding constant had a Kd less than 10-9 M. Main results: Group A streptococci mimics laminin, CAR, and myosin. CX mimics actin and collagen IV and B1AR. The similarity search results are mirrored by antibody cross-reactivities. Additionally, antibodies against laminin recognize antibodies against collagen IV; antibodies against actin recognize antibodies against myosin, and antibodies against GAS recognize antibodies against CX. Thus, there is both mimicry of extracellular proteins and antigenic complementarity between GAS-CX in RHD/AM. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease/AM may be due to combined infections of GAS with CX localized at cardiomyocytes that may produce a synergistic, hyperinflammatory response that cross-reacts with laminin, collagen IV, CAR, and/or B1AR. Epitope drift shifts the immune response to myosin and actin after cardiomyocytes become damaged. PMID:25191648

  17. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  18. Cryptic fragment alpha4 LG4-5 derived from laminin alpha4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hironobu; Goto, Chie; Tajima, Rie; Koparal, Ayse Tansu; Kobori, Masato; Ohki, Yuji; Shitara, Kenya; Narita, Ryo; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Torii, Shuhei; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Yasuo

    2008-02-01

    Cleavage of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolysis unmasks cryptic sites and generates novel fragments with biological activities functionally distinct from those of the intact ECM molecule. The laminin G-like (LG)4-5 fragment has been shown to be excised from the laminin alpha4 chain in various tissues. However, the functional role of this fragment has remained unknown to date. To investigate this, we prepared alpha4 LG1-3 and alpha4 LG4-5 fragments by elastase digestion of recombinant alpha4 LG1-5, and examined their effects on de novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane extract (Matrigel) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Although the addition of whole alpha4 LG1-5 suppressed adipogenesis to some extent, the alpha4 LG4-5 fragment could strongly suppress adipogenesis at a concentration of less than 20 nm. Addition of the alpha4 LG4 module, which contains a heparin-binding region, had a suppressive effect, but this was lost in mutants with reduced heparin-binding activity. In addition, antibodies against the extracellular domain of syndecan-2 and -4, which are known receptors for the alpha4 LG4 module, suppressed adipogenesis. Thus, these results suggest that the cryptic alpha4 LG4-5 fragment derived from the laminin alpha4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of FGF-2 through syndecans. PMID:18067585

  19. Glomerular laminin isoform transitions: errors in metanephric culture are corrected by grafting.

    PubMed

    St John, P L; Wang, R; Yin, Y; Miner, J H; Robert, B; Abrahamson, D R

    2001-04-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly and maturation are marked by the replacement of laminin-1 (containing alpha 1-, beta 1-, and gamma 1-chains) with laminin-11 (consisting of alpha 5-, beta 2-, and gamma 1-chains). Similarly, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-chains of type IV collagen are replaced by collagen alpha 3-, alpha 4-, and alpha 5(IV)-chains. The cellular origins of these molecules and mechanisms for isoform removal and substitution are unknown. To explore glomerular laminin isoform transitions in vitro, we assessed metanephric organ cultures. Standard culture conditions do not support endothelial cell differentiation, and glomerular structures that form in vitro are avascular. Nevertheless, extensive podocyte development occurs in these cultures, including the formation of foot processes and assembly of a GBM-like matrix. Here, we show that the podocyte-specific markers, glomerular epithelial protein 1 and nephrin, which are normally expressed in capillary loop stage glomeruli in vivo, are also expressed by glomerular figures that form in organ culture. However, the GBM-like segments that form in vitro do not undergo normal laminin isoform switching. Instead, both laminin alpha 1- and alpha 5-chains are present, as is the beta 1-chain, but not beta 2. When avascular organ-cultured kidneys are grafted into anterior eye chambers, however, kidney-derived angioblasts establish extensive vasculature by 6 days, and glomeruli are lined by endothelial cells. We evaluated embryonic day 12 (E12) vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk1)-lacZ kidneys that had first been grown in organ culture for 6--7 days and then grafted into wild-type mice. Correct laminin isoform substitution occurred and correlated with the appearance of endothelial cells expressing Flk1. Our findings indicate that endothelial cells, and/or factors present in the circulation, mediate normal GBM laminin isoform transitions in vivo. PMID:11249861

  20. Transglutaminase-mediated oligomerization of galectin-3 modulates human melanoma cell interactions with laminin.

    PubMed

    van den Brle, F A; Liu, F T; Castronovo, V

    1998-09-01

    Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N-acetyllactosamine residues of laminin and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. Galectin-3 is multimerized by transglutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes cross-linking between glutamine and other aminoacid residues. In this study, we examined the consequences of transglutaminase-mediated galectin-3 oligomerization on the interactions between cancer cells and laminin. We first demonstrated that human galectin-3 is cross-linked by guinea pig liver transglutaminase, forms oligomers, and incorporates the marker 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine. Expression of transglutaminase activity in the A375 and A2058 human melanoma cell extracts was revealed by its ability to induce galectin-3 oligomerization and 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine incorporation. Transglutaminase-treated galectin-3 did not affect adhesion or migration of the melanoma cells to laminin but consistently induced a significant increase of the percentage of cell spreading compared to the control (23.5 +/- 2.3%, vs. 10.6 +/- 1.9% at 180 min, p < 0.05), or to untreated galectin-3 or transglutaminase alone. Our study is the first demonstration that human galectin-3 is oligomerized by transglutaminase with, as a consequence, a specific effect of melanoma cell spreading on laminin. This phenomenon could be of significance in the modulation of cancer cell interactions with laminin during tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:9791724

  1. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  2. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  3. Signal transduction activated by cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Daz-Laviada, Ins; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia

    2005-07-01

    Since the discovery that cannabinoids exert biological actions through binding to specific receptors, signal mechanisms triggered by these receptors have been focus of extensive study. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signalling events produced by cannabinoids from membrane receptors to downstream regulators. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date: CB(1) and CB(2) both belonging to the heptahelichoidal receptor family but with different tissue distribution and signalling mechanisms. Coupling to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and thus inhibition of adenylyl cyclase has been observed in both receptors but other signal transduction pathways that are regulated or not by these G proteins are differently activated upon ligand-receptor binding including ion channels, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation, phospholipases activation and downstream targets as MAP kinase cascade, PI3K, FAK or NOS regulation. Cannabinoids may also act independently of CB(1)or CB(2) receptors. The existence of new unidentified putative cannabinoid receptors has been claimed by many investigators. Endocannabinoids activate vanilloid TRPV1 receptors that may mediate some of the cannabinoid effects. Other actions of cannabinoids can occur through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16026308

  4. Hyperimmune human ABO blood-typing sera: reactivity with murine laminin and cytotoxicity for metastatic murine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J P; Schrier, D; Lovett, E J; Judd, W J; Varani, J

    1983-01-01

    Commercially prepared ABO blood-typing antisera have been tested for their ability to bind to murine laminin and their cytotoxic effects upon high and low metastatic variants of a murine fibrosarcoma. Previous studies have shown that alpha-D-galactopyranosyl end-groups comprise the major antigenic determinants on type B erythrocytes and that these same end-groups are present on murine laminin purified from the EHS sarcoma and on a laminin-like glycoprotein on the surface of the high, but not low, metastatic fibrosarcoma cells. In the present study we found that all sera containing anti-B activity were cytotoxic to the high, but not the low, metastatic cells and that all of these sera reacted strongly against immobilized murine laminin in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera lacking anti-B activity, i.e. anti-A antisera, were much less cytotoxic to either cell line and three of the four anti-A sera did not bind to murine laminin. The laminin reactivity and cytotoxic effect of the anti-B sera were specifically abrogated by preincubation of the sera with water-soluble blood group B substance or with murine laminin but not with water-soluble blood group A substance. PMID:6863409

  5. Antibodies to laminin in Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We have found that sera from humans with Chagas' disease and Rhesus monkeys infected with Trypanosoma cruzi contain IgM and IgG antibodies, which react with structures in a variety of connective tissues. These antibodies react with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components like collagen types I, III, IV, and V, fibronectin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, or chondronectin. The tissue-reacting antibodies were isolated by absorption to a laminin- Sepharose column. The bound fraction contained all the tissue-reacting antibodies. These antibodies strongly stained trypomastigotes and amastigotes, but weakly stained epimastigotes. These studies show that sera from T. cruzi-infected primates contain antilaminin antibodies, which may be produced by those host in response to a laminin-like molecule present in the parasite. PMID:6801186

  6. Alignment and composition of lamininpolycaprolactone nanofiber blends enhance peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Tholpady, Sunil S.; Foley, Patricia L.; Swami, Nathan; Ogle, Roy C.; Botchwey, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing deficits distal to the injury site. Conduits for repair currently on the market are hollow tubes; however, they often fail due to slow regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased regeneration speed and functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in regeneration. To that end, laminin and lamininpolycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers were fabricated to mimic peripheral nerve basement membrane. In vitro assays established 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain neurite-promoting effects of laminin. In addition, modified collector plate design to introduce an insulating gap enabled the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. The effects of laminin content and fiber orientation were evaluated in rat tibial nerve defect model. The lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment to assess changes in motor and sensory recovery. Retrograde nerve conduction speed at 6 weeks was significantly faster in animals receiving aligned nanofiber conduits than in those receiving random nanofiber conduits. Animals receiving nanofiber-filled conduits showed some conduction in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas in animals receiving hollow conduits, no impulse conduction was detected. Aligned PCL nanofibers significantly improved motor function; aligned laminin blend nanofibers yielded the best sensory function recovery. In both cases, nanofiber-filled conduits resulted in better functional recovery than hollow conduits. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of naturalsynthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits. PMID:22106069

  7. Deletion of integrin ?7 subunit does not aggravate the phenotype of laminin ?2 chain-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, Kinga I.; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Laminin-211 is a major constituent of the skeletal muscle basement membrane, exerting its biological functions by binding to cell surface receptors integrin ?7?1 and dystroglycan (the latter is part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex). The importance of these molecules for normal muscle function is underscored by the fact that their respective deficiency leads to different forms of muscular dystrophy with different severity in humans and animal models. We recently demonstrated that laminin ?2 chain and members of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex have overlapping but non-redundant roles despite being part of the same adhesion complex. To analyse whether laminin-211 and integrin ?7 subunit have non-redundant functions we generated mice deficient in laminin ?2 chain and integrin ?7 subunit (dy3K/itga7). We show that lack of both molecules did not exacerbate the severe phenotype of laminin ?2-chain deficient animals. They displayed the same weight, survival and dystrophic pattern of muscle biopsy, with similar degree of inflammation and fibrosis. These data suggest that laminin-211 and integrin ?7?1 have intersecting roles in skeletal muscle. PMID:26355035

  8. Laminin alpha5 is essential for the formation of the zebrafish fins.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ashley E; Sanderford, Justyn; Frank, Diane; Talbot, William S; Driever, Wolfgang; Kimelman, David

    2007-11-15

    The vertebrate fin fold, the presumptive evolutionary antecedent of the paired fins, consists of two layers of epidermal cells extending dorsally and ventrally over the trunk and tail of the embryo, facilitating swimming during the embryonic and larval stages. Development of the fin fold requires dramatic changes in cell shape and adhesion during early development, but the proteins involved in this process are completely unknown. In a screen of mutants defective in fin fold morphogenesis, we identified a mutant with a severe fin fold defect, which also displays malformed pectoral fins. We find that the cause of the defect is a non-sense mutation in the zebrafish lama5 gene that truncates laminin alpha5 before the C-terminal laminin LG domains, thereby preventing laminin alpha5 from interacting with its cell surface receptors. Laminin is mislocalized in this mutant, as are the membrane-associated proteins, actin and beta-catenin, that normally form foci within the fin fold. Ultrastructural analysis revealed severe morphological abnormalities and defects in cell-cell adhesion within the epidermis of the developing fin fold at 36 hpf, resulting in an epidermal sheet that can not extend away from the body. Examining the pectoral fins, we find that the lama5 mutant is the first zebrafish mutant identified in which the pectoral fins fail to make the transition from an apical epidermal ridge to an apical fold, a transformation that is essential for pectoral fin morphogenesis. We propose that laminin alpha5, which is concentrated at the distal ends of the fins, organizes the distal cells of the fin fold and pectoral fins in order to promote the morphogenesis of the epidermis. The lama5 mutant provides novel insight into the role of laminins in the zebrafish epidermis, and the molecular mechanisms driving fin formation in vertebrates. PMID:17919534

  9. Avian NK activities, cells and receptors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally L; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W; Kaufman, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) activity has been examined in birds for over 30 years, but evidence that avian NK activity plays crucial roles in disease is only suggestive. In chickens, NK activity is mediated by TCR0 cells in the intestinal epithelium, but elsewhere subsets of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells (NKT cells) may be more important. There are few lectin-like NK receptor genes, located in the genomic region syntenic with the natural killer complex (NKC) as well as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast, a huge number of Ig-like receptor genes are located in a region syntenic with the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). PMID:18948017

  10. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair. PMID:24722588

  11. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  12. Glycine-dependent activation of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kirstie A; Popescu, Gabriela K

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the only neurotransmitter receptors whose activation requires two distinct agonists. Heterotetramers of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, NMDA receptors are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they mediate excitatory currents in response to synaptic glutamate release. Pore opening depends on the concurrent presence of glycine, which modulates the amplitude and time course of the glutamate-elicited response. Gating schemes for fully glutamate- and glycine-bound NMDA receptors have been described in sufficient detail to bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic receptor behaviors; for several receptor isoforms, these schemes include glutamate-binding steps. We examined currents recorded from cell-attached patches containing one GluN1/GluN2A receptor in the presence of several glycine-site agonists and used kinetic modeling of these data to develop reaction schemes that include explicit glycine-binding steps. Based on the ability to match a series of experimentally observed macroscopic behaviors, we propose a model for activation of the glutamate-bound NMDA receptor by glycine that predicts apparent negative agonist cooperativity and glycine-dependent desensitization in the absence of changes in microscopic binding or desensitization rate constants. These results complete the basic steps of an NMDA receptor reaction scheme for the GluN1/GluN2A isoform and prompt a reevaluation of how glycine controls NMDA receptor activation. We anticipate that our model will provide a useful quantitative instrument to further probe mechanisms and structure-function relationships of NMDA receptors and to better understand the physiological and pathological implications of endogenous fluctuations in extracellular glycine concentrations. PMID:25964432

  13. Glycine-dependent activation of NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kirstie A.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the only neurotransmitter receptors whose activation requires two distinct agonists. Heterotetramers of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, NMDA receptors are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they mediate excitatory currents in response to synaptic glutamate release. Pore opening depends on the concurrent presence of glycine, which modulates the amplitude and time course of the glutamate-elicited response. Gating schemes for fully glutamate- and glycine-bound NMDA receptors have been described in sufficient detail to bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic receptor behaviors; for several receptor isoforms, these schemes include glutamate-binding steps. We examined currents recorded from cell-attached patches containing one GluN1/GluN2A receptor in the presence of several glycine-site agonists and used kinetic modeling of these data to develop reaction schemes that include explicit glycine-binding steps. Based on the ability to match a series of experimentally observed macroscopic behaviors, we propose a model for activation of the glutamate-bound NMDA receptor by glycine that predicts apparent negative agonist cooperativity and glycine-dependent desensitization in the absence of changes in microscopic binding or desensitization rate constants. These results complete the basic steps of an NMDA receptor reaction scheme for the GluN1/GluN2A isoform and prompt a reevaluation of how glycine controls NMDA receptor activation. We anticipate that our model will provide a useful quantitative instrument to further probe mechanisms and structurefunction relationships of NMDA receptors and to better understand the physiological and pathological implications of endogenous fluctuations in extracellular glycine concentrations. PMID:25964432

  14. Midkine binds to 37-kDa laminin binding protein precursor, leading to nuclear transport of the complex.

    PubMed

    Salama, R H; Muramatsu, H; Zou, K; Inui, T; Kimura, T; Muramatsu, T

    2001-10-15

    Midkine (MK) is a heparin binding multifunctional protein that promotes cell survival and cell migration. MK was found to bind to 37-kDa laminin binding protein precursor (LBP), a precursor of 67-kDa laminin receptor, with K(d) of 1.1 nM between MK and LBP-glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein. The binding was inhibited by laminin, anti-LBP, amyloid beta-peptide, and heparin; the latter two are known to bind to MK. In CMT-93 mouse rectal carcinoma cells, LBP was mostly located in the cytoplasm as revealed by immunostaining with anti-LBP antibody. That a portion of LBP or 67-kDa laminin receptor was located at the surface of these cells was verified by inhibition of cell attachment to laminin-coated dishes by anti-LBP antibody. When MK was added to culture medium of these cells, a part of LBP migrated to the nucleus. The movement occurred concomitantly with nuclear transport of biotin-labeled MK. These findings suggested that the binding of MK to LBP caused nuclear translocation of the molecular complex. PMID:11597123

  15. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Imran; Houck, Keith; Judson, Richard S.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Martin, Matthew T.; Reif, David M.; Wambaugh, John; Dix, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic analysis of new in vitro human NR activity data on 309 environmental chemicals in relationship to their liver cancer-related chronic outcomes in rodents. Results The effects of 309 environmental chemicals on human constitutive androstane receptors (CAR/NR1I3), pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR/NR1C), liver X receptors (LXR/NR1H), retinoic X receptors (RXR/NR2B) and steroid receptors (SR/NR3) were determined using in vitro data. Hepatic histopathology, observed in rodents after two years of chronic treatment for 171 of the 309 chemicals, was summarized by a cancer lesion progression grade. Chemicals that caused proliferative liver lesions in both rat and mouse were generally more active for the human receptors, relative to the compounds that only affected one rodent species, and these changes were significant for PPAR (p0.001), PXR (p0.01) and CAR (p0.05). Though most chemicals exhibited receptor promiscuity, multivariate analysis clustered them into relatively few NR activity combinations. The human NR activity pattern of chemicals weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer lesion progression (p0.05). Conclusions The rodent carcinogens had higher in vitro potency for human NR relative to non-carcinogens. Structurally diverse chemicals with similar NR promiscuity patterns weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer progression. While these results do not prove the role of NR activation in human liver cancer, they do have implications for nuclear receptor chemical biology and provide insights into putative toxicity pathways. More importantly, these findings suggest the utility of in vitro assays for stratifying environmental contaminants based on a combination of human bioactivity and rodent toxicity. PMID:21339822

  16. Peroxynitrous acid induces structural and functional modifications to basement membranes and its key component, laminin.

    PubMed

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y; Hammer, Astrid; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Laminin, the most abundant BM glycoprotein, is a structural and biologically active component. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo at sites of inflammation from superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Considerable data supports ONOOH formation in human atherosclerotic lesions, and an involvement of this oxidant in atherosclerosis development and lesion rupture. These effects may be mediated, at least in part, via extracellular matrix damage. In this study we demonstrate co-localization of 3-nitrotyrosine (a product of tyrosine damage by ONOOH) and laminin in human atherosclerotic lesions. ONOOH-induced damage to BM was characterized for isolated murine BM, and purified murine laminin-111. Exposure of laminin-111 to ONOOH resulted in dose-dependent loss of protein tyrosine and tryptophan residues, and formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, 6-nitrotryptophan and the cross-linked material di-tyrosine, as detected by amino acid analysis and Western blotting. These changes were accompanied by protein aggregation and fragmentation as detected by SDS-PAGE. Endothelial cell adhesion to isolated laminin-111 exposed to 10?M or higher levels of ONOOH was significantly decreased (~25%) compared to untreated controls. These data indicate that laminin is oxidized by equimolar or greater concentrations of ONOOH, with this resulting in structural and functional changes. These modifications, and resulting compromised cell-matrix interactions, may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction, a weakening of the structure of atherosclerotic lesions, and an increased propensity to rupture. PMID:26453917

  17. Coffee contains potent opiate receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Boublik, J H; Quinn, M J; Clements, J A; Herington, A C; Wynne, K N; Funder, J W

    1983-01-20

    Opiate receptor-active peptide fragments (exorphins) have been identified recently in casein and gluten hydrolysates, and morphine has been found in bovine and human milk. To determine whether similar peptides or alkaloids occur in other foodstuffs, we have screened potential sources using a rat brain homogenate assay to detect opiate receptor activity. We report here that instant coffee powders from a variety of manufacturers compete with tritiated naloxone for binding to opiate receptors in the rat brain membrane preparations, with no significant difference between normal and decaffeinated coffee. The receptor binding activity resembles that seen with opiate antagonists, in that there was no change in the half-maximal effective dose (ED50) in the presence of 100 mM Na+; on bioassay, the activity was similarly shown to be antagonistic and specific for opiate-induced inhibition of twitch. Preliminary characterization of the activity reveals that it has a molecular weight (MW) in the range 1,000-3,500, is heat-stable, ether-extractable, not modified by enzymatic digestion with papain, and clearly separable from caffeine and morphine on TLC. As its concentration in an average cup of coffee is five times the ED50, these data suggest that drinking coffee may be followed by effects mediated via opiate receptors, as well as effects of caffeine. PMID:6296693

  18. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  19. NMDA Receptor Activity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Caro, Mario; Hadzimichalis, Norell

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntingtons disease, Alzheimers disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms. PMID:23772215

  20. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise.

  1. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  2. Nuclear estrogen receptors co-activation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Kapka-Skrzypczak, L; Cyranka, M; Treeck, O; Wrobel, A; Matosiuk, D

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens play very important role in opening the transcription event, which is a final step of activation of the first order mediators as receptors or channels in the cell wall by information coming from the outside of the cell. For the long time the exact step by step mechanism of cellular transfer of information to the cell nuclei was not known. Currently many new informations are available. Very important seems the step of phosphorylation and therefore desensitization of the target proteins. All peptide kinases, especially serine and threonine, like protein kinases A and C, RAS and MAP kinases, cycline kinases are potential or confirmed biological targets. Except them elements of the transcription complexes like p160.SRC-1, histon acetyltransferase and histon deacetylase, CBP/p300, TRAP/DRIP, NSD1, PPAR?/PGC-1, NCOR1, SMRT, REA were also found useful. Finally estrogens are able to activate other receptors, namely aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) and estrogen receptor related proteins (ERR). It is well known that many types of cancer are related to the direct or indirect excessive activation of nuclear estrogen receptors, therefore their inhibition could be crucial in many estrogen-related cancers. Understanding the interactions in such complexes would help in developing new and better multi-target cures and finding new ligands with better pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23651307

  3. The Short Arm of Laminin γ2 Chain of Laminin-5 (Laminin-332) Binds Syndecan-1 and Regulates Cellular Adhesion and Migration by Suppressing Phosphorylation of Integrin β4 Chain

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takashi; Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Hashimoto, Junko; Kariya, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of laminin-5 at the short arm of the γ2 chain (γ2sa) is known to convert this laminin from a cell adhesion type to a motility type. Here, we studied this mechanism by analyzing the functions of γ2sa. In some immortalized or tumorigenic human cell lines, a recombinant γ2sa, in either soluble or insoluble (coated) form, promoted the adhesion of these cells to the processed laminin-5 (Pr-LN5), and it suppressed their migration stimulated by serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF). γ2sa also suppressed EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of integrin β4 and resultant disruption of hemidesmosome-like structures in keratinocytes. γ2sa bound to syndecan-1, and this binding, as well as its cell adhesion activity, was blocked by heparin. By analyzing the activities of three different γ2sa fragments, the active site of γ2sa was localized to the NH2-terminal EGF-like sequence (domain V or LEa). Suppression of syndecan-1 expression by the RNA interference effectively blocked the activities of domain V capable of promoting cell adhesion and inhibiting the integrin β4 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that domain V of the γ2 chain negatively regulates the integrin β4 phosphorylation, probably through a syndecan-1–mediated signaling, leading to enhanced cell adhesion and suppressed cell motility. PMID:17314405

  4. Laminin α1 regulates age-related mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix accumulation through the TGF-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liang; Kurihara, Hidetake; de Vega, Susana; Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Xu, Zhuo; Nonaka, Risa; Kazuno, Saiko; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Miner, Jeffrey H; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2014-06-01

    Laminin α1 (LAMA1), a subunit of the laminin-111 basement membrane component, has been implicated in various biological functions in vivo and in vitro. Although LAMA1 is present in kidney, its roles in the kidney are unknown because of early embryonic lethality. Herein, we used a viable conditional knockout mouse model with a deletion of Lama1 in the epiblast lineage (Lama1(CKO)) to study the role of LAMA1 in kidney development and function. Adult Lama1(CKO) mice developed focal glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria with age. In addition, mesangial cell proliferation was increased, and the mesangial matrix, which normally contains laminin-111, was greatly expanded. In vitro, mesangial cells from Lama1(CKO) mice exhibited significantly increased proliferation compared with those from controls. This increased proliferation was inhibited by the addition of exogenous LAMA1-containing laminin-111, but not by laminin-211 or laminin-511, suggesting a specific role for LAMA1 in regulating mesangial cell behavior. Moreover, the absence of LAMA1 increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation, and inhibitors of TGF-β1 receptor I kinase blocked Smad2 phosphorylation in both control and Lama1(CKO) mesangial cells, indicating that the increased Smad2 phosphorylation occurred in the absence of LAMA1 via the TGF-β1 receptor. These findings suggest that LAMA1 plays a critical role in kidney function and kidney aging by regulating the mesangial cell population and mesangial matrix deposition through TGF-β/Smad signaling. PMID:24720953

  5. Anxiolytic activity of adenosine receptor activation in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, N.; Kemp, N.; Adeyemo, O.; Buchanan, P.; Stone, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    1. Purine analogues have been examined for anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like activity in mice, by use of the elevated plus-maze. 2. The selective A1 receptor agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) had marked anxiolytic-like activity at 10 and 50 microg kg(-1), with no effect on locomotor performance at these doses. 3. The A1 selective adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (CPX) had no significant effect on anxiety-related measures or locomotor behaviour, but blocked the anxiolytic-like activity of CPA. The hydrophilic xanthine, 8-(p-sulphophenyl) theophylline did not prevent anxiolysis by CPA. 4. Caffeine had anxiogenic-like activity at 30 mg kg(-1) which was prevented by CPA at 50 micro kg(-1). 5. The A2 receptor agonist, N6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2(2-methylphenyl)-ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) had no effect on anxiety behaviour but depressed locomotor activity at the highest dose tested of 1 mg kg(-1). The A2 receptor antagonist, 1,3-dimethyl-l-propargylxanthine (DMPX) had no effect on anxiety-related measures or locomotion and did not modify the anxiolytic-like activity of CPA. 6. Administration of DPMA in combination with anxiolytic doses of CPA prevented the anxiolytic-like activity of the latter. 7. The results suggest that the selective activation of central A1 adenosine receptors induces anxiolytic-like behaviour, while the activation of A2 sites causes locomotor depression and reduces the effects of A1 receptor activation. The absence of any effect of CPX alone suggests that the receptors involved in modulating behaviour in the elevated plus-maze in mice are not activated tonically by endogenous adenosine. PMID:8640355

  6. Laminin-Mediated Interactions in Thymocyte Migration and Development.

    PubMed

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Aras; Golbert, Daiane Cristina Ferreira; Riederer, Ingo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Intrathymic T-cell differentiation is a key process for the development and maintenance of cell-mediated immunity, and occurs concomitantly to highly regulated migratory events. We have proposed a multivectorial model for describing intrathymic thymocyte migration. One of the individual vectors comprises interactions mediated by laminins (LMs), a heterotrimeric protein family of the extracellular matrix. Several LMs are expressed in the thymus, being produced by microenvironmental cells, particularly thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Also, thymocytes and epithelial cells express integrin-type LM receptors. Functionally, it has been reported that the dy/dy mutant mouse (lacking the LM isoform 211) exhibits defective thymocyte differentiation. Several data show haptotactic effects of LMs upon thymocytes, as well as their adhesion on TECs; both effects being prevented by anti-LM or anti-LM receptor antibodies. Interestingly, LM synergizes with chemokines to enhance thymocyte migration, whereas classe-3 semaphorins and B ephrins, which exhibit chemorepulsive effects in the thymus, downregulate LM-mediated migratory responses of thymocytes. More recently, we showed that knocking down the ITGA6 gene (which encodes the ?6 integrin chain of LM receptors) in human TECs modulates a large number of cell migration-related genes and results in changes of adhesion pattern of thymocytes onto the thymic epithelium. Overall, LM-mediated interactions can be placed at the cross-road of the multivectorial process of thymocyte migration, with a direct influence per se, as well as by modulating other molecular interactions associated with the intrathymic-trafficking events. PMID:26635793

  7. Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Katsuji; Sukenobu, Naoe; Sasaki, Tomo; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Takeo; Kasai, Ryoji; Yamasaki, Kazuo; Hazeki, Osamu

    2003-09-01

    Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin isolated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), was examined for its biological activities. In rat adipocytes, the compound increased the rate of glucose uptake and decreased the isoproterenol-induced glycerol release. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human insulin receptors, it increased the Erk activity. These insulin-like actions were accompanied by the increased tyrosine-phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptors. Tryptic digestion of the extracellular sites of the insulin receptors markedly increased the effective concentrations of insulin without changing those of lagerstroemin. Thus lagerstroemin was considered to cause its insulin-like actions by a mechanism different from that employed by insulin. PMID:14501154

  8. Beta 8 integrins mediate interactions of chick sensory neurons with laminin-1, collagen IV, and fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Venstrom, K; Reichardt, L

    1995-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors used by cells to interact with extracellular matrices. In this paper, we identify the first ligands for the beta 8 family of integrins, presenting evidence that integrin heterodimers containing the beta 8 subunit mediate interactions of chick sensory neurons with laminin-1, collagen IV, and fibronectin. A polyclonal antibody, anti-beta 8-Ex, was prepared to a bacterial fusion protein expressing an extracellular portion of the chicken beta 8 subunit. In nonreducing conditions, this antibody immunoprecipitated from surface-labeled embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons a M(r) 100 k protein, the expected M(r) of the beta 8 subunit, and putative alpha subunit(s) of M(r) 120 k. Affinity-purified anti-beta 8-Ex strongly inhibited sensory neurite outgrowth on laminin-1, collagen IV, and fibronectin-coated substrata. Binding sites were identified in a heat-resistant domain in laminin-1 and in the carboxyl terminal, 40-kDa fibronectin fragment. On substrates coated with the carboxyl terminal fragment of fibronectin, antibodies to beta 1 and beta 8 were only partially effective alone, but were completely effective in combination, at inhibiting neurite outgrowth. Results thus indicate that the integrin beta 8 subunit in association with one or more alpha subunits forms an important set of extracellular matrix receptors on sensory neurons. Images PMID:7542940

  9. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  10. Receptor Dissociation and B-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is one of the most abundant receptors on the surface of B cells with roughly 100,000-200,000 copies per cell. Signaling through the BCR is crucial for the activation and differentiation of B cells. Unlike other receptors, the BCR can be activated by a large set of structurally different ligands, but the molecular mechanism of BCR activation is still a matter of controversy. Although dominant for a long time, the cross-link model (CLM) of BCR activation is not supported by recent studies of the nanoscale organization of the BCR on the surface of resting B cells. In contrast to the prediction of CLM, the numerous BCR complexes on these cells are not randomly distributed monomers but rather form oligomers which reside within membrane confinements. This finding is more in line with the dissociation activation model (DAM), wherein B-cell activation is accompanied by an opening of the auto-inhibited BCR oligomers instead of a cross-linking of the BCR monomers. In this review, we discuss in detail the new findings and their implications for BCR signaling. PMID:26428245

  11. Axonal sprouting and laminin appearance after destruction of glial sheaths.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda-Nakagawa, L M; Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G

    1993-01-01

    Laminin, a large extracellular matrix molecule, is associated with axonal outgrowth during development and regeneration of the nervous system in a variety of animals. In the leech central nervous system, laminin immunoreactivity appears after axon injury in advance of the regenerating axons. Although studies of vertebrate nervous system in culture have implicated glial and Schwann cells as possible sources, the cells that deposit laminin at sites crucial for regeneration in the living animal are not known. We have made a direct test to determine whether, in the central nervous system of the leech, cells other than ensheathing glial cells can produce laminin. Ensheathing glial cells of adult leeches were ablated selectively by intracellular injection of a protease. As a result, leech laminin accumulated within 10 days in regions of the central nervous system where it is not normally found, and undamaged, intact axons began to sprout extensively. In normal leeches laminin immunoreactivity is situated only in the basement membrane that surrounds the central nervous system, whereas after ablation of ensheathing glia it appeared in spaces through which neurons grew. Within days of ablation of the glial cell, small mobile phagocytes, or microglia, accumulated in the spaces formerly occupied by the glial cell. Microglia were concentrated at precisely the sites of new laminin appearance and axon sprouting. These results suggest that in the animal, as in culture, leech laminin promotes sprouting and that microglia may be responsible for its appearance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8506343

  12. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.; Burrell, Bryna E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4+ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin ?4 to laminin ?5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin ?4 function or inducing laminin ?5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing ?4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation. PMID:24691446

  13. Loss of β2-laminin alters calcium sensitivity and voltage-gated calcium channel maturation of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Schenning, Mitja P; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    β2-laminin is a key mediator in the differentiation and formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Loss of β2-laminin results in significant structural and functional aberrations such as decreased number of active zones and reduced spontaneous release of transmitter. In vitro β2-laminin has been shown to bind directly to the pore forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Neurotransmission is initially mediated by N-type VGCCs, but by postnatal day 18 switches to P/Q-type VGCC dominance. The present study investigated the changes in neurotransmission during the switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated transmitter release at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Analysis of the relationship between quantal content and extracellular calcium concentrations demonstrated a decrease in the calcium sensitivity, but no change in calcium dependence at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Electrophysiological studies on VGCC sub-types involved in transmitter release indicate N-type VGCCs remain the primary mediator of transmitter release at matured β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Immunohistochemical analyses displayed irregularly shaped and immature β2-laminin-deficient neuromuscular junctions when compared to matured wild-type junctions. β2-laminin-deficient junctions also maintained the presence of N-type VGCC clustering within the presynaptic membrane, which supported the functional findings of the present study. We conclude that β2-laminin is a key regulator in development of the NMJ, with its loss resulting in reduced transmitter release due to decreased calcium sensitivity stemming from a failure to switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25556799

  14. Structural insights into ?-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N.; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Kato, Hideaki E.; Livingston, Kathryn E.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Kling, Ralf; Granier, Sbastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M.; Traynor, John R.; Weis, William I.; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To understand the structural basis for ?OR activation, we obtained a 2.1 X-ray crystal structure of the ?OR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and stabilized by a G protein-mimetic camelid-antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the ?OR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Comparison with active ?2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the ?OR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three GPCRs. PMID:26245379

  15. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal tethered ligand domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  16. The Effect of Laminin-1-Doped Nanoroughened Implant Surfaces: Gene Expression and Morphological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Bougas, Kostas; Coelho, Paulo G.; Xue, Ying; Hayashi, Mariko; Faeda, Rafael Silveira; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chirici; Ono, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Mustafa, Kamal; Wennerberg, Ann; Jimbo, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to observe the morphological and molecular effect of laminin-1 doping to nanostructured implant surfaces in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods. Nanostructured implants were coated with laminin-1 (test; dilution, 100??g/mL) and inserted into the rabbit tibiae. Noncoated implants were used as controls. After 2 weeks of healing, the implants were removed and subjected to morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression analysis using the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. SEM revealed bony tissue attachment for both control and test implants. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of osteoblast markers RUNX-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I was higher (1.62-fold, 1.53-fold, 1.97-fold, and 1.04-fold, resp.) for the implants modified by laminin-1 relative to the control. All osteoclast markers investigated in the study presented higher expression on the test implants than controls as follows: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (1.67-fold), calcitonin receptor (1.35-fold), and ATPase (1.25-fold). The test implants demonstrated higher expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-10 (1.53-fold) and tumour necrosis factor-? (1.61-fold) relative to controls. Conclusion. The protein-doped surface showed higher gene expression of typical genes involved in the osseointegration cascade than the control surface. PMID:23304151

  17. Disruption Of Laminin-Integrin-CD151-FAK Axis Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells To ErbB2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiuwei H.; Flores, Ludmila M.; Li, Qinglin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Xu, Fenghui; Krop, Ian E.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to anti-ErbB2 agents is a significant problem in the treatment of human ErbB2+ breast cancers. We show here that adhesion of human ErbB2+ breast cancer cells to basement membrane laminin-5 provides substantial resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib, agents that respectively target the extracellular and kinase domains of ErbB2. Knockdown of laminin-binding integrins (?6?4, ?3?1) or associated tetraspanin protein CD151 reversed laminin-5 resistance, and sensitized ErbB2+ cells to trastuzumab and lapatinib. CD151 knockdown, together with trastuzumab treatment, inhibited ErbB2 activation and downstream signaling through Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK. Hence, ErbB2 function in mammary tumor cells is promoted by integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-5, with strong support by CD151, leading to signaling through FAK. Consequently, removal or inhibition of any of these components (laminin-5, integrin, CD151, FAK) markedly sensitizes cells to anti-ErbB2 agents. These new insights should be useful when devising strategies for overcoming drug resistance in ErbB2+ cancers. PMID:20197472

  18. Regression of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats is accompanied by a changed laminin pattern.

    PubMed

    Khegay, Igor I; Ivanova, Ludmila N

    2015-04-01

    Walker 256 carcinosarcoma is a transplantable model of rat carcinoma that originally appeared spontaneously in mammary glands. The growth rate of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats is lower than in WAG rats and their congenic hybrids with normal vasopressin levels. Study of tumor proteins detected essential alterations. Tumor regression starting at the 14th day in Brattleboro rats was accompanied by changes in the laminin pattern. At the 21st day, the concentration of ?-chains became twice as low, while ?-chains of laminin showed a sixfold increase compared to the initial equimolar correlation of bands. Congenic hybrids having one active copy of the vasopressin gene to provide a physiological level of hormone against the genetic background of Brattleboro rats show the same laminin alterations as WAG rats. They demonstrated a similar moderate increase of ?-chains and threefold growth of ?- and ?-chains of laminin in tumor tissue. It is supposed that vasopressin may be involved in the regulation of relevant local stimuli to trigger renovation of the laminin composition in a course of growing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. PMID:25854851

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-08-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  20. Origin of basal activity in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian odorant receptors form a large, diverse group of G protein–coupled receptors that determine the sensitivity and response profile of olfactory receptor neurons. But little is known if odorant receptors control basal and also stimulus-induced cellular properties of olfactory receptor neurons other than ligand specificity. This study demonstrates that different odorant receptors have varying degrees of basal activity, which drives concomitant receptor current fluctuations and basal action potential firing. This basal activity can be suppressed by odorants functioning as inverse agonists. Furthermore, odorant-stimulated olfactory receptor neurons expressing different odorant receptors can have strikingly different response patterns in the later phases of prolonged stimulation. Thus, the influence of odorant receptor choice on response characteristics is much more complex than previously thought, which has important consequences on odor coding and odor information transfer to the brain. PMID:20974772

  1. Combinatorial Fibronectin and Laminin Signaling Promote Highly Efficient Cardiac Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Silin; Wong, Lian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising and potentially unlimited cell source for myocardial repair and regeneration. Recently, multiple methodologies—primarily based on the optimization of growth factors—have been described for efficient cardiac differentiation of hESCs. However, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling in CM differentiation has not yet been explored fully. This study examined the role of ECM signaling in the efficient generation of CMs from both H7 and H9 ESCs. The hESCs were differentiated on ECM substrates composed of a range of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) ratios and gelatin and evaluated by the fluorescence activated cell scanning (FACS) analysis on day 14. Of the ECM substrates examined, the 70:30 FN:LN reproducibly generated the greatest numbers of CMs from both hESC lines. Moreover, the LN receptor integrin β4 (ITGB4) and FN receptor integrin β5 (ITGB5) genes, jointly with increased phosphorylated focal adhension kinase and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERKs), were up-regulated over 13-fold in H7 and H9 cultured on 70:30 FN:LN compared with gelatin. Blocking studies confirmed the role of all these molecules in CM specification, suggesting that the 70:30 FN:LN ECM promotes highly efficient differentiation of CMs through the integrin-mediated MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Lastly, the data suggest that FN:LN-induced signaling utilizes direct cell-to-cell signaling from distinct ITGB4+ and ITGB5+ cells. PMID:25126479

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the ? subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  3. Laminin-Mediated Interactions in Thymocyte Migration and Development

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas; Golbert, Daiane Cristina Ferreira; Riederer, Ingo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Intrathymic T-cell differentiation is a key process for the development and maintenance of cell-mediated immunity, and occurs concomitantly to highly regulated migratory events. We have proposed a multivectorial model for describing intrathymic thymocyte migration. One of the individual vectors comprises interactions mediated by laminins (LMs), a heterotrimeric protein family of the extracellular matrix. Several LMs are expressed in the thymus, being produced by microenvironmental cells, particularly thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Also, thymocytes and epithelial cells express integrin-type LM receptors. Functionally, it has been reported that the dy/dy mutant mouse (lacking the LM isoform 211) exhibits defective thymocyte differentiation. Several data show haptotactic effects of LMs upon thymocytes, as well as their adhesion on TECs; both effects being prevented by anti-LM or anti-LM receptor antibodies. Interestingly, LM synergizes with chemokines to enhance thymocyte migration, whereas classe-3 semaphorins and B ephrins, which exhibit chemorepulsive effects in the thymus, downregulate LM-mediated migratory responses of thymocytes. More recently, we showed that knocking down the ITGA6 gene (which encodes the α6 integrin chain of LM receptors) in human TECs modulates a large number of cell migration-related genes and results in changes of adhesion pattern of thymocytes onto the thymic epithelium. Overall, LM-mediated interactions can be placed at the cross-road of the multivectorial process of thymocyte migration, with a direct influence per se, as well as by modulating other molecular interactions associated with the intrathymic-trafficking events. PMID:26635793

  4. How IGF-1 activates its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kavran, Jennifer M; McCabe, Jacqueline M; Byrne, Patrick O; Connacher, Mary Katherine; Wang, Zhihong; Ramek, Alexander; Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Hristova, Kalina; Cole, Philip A; Leahy, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in growth and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. A ligand-dependent conformational change is thought to regulate IGF1R activity, but the nature of this change is unclear. We point out an underappreciated dimer in the crystal structure of the related Insulin Receptor (IR) with Insulin bound that allows direct comparison with unliganded IR and suggests a mechanism by which ligand regulates IR/IGF1R activity. We test this mechanism in a series of biochemical and biophysical assays and find the IGF1R ectodomain maintains an autoinhibited state in which the TMs are held apart. Ligand binding releases this constraint, allowing TM association and unleashing an intrinsic propensity of the intracellular regions to autophosphorylate. Enzymatic studies of full-length and kinase-containing fragments show phosphorylated IGF1R is fully active independent of ligand and the extracellular-TM regions. The key step triggered by ligand binding is thus autophosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03772.001 PMID:25255214

  5. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Benedini, L.O.; Ribeiro, P.G.; Prado, C.M.; Chesca, D.L.; Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  6. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cao-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  7. Therapeutic implications of constitutive activity of receptors: the example of the histamine H3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J C; Morisset, S; Rouleau, A; Ligneau, X; Gbahou, F; Tardivel-Lacombe, J; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Ganellin, C R; Arrang, J M

    2003-01-01

    Some G-protein-coupled receptors display constitutive activity, that is spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist: a proportion of the receptor population adopts a conformation that can bind and activate G proteins. Whereas this was mainly shown to occur with recombinant or pathologically mutated receptors, the physiological relevance of the process has remained debated. We have adressed this question in the case of the histamine H3 receptor, a presynaptic inhibitory receptor regulating histamine release in brain. Having identified a neutral antagonist and inverse agonists with variable intrinsic activity, we show that the native H3 receptor in brain displays high constitutive activity in vitro and, in vivo, controls the release of endogenous histamine. This implies that inverse agonists with high intrinsic activity should be preferred for therapeutic application as "cognitive enhancers" in several psychiatric disorders. PMID:12830926

  8. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fc? receptor (Fc?R) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed Fc?Rs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and Fc?R binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or Fc?R binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  9. Expression of laminin in pancreatic neoplasms and in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Haglund, C; Roberts, P J; Nordling, S; Ekblom, P

    1984-09-01

    The distribution of laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein, was studied by immunohistological techniques in 10 samples of normal pancreatic tissue, in 15 samples of chronic pancreatitis, and in 33 pancreatic neoplasms. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were pretreated with pepsin and immunostained for laminin. As judged by the expression of laminin, normal pancreatic glands were surrounded by a continuous, intact basement membrane. In chronic pancreatitis the basement membrane was also mainly continuous, but focally weaker and thinner than around normal glands. In pancreatic adenocarcinomas laminin was irregularly distributed and in large areas totally absent. In anaplastic carcinomas no extracellular laminin was seen, but two cases showed some intracellular laminin in a punctate pattern. The findings suggest that these cancers have defects in the deposition of a basement membrane or that it is degraded. Our data suggest that the integrity of the basement membrane correlates with the degree of malignancy in ductal adenocarcinomas, but this is not the case for mucinous cystic neoplasms or for islet cell tumors. In these neoplasms a nearly intact basement membrane was seen both in malignant tumors and in their benign counterparts. PMID:6089598

  10. Identification of a bioactive core sequence from human laminin and its applicability to tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sung; Min, Seung-Ki; Kang, Hyun Ki; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Jung, Sung Youn; Min, Byung-Moo

    2015-12-01

    Finding bioactive short peptides derived from proteins is a critical step to the advancement of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, because the former maintains the functions of the latter without immunogenicity in biological systems. Here, we discovered a bioactive core nonapeptide sequence, PPFEGCIWN (residues 2678-2686; Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3), from the human laminin ?2 chain, and investigated the role of this peptide in binding to transmembrane proteins to promote intracellular events leading to cell functions. This minimum bioactive sequence had neither secondary nor tertiary structures in a computational structure prediction. Nonetheless, Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 bound to various cell types as actively as laminin in cell adhesion assays. The invivo healing tests using rats revealed that Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 promoted bone formation without any recognizable antigenic activity. Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3-treated titanium (Ti) discs and Ti implant surfaces caused the enhancement of bone cell functions invitro and induced faster osseointegration invivo, respectively. These findings established a minimum bioactive sequence within human laminin, and its potential application value for regenerative medicine, especially for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26406450

  11. Hedgehog Signaling and Laminin Play Unique and Synergistic Roles in Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew T.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and laminin-111, a basement membrane protein, are required for early muscle development. Hh signaling specifies different populations of muscle fibers and laminin-111 is critical for early muscle morphogenesis. However, additional requirements for Hh signaling and laminin during later phases of muscle development are not known. Furthermore, interactions between Hh signaling and laminin in this context are unknown. We used laminin gamma1 mutant zebrafish and cyclopamine to block Hh signal transduction separately and in combination to investigate their functions and interactions. We found that both Hh signaling and laminin are required for normal myosin chain expression. In addition, Hh signaling and laminin act synergistically during fast-twitch fiber elongation: fast muscle cells do not elongate in embryos deficient for both Hh signaling and laminin. Finally, we present evidence which suggests that Hh signaling is indirectly required via slow fiber specification for recovery of fast fiber elongation in laminin gamma1 mutant embryos. PMID:20063418

  12. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  13. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor Type 1 Attenuates Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadnie, Chelsea A.; Hinton, David J.; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L.; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  14. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  15. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

  16. C3 receptors on lymphoid cells: isolation of active membrane fragments and solubilization of receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Dierich, M P; Reisfeld, R A

    1975-06-01

    Complement receptor activity for cell bound C3b and C3d was detected on plasma membrane fragments prepared by nitrogen cavitation from cultured human lymphoid cells. The activity of the membrane fragments reflected the activity of the whole cells in that cells which did not form rosettes (P3J and RPMI 4098) resulted in inactive membranes and cells with high rosette formation (NC37 and Raji) yielded highly active membrane fragments. Two test systems were devised to detect these receptor activities, namely a rosette inhibition and a hemagglutination assay. Solubilization of C3 receptors was accomplished by extraction of active plasma membrane fragments with 2 MKBr. Dissociation and reassociation experiments suggest C3b and C3d receptors to be highly complex molecular structures. It appears that these complement receptors on plasma membranes rely on both protein and lipid moieties for the expression of their activity. PMID:1055171

  17. Modulation of Glucagon Receptor Pharmacology by Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-2 (RAMP2).

    PubMed

    Weston, Cathryn; Lu, Jing; Li, Naichang; Barkan, Kerry; Richards, Gareth O; Roberts, David J; Skerry, Timothy M; Poyner, David; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; Reynolds, Christopher A; Dowell, Simon J; Willars, Gary B; Ladds, Graham

    2015-09-18

    The glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors play important, opposing roles in regulating blood glucose levels. Consequently, these receptors have been identified as targets for novel diabetes treatments. However, drugs acting at the GLP-1 receptor, although having clinical efficacy, have been associated with severe adverse side-effects, and targeting of the glucagon receptor has yet to be successful. Here we use a combination of yeast reporter assays and mammalian systems to provide a more complete understanding of glucagon receptor signaling, considering the effect of multiple ligands, association with the receptor-interacting protein receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2), and the role of individual G protein ?-subunits. We demonstrate that RAMP2 alters both ligand selectivity and G protein preference of the glucagon receptor. Importantly, we also uncover novel cross-reactivity of therapeutically used GLP-1 receptor ligands at the glucagon receptor that is abolished by RAMP2 interaction. This study reveals the glucagon receptor as a previously unidentified target for GLP-1 receptor agonists and highlights a role for RAMP2 in regulating its pharmacology. Such previously unrecognized functions of RAMPs highlight the need to consider all receptor-interacting proteins in future drug development. PMID:26198634

  18. Modulation of Glucagon Receptor Pharmacology by Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-2 (RAMP2)*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Cathryn; Lu, Jing; Li, Naichang; Barkan, Kerry; Richards, Gareth O.; Roberts, David J.; Skerry, Timothy M.; Poyner, David; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Dowell, Simon J.; Willars, Gary B.; Ladds, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors play important, opposing roles in regulating blood glucose levels. Consequently, these receptors have been identified as targets for novel diabetes treatments. However, drugs acting at the GLP-1 receptor, although having clinical efficacy, have been associated with severe adverse side-effects, and targeting of the glucagon receptor has yet to be successful. Here we use a combination of yeast reporter assays and mammalian systems to provide a more complete understanding of glucagon receptor signaling, considering the effect of multiple ligands, association with the receptor-interacting protein receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2), and the role of individual G protein ?-subunits. We demonstrate that RAMP2 alters both ligand selectivity and G protein preference of the glucagon receptor. Importantly, we also uncover novel cross-reactivity of therapeutically used GLP-1 receptor ligands at the glucagon receptor that is abolished by RAMP2 interaction. This study reveals the glucagon receptor as a previously unidentified target for GLP-1 receptor agonists and highlights a role for RAMP2 in regulating its pharmacology. Such previously unrecognized functions of RAMPs highlight the need to consider all receptor-interacting proteins in future drug development. PMID:26198634

  19. Association of the erythropoietin receptor with protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Linnekin, D; Evans, G A; D'Andrea, A; Farrar, W L

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the signal transduction mechanism of the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (Epo). Epo stimulation of Ba/F3 cells transfected with the Epo receptor resulted in increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of 97, 75, and 55 kDa. Epo-induced increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein were also detected within the Epo receptor complex, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase is associated with the Epo receptor. Protein tyrosine kinase activity was found within the Epo receptor complex and modulation of this activity was observed after treatment of cells with Epo. Furthermore, constitutively high amounts of protein kinase activity were observed in Epo receptor complexes isolated from autonomously growing cells coexpressing the Epo receptor and the leukemogenic glycoprotein gp55. The dominant phosphotyrosylprotein found associated with the Epo receptor was 97 kDa. An Epo receptor-associated protein of identical molecular mass was also found to bind ATP, a characteristic critical for protein kinases. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the Epo receptor is associated with protein tyrosine kinase activity and further suggest that a 97-kDa phosphotyrosylprotein associated with the Epo receptor is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in Epo-mediated signal transduction. Images PMID:1378622

  20. Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

  1. Laminin Functionalized Biomimetic Nanofibers For Nerve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Junka, Radoslaw; Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Large-gap peripheral nerve injuries present a significant challenge for nerve regeneration due to lack of suitable grafts, insufficient cell penetration, and repair. Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, functionalized on the surface with extracellular matrix proteins, can lead to novel therapies for repair and regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves. Here, nanofibrous scaffolds electrospun from blends of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan were fabricated. Taking advantage of the amine groups on the chitosan, the surface of the scaffolds were functionalized with laminin by carbodiimide based crosslinking. Crosslinking allowed laminin to be attached to the surfaces of the PCL-chitosan nanofibers at relatively high concentrations that were not possible using conventional adsorption methods. The nanofibrous meshes were tested for wettability, mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation. Blending of chitosan with PCL provided more favorable surfaces for attachment of Schwann cells due to the reduction of the contact angle in comparison to neat PCL. Proliferation rates of Schwann cells grown on PCL-chitosan scaffolds with crosslinked laminin were significantly higher than the rates for PCL-chitosan nanofibrous matrices with adsorbed laminin. PCL-chitosan scaffolds with modified surfaces via crosslinking of laminin could potentially serves as versatile substrates with excellent mechanical and surface properties for in vivo cell delivery for nerve tissue engineering applications. PMID:24083073

  2. Regulated laminin-332 expression in human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Armanet, Mathieu; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Morel, Philippe; Parnaud, Géraldine; Rousselle, Patricia; Sinigaglia, Corinne; Berney, Thierry; Bosco, Domenico

    2009-12-01

    Laminin-332 (LN-332) is a basement membrane component known to exert a beneficial effect on rat pancreatic beta cells in vitro. In this work, we analyzed the expression of LN-332 in human islets, its expression after inflammatory insults by cytokines, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect. By Western blotting and RT-PCR, we showed that LN-332 was expressed in isolated human islets. By immunofluorescence on pancreas sections, we observed that labeling was confined to endocrine cells in islets. Confocal microscopy analysis on isolated islet cells revealed that labeling was granular but did not colocalize with hormone secretory granules. LN-332 was most abundant in cultured islets compared to freshly isolated islets and was found in culture medium, which suggests that it was secreted by islets. When islets were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1beta, expression and secretion of LN-332 increased as compared to control. No effect was observed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity, inhibited culture- and IL-1beta-induced LN-332 expression in islets. These results show that LN-332, known to have some beneficial effect on beta cells in vitro, is produced and secreted by endocrine islet cells and is up-regulated by stressing conditions such as culture and IL-1beta-exposure. PMID:19667121

  3. Neuropeptide Y receptor mediates activation of ERK1/2 via transactivation of the IGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Belemnaba, Lazare; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Bucher, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y binds to G-protein coupled receptors whose action results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing the native neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors, we found that the NPY agonist elicits a transient phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). We first show that ERK1/2 activation following Y1 receptor stimulation is dependent on heterotrimeric Gi/o since it is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, ERK1/2 activation is internalization-independent since mutant Y1 receptors unable to recruit ?-arrestins, can still activate ERK signaling to the same extent as wild-type receptors. We next show that this activation of the MAPK pathway is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126, is not dependent on calcium signaling at the Y1 receptor (no effect upon inhibition of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or protein kinase D) but instead dependent on G?/? and associated signaling pathways that activate PI3-kinase. Although inhibition of the epidermal-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase did not influence NPY-induced ERK1/2 activation, we show that the inhibition of insulin growth factor receptor IGFR by AG1024 completely blocks activation of ERK1/2 by the Y1 receptor. This G?/?-PI3K-AG1024-sensitive pathway does not involve activation of IGFR through the release of a soluble ligand by metalloproteinases since it is not affected by the metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat. Finally, we found that a similar pathway, sensitive to wortmannin-AG1024 but insensitive to marimastat, is implicated in activation of ERK signaling in HEK293 cells by endogenously expressed GPCRs coupled to Gq-protein (muscarinic M3 receptors) or coupled to Gs-protein (endothelin ETB receptors). Our analysis is the first to show that ?-arrestin recruitment to the NPY Y1 receptor is not necessary for MAPK activation by this receptor but that transactivation of the IGFR receptor is required. PMID:25817573

  4. Enhancing neural stem cell response to SDF-1? gradients through hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Addington, C P; Heffernan, J M; Millar-Haskell, C S; Tucker, E W; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an expansive biochemical insult that is largely responsible for the long-term dysfunction associated with TBI; however, current clinical treatments fall short of addressing these underlying sequelae. Pre-clinical investigations have used stem cell transplantation with moderate success, but are plagued by staggeringly low survival and engraftment rates (2-4%). As such, providing cell transplants with the means to better dynamically respond to injury-related signals within the transplant microenvironment may afford improved transplantation survival and engraftment rates. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) is a potent chemotactic signal that is readily present after TBI. In this study, we sought to develop a transplantation vehicle to ultimately enhance the responsiveness of neural transplants to injury-induced SDF-1?. Specifically, we hypothesize that a hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (Lm) hydrogel would promote 1. upregulated expression of the SDF-1? receptor CXCR4 in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) and 2. enhanced NPSC migration in response to SDF-1? gradients. We demonstrated successful development of a HA-Lm hydrogel and utilized standard protein and cellular assays to probe NPSC CXCR4 expression and NPSC chemotactic migration. The findings demonstrated that NPSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression after 48h of culture on the HA-Lm gel in a manner critically dependent on both HA and laminin. Moreover, the HA-Lm hydrogel significantly increased NPSC chemotactic migration in response to SDF-1? at 48h, an effect that was critically dependent on HA, laminin and the SDF-1? gradient. Therefore, this hydrogel serves to 1. prime NPSCs for the injury microenvironment and 2. provide the appropriate infrastructure to support migration into the surrounding tissue, equipping cells with the tools to more effectively respond to the injury microenvironment. PMID:26340314

  5. Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To better understand how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional states and analyzed the resulting structures using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that transition to the active state involves a corkscrew motion of the receptor assembly, driven by closure of the ligand binding domain. Desensitization is accompanied by disruption of the amino terminal domain tetramer in AMPA, but not kainate receptors, with a 2-fold to 4-fold symmetry transition in the ligand binding domains in both subtypes. The 7.6 structure of a desensitized kainate receptor shows how these changes accommodate channel closing. These findings integrate previous physiological, biochemical, and structural analyses of glutamate receptors and provide a molecular explanation for key steps in receptor gating. PMID:25119039

  6. Structural insights into BMP receptors: Specificity, activation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yadin, David; Knaus, Petra; Mueller, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-? family (TGF?), which signal through hetero-tetrameric complexes of type I and type II receptors. In humans there are many more TGF? ligands than receptors, leading to the question of how particular ligands can initiate specific signaling responses. Here we review structural features of the ligands and receptors that contribute to this specificity. Ligand activity is determined by receptor-ligand interactions, growth factor prodomains, extracellular modulator proteins, receptor assembly and phosphorylation of intracellular signaling proteins, including Smad transcription factors. Detailed knowledge about the receptors has enabled the development of BMP-specific type I receptor kinase inhibitors. In future these may help to treat human diseases such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. PMID:26690041

  7. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trans-Activation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Fina, Daniele; Gioia, Valentina; Peluso, Ilaria; Caprioli, Flavio; Stolfi, Carmine; Perfetti, Alessandra; Giusto Spagnoli, Luigi; Palmieri, Giampiero; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is involved in gastric cancer (GC) cell growth. However, the mechanism that sustains EGFR signaling in GC remains unknown. Since protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been shown to trans-activate EGFR in several cell types, we examined the role of PAR-2 in GC. We show here that in vitro activation of PAR-2 enhances the growth of two GC cell lines, AGS and MKN28. In both these cell lines, PAR-2 trans-activated EGFR and inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by AG1478 or specific EGFR siRNA completely prevented PAR-2-driven proliferation. Antibody blockade of EGF-like ligands to EGFR did not modify EGFR signaling or cell growth induced by PAR-2 activation. In contrast, PAR-2 promoted Src activation and interaction of this kinase with EGFR. In support of this, inhibition of Src kinase activity by PP1 or siRNA blocked PAR-2-induced EGFR signaling cascade and cell growth. Finally, PAR-2 was detectable in both normal and GC specimens, but its expression was more pronounced in GC than controls and correlated with activated EGFR. These data show that PAR-2 is overexpressed in GC and suggest a role of PAR-2 in EGFR trans-activation and cell growth. PMID:16816379

  8. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  9. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPAR? in rodents inc...

  10. Platelet Kainate Receptor Signaling Promotes Thrombosis by Stimulating Cyclooxygenase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Henry; Swaim, AnneMarie; Herrera, Jesus Enrique; Becker, Diane; Becker, Lewis; Srivastava, Kalyan; Thompson, Laura E.; Shero, Michelle R.; Perez-Tamayo, Alita; Suktitpat, Bhoom; Mathias, Rasika; Contractor, Anis; Faraday, Nauder; Morrell, Craig N.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Glutamate is a major signaling molecule that binds to glutamate receptors including the ionotropic glutamate receptors; kainate (KA) receptor (KAR), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR), and the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR). Each is well characterized in the central nervous system (CNS), but glutamate has important signaling roles in peripheral tissues as well, including a role in regulating platelet function. Objective Our previous work has demonstrated that glutamate is released by platelets in high concentrations within a developing thrombus and increases platelet activation and thrombosis. We now show that platelets express a functional KAR that drives increased agonist induced platelet activation. Methods and Results KAR induced increase in platelet activation is in part the result of activation of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) in a Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) dependent manner. Platelets derived from KA receptor subunit knockout mice (GluR6?/?) are resistant to KA effects and have a prolonged time to thrombosis in vivo. Importantly, we have also identified polymorphisms in KA receptor subunits that are associated with phenotypic changes in platelet function in a large group of Caucasians and African Americans. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that glutamate regulation of platelet activation is in part COX dependent, and suggest that the KA receptor is a novel anti-thrombotic target. PMID:19679838

  11. Evidence That a Laminin-Like Insect Protein Mediates Early Events in the Interaction of a Phytoparasite with Its Vector's Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; dos Santos, Andre Luis Souza; Lery, Letcia Miranda Santos; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Oliveira, Mauricio Martins; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Souto-Padrn, Thas Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2012-01-01

    Phytomonas species are plant parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae, which are transmitted by phytophagous insects. Some Phytomonas species cause major agricultural damages. The hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus is natural and experimental host for several species of trypanosomatids, including Phytomonas spp. The invasion of the insect vectors' salivary glands is one of the most important events for the life cycle of Phytomonas species. In the present study, we show the binding of Phytomonas serpens at the external face of O. fasciatus salivary glands by means of scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro interaction of living parasites with total proteins from the salivary glands in ligand blotting assays. This binding occurs primarily through an interaction with a 130 kDa salivary gland protein. The mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digest of this protein matched 23% of human laminin-5 ?3 chain precursor sequence by 16 digested peptides. A protein sequence search through the transcriptome of O. fasciatus embryo showed a partial sequence with 51% similarity to human laminin ?3 subunit. Anti-human laminin-5 ?3 chain polyclonal antibodies recognized the 130 kDa protein by immunoblotting. The association of parasites with the salivary glands was strongly inhibited by human laminin-5, by the purified 130 kDa insect protein, and by polyclonal antibodies raised against the human laminin-5 ?3 chain. This is the first report demonstrating that a laminin-like molecule from the salivary gland of O. fasciatus acts as a receptor for Phytomonas binding. The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa. PMID:23118944

  12. Activation and dynamic network of the M2 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinglong; Nichols, Sara E; Gasper, Paul M; Metzger, Vincent T; McCammon, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate cellular responses to various hormones and neurotransmitters and are important targets for treating a wide spectrum of diseases. Although significant advances have been made in structural studies of GPCRs, details of their activation mechanism remain unclear. The X-ray crystal structure of the M2 muscarinic receptor, a key GPCR that regulates human heart rate and contractile forces of cardiomyocytes, was determined recently in an inactive antagonist-bound state. Here, activation of the M2 receptor is directly observed via accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, in contrast to previous microsecond-timescale conventional molecular dynamics simulations in which the receptor remained inactive. Receptor activation is characterized by formation of a Tyr206(5.58)-Tyr440(7.53) hydrogen bond and ?6- outward tilting of the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane ?-helix 6, preceded by relocation of Trp400(6.48) toward Phe195(5.47) and Val199(5.51) and flipping of Tyr430(7.43) away from the ligand-binding cavity. Network analysis reveals that communication in the intracellular domains is greatly weakened during activation of the receptor. Together with the finding that residue motions in the ligand-binding and G-protein-coupling sites of the apo receptor are correlated, this result highlights a dynamic network for allosteric regulation of the M2 receptor activation. PMID:23781107

  13. P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update.

    PubMed

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Müller, Christa E

    2006-01-01

    Pyrimidine nucleotides, including UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose, are important signaling molecules which activate G protein-coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs) of the P2Y family. Four distinct pyrimidine nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes have been cloned, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6 and P2Y14. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors are activated by UTP (the P2Y2, and the rat but not the human P2Y4 receptor are also activated by ATP), the P2Y6 receptor is activated by UDP, and the P2Y14 receptor by UDP-glucose. Furthermore, non-P2Y GPCRs, the cysteinylleukotriene receptors (CysLT1R and CysLT2R) have been described to be activated by UDP in addition to activation by cysteinylleukotrienes. While P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor activation results in stimulation of phospholipase C, the P2Y14 receptor is coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Derivatives and analogs of the physiological nucleotides UTP, UDP and ATP have been synthesized and evaluated in order to obtain enzymatically stable, subtype-selective agonists. The P2Y2 receptor agonists diuridine tetraphosphate (diquafosol) and the uracil-cytosine dinucleotide denufosol are currently undergoing clinical trials for dry eye disease, retinal detachment disease, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and cystic fibrosis, respectively. The first antagonists for P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors that appear to be selective versus other P2Y receptor subtypes have recently been described. Selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors are still lacking. Uracil nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes may constitute future targets for the treatment of certain cancer types, vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and immunomodulatory intervention. They have also been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. This article is an updated version of "P2-Pyrimidinergic Receptors and Their Ligands" by C. E. Müller published in Curr. Pharm. Des. 2002, 8, 2353-2369. PMID:16475938

  14. Ensemble of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Active States

    PubMed Central

    Park, P.S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in cellular signal transduction and are important targets for therapeutics. Although these receptors have been intensely studied for quite some time, our understanding about their mechanism of action is still incomplete. GPCR activity has traditionally been viewed within the context of two-state models where the receptor is in equilibrium between a single inactive state and a single active state. This framework is too simple and restrictive to accommodate more recent observations made on these receptors, which instead point to a situation where the receptor can adopt several different active conformational substates with distinct functional effects. Structural and functional evidence for this emerging view is presented in this review. Implications of this emerging view in rationalizing diseased states and in drug discovery are also discussed. PMID:22300048

  15. Interdicting Gq Activation in Airway Disease by Receptor-Dependent and Receptor-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carr, Richard; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Zhang, Jie; Lam, Hong; An, Steven S; Tall, Gregory G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Benovic, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    G?q?? heterotrimer (Gq), an important mediator in the pathology of airway disease, plays a central role in bronchoconstriction and airway remodeling, including airway smooth muscle growth and inflammation. Current therapeutic strategies to treat airway disease include the use of muscarinic and leukotriene receptor antagonists; however, these pharmaceuticals demonstrate a limited clinical efficacy as multiple Gq-coupled receptor subtypes contribute to these pathologies. Thus, broadly inhibiting the activation of Gq may be an advantageous therapeutic approach. Here, we investigated the effects of broadly inhibiting Gq activation in vitro and ex vivo using receptor-dependent and receptor-independent strategies. P4pal-10 is a protease activated receptor 4-derived pepducin that exhibits efficacy toward multiple Gq-coupled receptors. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that P4pal-10 selectively inhibits all G protein coupling to several Gq-coupled receptors, including protease activated receptor 1, muscarinic acetylcholine M3, and histamine H1 receptors, while demonstrating no direct effect on Gq. We also evaluated the ability of FR900359, also known as UBO-QIC, to directly inhibit Gq activation. FR900359 inhibited spontaneous G?q nucleotide exchange, while having little effect on G?s??, G?i??, or G?12/13?? heterotrimer activity. Both P4pal-10 and FR900359 inhibited Gq-mediated intracellular signaling and primary human airway smooth muscle growth, whereas only FR900359 effectively interdicted agonist-promoted airway contraction in human precision cut lung slices. These studies serve as a proof of concept that the broad-based inhibition of Gq activation may be a useful therapeutic approach to treat multiple common pathologies of airway disease. PMID:26464325

  16. Laminin promotes vascular network formation in 3D in vitro collagen scaffolds by regulating VEGF uptake

    PubMed Central

    Stamati, Katerina; Priestley, John V.; Mudera, Vivek; Cheema, Umber

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential neovascularisation process, which if recapitulated in 3D in vitro, will provide better understanding of endothelial cell (EC) behaviour. Various cell types and growth factors are involved, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 key components. We were able to control the aggregation pattern of ECs in 3D collagen hydrogels, by varying the matrix composition and/or having a source of cells signalling angiogenic proteins. These aggregation patterns reflect the different developmental pathways that ECs take to form different sized tubular structures. Cultures with added laminin and thus increased expression of α6 integrin showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in VEGFR2 positive ECs and increased VEGF uptake. This resulted in the end-to-end network aggregation of ECs. In cultures without laminin and therefore low α6 integrin expression, VEGFR2 levels and VEGF uptake were significantly lower (p<0.05). These ECs formed contiguous sheets, analogous to the ‘wrapping’ pathway in development. We have identified a key linkage between integrin expression on ECs and their uptake of VEGF, regulated by VEGFR2, resulting in different aggregation patterns in 3D. PMID:24907654

  17. Cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors increase Src and c-Cbl activity and receptor ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Parks, Eileen E; Ceresa, Brian P

    2014-09-12

    There is an established role for the endocytic pathway in regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to downstream effectors. However, because ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis utilizes multiple "moving parts," dissecting the spatial versus temporal contributions has been challenging. Blocking all endocytic trafficking can have unintended effects on other receptors as well as give rise to compensatory mechanisms, both of which impact interpretation of EGFR signaling. To overcome these limitations, we used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to polystyrene beads (EGF beads). EGF beads simultaneously activate the EGFR while blocking its endocytosis and allow analysis of EGFR signaling from the plasma membrane. Human telomerase immortalized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells were used to model normal epithelial cell biology. In hTCEpi cells, both cell surface and intracellular EGFRs exhibited dose-dependent increases in effector activity after 15 min of ligand stimulation, but only the serine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was statistically significant when accounting for receptor phosphorylation. However, over time with physiological levels of receptor phosphorylation, cell surface receptors produced either enhanced or sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), and the pro-oncogene Src activity. These increases in effector communication by cell surface receptors resulted in an increase in EGFR ubiquitylation with sustained ligand incubation. Together, these data indicate that spatial regulation of EGFR signaling may be an important regulatory mechanism in receptor down-regulation. PMID:25074934

  18. Activity of chlormethiazole at human recombinant GABAA and NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Usala, Marcello; Thompson, Sally Anne; Whiting, Paul J; Wafford, Keith A

    2003-01-01

    Investigation into the modulatory effects of chlormethiazole at human recombinant ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was undertaken to gain insight into its mechanism of action and determine if the drug exhibited any subtype-selective activity. Despite a structural similarity to the ?-subunit-selective compound loreclezole, chlormethiazole did not show any difference in maximum efficacy and only a slight difference in EC50 in its potentiating action at ?1?1?2 and ?1?2?2 GABAA receptor subtypes with preference for ?1?1?2. Similar to the previously reported subtype-dependent activity of pentobarbital, chlormethiazole elicited a significantly greater degree of maximum potentiation on receptors lacking a ?2 subunit, and also those receptors containing an ?4 or ?6 subunit. This also demonstrates that chlormethiazole does not act via the benzodiazepine binding site. Unlike pentobarbital and propofol, chlormethiazole elicited only a slight direct GABAA receptor activation at concentrations up to 1 mM. In addition, the drug did not potentiate anaesthetic-mediated currents elicited by pentobarbital or propofol, suggesting that chlormethiazole may be acting via an anaesthetic binding site. Chlormethiazole produced weak nonselective inhibition of human NMDA NR1a+NR2A and NR1a+NR2B receptors. IC50's were approximately 500 ?M that likely exceed the therapeutic dose range for chlormethiazole, indicating that the primary mechanism of the compounds in vivo activity is via GABAA receptors. PMID:14530209

  19. Biological activity of a polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents data on the activity of a new APHC2 polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptors, which was isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. It has been shown that APHC2 has an analgesic activity, does not impair normal motor activity, and does not change body temperature of experimental animals, which has a great practical value for design of potent analgesics of a new generation. Further study of the characteristics of binding of the polypeptide to the TRPV1 receptor may show approaches to the development of other antagonists of this receptor that do not influence the body temperature. PMID:26725234

  20. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% ofU.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXR?), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ?10 ?g/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) suppressed PPAR? activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPAR?. PMID:24812009

  1. Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D.; Miller, Lydia K.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of receptor signaling is increased by receptor heteromerization leading to dynamic regulation of receptor function. While a number of studies have demonstrated that family A G-protein-coupled receptors are capable of forming heteromers in vitro, the role of these heteromers in normal physiology and disease has been poorly explored. In this study, direct interactions between CB1 cannabinoid and delta opioid receptors in the brain were examined. Additionally, regulation of heteromer levels and signaling in a rodent model of neuropathic pain was explored. First we examined changes in the expression, function and interaction of these receptors in the cerebral cortex of rats with a peripheral nerve lesion that resulted in neuropathic pain. We found that, following the peripheral nerve lesion, the expression of both cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) are increased in select brain regions. Concomitantly, an increase in CB1R activity and decrease in DOR activity was observed. We hypothesize that this decrease in DOR activity could be due to heteromeric interactions between these two receptors. Using a CB1R-DOR heteromer-specific antibody, we found increased levels of CB1R-DOR heteromer protein in the cortex of neuropathic animals. We subsequently examined the functionality of these heteromers by testing whether low, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands influenced DOR signaling in the cortex. We found that, in cortical membranes from animals that experienced neuropathic pain, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands significantly enhanced DOR activity. Moreover, this activity is selectively blocked by a heteromer-specific antibody. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for CB1R-DOR heteromers in altered cortical function of DOR during neuropathic pain. Moreover, they suggest the possibility that a novel heteromer-directed therapeutic strategy for enhancing DOR activity, could potentially be employed to reduce anxiety associated with chronic pain. PMID:23272051

  2. Collagen type IV, laminin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), alpha1 and alpha6 integrins expression in the liver with metastases from malignant gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gulubova, Maya Vladova

    2004-01-01

    Basement membrane proteins and integrins can profoundly affect the biological behaviour of metastasic tumour cells. Using light and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry, we showed the presence of alterations in the occurrence of collagen type IV and laminin, and the expression of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in the livers of patients with metastases from gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. The myofibroblast-like cells in the metastatic stroma were studied. Parallel expressions of alpha-SMA, collagen type IV and alpha1 integrin chain, and appearance of laminin and alpha6 integrin chain immunoreactivity in the extratumoral liver tissue were markedly increased in sinusoids associated with metastases. Furthermore, ultrastructural immunohistochemistry detected tumour cells adhered to amorphous laminin deposits in the metastases. Laminin occurrence in liver sinusoids was visible as fine amorphous deposits in the space of Disse. The similarity between alpha-SMA-positive stromal cells in metastatic stroma and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was established by the presence of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The immune deposits of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains were observed on the hepatocyte microvilli and on the membrane of sinusoidal endothelial cells. These findings suggest that metastatic cells produce stimuli that induce HSCs activation and sinusoidal changes. In addition, the enhanced parallel expression of alphaSMA, collagen type IV, laminin and of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in sinusoids associated with metastases, might potentiate the further dissemination of tumour cells in new liver areas. PMID:15679046

  3. Bortezomib Does Not Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin ?2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Krner, Zandra; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin ?2 chain-deficiency, also known as MDC1A, is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is no cure. Patients with complete laminin ?2 chain-deficiency typically have an early onset disease with a more severe muscle phenotype while patients with residual laminin ?2 chain expression usually have a milder disease course. Similar genotype-phenotype correlations can be seen in the dy3K/dy3K and dy2J/dy2J mouse models of MDC1A, respectively, with dy3K/dy3K mice presenting the more severe phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially improves muscle morphology and increases lifespan in dy3K/dy3K mice. Here, we explore the use of bortezomib in dy2J/dy2J animals. However, bortezomib neither improved histological hallmarks of disease nor increased muscle strength and locomotive activity in dy2J/dy2J mice. Altogether our data suggest that proteasome inhibition does not mitigate muscle dysfunction caused by partial laminin ?2 chain-deficiency. Still, it is possible that proteasome inhibition could be useful as a supportive therapy in patients with complete absence of laminin ?2 chain. PMID:26731667

  4. Bortezomib Does Not Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin ?2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Krner, Zandra; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin ?2 chain-deficiency, also known as MDC1A, is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is no cure. Patients with complete laminin ?2 chain-deficiency typically have an early onset disease with a more severe muscle phenotype while patients with residual laminin ?2 chain expression usually have a milder disease course. Similar genotype-phenotype correlations can be seen in the dy3K/dy3K and dy2J/dy2J mouse models of MDC1A, respectively, with dy3K/dy3K mice presenting the more severe phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially improves muscle morphology and increases lifespan in dy3K/dy3K mice. Here, we explore the use of bortezomib in dy2J/dy2J animals. However, bortezomib neither improved histological hallmarks of disease nor increased muscle strength and locomotive activity in dy2J/dy2J mice. Altogether our data suggest that proteasome inhibition does not mitigate muscle dysfunction caused by partial laminin ?2 chain-deficiency. Still, it is possible that proteasome inhibition could be useful as a supportive therapy in patients with complete absence of laminin ?2 chain. PMID:26731667

  5. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  6. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVIII. Proteinase-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, Morley D; Compton, Steven J

    2002-06-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique subclass of G-protein-coupled receptors of which four family members have now been cloned from a number of species. The novel mechanism of receptor activation involves the proteolytic unmasking of a cryptic N-terminal receptor sequence that, remaining tethered, binds to and triggers receptor function. In addition, short (five to six amino acids) synthetic peptides, based on the proteolytically revealed motif, can activate PARs without the unmasking of the tethered ligand. This article summarizes the experiments leading to the pharmacological characterization and cloning of the four PAR family members and provides a rationale for their designation by the acronym "PAR". The ability to distinguish among the PARs pharmacologically 1) with selective proteinase activators, 2) with receptor-selective peptide agonists, and 3) with peptide and nonpeptide antagonists is discussed, as are the molecular mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization/internalization. Finally, the potential physiological roles of the PARs, which are widely distributed in many organs in the settings of tissue injury, repair, and remodeling, including embryogenesis and oncogenesis are discussed, and the newly appreciated roles of proteinases as signaling molecules that can act as either functional agonists or antagonists are highlighted. PMID:12037136

  7. Injectable Laminin-Functionalized Hydrogel for Nucleus Pulposus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Aubrey T.; Mancino, Robert J.; Bowles, Robby D.; Brunger, Jonathan M.; Tainter, David M.; Chen, Yi-Te; Richardson, William J; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell delivery to the pathological intervertebral disc (IVD) has significant therapeutic potential for enhancing IVD regeneration. The development of injectable biomaterials that retain delivered cells, promote cell survival, and maintain or promote an NP cell phenotype in vivo remains a significant challenge. Previous studies have demonstrated NP cell laminin interactions in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region of the IVD that promote cell attachment and biosynthesis. These findings suggest that incorporating laminin ligands into carriers for cell delivery may be beneficial for promoting NP cell survival and phenotype. Here, an injectable, laminin-111 functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-LM111) hydrogel was developed as a biomaterial carrier for cell delivery to the IVD. We evaluated the mechanical properties of the PEG-LM111 hydrogel, and its ability to retain delivered cells in the IVD space. Gelation occurred in approximately 20 minutes without an initiator, with dynamic shear moduli in the range of 0.9 1.4 kPa. Primary NP cell retention in cultured IVD explants was significantly higher over 14 days when cells were delivered within a PEG-LM111 carrier, as compared to cells in liquid suspension. Together, these results suggest this injectable laminin-functionalized biomaterial may be an easy to use carrier for delivering cells to the IVD. PMID:23849345

  8. Soluble Extracts from Helicobacter pylori Induce Dome Formation in Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers in a Laminin-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Terrés, A. M.; Windle, H. J.; Ardini, E.; Kelleher, D. P.

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach at the interface between the mucus layer and the apical pole of gastric epithelial cells. A number of secreted and shed products from the bacteria, such as proteins and lipopolysaccharide, are likely to have a role in the pathogenesis at the epithelial level. To determine the physiological response of transporting polarized epithelia to released soluble factors from the bacterium, we used the T84 cell line. Monolayers of T84 cells were exposed to soluble extracts from H. pylori. The extracts induced rapid “dome” formation as well as an immediate decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Domes are fluid-filled blister-like structures unique to polarized epithelia. Their formation has been linked to sodium-transporting events as well as to diminished adherence of the cells to the substrate. H. pylori-induced dome formation in T84 monolayers was exacerbated by amiloride and inhibited by ouabain. Furthermore, it was associated with changes in the expression of the laminin binding α6β4 integrin and the 67-kDa laminin receptor. Domes formed primarily on laminin-coated filters, rather than on fibronectin or collagen matrices, and their formation was inhibited by preincubating the bacterial extract with soluble laminin. This effect was specific to H. pylori and independent of the urease, vacA, cagA, and Lewis phenotype of the strains. These data indicate that released elements from H. pylori can alter the physiological balance and integrity of the epithelium in the absence of an underlying immune response. PMID:12819097

  9. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  10. Retinoid X receptor agonists impair arterial mononuclear cell recruitment through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Maria-Jesus; Albertos, Fernando; Otero, Eduardo; Juez, Marina; Morcillo, Esteban J; Piqueras, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Mononuclear cell migration into the vascular subendothelium constitutes an early event of the atherogenic process. Because the effect of retinoid X receptor (RXR)? on arterial mononuclear leukocyte recruitment is poorly understood, this study investigated whether RXR agonists can affect this response and the underlying mechanisms involved. Decreased RXR? expression was detected after 4 h stimulation of human umbilical arterial endothelial cells with TNF-?. Interestingly, under physiological flow conditions, TNF-?-induced endothelial adhesion of human mononuclear cells was concentration-dependently inhibited by preincubation of the human umbilical arterial endothelial cells with RXR agonists such as bexarotene or 9-cis-retinoid acid. RXR agonists also prevented TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, as well as endothelial growth-related oncogene-? and MCP-1 release. Suppression of RXR? expression with a small interfering RNA abrogated these responses. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPKs and NF-?B pathways were involved in these events. RXR agonist-induced antileukocyte adhesive effects seemed to be mediated via RXR?/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? interaction, since endothelial PPAR? silencing abolished their inhibitory responses. Furthermore, RXR agonists increased RXR/PPAR? interaction, and combinations of suboptimal concentrations of both nuclear receptor ligands inhibited TNF-?-induced mononuclear leukocyte arrest by 60-65%. In vivo, bexarotene dose-dependently inhibited TNF-?-induced leukocyte adhesion to the murine cremasteric arterioles and decreased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. Therefore, these results reveal that RXR agonists can inhibit the initial inflammatory response that precedes the atherogenic process by targeting different steps of the mononuclear recruitment cascade. Thus, RXR agonists may constitute a new therapeutic tool in the control of the inflammatory process associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22661092

  11. The expanding repertoire of receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) function.

    PubMed

    Klein, Klara R; Matson, Brooke C; Caron, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) associate with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the plasma membrane and together bind a variety of peptide ligands, serving as a communication interface between the extracellular and intracellular environments. The collection of RAMP-interacting GPCRs continues to expand and now consists of GPCRs from families A, B and C, suggesting that RAMP activity is extremely prevalent. RAMP association with GPCRs can regulate GPCR function by altering ligand binding, receptor trafficking and desensitization, and downstream signaling pathways. Here, we elaborate on these RAMP-dependent mechanisms of GPCR regulation, which provide opportunities for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26740457

  12. Activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor through conformational rearrangement of disulphide-linked receptor dimers

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Maral; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Kenchappa, Rajappa S.; Simi, Anastasia; Karaca, Esra; Reversi, Alessandra; Choi, Soyoung; Bothwell, Mark; Mingarro, Ismael; Friedman, Wilma J.; Schiavo, Giampietro; Bastiaens, Philippe I. H.; Verveer, Peter J.; Carter, Bruce D.; Ibez, Carlos F.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Ligand-mediated dimerization has emerged as a universal mechanism of growth factor receptor activation. Recent structural studies have shown that neurotrophins interact with dimers of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), but the actual mechanism of receptor activation has remained elusive. Here we show that p75NTR forms disulphide-linked dimers independently of neurotrophin binding through the highly conserved Cys257 in its transmembrane domain. Mutation of Cys257 abolished neurotrophin-dependent receptor activity but did not affect downstream signaling by the p75NTR/NgR/Lingo-1 complex in response to MAG, indicating the existence of distinct, ligand-specific activation mechanisms for p75NTR. FRET experiments revealed a close association of p75NTR intracellular domains that was transiently disrupted by conformational changes induced upon NGF binding. Although mutation of Cys257 did not alter the oligomeric state of p75NTR, the mutant receptor was no longer able to propagate conformational changes to the cytoplasmic domain upon ligand binding. We propose that neurotrophins activate p75NTR by a novel mechanism involving rearrangement of disulphide-linked receptor subunits. PMID:19376068

  13. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  14. Understanding Cytokine and Growth Factor Receptor Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Mariya; Whitty, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the detailed mechanism of action of cytokine and growth factor receptors – and particularly our quantitative understanding of the link between structure, mechanism and function – lags significantly behind our knowledge of comparable functional protein classes such as enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors, and ion channels. In particular, it remains controversial whether such receptors are activated by a mechanism of ligand-induced oligomerization, versus a mechanism in which the ligand binds to a pre-associated receptor dimer or oligomer that becomes activated through subsequent conformational rearrangement. A major limitation to progress has been the relative paucity of methods for performing quantitative mechanistic experiments on unmodified receptors expressed at endogenous levels on live cells. In this article we review the current state of knowledge on the activation mechanisms of cytokine and growth factor receptors, critically evaluate the evidence for and against the different proposed mechanisms, and highlight other key questions that remain unanswered. New approaches and techniques have led to rapid recent progress in this area, and the field is poised for major advances in the coming years, which promises to revolutionize our understanding of this large and biologically and medically important class of receptors. PMID:23046381

  15. Activation of spinal GABAB receptors normalizes N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Peng; Wu, Yu-Ming; Guo, Wen-Ya; Guo, Yue-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2014-06-15

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity is increased, while GABAB receptor is downregulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn in diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we determined the interaction of NMDARs and GABAB receptors in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was significantly lower in STZ-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, significantly increased the PWT in STZ-treated rats, an effect that was abolished by pre-administration of the GABAB receptor specific antagonist CGP55845. Spinal NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit, protein and mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in STZ-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal baclofen significantly reduced the NR2B protein and mRNA expression levels in STZ-treated rats. Intrathecal administration of CGP55845 eliminated baclofen-induced reduction of NR2B protein and mRNA levels in STZ-treated rats. In addition, the phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein level was significantly higher in the spinal cord dorsal horn in STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of baclofen significantly decreased phosphorylated CREB protein level in STZ-treated rats; an effect was blocked by CGP55845. These data suggest that activation of GABAB receptors in the spinal cord dorsal horn normalizes NMDAR expression level in diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:24787504

  16. Cloning, constitutive activity and expression profiling of two receptors related to relaxin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Proost, Paul; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) comprise a cluster of transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular domain. This receptor group can be classified into three subtypes. Belonging to the subtype C LGRs are the mammalian relaxin receptors LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which mediate important reproductive and other processes. We identified two related receptors in the genome of the fruit fly and cloned their open reading frames into an expression vector. Interestingly, dLGR3 demonstrated constitutive activity at very low doses of transfected plasmid, whereas dLGR4 did not show any basal activity. Both receptors exhibited a similar expression pattern during development, with relatively high transcript levels during the first larval stage. In addition, both receptors displayed higher expression in male adult flies as compared to female flies. Analysis of the tissue distribution of both receptor transcripts revealed a high expression of dLGR3 in the female fat body, while the expression of dLGR4 peaked in the midgut of both the wandering and adult stage. PMID:25064813

  17. Laminin-database v.2.0: an update on laminins in health and neuromuscular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Golbert, Daiane C. F.; Santana-van-Vliet, Eliane; Mundstein, Alex S.; Calfo, Vicente; Savino, Wilson; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2014-01-01

    The laminin (LM)-database, hosted at http://www.lm.lncc.br, was published in the NAR database 2011 edition. It was the first database that provided comprehensive information concerning a non-collagenous family of extracellular matrix proteins, the LMs. In its first version, this database contained a large amount of information concerning LMs related to health and disease, with particular emphasis on the haemopoietic system. Users can easily access several tabs for LMs and LM-related molecules, as well as LM nomenclatures and direct links to PubMed. The LM-database version 2.0 integrates data from several publications to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge of LMs in health and disease. The novel features include the addition of two new tabs, ‘Neuromuscular Disorders’ and ‘miRNA-–LM Relationship’. More specifically, in this updated version, an expanding set of data has been displayed concerning the role of LMs in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the putative involvement of microRNAs. Given the importance of LMs in several biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell death, this upgraded version expands for users a panoply of information, regarding complex molecular circuitries that involve LMs in health and disease, including neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24106090

  18. Endothelin-converting enzyme 2 differentially regulates opioid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Fujita, W; Gomes, I; Bobeck, E; Devi, L A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opioid receptor function is modulated by post-activation events such as receptor endocytosis, recycling and/or degradation. While it is generally understood that the peptide ligand gets co-endocytosed with the receptor, relatively few studies have investigated the role of the endocytosed peptide and peptide processing enzymes in regulating receptor function. In this study, we focused on endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2), a member of the neprilysin family of metallopeptidases that exhibits an acidic pH optimum, localizes to an intracellular compartment and selectively processes neuropeptides including opioid peptides in vitro, and examined its role in modulating ? receptor recycling and resensitization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of ECE2 inhibition on hydrolysis of the endocytosed peptide was examined using thin-layer chromatography and on ? opioid receptor trafficking using either elisa or microscopy. The effect of ECE2 inhibition on receptor signalling was measured using a cAMP assay and, in vivo, on antinociception induced by intrathecally administered opioids by the tail-flick assay. KEY RESULTS The highly selective ECE2 inhibitor, S136492, significantly impaired ? receptor recycling and signalling by only those ligands that are ECE2 substrates and this was seen both in heterologous cells and in cells endogenously co-expressing ? receptors with ECE2. We also found that ECE2 inhibition attenuated antinociception mediated only by opioid peptides that are ECE2 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that ECE2, by selectively processing endogenous opioid peptides in the endocytic compartment, plays a role in modulating opioid receptor activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24990314

  19. HINT1 protein cooperates with cannabinoid 1 receptor to negatively regulate glutamate NMDA receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of a large number of drugs currently in therapeutic use. Likewise, the glutamate ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in certain neurological disorders, such as neurodegeration, neuropathic pain and mood disorders, as well as psychosis and schizophrenia. Thus, there is now an important need to characterize the interactions between GPCRs and NMDARs. Indeed, these interactions can produce distinct effects, and whereas the activation of Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) increases the calcium fluxes associated to NMDARs, that of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) antagonizes their permeation. Notably, a series of proteins interact with these receptors affecting their responses and interactions, and then emerge as novel therapeutic targets for the aforementioned pathologies. Results We found that in the presence of GPCRs, the HINT1 protein influences the activity of NMDARs, whereby NMDAR activation was enhanced in CNR1+/+/HINT1-/- cortical neurons and the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 provided these cells with no protection against a NMDA insult. NMDAR activity was normalized in these cells by the lentiviral expression of HINT1, which also restored the neuroprotection mediated by cannabinoids. NMDAR activity was also enhanced in CNR1-/-/HINT1+/+ neurons, although this activity was dampened by the expression of GPCRs like the MOR, CNR1 or serotonin 1A (5HT1AR). Conclusions The HINT1 protein plays an essential role in the GPCR-NMDAR connection. In the absence of receptor activation, GPCRs collaborate with HINT1 proteins to negatively control NMDAR activity. When activated, most GPCRs release the control of HINT1 and NMDAR responsiveness is enhanced. However, cannabinoids that act through CNR1 maintain the negative control of HINT1 on NMDAR function and their protection against glutamate excitotoxic insult persists. PMID:24093505

  20. Human mast cells adhere to and migrate on epithelial and vascular basement membrane laminins LM-332 and LM-511 via alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Sime, Wondossen; Lunderius-Andersson, Carolina; Enoksson, Mattias; Rousselle, Patricia; Tryggvason, Karl; Nilsson, Gunnar; Harvima, Ilkka; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are multifunctional effectors of the immune system that are distributed in many tissues, often in close association with the basement membrane of blood vessels, epithelium and nerves. Laminins (LMs), a family of large alphabetagamma heterotrimeric proteins, are major components of basement membrane that strongly promote cell adhesion and migration. In this study, we investigated the role of LM isoforms and their integrin receptors in human MC biology in vitro. In functional assays, alpha3-(LM-332) and alpha5-(LM-511) LMs, but not alpha1-(LM-111), alpha2-(LM-211), or alpha4-(LM-411) LMs, readily promoted adhesion and migration of cultured MCs. These activities were strongly enhanced by various stimuli. alpha3-LM was also able to costimulate IL-8 production. Among LM-binding integrins, MCs expressed alpha(3)beta(1), but not alpha(6)beta(1), alpha(7)beta(1), or alpha(6)beta(4), integrins. Blocking Abs to alpha(3)beta(1) integrin caused inhibition of both cell adhesion and migration on alpha3- and alpha5-LMs. Immunohistochemical studies on skin showed that MCs colocalized with epithelial and vascular basement membranes that expressed alpha3- and alpha5-LMs and that MCs expressed alpha(3) integrin but not alpha(6) integrin(s). These results demonstrate a role for alpha3- and alpha5-LMs and their alpha(3)beta(1) integrin receptor in MC biology. This may explain the intimate structural and functional interactions that MCs have with specific basement membranes. PMID:19752234

  1. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Palanker, Laura; Necakov, Aleksandar S.; Sampson, Heidi M.; Ni, Ruoyu; Hu, Chun; Thummel, Carl S.; Krause, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are a large family of transcription factors that play major roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism and disease. To determine how, where and when nuclear receptors are regulated by small chemical ligands and/or protein partners, we have used a ‘ligand sensor’ system to visualize spatial activity patterns for each of the 18 Drosophila nuclear receptors in live developing animals. Transgenic lines were established that express the ligand binding domain of each nuclear receptor fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4. When combined with a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, the fusion proteins show tissue- and stage-specific patterns of activation. We show that these responses accurately reflect the presence of endogenous and exogenously added hormone, and that they can be modulated by nuclear receptor partner proteins. The amnioserosa, yolk, midgut and fat body, which play major roles in lipid storage, metabolism and developmental timing, were identified as frequent sites of nuclear receptor activity. We also see dynamic changes in activation that are indicative of sweeping changes in ligand and/or co-factor production. The screening of a small compound library using this system identified the angular psoralen angelicin and the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb as activators of the Ultraspiracle (USP) ligand-binding domain. These results demonstrate the utility of this system for the functional dissection of nuclear receptor pathways and for the development of new receptor agonists and antagonists that can be used to modulate metabolism and disease and to develop more effective means of insect control. PMID:16914501

  2. Analyzing the activation of the melanocortin-2 receptor of tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Following the biochemical characterization of the pituitary hormone, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), in the 1950's, a number of structure/function studies were done which identifies two amino acid motifs in ACTH, the HFRW motif and KKRR motif, as critical for the activation of the "ACTH" receptor on adrenal cortex cells. In the 1990's the "ACTH" receptor was identified as a member of the melanocortin receptor gene family, and given the name melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R). Since that time a number of studies on both tetrapod and teleost MC2R orthologs have established that these orthologs can only be activated by ACTH, but not by any of the MSH-sized melanocortin ligands, and these orthologs require interaction with the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for functional expression. This review summarizes recent structure/function studies on human ACTH, and points out the importance of the GKPVG motif in ACTH for the activation of the receptor. In this regard, a multiple-step model for the activation of tetrapod and teleost MC2R orthologs is presented, and the evolution of gnathostome MC2R ligand selectivity and the requirement for MRAP interaction is discussed in light of a recent study on a cartilaginous fish MC2R ortholog. This review contains excerpts from the Gorbman/Bern Lecture presented at the Second Meeting of the North American Society for Comparative Endocrinology (NASCE). PMID:24713445

  3. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  4. Receptors involved in cell activation by antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karim J; Kruithof, Egbert K O; de Moerloose, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease associated with arterial or venous thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss and is caused by pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLA). The plasma protein ?2-glycoprotein 1 (?2GP1) has been identified as a major target of aPLA associated with APS. Cell activation by aPLA appears to be a major pathogenic cause in the pathogenesis of APS. Receptors, co-receptors and accessory molecules are known to assist the pathogenic effects of aPLA. Members of the TLR family and the platelet receptor apolipoprotein E receptor 2' (apoER2'), a receptor belonging to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family, as well as GPIb?, were identified as putative candidates for aPLA recognition. CD14, a co-receptor for TLR2 and TLR4, and annexin A2, a ubiquitous Ca2+ -binding protein that is essential for actin-dependent vesicle transport, could serve as important accessory molecules in mediating the pathogenic effects of aPLA. Finally, complement activation has been reported in association with the pathogenicity of APS. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms in the pathogenesis of APS is controversial. Here, we review the various in vivo and in vitro models that have been used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of aPLA in APS. PMID:24054056

  5. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid?Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W.; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X. Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E.; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  6. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  7. Prolonged activation of NMDA receptors promotes dephosphorylation and alters postendocytic sorting of GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Miho; Vargas, Karina J; Wilkins, Megan E; Ramírez, Omar A; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Pangalos, Menelas N; Smart, Trevor G; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    Slow and persistent synaptic inhibition is mediated by metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). GABABRs are responsible for the modulation of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals and for hyperpolarization at postsynaptic sites. Postsynaptic GABABRs are predominantly found on dendritic spines, adjacent to excitatory synapses, but the control of their plasma membrane availability is still controversial. Here, we explore the role of glutamate receptor activation in regulating the function and surface availability of GABABRs in central neurons. We demonstrate that prolonged activation of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) leads to endocytosis, a diversion from a recycling route, and subsequent lysosomal degradation of GABABRs. These sorting events are paralleled by a reduction in GABABR-dependent activation of inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents. Postendocytic sorting is critically dependent on phosphorylation of serine 783 (S783) within the GABABR2 subunit, an established substrate of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). NMDA-R activation leads to a rapid increase in phosphorylation of S783, followed by a slower dephosphorylation, which results from the activity of AMPK and protein phosphatase 2A, respectively. Agonist activation of GABABRs counters the effects of NMDA. Thus, NMDA-R activation alters the phosphorylation state of S783 and acts as a molecular switch to decrease the abundance of GABABRs at the neuronal plasma membrane. Such a mechanism may be of significance during synaptic plasticity or pathological conditions, such as ischemia or epilepsy, which lead to prolonged activation of glutamate receptors. PMID:20643948

  8. Prolonged activation of NMDA receptors promotes dephosphorylation and alters postendocytic sorting of GABAB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Terunuma, Miho; Vargas, Karina J.; Wilkins, Megan E.; Ramírez, Omar A.; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Pangalos, Menelas N.; Smart, Trevor G.; Moss, Stephen J.; Couve, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Slow and persistent synaptic inhibition is mediated by metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). GABABRs are responsible for the modulation of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals and for hyperpolarization at postsynaptic sites. Postsynaptic GABABRs are predominantly found on dendritic spines, adjacent to excitatory synapses, but the control of their plasma membrane availability is still controversial. Here, we explore the role of glutamate receptor activation in regulating the function and surface availability of GABABRs in central neurons. We demonstrate that prolonged activation of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) leads to endocytosis, a diversion from a recycling route, and subsequent lysosomal degradation of GABABRs. These sorting events are paralleled by a reduction in GABABR-dependent activation of inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents. Postendocytic sorting is critically dependent on phosphorylation of serine 783 (S783) within the GABABR2 subunit, an established substrate of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). NMDA-R activation leads to a rapid increase in phosphorylation of S783, followed by a slower dephosphorylation, which results from the activity of AMPK and protein phosphatase 2A, respectively. Agonist activation of GABABRs counters the effects of NMDA. Thus, NMDA-R activation alters the phosphorylation state of S783 and acts as a molecular switch to decrease the abundance of GABABRs at the neuronal plasma membrane. Such a mechanism may be of significance during synaptic plasticity or pathological conditions, such as ischemia or epilepsy, which lead to prolonged activation of glutamate receptors. PMID:20643948

  9. Mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein mediates collagen-dependent cytoadherence.

    PubMed

    Dias, Andr Alves; Raze, Dominique; de Lima, Cristiana Soares; Marques, Maria Angela de Melo; Drobecq, Herv; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Ribeiro-Guimares, Michelle Lopes; Biet, Franck; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal

    2012-12-01

    When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular matrices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp), a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:23283469

  10. Motogenic and morphogenic activity of epithelial receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases play essential roles in morphogenesis and differentiation of epithelia. Here we examined various tyrosine kinase receptors, which are preferentially expressed in epithelia (c-met, c- ros, c-neu, and the keratin growth factor [KGF] receptor), for their capacity to induce cell motility and branching morphogenesis of epithelial cells. We exchanged the ligand-binding domain of these receptors by the ectodomain of trkA and could thus control signaling by the new ligand, NGF. We demonstrate here that the tyrosine kinases of c- met, c-ros, c-neu, the KGF receptor, and trkA, but not the insulin receptor, induced scattering and increased motility of kidney epithelial cells in tissue culture. Mutational analysis suggests that SHC binding is essential for scattering and increased cell motility induced by trkA. The induction of motility in epithelial cells is thus an important feature of various receptor tyrosine kinases, which in vivo play a role in embryogenesis and metastasis. In contrast, only the c-met receptor promoted branching morphogenesis of kidney epithelial cells in three-dimensional matrices, which resemble the formation of tubular epithelia in development. Interestingly, the ability of c-met to induce morphogenesis could be transferred to trkA, when in a novel receptor hybrid COOH-terminal sequences of c-met (including Y14 to Y16) were fused to the trkA kinase domain. These data demonstrate that tubulogenesis of epithelia is a restricted activity of tyrosine kinases, as yet only demonstrated for the c-met receptor. We predict the existence of specific substrates that mediate this morphogenesis signal. PMID:8655582

  11. The impact of pregnane X receptor activation on liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wright, M C

    2006-12-01

    The PXR (pregnane X receptor) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that is activated by a range of endobiotics and xenobiotics. The activated PXR modulates the transcription of genes in hepatocytes (the main functional cell of the liver) associated with endobiotic and xenobiotic uptake, metabolism and excretion. However, activation of the PXR also inhibits a deleterious response of the liver to chronic damage--that of fibrosis. The antifibrogenic mode of action is mediated through changes in the expression of genes in hepatic stellate cells and liver macrophages (Kupffers). These results suggest an additional function for the PXR. PMID:17073765

  12. AT2 RECEPTOR ACTIVITIES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Matavelli, Luis C.; Siragy, Helmy M.

    2014-01-01

    Although angiotensin II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was discovered over two decades ago, its contribution to physiology and pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. Current knowledge suggests that under normal physiologic conditions, AT2R counterbalances the effects of angiotensin II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R). A major obstacle for AT2R investigations was the lack of specific agonists. Most of the earlier AT2R studies were performed using the peptidic agonist, CG42112A, or the non-peptidic antagonist PD123319. CGP42112A is non-specific for AT2R and in higher concentrations can bind to AT1R. Recently, the development of specific non-peptidic AT2R agonists boosted the efforts in identifying the therapeutic potentials for AT2R stimulation. Unlike AT1R, AT2R is involved in vasodilation via release of bradykinin and nitric oxide, anti-inflammation and healing from injury. Interestingly, the vasodilatory effects of AT2R stimulation were not associated with significant reduction in blood pressure. In the kidney, AT2R stimulation produced natriuresis, increased renal blood flow, and reduced tissue inflammation. In animal studies, enhanced AT2R function led to reduction of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, and reduced the size of the infarcted area. Similarly, AT2R stimulation demonstrated protective effects in vasculature and brain. PMID:25636068

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action. PMID:19049593

  14. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  15. Proteinase-activated receptor 2: differential activation of the receptor by tethered ligand and soluble peptide analogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Bahjat; Wijesuriya, Suranga J; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2002-09-01

    Activation of rat proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by trypsin involves the unmasking of the tethered sequence S(37)LIGRL(42) that either tethered or on its own as a free peptide, activates PAR2. We aimed to determine whether different peptide sequences acting either as trypsin-revealed tethered ligands or as soluble peptides had the same relative activities for triggering the receptor. A comparison was also made between the different soluble and tethered receptor activating sequences in receptor constructs with extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) residues E(232)E(233) (PAR2SR/EE) mutated to R(232)R(233) (PAR2SR/RR). Using site-directed mutagenesis, we prepared PAR2 constructs with trypsin-revealed tethered ligand sequences corresponding to the synthetic receptor-activating peptides (PAR2APs): SLIGRL-NH(2) (SR-NH(2)), SLIGAL-NH(2) (SA-NH(2)), and SLIGEL-NH(2) (SE-NH(2)). Kirsten virus-transformed rat kidney cells stably expressing 1) wild-type PAR2 with site-mutated tethered ligands (PAR2SA/EE and PAR2SE/EE); 2) wild-type PAR2 with ECL2 mutated to R(232)R(233) (PAR2SR/RR); and 3) PAR2 constructs with both the RR mutation in ECL2 and a mutation in the tethered ligand (PAR2SA/RR and PAR2SE/RR) were assessed for receptor-mediated calcium signaling and cell growth inhibition, upon activation either by trypsin or the above-mentioned PAR2APs. Trypsin exerted equivalent and full agonist activity on the PAR2 constructs, causing a maximum response between 20 to 80 nM. In contrast, the PAR2APs as free peptide agonists showed marked potency differences in all wild-type receptors with mutated tethered ligands (SR-NH(2) > SA-NH(2) > SE-NH(2)) and in all ECL2 RR mutated constructs (SE-NH(2) > SR-NH(2) > SA-NH(2)). We conclude that for receptor activation, the trypsin-revealed PAR2 tethered ligand sequence interacts differently for receptor activation than does the same peptide sequence as a free peptide. PMID:12183662

  16. Chlorotriazines do not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the oestrogen receptor or the thyroid receptor in in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Navas, Jos M; Fernndez-Cruz, Mara L

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine, prometryn, propazine and simazine are chlorotriazines that are commonly employed as herbicides. However, their use is a major cause of concern, due to their reported endocrine disrupting effects in different taxa. Data from studies on the molecular and cellular processes underlying the hormonal action of these substances are contradictory. The ability of these chlorotriazines and the atrazine metabolites, desethyl-s-chlorotriazine and desisopropyl-s-chlorotriazine, to trigger responses mediated by the oestrogen receptor (ER), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thyroid receptor (TR), was studied by using in vitro approaches. Transcriptional activation assays were applied to observe the activation of ER and TR. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the RTG-2 cell line served as an indicator of AhR activation. No responses were found in any of the assays, with any of the six chlorotriazines tested. Our observations indicate that the chlorotriazines tested are unlikely to cause their endocrine effects via these receptors. PMID:24773485

  17. Relationship between expression of laminin and pathological features in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Wang, Yu-Ying; Song, Jin-Dan

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and significance of laminin in human colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Using the monoclonal antibody to laminin and streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method, the expression of laminin in 63 cases of human colorectal carcinoma tissues was determined. RESULTS: In normal marge intestinal mucosa adjacent to carcinoma, laminin was largely restricted to basement membrane in continuous linear pattern. In contrast, human colorectal carcinomas exhibited a progressive loss of an intact basement membrane that was correlated with decreasing differentiation degree. Well and moderately differentiated tumors exhibited a thin basement membrane with intermittent disruptions, and poorly differentiated tumors exhibited no areas of intact basement membrane. An association was found between lack of basement membrane laminin immunohistochemical staining in colorectal carcinoma and poorly differentiated tumor (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical staining for laminin could provide a very useful indexfor the determination of the differentiation degree of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:11819279

  18. Structure-activity relationships of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Stanislaus, D; Janovick, J A; Conn, P M

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of cell-surface receptors is to discriminate the specific signaling molecule or ligand from a large array of chemically diverse extracellular substances and to activate an effector signaling cascade that triggers an intracellular response and eventually a biological effect. G protein-coupled cell-surface receptors (GPCRs) mediate their intracellular actions through the activation of guanine nucleotide-binding signal-transducing proteins (G proteins), which form a diverse family of regulatory GTPases that, in the GTP-bound state, bind and activate downstream membrane-localized effectors. Hundreds of GPCRs signal through one or more of these G proteins in response to a large variety of stimuli including photons, neurotransmitters, and hormones of variable molecular structure. The mechanisms by which these ligands provoke activation of the receptor/G-protein system are highly complex and multifactorial. Knowledge and mapping of the structural determinants and requirements for optimal GPCR function are of paramount importance, not only for a better and more detailed understanding of the molecular basis of ligand action and receptor function in normal and abnormal conditions, but also for a rational design of early diagnostic and therapeutic tools that may allow exogenous regulation of receptor and G protein function in disease processes. PMID:10714355

  19. Toll-like receptors: Activation, signalling and transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Dominic

    2015-08-01

    Families of innate immune receptors serve as the bodies primary defence system by recognising and rapidly responding to infection by microorganisms or to endogenous danger signals and initiating inflammatory processes. Whilst Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family to be discovered, important and exciting discoveries continue to emerge into the molecular mechanisms that control their activation and regulation. Herein, I will provide an overview of TLR activation and their downstream signalling cascades, and discuss some of the recent findings concerning the assembly of a TLR oligomeric signalling platform, known as the Myddosome. Further, a brief examination of the importance of crosstalk between multiple TLRs or between TLRs and other innate immune receptors for appropriate and coordinated immune responses will be presented. Finally, I will discuss the importance of mechanisms that regulate TLRs with a focus on the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in modulating transcriptional responses downstream of TLRs. PMID:25846205

  20. Ghrelin receptor conformational dynamics regulate the transition from a preassembled to an active receptor:Gq complex

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; M'Kadmi, Cline; Gagne, Didier; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Denoyelle, Sverine; Gaibelet, Grald; Gavara, Laurent; Garcia de Souza Costa, Mauricio; Perahia, David; Trinquet, Eric; Mouillac, Bernard; Galandrin, Sgolne; Gals, Cline; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Floquet, Nicolas; Martinez, Jean; Marie, Jacky; Banres, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    How G protein-coupled receptor conformational dynamics control G protein coupling to trigger signaling is a key but still open question. We addressed this question with a model system composed of the purified ghrelin receptor assembled into lipid discs. Combining receptor labeling through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, lanthanide resonance energy transfer, and normal mode analyses, we directly demonstrate the occurrence of two distinct receptor:Gq assemblies with different geometries whose relative populations parallel the activation state of the receptor. The first of these assemblies is a preassembled complex with the receptor in its basal conformation. This complex is specific of Gq and is not observed with Gi. The second one is an active assembly in which the receptor in its active conformation triggers G protein activation. The active complex is present even in the absence of agonist, in a direct relationship with the high constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor. These data provide direct evidence of a mechanism for ghrelin receptor-mediated Gq signaling in which transition of the receptor from an inactive to an active conformation is accompanied by a rearrangement of a preassembled receptor:G protein complex, ultimately leading to G protein activation and signaling. PMID:25605885

  1. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  2. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  3. Laminin E8 fragments support efficient adhesion and expansion of dissociated human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Suemori, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Yamada, Masashi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Hayashi, Maria; Kumagai, Hideaki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Kawase, Eihachiro

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the potential to provide an infinite source of tissues for regenerative medicine. Although defined xeno-free media have been developed, culture conditions for reliable propagation of hESCs still require considerable improvement. Here we show that recombinant E8 fragments of laminin isoforms (LM-E8s), which are the minimum fragments conferring integrin-binding activity, promote greater adhesion of hESCs and hiPSCs than do Matrigel and intact laminin isoforms. Furthermore, LM-E8s sustain long-term self-renewal of hESCs and hiPSCs in defined xeno-free media with dissociated cell passaging. We successfully maintained three hESC and two hiPSC lines on LM-E8s in three defined media for 10 passages. hESCs maintained high level expression of pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype after 30 passages and could differentiate into all three germ layers. This culture system allows robust proliferation of hESCs and hiPSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:23212365

  4. Laminin concentration in ascites of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Catarino, R M; Lopes, J D; Forones, N M; Parise, E R

    2005-02-01

    Laminin levels in ascitic fluid have been proposed as a marker for neoplastic ascites. We compared the concentration of laminin in serum and in ascitic fluid from patients with hepatic cirrhosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis and assessed the diagnostic value of serum laminin levels in differentiating neoplastic from benign ascites. Laminin concentrations were determined by ELISA with antibodies against laminin extracted from the human placenta, in patients with ascites due to peritoneal carcinomatosis (N = 20) and hepatic cirrhosis (N = 33). Patients with infected or hemorrhagic ascites were excluded. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of serum laminin for the diagnosis of neoplastic ascites. When compared to the group with cirrhosis, the carcinomatosis group presented significantly higher mean laminin levels in serum (3.3 +/- 0.5 vs 2.1 +/- 0.4 microg/ml, mean +/- SD, P < 0.05) and ascites (2.8 +/- 0.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.4 microg/ml, P < 0.05). Although laminin concentration was higher in serum than in ascites, the laminin serum/ascites ratio and serum-ascites gradient did not differ between the studied groups. A significant correlation (r = 0.93, P < 0.0001) was observed between the serum and ascites laminin values. Serum laminin levels >2.25 microg/ml showed 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity for the diagnosis of neoplastic ascites. Serum concentration seems to be the main determinant of laminin levels in ascitic fluid and its values can be used as a diagnostic parameter in the study of neoplastic ascites. PMID:15785839

  5. Modulation of Opioid Receptor Ligand Affinity and Efficacy Using Active and Inactive State Receptor Models

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Jessica P.; Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2012-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are widely used for the treatment of pain; however chronic use results in the development of tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist maintains the analgesia associated with MOR agonists, but with reduced negative side effects. Using our newly refined opioid receptor models for structure-based ligand design, we have synthesized several pentapeptides with tailored affinity and efficacy profiles. In particular, we have obtained pentapeptides 8, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]NH2, and 12, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]OH, which demonstrates high affinity and full agonist behavior at MOR, high affinity but very low efficacy for DOR, and minimal affinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Functional properties of these peptides as MOR agonists/DOR antagonists lacking undesired KOR activity make them promising candidates for future in vivo studies of MOR/DOR interactions. Subtle structural variation of 12, by substituting D-Cys5 for L-Cys5, generated analog 13 which maintains low nanomolar MOR and DOR affinity, but which displays no efficacy at either receptor. These results demonstrate the power and utility of accurate receptor models for structure-based ligand design, as well as the profound sensitivity of ligand function on its structure. PMID:22882801

  6. Protease-Activated Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in Visceral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cenac, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The protease-activated receptors (PARs) play a pivotal role in inflammatory and nociceptive processes. PARs have raised considerable interest because of their capacity to regulate numerous aspects of viscera physiology and pathophysiology. The present article summarizes research on PARs and proteases as signalling molecules in visceral pain. In particular, experiments in animal models suggest that PAR2 is important for visceral hypersensitivity. Moreover, endogenous PAR2 agonists seem to be released by colonic tissue of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting a role for this receptor in visceral pain perception. Thus, PARs, together with proteases that activate them, represent exciting targets for therapeutic intervention on visceral pain. PMID:24396336

  7. New and selective ryanodine receptor activators for insect control.

    PubMed

    Lahm, George P; Cordova, Daniel; Barry, James D

    2009-06-15

    Diamide insecticides have emerged as one of the most promising new classes of insecticide chemistry owing to their excellent insecticidal efficacy and high margins of mammalian safety. Chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, the first two insecticides from this class, demonstrate exceptional activity across a broad range of pests in the order Lepidoptera. This chemistry has been confirmed to control insects via activation of ryanodine receptors which leads to uncontrolled calcium release in muscle. The high levels of mammalian safety are attributed to a strong selectivity for insect over mammalian receptors. PMID:19186058

  8. Protease-activated receptor 1-dependent neuronal damage involves NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Cecily E.; Mannaioni, Guido; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Sastre, Aristide A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed throughout the central nervous system. PAR1 activation by brain-derived as well as blood-derived proteases has been shown to have variable and complex effects in a variety of animal models of neuronal injury and inflammation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of PAR1 on lesion volume in wild-type or PAR1−/− C57Bl/6 mice subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or injected with NMDA in the striatum. We found that removal of PAR1 reduced infarct volume following transient focal ischemia to 57% of control. Removal of PAR1 or application of a PAR1 antagonist also reduced the neuronal injury associated with intrastriatal injection of NMDA to 60% of control. To explore whether NMDA receptor potentiation by PAR1 activation contributes to the harmful effects of PAR1, we investigated the effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on the neuroprotective phenotype of PAR1−/− mice. We found that MK801 reduced penumbral but not core neuronal injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or intrastriatal NMDA injection. Lesion volumes in both models were not significantly different between PAR1−/− mice treated with and without MK801. Use of the NMDA receptor antagonist and dissociative anesthetic ketamine also renders NMDA-induced lesion volumes identical in PAR1−/− mice and wild-type mice. These data suggest that the ability of PAR1 activation to potentiate NMDA receptor function may underlie its harmful actions during injury. PMID:19416668

  9. Neurohumoral activation in heart failure: the role of adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Brum, Patricia C; Rolim, Natale P L; Bacurau, Aline V N; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common endpoint for many forms of cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The development of end-stage HF often involves an initial insult to the myocardium that reduces cardiac output and leads to a compensatory increase in sympathetic nervous system activity. Acutely, the sympathetic hyperactivity through the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors increases heart rate and cardiac contractility, which compensate for decreased cardiac output. However, chronic exposure of the heart to elevated levels of catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland may lead to further pathologic changes in the heart, resulting in continued elevation of sympathetic tone and a progressive deterioration in cardiac function. On a molecular level, altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling plays a pivotal role in the genesis and progression of HF. beta-adrenergic receptor number and function are decreased, and downstream mechanisms are altered. In this review we will present an overview of the normal beta-adrenergic receptor pathway in the heart and the consequences of sustained adrenergic activation in HF. The myopathic potential of individual components of the adrenergic signaling will be discussed through the results of research performed in genetic modified animals. Finally, we will discuss the potential clinical impact of beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms for better understanding the progression of HF. PMID:16936938

  10. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  11. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPAR? agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (13), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 ? M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a ?-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  12. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  13. Steroid Receptor RNA Activator - A nuclear receptor coregulator with multiple partners: Insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Colley, Shane M; Leedman, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) occupies a unique and enigmatic position within the nuclear receptor (NR) field and more broadly in transcriptional regulation. This is as a result of its transcripts having both coding and non-coding coactivator activities along with its protein product SRAP performing mixed coactivator/repressor functions. Recent publications have provided greater understanding of SRA gene product activities and how they affect not only NR function, but now more broadly, signalling pathways involved in differentiation and metabolism. This review will discuss the isolation of SRA, its gene products, regulation of transcription along with its in vitro and in vivo activities with a particular focus on its actions as an RNA and its binding partners. PMID:21807064

  14. Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Carboxylesterase Expression and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Staudinger, Jeff L.; Xu, Chenshu; Cui, Yue J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    i) Importance of the field Emerging evidence demonstrates that several nuclear receptor (NR) family members regulate drug-inducible expression and activity of several important carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes in mammalian liver and intestine. Numerous clinically prescribed anticancer prodrugs, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, environmental toxicants, and procarcinogens are substrates for CES enzymes. Moreover, a key strategy employed in rational drug design frequently utilizes an ester linkage methodology to selectively target a prodrug, or to improve the water solubility of a novel compound. ii) Areas covered in this review This review will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding NR-mediated regulation of CES enzymes in mammals, and highlight their importance in drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and toxicology. iii) What the reader will gain New knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulation of CES enzymes by NR proteins pregnane x receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) has recently come to light through the use of knockout and transgenic mouse models. Novel insights regarding the species-specific cross-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR?, NR1C1) signaling and CES gene expression is discussed. iv) Take home message Elucidation of the role of NR-mediated regulation of CES enzymes in liver and intestine will have a significant impact on rational drug design and the development of novel prodrugs, especially for patients on combination therapy. PMID:20163318

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  16. Glucocorticoid receptor mediates the gluconeogenic activity of the farnesoid X receptor in the fasting condition.

    PubMed

    Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; Baldelli, Franco; Zampella, Angela; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a master gene orchestrating the activation of gluconeogenic genes in the liver in response to food withdrawal. Mechanisms of GR regulation by other nuclear receptors, however, are poorly defined. Here, we report that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid sensor, activates gluconeogenic pathways in the liver and regulates GR expression and activity. FXR-null mice are hypoglycemic in the unfed state and exhibit both a reduced hepatic production of glucose in response to the pyruvate challenge and a decreased expression of two rate-limiting enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), along with blunted liver expression of GR. Treating wild-type mice with a semisynthetic FXR ligand (6E-CDCA) increases the liver expression of GR, PEPCK, and G6Pase. This effect was lost in fed animals, as well as in FXR(-/-) mice. The human and mouse GR promoters contain a conserved FXR-responsive element (an ER-8 sequence) whose activation by FXR ligation leads to GR transcription. GR silencing by siRNA in vitro or its pharmacological antagonism in vivo with mifepristone reverses the effect of FXR activation on expression of gluconeogenic genes. These findings demonstrate that an FXR-GR pathway regulates the activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transition from the unfed to the fed state. PMID:22447981

  17. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPAR?,...

  18. Thrombopoietin receptor activation by myeloproliferative neoplasm associated calreticulin mutants.

    PubMed

    Chachoua, Ilyas; Pecquet, Christian; El-Khoury, Mira; Nivarthi, Harini; Albu, Roxana-Irina; Marty, Caroline; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Vertenoeil, Gaëlle; Ngo, Anna; Koay, Ann; Raslova, Hana; Courtoy, Pierre J; Choong, Meng Ling; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2016-03-10

    Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) represented by deletions and insertions in exon 9 inducing a -1/+2 frameshift are associated with a significant fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The mechanisms by which CALR mutants induce MPN are unknown. Here, we show by transcriptional, proliferation, biochemical, and primary cell assays that the pathogenic CALR mutants specifically activate the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR/MPL). No activation is detected with a battery of type I and II cytokine receptors, except granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, which supported only transient and weak activation. CALR mutants induce ligand-independent activation of JAK2/STAT/phosphatydylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways via TpoR, and autonomous growth in Ba/F3 cells. In these transformed cells, no synergy is observed between JAK2 and PI3-K inhibitors in inhibiting cytokine-independent proliferation, thus showing a major difference from JAK2V617F cells where such synergy is strong. TpoR activation was dependent on its extracellular domain and its N-glycosylation, especially at N117. The glycan binding site and the novel C-terminal tail of the mutant CALR proteins were required for TpoR activation. A soluble form of TpoR was able to prevent activation of full-length TpoR provided that it was N-glycosylated. By confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, CALR mutants exhibit different intracellular localization from that of wild-type CALR. Finally, knocking down either MPL/TpoR or JAK2 in megakaryocytic progenitors from patients carrying CALR mutations inhibited cytokine-independent megakaryocytic colony formation. Taken together, our study provides a novel signaling paradigm, whereby a mutated chaperone constitutively activates cytokine receptor signaling. PMID:26668133

  19. The activating enzyme of NEDD8 inhibits steroid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meiyun; Long, Xinghua; Bailey, Jason A; Reed, Chad A; Osborne, Elizabeth; Gize, Edward A; Kirk, Eric A; Bigsby, Robert M; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2002-02-01

    Coregulator proteins, coactivators and corepressors, have a profound influence on steroid receptor activity and play a role in regulating receptor levels. To identify novel coregulators of nuclear receptors, we used the ligand-binding and hinge region of ERalpha as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from rat uterine luminal epithelium. We report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a protein homologous to yeast and human ubiquitin-activating enzyme 3 (Uba3), the catalytic subunit of the activating enzyme of the ubiquitin-like NEDD8 (neural precursor cellexpressed developmentally down-regulated) conjugation pathway (known as neddylation). Sequence analysis revealed that Uba3 contains multiple nuclear receptor (NR)-interacting motifs (NR boxes), which are known to mediate interactions between coregulatory proteins and ligand-activated NRs. Yeast two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrated that Uba3 directly interacts with ligand-occupied ERalpha and ERbeta. Transient transfection of Uba3 in mammalian cells inhibited ER-mediated transactivation in a time-dependent fashion; Uba3 had no effect on the initial events of transcriptional activation by liganded ER, but it blocked the progressive increase in target gene expression during continuous stimulation. Uba3 also inhibited transactivation by AR and PR in mammalian cells but had no effect on a steroid receptor-independent transactivation pathway. An enzymatically silent form of Uba3 did not inhibit ER-induced transcription, and a Uba3-binding fragment of amyloid precursor protein-binding protein, the other subunit of the NEDD8-activating enzyme, partially overcame Uba3-mediated inhibition, demonstrating that the neddylation activity of Uba3 is required for its inhibition of steroid receptor transactivation. Thus, Uba3 inhibits transcription induced by steroid hormone receptors through a novel mechanism that involves the neddylation pathway. Understanding the mechanisms controlling hormone responsiveness of target tissues, such as the uterus and mammary gland, may lead to novel insights of therapeutic intervention. PMID:11818503

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  1. Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sounier, Rémy; Mas, Camille; Steyaert, Jan; Laeremans, Toon; Manglik, Aashish; Huang, Weijiao; Kobilka, Brian K; Déméné, Héléne; Granier, Sébastien

    2015-08-20

    µ-Opioid receptors (µORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by a structurally diverse spectrum of natural and synthetic agonists including endogenous endorphin peptides, morphine and methadone. The recent structures of the μOR in inactive and agonist-induced active states (Huang et al., ref. 2) provide snapshots of the receptor at the beginning and end of a signalling event, but little is known about the dynamic sequence of events that span these two states. Here we use solution-state NMR to examine the process of μOR activation using a purified receptor (mouse sequence) preparation in an amphiphile membrane-like environment. We obtain spectra of the μOR in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of the high-affinity agonist BU72 alone, or with BU72 and a G protein mimetic nanobody. Our results show that conformational changes in transmembrane segments 5 and 6 (TM5 and TM6), which are required for the full engagement of a G protein, are almost completely dependent on the presence of both the agonist and the G protein mimetic nanobody, revealing a weak allosteric coupling between the agonist-binding pocket and the G-protein-coupling interface (TM5 and TM6), similar to that observed for the β2-adrenergic receptor. Unexpectedly, in the presence of agonist alone, we find larger spectral changes involving intracellular loop 1 and helix 8 compared to changes in TM5 and TM6. These results suggest that one or both of these domains may play a role in the initial interaction with the G protein, and that TM5 and TM6 are only engaged later in the process of complex formation. The initial interactions between the G protein and intracellular loop 1 and/or helix 8 may be involved in G-protein coupling specificity, as has been suggested for other family A G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245377

  2. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  3. Luciferase Reporter Assays to Assess Liver X Receptor Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Gage, Matthew C; Pourcet, Benoit; Pineda-Torra, Ins

    2016-01-01

    Luciferase reporter assays are sensitive and accurate tests that enable the analysis of regulatory sequences, the magnitude of transcriptional activity by transcription factors, and the discovery of gene regulatory elements and small-molecule modulators with high levels of precision. This is made possible through detection of bioluminescence produced by luciferase-coding reporters in a wide range of cellular environments. These assays are routinely used to analyze the activity of transcription factors, including the lipid-activated liver X receptor (LXR), in response to different stimuli as well as for the identification of their ligands. In this chapter we describe in detail the assays performed to investigate LXR activity in a macrophage-like cell line (RAW 267.4). These can be easily adapted to other nuclear receptors and transcription factors. PMID:26552676

  4. The Search for Endogenous Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh P.; Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    In its simplest aspect, this review is an attempt to describe the major ligand classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide models that may help define the physiological activator or “endogenous ligand” of the AHR. We begin by presenting evidence that supports a developmental function for the AHR. This is followed by proposing mechanisms by which an endogenous ligand and consequent AHR activation might be important during normal physiology and development. With this background, we then present a survey of the known xenobiotic, endogenous, dietary and “un-conventional” activators of the AHR. When possible, this includes information about their induction potency, receptor binding affinity and potential for exposure. Because of the essential function of the AHR in embryonic development, we discuss the candidacy of each of these compounds as physiologically important activators. PMID:18076143

  5. Structural insights into -opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A J; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N; Sanborn, Adrian L; Kato, Hideaki E; Livingston, Kathryn E; Thorsen, Thor S; Kling, Ralf C; Granier, Sbastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M; Traynor, John R; Weis, William I; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O; Kobilka, Brian K

    2015-08-20

    Activation of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for ?OR activation, here we report a 2.1 X-ray crystal structure of the murine ?OR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the ?OR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor. Comparison with active ?2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the ?OR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245379

  6. Interaction of proteins with transcriptionally active estrogen receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaills, V; Dauvois, S; Danielian, P S; Parker, M G

    1994-01-01

    The ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor contains a hormone-dependent transcriptional activation function. To investigate the mechanism by which it stimulates transcription, we have expressed fusion proteins containing either the wild-type or a transcriptionally defective form of this domain fused to glutathione-S-transferase and searched for proteins that specifically interact in vitro. By far-Western blotting, three proteins of 160, 140, and 80 kDa expressed in different mammalian cells (HeLa, ZR75-1, and COS-1) were shown to associate directly with the wild-type receptor in the presence of estrogen. Two additional proteins appeared to interact indirectly with the hormone binding domain since they were detected only by a pull-down assay. All of these interactions were abolished by antiestrogens, such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen, ICI 164384, or ICI 182780, which inhibit hormone-dependent transcription. Moreover, they were not observed with the transcriptionally defective form of the receptor even in the presence of estrogen. Thus, since the ability of these proteins to interact with the hormone binding domain correlates with its transcriptional activity, one or more of them may contribute to hormone-dependent transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor. Images PMID:7937828

  7. Potentiation of dopamine D1-like receptor signaling by concomitant activation of ?- and ?-opioid receptors in mouse medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Onali, Pierluigi

    2012-12-01

    Opioid receptors located in the ventral tegmental area are known to regulate dopamine (DA) release from mesocortical afferents to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but little is known on whether in this cortical region activation of opioid receptors affect DA receptor signaling. In the present study we show that in mouse mPFC concomitant activation of either ?- or ?-opioid receptors, but not ?-opioid receptors, potentiated DA D1-like receptor-induced stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity through a G protein ?? subunit-dependent mechanism. In tissue slices of mPFC, the combined addition of the opioid agonist leu-enkephalin and the DA D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297 produced more than additive increase in the phosphorylation state of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits GluR1 and NR1, respectively. Moreover, in primary cultures of mouse frontal cortex neurons, DA D1-like receptor-induced Ser133 phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein was potentiated by concurrent stimulation of opioid receptors. Double immunofluorescence analysis of cultured cortical cells indicated that a large percentage of DA D1 receptor positive cells expressed either ?- or ?-opioid receptor immunoreactivity. These data indicate that in mouse mPFC activation of ?- and ?-opioid receptors enhances DA D1-like receptor signaling likely through converging regulatory inputs on ??-stimulated adenylyl cyclase isoforms. This previously unrecognized synergistic interaction may selectively affect DA D1 transmission at specific postsynaptic sites where the receptors are co-localized and may play a role in prefrontal DA D1 regulation of opioid addiction. PMID:23073238

  8. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases AT1 angiotensin II receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D.; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    The dopaminergic and renin angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal AT1 receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in RPT cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pre-treatment with PD128077 for one week augmented the anti-hypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension. PMID:25368031

  9. Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins (RAMPs): New Insights and Roles.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2016-01-01

    It is now recognized that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), once considered largely independent functional units, have a far more diverse molecular architecture. Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) provide an important example of proteins that interact with GPCRs to modify their function. RAMPs are able to act as pharmacological switches and chaperones, and they can regulate signaling and/or trafficking in a receptor-dependent manner. This review covers recent discoveries in the RAMP field and summarizes the known GPCR partners and functions of RAMPs. We also discuss the first peptide-bound structures of RAMP-GPCR complexes, which give insight into the molecular mechanisms that enable RAMPs to alter the pharmacology and signaling of GPCRs. PMID:26514202

  10. Orvinols with Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [35S]GTP?S assay are predictive of the in vivo profile. PMID:23438330

  11. Biological Signaling: the Role of ``Electrostatic Epicenter'' in ``Protein Quake'' and Receptor Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Kang, Zhouyang; Hendriks, Johnny; Hellingwerf, Klaas

    2013-03-01

    Activation of a receptor protein during biological signaling is often characterized by a two state model: a receptor state (also called ``off state'') for detection of a stimuli, and a signaling state (``on state'') for signal relay. Receptor activation is a process that a receptor protein is structurally transformed from its receptor state to its signaling state through substantial conformational changes that are recognizable by its downstream signal relay partner. What are the structural and energetic origins for receptor activation in biological signaling? We report extensive evidence that further support the role of ``electrostatic epicenter'' in driving ``protein quake'' and receptor activation. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein for the negative phototaxis of a salt loving Halorhodospira halophia, is employed as a model system in this study. We will discuss potential applications of this receptor activation mechanism to other receptor proteins, including B-RAF receptor protein that is associated with many cancers.

  12. Human Laminin Isotype Coating for Creating Islet Cell Sheets.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shingo; Ohashi, Kazuo; Utoh, Rie; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-12-17

    Our experimental approach toward the development of new islet-based treatment for diabetes mellitus has been the creation of a monolayered islet cell construct (islet cell sheet), followed by its transplantation into a subcutaneous pocket. Previous studies describe rat laminin-5 (chain composition: ?3, ?3, ?2) as a suitable extracellular matrix (ECM) for surfaces comprised of a coated temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm). To progress toward the clinical application of this approach, the present study attempted to identify an optimal human ECM as a coating material on PIPAAm surfaces, which allowed islet cells to attach on the surfaces and subsequently to be harvested as a monolithic cell sheet. Dispersed rat islet cells were seeded onto PIPAAm dishes coated with various human laminin isotypes: human laminin (HL)-211, HL-332, HL-411, HL-511, and HL-placenta. Plating efficiency at day 1, the confluency at day 3, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test at day 3 were performed. The highest value of plating efficiency was found in the HL-332-PIPAAm group (83.1??0.7%). The HL-332-PIPAAm group also showed the highest cellular confluency (98.6??0.5%). Islet cells cultured on the HL-332-PIPAAm surfaces showed a positive response in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test. By reducing culture temperature from 37C to 20C in the HL-332-PIPAAm group, cells were able to be harvested as a monolithic islet sheet. The present study showed that HL-332 was an optimal human-derived ECM on a PIPAAm coating for preparing islet cell sheets. PMID:26858907

  13. Human Laminin Isotype Coating for Creating Islet Cell Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shingo; Ohashi, Kazuo; Utoh, Rie; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Our experimental approach toward the development of new islet-based treatment for diabetes mellitus has been the creation of a monolayered islet cell construct (islet cell sheet), followed by its transplantation into a subcutaneous pocket. Previous studies describe rat laminin-5 (chain composition: α3, β3, γ2) as a suitable extracellular matrix (ECM) for surfaces comprised of a coated temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm). To progress toward the clinical application of this approach, the present study attempted to identify an optimal human ECM as a coating material on PIPAAm surfaces, which allowed islet cells to attach on the surfaces and subsequently to be harvested as a monolithic cell sheet. Dispersed rat islet cells were seeded onto PIPAAm dishes coated with various human laminin isotypes: human laminin (HL)-211, HL-332, HL-411, HL-511, and HL-placenta. Plating efficiency at day 1, the confluency at day 3, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test at day 3 were performed. The highest value of plating efficiency was found in the HL-332-PIPAAm group (83.1 ± 0.7%). The HL-332-PIPAAm group also showed the highest cellular confluency (98.6 ± 0.5%). Islet cells cultured on the HL-332-PIPAAm surfaces showed a positive response in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test. By reducing culture temperature from 37°C to 20°C in the HL-332-PIPAAm group, cells were able to be harvested as a monolithic islet sheet. The present study showed that HL-332 was an optimal human-derived ECM on a PIPAAm coating for preparing islet cell sheets. PMID:26858907

  14. Interaction of receptor-activity-modifying protein1 with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin; Kleinert, Peter; Troxler, Heinz; Kelm, Jens M; Ittner, Lars M; Fischer, Jan A; Born, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 is an accessory protein of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer defines a receptor for the potent vasodilatory calcitonin gene-related peptide. A wider tissue distribution of RAMP1, as compared to that of the CLR, is consistent with additional biological functions. Here, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments identified beta-tubulin as a novel RAMP1-interacting protein. GST pull-down experiments indicated interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the interaction between the N-terminal region of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Interestingly, alpha-tubulin was co-extracted with beta-tubulin in pull-down experiments and immunoprecipitation of RAMP1 coprecipitated alpha- and beta-tubulin. Confocal microscopy indicated colocalization of RAMP1 and tubulin predominantly in axon-like processes of neuronal differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, the findings point to biological roles of RAMP1 beyond its established interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:17493758

  15. M3-muscarinic receptor promotes insulin release via receptor phosphorylation/arrestin-dependent activation of protein kinase D1.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kok Choi; Butcher, Adrian J; McWilliams, Phillip; Jones, David; Wess, Jrgen; Hamdan, Fadi F; Werry, Tim; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Charlton, Steven J; Munson, Sarah E; Cragg, Hannah A; Smart, Alison D; Tobin, Andrew B

    2010-12-01

    The activity of G protein-coupled receptors is regulated via hyper-phosphorylation following agonist stimulation. Despite the universal nature of this regulatory process, the physiological impact of receptor phosphorylation remains poorly studied. To address this question, we have generated a knock-in mouse strain that expresses a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of the M(3)-muscarinic receptor, a prototypical G(q/11)-coupled receptor. This mutant mouse strain was used here to investigate the role of M(3)-muscarinic receptor phosphorylation in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Importantly, the phosphorylation deficient receptor coupled to G(q/11)-signaling pathways but was uncoupled from phosphorylation-dependent processes, such as receptor internalization and ?-arrestin recruitment. The knock-in mice showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, indicating that M(3)-muscarinic receptors expressed on pancreatic islets regulate glucose homeostasis via receptor phosphorylation-/arrestin-dependent signaling. The mechanism centers on the activation of protein kinase D1, which operates downstream of the recruitment of ?-arrestin to the phosphorylated M(3)-muscarinic receptor. In conclusion, our findings support the unique concept that M(3)-muscarinic receptor-mediated augmentation of sustained insulin release is largely independent of G protein-coupling but involves phosphorylation-/arrestin-dependent coupling of the receptor to protein kinase D1. PMID:21078968

  16. CINPA1 is an inhibitor of constitutive androstane receptor that does not activate pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  17. Oxytocin induces social communication by activating arginine-vasopressin V1a receptors and not oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhimin; McCann, Katharine E; McNeill, John K; Larkin, Tony E; Huhman, Kim L; Albers, H Elliott

    2014-12-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors are very similar in structure. As a result, at least some of the effects of these peptides may be the result of crosstalk between their canonical receptors. The present study investigated this hypothesis by determining whether the induction of flank marking, a form of social communication in Syrian hamsters, by OT is mediated by the OT receptor or the AVP V1a receptor. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of OT or AVP induced flank marking in a dose-dependent manner although the effects of AVP were approximately 100 times greater than those of OT. Injections of highly selective V1a receptor agonists but not OT receptor agonists induced flank marking, and V1a receptor antagonists but not OT receptor antagonists significantly inhibited the ability of OT to induce flank marking. Lastly, injection of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), a peptide that stimulates OT but not AVP release, significantly increased odor-induced flank marking, and these effects were blocked by a V1a receptor antagonist. These data demonstrate that OT induces flank marking by activating AVP V1a and not OT receptors, suggesting that the V1a receptor should be considered to be an OT receptor as well as an AVP receptor. PMID:25173438

  18. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun

    2014-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206

  19. Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to αvβ3 integrin, but was moderate to weak with αvβ5, αvβ6, α2β1, and α6β1. Interestingly, the inhibition of r-Cam-dis on pancreatic cancer cell lines adhesion to laminin-1 was more effective than that to vitronectin. Based on our binding results to integrin receptors and previous adhesion studies using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, it is suggested that r-Cam-dis could be inhibiting adhesion of pancreatic cancer cell lines through integrins α2β1, α6β1, αvβ5, and αvβ6. PMID:26045944

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cardiovascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2005-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor and then modulate the function of many target genes. Three PPARs are known: alpha, beta/delta, and gamma. The better known are PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, which may be activated by different synthetic agonists, although the endogenous ligands are unknown. PPAR-alpha is involved in fatty acid oxidation and expressed in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, whereas PPAR-gamma is involved in fat cell differentiation, lipid storage, and insulin sensitivity. However, both have been shown to be present in variable amounts in cardiovascular tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and the heart. The activators of PPAR-alpha (fibrates) and PPAR-gamma (thiazolidinediones or glitazones) antagonized the actions of angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro and exerted cardiovascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PPAR activators lowered blood pressure, induced favorable effects on the heart, and corrected vascular structure and endothelial dysfunction in several rodent models of hypertension. Activators of PPARs may become therapeutic agents useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease beyond their effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some side effects, such as weight gain, as well as documented aggravation of advanced heart failure through fluid retention by glitazones, may, however, limit their therapeutic application in prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:15374828

  1. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  2. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bnniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-12-15

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser(696) and Ser(698) in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser(886) and/or Ser(893) in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. Invitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser(717) in the JM, and at Ser(733), Thr(752), Ser(783), Ser(864), Ser(911), Ser(958) and Thr(998) in the kinase domain. The LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr(890), Ser(893) and Thr(894)) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated invitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr(890), Ser(893), Thr(894) and Thr(899), differentially altered kinase activity invitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  4. Different phenolic compounds activate distinct human bitter taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Mateus, Nuno; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; De Freitas, Victor

    2013-02-20

    Bitterness is a major sensory attribute of several common foods and beverages rich in polyphenol compounds. These compounds are reported as very important for health as chemopreventive compounds, but they are also known to taste bitter. In this work, the activation of the human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, by six polyphenol compounds was analyzed. The compounds chosen are present in a wide range of plant-derived foods and beverages, namely, red wine, beer, tea, and chocolate. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a hydrolyzable tannin, (-)-epicatechin is a precursor of condensed tannins, procyanidin dimer B3 and trimer C2 belong to the condensed tannins, and malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are anthocyanins. The results show that the different compounds activate different combinations of the ~25 TAS2Rs. (-)-Epicatechin activated three receptors, TAS2R4, TAS2R5, and TAS2R39, whereas only two receptors, TAS2R5 and TAS2R39, responded to PGG. In contrast, malvidin-3-glucoside and procyanidin trimer stimulated only one receptor, TAS2R7 and TAS2R5, respectively. Notably, tannins are the first natural agonists found for TAS2R5 that display high potency only toward this receptor. The catechol and/or galloyl groups appear to be important structural determinants that mediate the interaction of these polyphenolic compounds with TAS2R5. Overall, the EC(50) values obtained for the different compounds vary 100-fold, with the lowest values for PGG and malvidin-3-glucoside compounds, suggesting that they could be significant polyphenols responsible for the bitterness of fruits, vegetables, and derived products even if they are present in very low concentrations. PMID:23311874

  5. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani Frana; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies - whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  6. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor SHP Utilizes Conserved LXXLL-Related Motifs for Interactions with Ligand-Activated Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Lotta; Bvner, Ann; Thomsen, Jane S.; Frnegrdh, MatHias; Gustafsson, Jan-?ke; Treuter, Eckardt

    2000-01-01

    SHP (short heterodimer partner) is an unusual orphan nuclear receptor consisting only of a ligand-binding domain, and it exhibits unique features of interaction with conventional nuclear receptors. While the mechanistic basis of these interactions has remained enigmatic, SHP has been suggested to inhibit nuclear receptor activation by at least three alternatives; inhibition of DNA binding via dimerization, direct antagonism of coactivator function via competition, and possibly transrepression via recruitment of putative corepressors. We now show that SHP binds directly to estrogen receptors via LXXLL-related motifs. Similar motifs, referred to as NR (nuclear receptor) boxes, are usually critical for the binding of coactivators to the ligand-regulated activation domain AF-2 within nuclear receptors. In concordance with the NR box dependency, SHP requires the intact AF-2 domain of agonist-bound estrogen receptors for interaction. Mutations within the ligand-binding domain helix 12, or binding of antagonistic ligands, which are known to result in an incomplete AF-2 surface, abolish interactions with SHP. Supporting the idea that SHP directly antagonizes receptor activation via AF-2 binding, we demonstrate that SHP variants, carrying either interaction-defective NR box mutations or a deletion of the repressor domain, have lost the capacity to inhibit agonist-dependent transcriptional estrogen receptor activation. Furthermore, our studies indicate that SHP may function as a cofactor via the formation of ternary complexes with dimeric receptors on DNA. These novel insights provide a mechanistic explanation for the inhibitory role of SHP in nuclear receptor signaling, and they may explain how SHP functions as a negative coregulator or corepressor for ligand-activated receptors, a novel and unique function for an orphan nuclear receptor. PMID:10648597

  7. Neurosteroid Structure-Activity Relationships for Functional Activation of Extrasynaptic δGABAA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Carver, Chase Matthew; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-04-01

    Synaptic GABAA receptors are primary mediators of rapid inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurologic disorders. The δ-subunit GABAA receptors are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. However, the neurosteroid structure-function relationship at δGABAA receptors within the native hippocampus neurons remains unclear. Here we report a structure-activity relationship for neurosteroid modulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in the murine dentate gyrus granule cells. We recorded neurosteroid allosteric potentiation of GABA as well as direct activation of tonic currents using a wide array of natural and synthetic neurosteroids. Our results shows that, for all neurosteroids, the C3α-OH group remains obligatory for extrasynaptic receptor functional activity, as C3β-OH epimers were inactive in activating tonic currents. Allopregnanolone and related pregnane analogs exhibited the highest potency and maximal efficacy in promoting tonic currents. Alterations at the C17 or C20 region of the neurosteroid molecule drastically altered the transduction kinetics of tonic current activation. The androstane analogs had the weakest modulatory response among the analogs tested. Neurosteroid potentiation of tonic currents was completely (approximately 95%) diminished in granule cells from δ-knockout mice, suggesting that δ-subunit receptors are essential for neurosteroid activity. The neurosteroid sensitivity of δGABAA receptors was confirmed at the systems level using a 6-Hz seizure test. A consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model at extrasynaptic δGABAA receptors is proposed based on a structure-activity relationship for activation of tonic current and seizure protection. PMID:26857959

  8. Thrombin Receptors and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Placentation

    PubMed Central

    OBrien, Peter J.; Koi, Hideki; Parry, Samuel; Brass, Lawrence F.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Wang, Li-Peng; Tomaszewski, John E.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2003-01-01

    Proteolysis of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1), may enhance normal and pathological cellular invasion, and indirect evidence suggests that activation of PAR1 expressed by invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) influences human placentation. Here we describe PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 protein distribution in the developing human placenta and implicate PAR1 and PAR2 activation in functions central to EVT invasion. PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 are expressed in cultured 8- to 13-week-old EVTs, and in situ in 18- to 20-week-old placental syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive trophoblasts. Thrombin, but not the PAR2 agonist peptide SLIGKV, inhibited proliferation in cultured EVTs, although both agonists stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and EVT invasion through Matrigel barriers. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was completely inhibited and the thrombin effect on proliferation was prevented when PAR1 cleavage was first blocked with specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that PAR1 is the predominant thrombin receptor on EVTs. Together these results support a role for PAR1, and potentially PAR2 and PAR3 in the invasive phase of human placentation. PMID:14507634

  9. The thrombopoietin receptor P106L mutation functionally separates receptor signaling activity from thrombopoietin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stockklausner, Clemens; Klotter, Anne-Christine; Dickemann, Nicole; Kuhlee, Isabelle N; Duffert, Christin M; Kerber, Carolin; Gehring, Niels H; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2015-02-12

    The interaction between thrombopoietin (THPO) and its receptor c-Mpl regulates downstream cytokine signaling and platelet homeostasis. Hereditary mutations of c-Mpl can either result in loss-of-function and thrombocytopenia or in gain-of-function and thrombocythemia (HT), and are important models to analyze the mechanism of c-Mpl activity. We have analyzed the effect of the c-Mpl P106L gain-of-function and the nearby loss-of-function R102P and F104S mutations, which cause HT or thrombocytopenia, respectively, on posttranslational processing, intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and cell proliferation. In contrast to R102P and F104S, the P106L mutant confers cytokine-independent growth and stimulates downstream signaling after THPO treatment in Ba/F3 cells. Despite their opposite function, R102P and P106L, both lead to abnormal subcellular receptor distribution, lack of membrane localization, impaired glycosylation, and elevated THPO serum levels in effected patients. These findings indicate that the activation of downstream signaling by c-Mpl P106L does not require correct processing, trafficking, and cell surface expression of c-Mpl, whereas the negative feedback loop controlling THPO serum levels requires cell surface expression of the receptor. Thus, we propose that the P106L mutation functionally separates the activity of c-Mpl in downstream signaling from that in maintaining platelet homeostasis. PMID:25538044

  10. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  11. Protease activated receptor-1 mediated dual kinase receptor transactivation stimulates the expression of glycosaminoglycan synthesizing genes.

    PubMed

    Kamato, Danielle; Thach, Lyna; Getachew, Robel; Burch, Micah; Hollenberg, Morley D; Zheng, Wenhua; Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are one of the most important targets for therapeutics due to their abundance and diversity. The G protein-coupled receptor for thrombin can transactivate protein tyrosine kinase receptors (PTKR) and we have recently established that it can also transactivate serine/threonine kinase receptors (S/TKR). A comprehensive knowledge of the signalling pathways that GPCR transactivation elicits is necessary to fully understand the implications of both GPCR activation and the impact of target drugs. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin elicits dual transactivation-dependent signalling pathways to stimulate mRNA expression of glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase 1. The PTKR mediated response involves matrix metalloproteinases and the phosphorylation of the MAP kinase Erk. The S/TKR mediated response differs markedly and involves the phosphorylation of Smad2 carboxy terminal serine residues and does not involve matrix metalloproteinases. This work shows that all of the thrombin mediated signalling to glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzyme gene expression occurs via transactivation-dependent pathways and does not involve transactivation-independent signalling. These findings highlight the complexity of thrombin-mediated transactivation signalling and the broader implications of GPCR targeted therapeutics. PMID:26548632

  12. Modulation of Retinoic Acid Receptor-related Orphan Receptor ? and ? Activity by 7-Oxygenated Sterol Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Kumar, Naresh; Solt, Laura A.; Richardson, Timothy I.; Helvering, Leah M.; Crumbley, Christine; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Stayrook, Keith R.; Zhang, Xi; Novick, Scott; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors ? and ? (ROR? (NR1F1) and ROR? (NR1F3)) are orphan nuclear receptors and perform critical roles in regulation of development, metabolism, and immune function. Cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate have been suggested to be ROR? ligands, but the physiological significance is unclear. To date, no endogenous ROR? ligands have been described. Here, we demonstrate that 7-oxygenated sterols function as high affinity ligands for both ROR? and ROR? by directly binding to their ligand-binding domains (Ki ?20 nm), modulating coactivator binding, and suppressing the transcriptional activity of the receptors. One of the 7-oxygenated sterols, 7?-hydroxycholesterol (7?-OHC), serves as a key intermediate in bile acid metabolism, and we show that 7?-OHC modulates the expression of ROR target genes, including Glc-6-Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, in an ROR-dependent manner. Furthermore, glucose output from hepatocytes is suppressed by 7?-OHC functioning as an ROR?/? ligand. Thus, ROR? and ROR? are ligand-regulated members of the NR superfamily and may serve as sensors for 7-oxygenated sterols. PMID:19965867

  13. Potent Small Agonists of Protease Activated Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Xu, Weijun; Lim, Junxian; Liu, Ligong; Adams, Mark N; He, Yaowu; Hooper, John D; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2016-01-14

    Many proteases cut the PAR2 N-terminus resulting in conformational changes that activate cells. Synthetic peptides corresponding to newly exposed N-terminal sequences of PAR2 also activate the receptor at micromolar concentrations. PAR2-selective small molecules reported here induce PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium signaling at nanomolar concentrations (EC50 = 15-100 nM, iCa(2+), CHO-hPAR2 cells). These are the most potent and efficient small molecule ligands to activate PAR2-mediated calcium release and chemotaxis, including for human breast and prostate cancer cells. PMID:26819675

  14. Laminin peptide-conjugated chitosan membrane: Application for keratinocyte delivery in wounded skin.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Shigehiro; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Yamada, Masanori; Takeda, Akira; Uchinuma, Eiju; Yamashina, Shohei; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kadoya, Yuichi

    2006-12-01

    Tissue engineering requires the delivery and survival of cells to organ sites needing repair. Previously, we showed that an active laminin peptide (AG73: RKR-LQVQLSIRT)-conjugated chitosan membrane promoted cell adhesion and spreading in vitro. Here, we seeded human keratinocytes onto AG73-chitosan membranes and found that nearly 80% of the cells were attached to the membranes within 2 h. The membranes carrying the keratinocytes were inverted and placed onto exposed muscle fascia on the backs of nude mice. After 3 days, the keratinocytes had migrated from the membrane and established a stratified epidermis-like structure on the fascia. Cells recognize the AG73 through transmembrane proteoglycan syndecans, which recognition system has not previously been tested in tissue engineering applications. We suggest that the AG73-chitosan membrane is useful as a therapeutic formulation and is applicable as a cell delivery system such as delivering keratinocytes to a wound bed. PMID:16871517

  15. Activation of Penile Proadipogenic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? with an Estrogen: Interaction with Estrogen Receptor Alpha during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Mahmoud M.; Goyal, Hari O.; Braden, Tim D.; Dennis, John C.; Schwartz, Dean D.; Judd, Robert L.; Bartol, Frank F.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Morrison, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) ligand diethylstilbesterol (DES) between neonatal days 2 to 12 induces penile adipogenesis and adult infertility in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo interaction between DES-activated ER? and the proadipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Transcripts for PPARs ?, ?, and ? and ?1a splice variant were detected in Sprague-Dawley normal rat penis with PPAR? predominating. In addition, PPAR?1b and PPAR?2 were newly induced by DES. The PPAR? transcripts were significantly upregulated with DES and reduced by antiestrogen ICI 182, 780. At the cellular level, PPAR? protein was detected in urethral transitional epithelium and stromal, endothelial, neuronal, and smooth muscular cells. Treatment with DES activated ER? and induced adipocyte differentiation in corpus cavernosum penis. Those adipocytes exhibited strong nuclear PPAR? expression. These results suggest a biological overlap between PPAR? and ER? and highlight a mechanism for endocrine disruption. PMID:18769493

  16. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  17. Sigma-1 receptor activation inhibits osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial (Mller) cells by transactivation of glutamatergic and purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Stefanie; Winters, Helge; Pannicke, Thomas; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Water accumulation in retinal glial (Mller) and neuronal cells resulting in cellular swelling contributes to the development of retinal edema and neurodegeneration. Sigma (?) receptor activation is known to have neuroprotective effects in the retina. Here, we show that the nonselective ? receptor agonist ditolylguanidine, and the selective ?1 receptor agonist PRE-084, inhibit the osmotic swelling of Mller cell somata induced by superfusion of rat retinal slices with a hypoosmotic solution containing barium ions. In contrast, PRE-084 did not inhibit the osmotic swelling of bipolar cell somata. The effects of ? receptor agonists on the Mller cell swelling were abrogated in the presence of blockers of metabotropic glutamate and purinergic P2Y1 receptors, respectively, suggesting that ? receptor activation triggers activation of a glutamatergic-purinergic signaling cascade which is known to prevent the osmotic Mller cell swelling. The swelling-inhibitory effect of 17?-estradiol was prevented by the ?1 receptor antagonist BD1047, suggesting that the effect is mediated by ?1 receptor activation. The data may suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ? receptor activation in the retina is in part mediated by prevention of the cytotoxic swelling of retinal glial cells. PMID:26499958

  18. Models for the activation pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, S.R.; Niyogi, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor's intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which occurs upon formation of the receptor-ligand complex, is the critical regulatory event affecting the subsequent EGF-dependent cellular responses leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism by which EGF-dependent activation of receptor kinase activity takes place is not clearly understood. In this study, the growth factor-dependent activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase was examined in vitro using detergent-solubilized, partially purified GEF receptors from A5431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Evaluation of the cooperativity observed in the EGF-dependent activation of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase would suggest a mechanism requiring the binding of the EGF peptide to both ligand binding sites on a receptor dimer to induce full receptor kinase activity. Equations describing potential cooperative kinase activation pathways have been examined. The theoretical system which best simulates the allosteric regulation observed in the experimental kinase activation data is that describing multiple essential activation. In addition, studies using mutant analogs of the EGF peptide ligand appear to confirm the requirement for an essential conformational change in the receptor-ligand complex to activate the receptor kinase activity. Several mutant growth factor analogues are able to occupy the ligand binding sites on the receptor without inducing the fully active receptor conformation.

  19. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Their discovery in the 1990s provided insights into the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis; the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and the modulation of important biological and pathological processes related to inflammation, among others. Since then, PPARs have become an exciting therapeutic target for several diseases. PPARs are expressed by many tumors including lung carcinoma cells, and their function has been linked to the process of carcinogenesis in lung. Consequently, intense research is being conducted in this area with the hope of discovering new PPAR-related therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer. This review summarizes the research being conducted in this area and focuses on the mechanisms by which PPARs are believed to affect lung tumor cell biology. PMID:18274632

  1. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels. PMID:26884649

  2. Effects of tobacco ethylene receptor mutations on receptor kinase activity, plant growth and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jun; Lei, Gang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Zhi-Gang; Tao, Jian-Jun; Hao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Yang-Rong; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2009-09-01

    Ethylene receptor is the first component of ethylene signaling that regulates plant growth, development and stress responses. Previously, we have demonstrated that tobacco subfamily 2 ethylene receptor NTHK1 had Ser/Thr kinase activity, and overexpression of NTHK1 caused large rosette, reduced ethylene sensitivity, and increased salt sensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Here we found that N-box mutation in the NTHK1 kinase domain abolished the kinase activity and led to disruption of NTHK1 roles in conferring reduced ethylene sensitivity and salt sensitive response in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, N-box mutation had partial effects on NTHK1 regulation of rosette growth and expression of salt- and ethylene-responsive genes AtNAC2, AtERF1 and AtCor6.6. Mutation of conserved residues in the H box did not affect kinase activity, seedling growth, ethylene sensitivity or salt-induced epinasty in transgenic plants but did influence NTHK1 function in control of specific salt- and ethylene-responsive gene expression. Compared with NTHK1, the tobacco subfamily 1 ethylene receptor NtETR1 had His kinase activity and played a weak role in regulation of rosette growth, triple response and salt response. Mutation of the conserved His residue in the NtETR1 H box eliminated phosphorylation and altered the effect of Ntetr1-1 on reporter gene activity. These results imply that the Ser/Thr kinase activity of NTHK1 is differentially required for various responses, and NTHK1 plays a larger role than NtETR1. PMID:19608714

  3. Activation of RIG-I-like Receptor Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Annie; Horvath, Curt M.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to recognize virus infection and mount a powerful antiviral response. Pattern recognition receptor proteins detect molecular signatures of virus infection and activate antiviral signaling cascades. The RIG-I-like receptors are cytoplasmic DExD/H box proteins that can specifically recognize virus-derived RNA species as a molecular feature discriminating the pathogen from the host. The RIG-I-like receptor family is composed of three homologous proteins, RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2. All of these proteins can bind double-stranded RNA species with varying affinities via their conserved DExD/H box RNA helicase domains and C-terminal regulatory domains. The recognition of foreign RNA by the RLRs activates enzymatic functions and initiates signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of antiviral cytokines and the establishment of a broadly effective cellular antiviral state that protects neighboring cells from infection and triggers innate and adaptive immune systems. The propagation of this signal via the interferon antiviral system has been studied extensively, while the precise roles for enzymatic activities of the RNA helicase domain in antiviral responses are only beginning to be elucidated. Here, current models for RLR ligand recognition and signaling are reviewed. PMID:22066529

  4. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  5. Cannabinoid 1 receptor activation inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated cationic influx into rat cultured primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, A; Santha, P; Paule, C C; Nagy, I

    2009-09-15

    The majority of polymodal nociceptors express the non-selective cationic channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor, which plays a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory heat hyperalgesia and visceral hyper-reflexia. Thus, blocking transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated signalling in primary sensory neurons would provide significant pain relief and reduced visceral hyperactivity in inflammatory conditions. Here, we report that cannabinoids including the endogenous agent, anandamide (3-30 nM) and the synthetic compounds, arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (500 nM) and 1,1-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol (1 microM) significantly reduce cobalt influx that is mediated through the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor in rat cultured primary sensory neurons. The cannabinoid-evoked inhibitory effect can be reversed by rimonabant (200 nM), an antagonist of the cannabinoid 1 receptor. While anandamide- and arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide fail to evoke inhibitory effects on the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated responses, the inhibitory effect of 1,1-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol is maintained, when the cannabinoids are applied together with the inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E(2) (10 microM) and bradykinin (10 microM). These results indicate that activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor can reduce the activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor in primary sensory neurons, though the inhibitory effect of agents, which activate both the cannabinoid 1 and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor could be reduced in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19463903

  6. Activation of GABA-A Receptor Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced MMP-9 Activation by ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    TYAGI, NEETU; GILLESPIE, WILLIAM; VACEK, JONATHAN C.; SEN, UTPAL; TYAGI, SURESH C.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to bloodbrain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to ?-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. However, the role of GABA-A receptor in Hcy-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is not clear. We hypothesized that Hcy causes cerebrovascular remodeling by increasing redox stress and MMP-9 activity via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and by inhibition of GABA-A receptors, thus behaving as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species production was detected using the fluorescent probe, 2?7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Hcy increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase-4 concomitantly suppressing thioredoxin. Hcy caused activation of MMP-9, measured by gelatin zymography. The GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol ameliorated the Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activation. In parallel, Hcy caused phosphorylation of ERK and selectively decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4). Treatment of the endothelial cell with muscimol restored the levels of TIMP-4 to the levels in control group. Hcy induced expression of iNOS and decreased eNOS expression, which lead to a decreased NO bioavailability. Furthermore muscimol attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 via ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hcy competes with GABA-A receptors, inducing the oxidative stress transduction pathway and leading to ERK activation. PMID:19308943

  7. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Zeynep; Duong, Frank L; Hawkes, Wayne C

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation, differentiation, and motility. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a highly conserved, diet-regulated 9kDa thioredoxin-like protein required for normal cell cycle progression. We report here that SEPW1 is required for EGF-induced EGFR activation and that it functions by suppressing EGFR ubiquitination and receptor degradation. SEPW1 depletion inhibited EGF-dependent cell cycle entry in breast and prostate epithelial cells. In prostate cells, SEPW1 depletion decreased EGFR auto-phosphorylation, while SEPW1 overexpression increased EGFR auto-phosphorylation. SEPW1 depletion increased the rate of EGFR degradation, which decreased total and surface EGFR and suppressed EGF-dependent EGFR endocytosis, EGFR dimer formation, and activation of EGF-dependent pathways. EGFR ubiquitination was increased in SEPW1-depleted cells--in agreement with the increased rate of EGFR degradation, and suggests that SEPW1 suppresses EGFR ubiquitination. Ubiquitination-directed lysozomal degradation controls post-translational EGFR expression and is dysregulated in many cancers. Thus, suppression of EGFR ubiquitination by SEPW1 may be related to the putative increase in cancer risk associated with high selenium intakes. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying SEPW1's regulation of EGFR ubiquitination may reveal new opportunities for nutritional cancer prevention or cancer drug development. PMID:25721765

  8. Characterization of Peroxisome ProliferatorActivated Receptor ?Independent Effects of PPAR? Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate also Activates the Constitutive-Activated Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongzu; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Wood, Carmen; Vallanat, Beena; George, Michael H.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor (PPAR) ?. Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased the incidence of liver tumors in PPAR?-null mice. We hypothesized that some PPC, including DEHP, induce transcriptional changes independent of PPAR? but dependent on other nuclear receptors, including the constitutive-activated receptor (CAR) that mediates phenobarbital (PB) effects on hepatocyte growth and liver tumor induction. To determine the potential role of CAR in mediating effects of PPC, a meta-analysis was performed on transcript profiles from published studies in which rats and mice were exposed to PPC and compared the profiles to those produced by exposure to PB. Valproic acid, clofibrate, and DEHP in rat liver and DEHP in mouse liver induced genes, including Cyp2b family members that are known to be regulated by CAR. Examination of transcript changes by Affymetrix ST 1.0 arrays and reverse transcription-PCR in the livers of DEHP-treated wild-type, PPAR?-null, and CAR-null mice demonstrated that (1) most (?94%) of the transcriptional changes induced by DEHP were PPAR?-dependent, (2) many PPAR?-independent genes overlapped with those regulated by PB, (3) induction of genes Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and metallothionine-1 by DEHP was CAR dependent but PPAR?-independent, and (4) induction of a number of genes (Cyp8b1, Gstm4, and Gstm7) was independent of both CAR and PPAR?. Our results indicate that exposure to PPAR? activators including DEHP leads to activation of multiple nuclear receptors in the rodent liver. PMID:19850644

  9. Propofol Restores Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Receptor Subtype-1 Sensitivity via Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Receptor Subtype-1 in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Wickley, Peter J.; Sinha, Sayantani; Bratz, Ian N.; Damron, Derek S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crosstalk between peripheral nociceptors belonging to the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin subtype-1 (TRPA1) family has recently been demonstrated. Moreover, the intravenous anesthetic propofol has been shown to directly activate TRPA1 receptors, and indirectly restore sensitivity of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 activation is involved in mediating the propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity. Methods Mouse DRG neurons were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and grown for 24 h. F-11 cells were transfected with complementary DNA for both TRPV1 and TRPA1 or TRPV1 only. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. Following TRPV1 de-sensitization with capsaicin (100 nM), cells were treated with propofol (1, 5 and 10 ?M) alone, propofol in the presence of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (0.5 ?M) or the TRPA1 agonist, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 100 ?M) and capsaicin was then reapplied. Results In DRG neurons that contain both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in DRG neurons containing only TRPV1 receptors, exposure to propofol or AITC following de-sensitization did not restore capsaicin-induced TRPV1 sensitivity. Similarly, in F-11 cells transfected with both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in F-11 cells transfected with TRPV1 only, neither propofol nor AITC were capable of restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity in primary DRG neurons and in cultured F-11 cells transfected with both the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors via a TRPA1-dependent process. Propofols effects on sensory neurons may be clinically important and contribute to peripheral sensitization to nociceptive stimuli in traumatized tissue. PMID:21364461

  10. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists. PMID:25449269

  11. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Background DEET, 2-undecanone (2-U), IR3535 and Picaridin are widely used as insect repellents to prevent interactions between humans and many arthropods including mosquitoes. Their molecular action has only recently been studied, yielding seemingly contradictory theories including odorant-dependent inhibitory and odorant-independent excitatory activities on insect olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and odorant receptor proteins (ORs). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the action of these repellents on two Aedes aegypti ORs, AaOR2 and AaOR8, individually co-expressed with the common co-receptor AaOR7 in Xenopus oocytes; these ORs are respectively activated by the odors indole (AaOR2) and (R)-(?)-1-octen3-ol (AaOR8), odorants used to locate oviposition sites and host animals. In the absence of odorants, DEET activates AaOR2 but not AaOR8, while 2-U activates AaOR8 but not AaOR2; IR3535 and Picaridin do not activate these ORs. In the presence of odors, DEET strongly inhibits AaOR8 but not AaOR2, while 2-U strongly inhibits AaOR2 but not AaOR8; IR3535 and Picaridin strongly inhibit both ORs. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that repellents can act as olfactory agonists or antagonists, thus modulating OR activity, bringing concordance to conflicting models. PMID:20725637

  12. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Ivn; Gonzlez de San Romn, Estbaliz; Giralt, M Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodrguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The activity of CB1 cannabinoid receptors was studied in postmortem brain samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during clinical deterioration. CB1 activity was higher at earlier AD stages in limited hippocampal areas and internal layers of frontal cortex, but a decrease was observed at the advanced stages. The pattern of modification appears to indicate initial hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in brain areas that lack classical histopathological markers at earlier stages of AD, indicating an attempt to compensate for the initial synaptic impairment, which is then surpassed by disease progression. These results suggest that initial CB1 stimulation might have therapeutic relevance. PMID:24946872

  13. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-05-15

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4-7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μM taurine or 10 μM glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μM 4-aminopyridine in low Mg(2+) solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μM strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μM), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl(-) accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥ 1 mM) or glycine (100 μM) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μM) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  14. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  15. Liver X Receptors Regulate the Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor: Implications for the Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Nancy; Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Wang, Yonghong; Abel, Brent S.; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige

    2012-01-01

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS are steroid hormones that strongly influence intermediary carbohydrate metabolism by increasing the transcription rate of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, and suppress the immune system through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The liver X receptors (LXRs), on the other hand, bind to cholesterol metabolites, heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and regulate the cholesterol turnover, the hepatic glucose metabolism by decreasing the expression of G6Pase, and repress a set of inflammatory genes in immune cells. Since the actions of these receptors overlap with each other, we evaluated the crosstalk between the GR- and LXR-mediated signaling systems. Transient transfection-based reporter assays and gene silencing methods using siRNAs for LXRs showed that overexpression/ligand (GW3965) activation of LXRs/RXRs repressed GR-stimulated transactivation of certain glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-driven promoters in a gene-specific fashion. Activation of LXRs by GW3965 attenuated dexamethasone-stimulated elevation of circulating glucose in rats. It also suppressed dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in rats, mice and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, whereas endogenous, unliganded LXRs were required for dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In microarray transcriptomic analysis of rat liver, GW3965 differentially regulated glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of about 15% of endogenous glucocorticoid-responsive genes. To examine the mechanism through which activated LXRs attenuated GR transcriptional activity, we examined LXR?/RXR? binding to GREs. Endogenous LXR?/RXR? bound GREs and inhibited GR binding to these DNA sequences both in in vitro and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, while their recombinant proteins did so on classic or G6Pase GREs in gel mobility shift assays. We propose that administration of LXR agonists may be beneficial in glucocorticoid treatment- or stress-associated dysmetabolic states by directly and gene-specifically attenuating the transcriptional activity of the GR on glucose and/or lipid metabolism. PMID:22457708

  16. Laminin isoforms: biological roles and effects on the intracellular distribution of nuclear proteins in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, Natacha; Gross, Isabelle; Gendry, Patrick; Stutzmann, Jeanne; Freund, Jean-Noel; Kedinger, Michele; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Launay, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Launay@inserm.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-02-15

    Laminins are structurally and functionally major components of the extracellular matrix. Four isoforms of laminins (laminin-1, -2, -5 and -10) are expressed in a specific pattern along the crypt-villus axis of the intestine. Previous works indicated that expression of these isoforms is developmentally regulated and that laminins could modulate the behaviour of intestinal cells, but the exact role of each isoform remained unclear. Here, we report the first systematic analysis of the cellular functions of the four isoforms using the human colon adenocarcinoma Caco2/TC7 cell line as a model. We compared the respective abilities of each isoform to modulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. We found that the isoforms were functionally distinct, with laminin-10 being the most adhesive substratum, laminin-2, laminin-5 and laminin-10 enhancing cellular proliferation and at the opposite, laminin-1 stimulating intestinal cell differentiation. To begin to characterise the molecular events induced by the different isoforms, we examined by immunofluorescence the intracellular distribution of several nuclear proteins, recently highlighted by a nuclear proteomic approach. We observed clear nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of these proteins, which depended on the laminin isoform. These results provide evidence for a distinct functional role of laminins in intestinal cell functions characterised by specific localisation of nuclear proteins.

  17. Activation of adenosine A1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens impairs inhibitory avoidance memory.

    PubMed

    Normile, H J; Gaston, S; Johnson, G; Barraco, R A

    1994-09-01

    Potent and highly selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonists were bilaterally injected into the nucleus accumbens of mice 10 min prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Retention of the inhibitory avoidance response was assessed 24 h after training. Intra-ACB activation of A1 receptors, but not A2a receptor activation, significantly impaired the performance of mice during the subsequent retention test. Furthermore, the retention deficit produced by activation of A1 receptors was significantly attenuated by pretreating mice with a highly selective A1 receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that endogenous adenosine may modulate information processing in the ventral striatum via adenosine A1 receptors. PMID:7993306

  18. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-01-01

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first, second or third N-terminal residue leads to a loss of activity, suggesting that a defined spacing of more than one structural component may be important for ligand-receptor interaction. Finally, we did not observe an antagonistic effect of the inactive peptides on phospholipase C activation or DNA synthesis induced by alpha-thrombin (1 nM) or SFLLRNP (3 microM). PMID:7686363

  19. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-06-15

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first, second or third N-terminal residue leads to a loss of activity, suggesting that a defined spacing of more than one structural component may be important for ligand-receptor interaction. Finally, we did not observe an antagonistic effect of the inactive peptides on phospholipase C activation or DNA synthesis induced by alpha-thrombin (1 nM) or SFLLRNP (3 microM). PMID:7686363

  20. Over-expression of laminin correlates to recovery of vasogenic edema following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, J-Y; Ko, A-R; Kang, T-C

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the up-regulation of laminin expression represents the astroglio-vascular responses to status epilepticus (SE) in the rat brain to better understand the role of vasogenic edema in epileptogenic insult. In the hippocampus, vasogenic edema was observed in the hippocampus 12h after SE when astroglial degeneration was undetected. Vasogenic edema in the hippocampus was more severe in the CA1 region where astroglial loss was absent than in the dentate gyrus showing astroglial degeneration. In the piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema was accompanied by appearance of astroglial degeneration 12h after SE. Laminin expression in the hippocampus and the PC was increased 3 days and 4 days after SE, respectively. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the hippocampus and the PC with concomitant reduction of SMI-71 (the endothelial barrier antigen) expression. Four weeks after SE, laminin expression was reduced in vessels showing strong SMI-71 expression within vasogenic edema lesion. Inhibition of SE-induced vasogenic edema formation by BQ788 effectively prevented laminin over-expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that laminin over-expression may be one of consequences from vasogenic edema rather than astroglial loss, and that laminin over-expression may promote migration of astrocytes to damaged or newly generated vessels to repair brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption accompanied by the reconstruction of endothelial barrier. PMID:24931765

  1. The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 g mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

  2. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  3. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Lelutiu, Nadia; Quan, Yi; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal survival. The consequences of PGE2 release following seizures has been the subject of much study. Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. Global ablation of the EP1 gene in mice (EP1-KO) had no effect on seizure threshold after kainate injection but reduced the likelihood to enter status epilepticus. EP1-KO mice that did experience typical status epilepticus had reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and a blunted inflammatory response. Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. PMID:24952362

  4. Feedback control of T-cell receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cliburn; Stark, Jaroslav; George, Andrew J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of T-cell recognition is vital to the immune response. Ligand engagement with the T-cell receptor (TCR) results in the activation of a complex sequence of signalling events, both on the cell membrane and intracellularly. Feedback is an integral part of these signalling pathways, yet is often ignored in standard accounts of T-cell signalling. Here we show, using a mathematical model, that these feedback loops can explain the ability of the TCR to discriminate between ligands with high specificity and sensitivity, as well as provide a mechanism for sustained signalling. The model also explains the recent counter-intuitive observation that endogenous 'null' ligands can significantly enhance T-cell signalling. Finally, the model may provide an archetype for receptor switching based on kinase-phosphatase switches, and thus be of interest to the wider signalling community. PMID:15255048

  5. Balancing natural killer cell activation through paired receptors.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Ludovic; Smyth, Mark J

    2015-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that are crucial for the control of infections and malignancies. NK cells express a variety of inhibitory and activating receptors that facilitate fine discrimination between damaged and healthy cells. Among them, a family of molecules that bind nectin and nectin-like proteins has recently emerged and has been shown to function as an important regulator of NK cell functions. These molecules include CD226, T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and ITIM domains (TIGIT), CD96, and cytotoxic and regulatory T cell molecule (CRTAM). In this Review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of how these receptors regulate NK cell biology and of their roles in pathologies such as cancer, infection and autoimmunity. PMID:25743219

  6. MAPK/ERK-dependent translation factor hyperactivation and dysregulated laminin ?2 expression in oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Degen, Martin; Natarajan, Easwar; Barron, Patricia; Widlund, Hans R; Rheinwald, James G

    2012-06-01

    Lesions displaying a variety of dysplastic changes precede invasive oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, there are no histopathological criteria for either confirming or staging premalignancy. SCCs and dysplasias frequently contain cells that abnormally express the ?2 subunit of laminin-332. We developed cell culture models to investigate ?2 dysregulation. Normal human keratinocytes displayed density-dependent repression of ?2, whereas premalignant keratinocytes and SCC cells overexpressed ?2 and secreted laminin assembly intermediates. Neoplastic cells had hyperactive EGFR/MAPK(ERK) signaling coordinate with overexpressed ?2, and EGFR and MEK inhibitors normalized ?2 expression. Keratinocytes engineered to express HPV16 E6 or activated mutant HRAS, cRAF1, or MEK1 lost density repression of ?2 and shared with neoplastic cells signaling abnormalities downstream of ERK, including increased phosphorylation of S6 and eIF4 translation factors. Notably, qPCR results revealed that ?2 overexpression was not accompanied by increased ?2 mRNA levels, consistent with ERK-dependent, eIF4B-mediated translation initiation of the stem-looped, 5'-untranslated region of ?2 mRNA in neoplastic cells. Inhibitors of MEK, but not of TORC1/2, blocked S6 and eIF4B phosphorylation and ?2 overexpression. Immunostaining of oral dysplasias identified ?2 overexpression occurring within fields of basal cells that had elevated p-S6 levels. These results reveal a causal relationship between ERK-dependent translation factor activation and laminin ?2 dysregulation and identify new markers of preinvasive neoplastic change during progression to SCC. PMID:22546478

  7. Laminin Network Formation Studied by Reconstitution of Ternary Nodes in Solution*

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Alan; Hohenester, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    The polymerization of laminins into a cell-associated network is a key process in basement membrane assembly. Network formation is mediated by the homologous short arm tips of the laminin heterotrimer, each consisting of a globular laminin N-terminal (LN) domain followed by a tandem of laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LEa) domains. How the short arms interact in the laminin network is unclear. Here, we have addressed this question by reconstituting laminin network nodes in solution and analyzing them by size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Recombinant LN-LEa1–4 fragments of the laminin α1, α2, α5, β1, and γ1 chains were monomeric in solution. The β1 and γ1 fragments formed the only detectable binary complex and ternary complexes of 1:1:1 stoichiometry with all α chain fragments. Ternary complex formation required calcium and did not occur at 4 °C, like the polymerization of full-length laminins. Experiments with chimeric short arm fragments demonstrated that the LEa2–4 regions of the β1 and γ1 fragments are dispensable for ternary complex formation, and an engineered glycan in the β1 LEa1 domain was also tolerated. In contrast, mutation of Ser-68 in the β1 LN domain (corresponding to a Pierson syndrome mutation in the closely related β2 chain) abolished ternary complex formation. We conclude that authentic ternary nodes of the laminin network can be reconstituted for structure-function studies. PMID:23166322

  8. Stable, Covalent Attachment of Laminin to Microposts Improves the Contractility of Mouse Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical output of contracting cardiomyocytes, the muscle cells of the heart, relates to healthy and disease states of the heart. Culturing cardiomyocytes on arrays of elastomeric microposts can enable inexpensive and high-throughput studies of heart disease at the single-cell level. However, cardiomyocytes weakly adhere to these microposts, which limits the possibility of using biomechanical assays of single cardiomyocytes to study heart disease. We hypothesized that a stable covalent attachment of laminin to the surface of microposts improves cardiomyocyte contractility. We cultured cells on polydimethylsiloxane microposts with laminin covalently bonded with the organosilanes 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. We measured displacement of microposts induced by the contractility of mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes, which attach better than mature cardiomyocytes to substrates. We observed time-dependent changes in contractile parameters such as micropost deformation, contractility rates, contraction and relaxation speeds, and the times of contractions. These parameters were affected by the density of laminin on microposts and by the stability of laminin binding to micropost surfaces. Organosilane-mediated binding resulted in higher laminin surface density and laminin binding stability. 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane provided the highest laminin density but did not provide stable protein binding with time. Higher surface protein binding stability and strength were observed with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde. In cultured cardiomyocytes, contractility rate, contraction speeds, and contraction time increased with higher laminin stability. Given these variations in contractile function, we conclude that binding of laminin to microposts via 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with glutaraldehyde improves contractility observed by an increase in beating rate and contraction speed as it occurs during the postnatal maturation of cardiomyocytes. This approach is promising for future studies to mimic in vivo tissue environments. PMID:25133578

  9. Aberrant expression of laminin-332 promotes cell proliferation and cyst growth in ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Suparna; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yoder, Bradley; Torres, Vicente E.; Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane abnormalities have often been observed in kidney cysts of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and animal models. There is an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, including laminin-?3,?3,?2 (laminin-332), in human autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Knockdown of PKD1 paralogs in zebrafish leads to dysregulated synthesis of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that altered basement membrane assembly may be a primary defect in ADPKD. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-332 is aberrantly expressed in cysts and precystic tubules of human autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) kidneys as well as in the kidneys of PCK rats, an orthologous ARPKD model. There was aberrant expression of laminin-?2 as early as postnatal day 2 and elevated laminin-332 protein in postnatal day 30, coinciding with the formation and early growth of renal cysts in PCK rat kidneys. We also show that a kidney cell line derived from Oak Ridge polycystic kidney mice, another model of ARPKD, exhibited abnormal lumen-deficient and multilumen structures in Matrigel culture. These cells had increased proliferation rates and altered expression levels of laminin-332 compared with their rescued counterparts. A function-blocking polyclonal antibody to laminin-332 significantly inhibited their abnormal proliferation rates and rescued their aberrant phenotype in Matrigel culture. Furthermore, abnormal laminin-332 expression in cysts originating from collecting ducts and proximal tubules as well as in precystic tubules was observed in a human end-stage ADPKD kidney. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of laminin-332 contributes to the aberrant proliferation of cyst epithelial cells and cyst growth in genetic forms of PKD. PMID:24370592

  10. Dual activities of odorants on olfactory and nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Pick, Horst; Etter, Sylvain; Baud, Olivia; Schmauder, Ralf; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten; Vogel, Horst

    2009-10-30

    We have screened an odorant compound library and discovered molecules acting as chemical signals that specifically activate both G-protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) on the cell surface of olfactory sensory neurons and the human nuclear estrogen receptor alpha (ER) involved in transcriptional regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a wide variety of tissues. Hence, these apparent dual active odorants induce distinct signal transduction pathways at different subcellular localizations, which affect both neuronal signaling, resulting in odor perception, and the ER-dependent transcriptional control of specific genes. We demonstrate these effects using fluorescence-based in vitro and cellular assays. Among these odorants, we have identified synthetic sandalwood compounds, an important class of molecules used in the fragrance industry. For one estrogenic odorant we have also identified the cognate OR. This prompted us to compare basic molecular recognition principles of odorants on the two structurally and apparent functionally non-related receptors using computational modeling in combination with functional assays. Faced with the increasing evidence that ORs may perform chemosensory functions in a number of tissues outside of the nasal olfactory epithelium, the unraveling of these molecular ligand-receptor interaction principles is of critical importance. In addition the evidence that certain olfactory sensory neurons naturally co-express ORs and ERs may provide a direct functional link between the olfactory and hormonal systems in humans. Our results are therefore useful for defining the structural and functional characteristics of ER-specific odorants and the role of odorant molecules in cellular processes other than olfaction. PMID:19723634

  11. Emergence of constitutively active estrogen receptor-? mutations in pretreated advanced estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Perez-Fidalgo, Jose A.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Gmez, Henry; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Giltnane, Jennifer; Balko, Justin M.; Cronin, Maureen T; Jarosz, Mirna; Sun, James; Hawryluk, Matthew; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Ross, Jeffrey S; Dvir, Addie; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Wolf, Ido; Rubinek, Tamar; Gilmore, Lauren; Schnitt, Stuart; Come, Steven E.; Pusztai, Lajos; Stephens, Philip; Brown, Myles; Miller, Vincent A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER) ? (ESR1) mutations throughout the natural history of hormone dependent breast cancer and to delineate the functional roles of the most commonly detected alterations. Experimental Design We studied a total of 249 tumor specimens from 208 patients. The specimens include 134 ER positive (ER+/HER2) and, as controls, 115 ER negative (ER?) tumors. The ER+ samples consist of 58 primary breast cancers and 76 metastatic samples. All tumors were sequenced to high unique coverage using next generation sequencing targeting the coding sequence of the estrogen receptor and an additional 182 cancer-related genes. Results Recurring somatic mutations in codons 537 and 538 within the ligand-binding domain of ER were detected in ER+ metastatic disease. Overall, the frequency of these mutations was 12% (9/76, 95% CI 6%-21%) in metastatic tumors and in a subgroup of patients who received an average of 7 lines of treatment the frequency was 20% (5/25, 95% CI 7%-41%). These mutations were not detected in primary or treatment nave ER+ cancer or in any stage of ER? disease. Functional studies in cell line models demonstrate that these mutations render estrogen receptor constitutive activity and confer partial resistance to currently available endocrine treatments. Conclusions In this study we show evidence for the temporal selection of functional ESR1 mutations as potential drivers of endocrine resistance during the progression of ER positive breast cancer. PMID:24398047

  12. Acute activation of the calcium-sensing receptor inhibits plasma renin activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, Douglas K.; Ortiz-Capisano, M. Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    In vitro, the renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cells express the calcium-sensing receptor, and its activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet inhibits renin release. To test whether the activation of calcium-sensing receptor similarly inhibits plasma renin activity (PRA) in vivo, we hypothesized that the calcium-sensing receptor is expressed in juxtaglomerular cells in vivo, and acutely administered cinacalcet would inhibit renin activity in anesthetized rats. Since cinacalcet inhibits parathyroid hormone, which may stimulate renin activity, we sought to determine whether cinacalcet inhibits renin activity by decreasing parathyroid hormone. Lastly, we hypothesized that chronically administered cinacalcet would inhibit basal and stimulated renin in conscious rats. Calcium-sensing receptors and renin were localized in the same juxtaglomerular cells using immunofluorescence in rat cortical slices fixed in vivo. Cinacalcet was administered acutely via intravenous bolus in anesthetized rats and chronically in conscious rats by oral gavage. Acute administration of cinacalcet decreased basal renin activity from 13.6 2.4 to 6.1 1.1 ng ANG Iml?1h?1 (P < 0.001). Likewise, cinacalcet decreased furosemide-stimulated renin from 30.6 2.3 to 21.3 2.3 ng ANG Iml?1h?1 (P < 0.001). In parathyroidectomized rats, cinacalcet decreased renin activity from 9.3 1.3 to 5.2 0.5 ng ANG Iml?1h?1 (P < 0.05) similar to sham-operated controls (13.5 2.2 to 6.6 0.8 ng ANG Iml?1h?1, P < 0.05). Chronic administration of cinacalcet over 7 days had no significant effect on PRA under basal or stimulated conditions. In conclusion, calcium-sensing receptors are expressed in juxtaglomerular cells in vivo, and acute activation of these receptors with cinacalcet inhibits PRA in anesthetized rats, independent of parathyroid hormone. PMID:20660105

  13. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of laminin-binding protein (Lmb) from Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Preethi; Spellerberg, Barbara; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2009-01-01

    Laminin-binding protein (Lmb), a surface-exposed lipoprotein from Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), mediates attachment to human laminin and plays a crucial role in the adhesion/invasion of eukaryotic host cells. However, the structural basis of laminin binding still remains unclear. In the context of detailed structural analysis, the lmb gene has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5? and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.63, b = 70.60, c = 75.37?, ? = 96.77. PMID:19407385

  15. Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C

    2004-06-01

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of brominated flame-retardants contain brominated biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these brominated HAHs. PMID:15099731

  16. DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta

    PubMed Central

    Michael Miller, Kristy K.; Al-Rayyan, Numan; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Ripp, Sharon L.; Klinge, Carolyn M.; Prough, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were reported to associate with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but some carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor studies question this claim. The purpose of this study was to determine how DHEA and its metabolites affect estrogen receptors ? or ? (ER? or ER?) -regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. In transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, androstenediol, DHEA, and DHEA-S activated ER?. In ER? transfected HepG2 cells, androstenedione, DHEA, androstenediol, and 7-oxo DHEA stimulated reporter activity. ER antagonists ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, general P450 inhibitor miconazole, and aromatase inhibitor exemestane inhibited activation by DHEA or metabolites in transfected cells. ER?-selective antagonist R,R-THC (R,R-cis-diethyl tetrahydrochrysene) inhibited DHEA and DHEA metabolite transcriptional activity in ER?-transfected cells. Expression of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes: pS2, progesterone receptor, cathepsin D1, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 was increased by DHEA and its metabolites in an ER-subtype, gene, and cell-specific manner. DHEA metabolites, but not DHEA, competed with 17?-estradiol for ER? and ER? binding and stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, demonstrating that DHEA metabolites interact directly with ER? and ER? in vitro, modulating estrogen target genes in vivo. PMID:23123738

  17. Nitrolinoleic acid: An endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Lin, Yiming; Baker, Paul R. S.; Cui, Taixing; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Kai; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivatives of linoleic acid (nitrolinoleic acid, LNO2) are formed via nitric oxide-dependent oxidative inflammatory reactions and are found at concentrations of ?500 nM in the blood of healthy individuals. We report that LNO2 is a potent endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?; Ki ?133 nM) that acts within physiological concentration ranges. This nuclear hormone receptor (PPAR?) regulates glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. PPAR? ligand activity is specific for LNO2 and not mediated by LNO2 decay products, NO donors, linoleic acid (LA), or oxidized LA. LNO2 is a significantly more robust PPAR? ligand than other reported endogenous PPAR? ligands, including lysophosphatidic acid (16:0 and 18:1), 15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2, conjugated LA and azelaoyl-phosphocholine. LNO2 activation of PPAR? via CV-1 cell luciferase reporter gene expression analysis revealed a ligand activity that rivals or exceeds synthetic PPAR? agonists such as rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, is coactivated by 9 cis-retinoic acid and is inhibited by the PPAR? antagonist GW9662. LNO2 induces PPAR?-dependent macrophage CD-36 expression, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose uptake also at a potency rivaling thiazolidinediones. These observations reveal that NO-mediated cell signaling reactions can be transduced by fatty acid nitration products and PPAR-dependent gene expression. PMID:15701701

  18. NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION STRENGTHENS WEAK ELECTRICAL COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Han, Victor Z.; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Welsh, John P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling that shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of receptormediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate-receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, while co-stimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate-receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (i) occurred despite increased input conductance, (ii) induced Ca2+-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (iii) required activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (iv) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and thus, (v) strengthened coupling mainly between non-adjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  19. Methylglyoxal activates the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Susumu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furukawa, Yoko; Jinno, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous carbonyl compound that is produced in large quantity under hyperglycemic conditions, which are believed to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the mechanism by which this occurs and the molecular targets of MG are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of MG on transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) activation in human TRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells. MG activated TRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells, but failed to activate human capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing HEK293 cells or mock-transfected HEK293 cells. MG also induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx in a concentration-dependent manner, and the concentration-response curve indicates that the effect of MG has an EC(50) of 343.1 17.3 M. Interestingly, the time course in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human TRPA1-expressing HEK293 showed considerable differences in response to MG and cinnamaldehyde. Furthermore, we examined four endogenous carbonyl compounds, including MG, glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyoxal; only MG notably activated TRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells. These results may provide insight into the TRPA1-mediated effects of MG on diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22863862

  20. Chiral Dihydrobenzofuran Acids Show Potent Retinoid X Receptor-Nuclear Receptor Related 1 Protein Dimer Activation.

    PubMed

    Sundn, Henrik; Schfer, Anja; Scheepstra, Marcel; Leysen, Seppe; Malo, Marcus; Ma, Jian-Nong; Burstein, Ethan S; Ottmann, Christian; Brunsveld, Luc; Olsson, Roger

    2016-02-11

    The nuclear receptor Nurr1 can be activated by RXR via heterodimerization (RXR-Nurr1) and is a promising target for treating neurodegenerative diseases. We herein report the enantioselective synthesis and SAR of sterically constricted benzofurans at RXR. The established SAR, using whole cell functional assays, lead to the full agonist 9a at RXR (pEC50 of 8.2) and RXR-Nurr1. The X-ray structure shows enantiomeric discrimination where 9a optimally addresses the ligand binding pocket of RXR. PMID:26820900

  1. Inhibition of staurosporine-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-1 and endothelial cell protein C receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, Laurent O; Griffin, John H

    2003-01-01

    In a model of staurosporine-induced apoptosis using EAhy926 endothelial cells, inhibition of apoptosis by activated protein C was dose-dependent and required the enzyme's active site, implicating activated protein C-mediated proteolysis. Consistent with this implication, both protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) were required for the anti-apoptotic effects of activated protein C. PMID:12683950

  2. An Improved Ivermectin-activated Chloride Channel Receptor for Inhibiting Electrical Activity in Defined Neuronal Populations*

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity. Several neuronal silencing methods have been developed, with the bacterial light-activated halorhodopsin and the invertebrate allatostatin-activated G protein-coupled receptor proving the most successful to date. However, both techniques may be difficult to implement clinically due to their requirement for surgically implanted stimulus delivery methods and their use of nonhuman receptors. A third silencing method, an invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor (GluClR) activated by ivermectin, solves the stimulus delivery problem as ivermectin is a safe, well tolerated drug that reaches the brain following systemic administration. However, the limitations of this method include poor functional expression, possibly due to the requirement to coexpress two different subunits in individual neurons, and the nonhuman origin of GluClR. Here, we describe the development of a modified human ?1 glycine receptor as an improved ivermectin-gated silencing receptor. The crucial development was the identification of a mutation, A288G, which increased ivermectin sensitivity almost 100-fold, rendering it similar to that of GluClR. Glycine sensitivity was eliminated via the F207A mutation. Its large unitary conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G ?1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue appears essential for exquisite ivermectin sensitivity. PMID:20308070

  3. Transient laminin beta 1a Induction Defines the Wound Epidermis during Zebrafish Fin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Merriman, Alexander F.; Savage, Jeremiah; Willer, Jason; Wahlig, Taylor; Katsanis, Nicholas; Yin, Viravuth P.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer. These events facilitate expression of the morphogenetic factors shha and lef1, basolateral positioning of phosphorylated Igf1r, patterning of new osteoblasts, and regeneration of bone. By contrast, lamb1a function is dispensable for juvenile body growth, homeostatic adult tissue maintenance, repair of split fins, or renewal of genetically ablated osteoblasts. fgf20a mutations or transgenic Fgf receptor inhibition disrupt lamb1a expression, linking a central growth factor to epithelial maturation during regeneration. Our findings reveal transient induction of lamb1a in epithelial cells as a key, growth factor-guided step in formation of a signaling-competent regeneration epidermis. PMID:26305099

  4. Transient laminin beta 1a Induction Defines the Wound Epidermis during Zebrafish Fin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Merriman, Alexander F; Savage, Jeremiah; Willer, Jason; Wahlig, Taylor; Katsanis, Nicholas; Yin, Viravuth P; Poss, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer. These events facilitate expression of the morphogenetic factors shha and lef1, basolateral positioning of phosphorylated Igf1r, patterning of new osteoblasts, and regeneration of bone. By contrast, lamb1a function is dispensable for juvenile body growth, homeostatic adult tissue maintenance, repair of split fins, or renewal of genetically ablated osteoblasts. fgf20a mutations or transgenic Fgf receptor inhibition disrupt lamb1a expression, linking a central growth factor to epithelial maturation during regeneration. Our findings reveal transient induction of lamb1a in epithelial cells as a key, growth factor-guided step in formation of a signaling-competent regeneration epidermis. PMID:26305099

  5. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  6. Activation of family C G-protein-coupled receptors by the tripeptide glutathione.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghua; Yao, Yi; Kuang, Donghui; Hampson, David R

    2006-03-31

    The Family C G-protein-coupled receptors include the metabotropic glutamate receptors, the gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB) receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the body, and a diverse group of sensory receptors that encompass the amino acid-activated fish 5.24 chemosensory receptor, the mammalian T1R taste receptors, and the V2R pheromone receptors. A common feature of Family C receptors is the presence of an amino acid binding site. In this study, a preliminary in silico analysis of the size and shape of the amino acid binding pocket in selected Family C receptors suggested that some members of this family could accommodate larger ligands such as peptides. Subsequent screening and docking experiments identified GSH as a potential ligand or co-ligand at the fish 5.24 receptor and the rat CaSR. These in silico predictions were confirmed using an [3H]GSH radioligand binding assay and a fluorescence-based functional assay performed on wild-type and chimeric receptors. Glutathione was shown to act as an orthosteric agonist at the 5.24 receptor and as a potent enhancer of calcium-induced activation of the CaSR. Within the mammalian receptors, this effect was specific to the CaSR because GSH neither directly activated nor potentiated other Family C receptors including GPRC6A (the putative mammalian homolog of the fish 5.24 receptor), the metabotropic glutamate receptors, or the GABAB receptor. Our findings reveal a potential new role for GSH and suggest that this peptide may act as an endogenous modulator of the CaSR in the parathyroid gland where this receptor is known to control the release of parathyroid hormone, and in other tissues such as the brain and gastrointestinal tract where the role of the calcium receptor appears to subserve other, as yet unknown, physiological functions. PMID:16455645

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent activation of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription by 3-methycholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Jonathan M.; Waxman, David J. . E-mail: djw@bu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response elements upstream of target genes. Recently, AhR ligands were reported to induce formation of an AhR-estrogen receptor (ER) complex, which can bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) and stimulate transcription of ER target genes. Presently, we investigate the effect of the AhR ligands 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (BZ126) on ERE-regulated luciferase reporter activity and endogenous ER target gene expression. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, 3MC induced transcription of ER reporter genes containing native promoter sequences of the ER-responsive genes complement 3 and pS2 and heterologous promoters regulated by isolated EREs. Dose-response studies revealed that the concentration of 3MC required to half-maximally activate transcription (EC{sub 5}) was >100-fold higher for an ER reporter (27-57 {mu}M) than for an AhR reporter (86-250 nM) in both MCF-7 cells and in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. 3MC also stimulated expression of the endogenous ER target genes amphiregulin, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor, albeit to a much lower extent than was achieved following stimulation with 17{beta}-estradiol. In Ishikawa cells, 3MC, but not BZ126 or TCDD, stimulated ER{alpha}-dependent reporter activity but did not induce expression of endogenous ER target genes. Finally, studies carried out in the AhR-positive rat hepatoma cell line 5L and the AhR-deficient variant BP8 demonstrated that ER reporter activity could be induced by 3MC in a manner that was independent of AhR and thus distinct from the AhR-ER 'hijacking' mechanism described recently. 3MC may thus elicit estrogenic activity by multiple mechanisms.

  8. In vitro translation of androgen receptor cRNA results in an activated androgen receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, G G; de Ruiter, P E; Trapman, J; Jenster, G; Brinkmann, A O

    1993-01-01

    Translation of androgen receptor (AR) cRNA in a reticulocyte lysate and subsequent analysis of the translation products by SDS/PAGE showed a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 108 kDa. Scatchard-plot analysis revealed a single binding component with high affinity for R1881 (Kd = 0.3 nM). All AR molecules synthesized specifically bound steroid. No evidence for AR phosphorylation during in vitro synthesis was found. When AR was labelled with [3H]R1881 and analysed on sucrose-density gradients, a complex of approx. 6 S was observed. The complex was shifted to a higher sedimentation coefficient after incubation with a monoclonal AR antibody directed against an epitope in the DNA-binding domain. In the presence as well as the absence of hormone, AR molecules were able to bind to DNA-cellulose without an activation step. Gel retardation assays revealed that the AR forms complexes with a DNA element containing glucocorticoid-responsive element/androgen-responsive element sequences. Receptor-DNA interactions were stabilized by different polyclonal antibodies directed against either the N- or C-terminal part of the AR and were abolished by an antibody directed against the DNA-binding domain of the receptor. In conclusion, translation of AR cRNA in vitro yields an activated AR protein which binds steroid with high affinity. It is proposed that AR antibodies enhance AR-DNA binding by stabilizing AR dimers when bound to DNA. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8250838

  9. The third cytoplasmic loop of a yeast G-protein-coupled receptor controls pathway activation, ligand discrimination, and receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, C J; Blumer, K J

    1994-01-01

    To identify functional domains of G-protein-coupled receptors that control pathway activation, ligand discrimination, and receptor regulation, we have used as a model the alpha-factor receptor (STE2 gene product) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From a collection of random mutations introduced in the region coding for the third cytoplasmic loop of Ste2p, six ste2sst alleles were identified by genetic screening methods that increased alpha-factor sensitivity 2.5- to 15-fold. The phenotypic effects of ste2sst and sst2 mutations were not additive, consistent with models in which the third cytoplasmic loop of the alpha-factor receptor and the regulatory protein Sst2p control related aspects of pheromone response and/or desensitization. Four ste2sst mutations did not dramatically alter cell surface expression or agonist binding affinity of the receptor; however, they did permit detectable responses to an alpha-factor antagonist. One ste2sst allele increased receptor binding affinity for alpha-factor and elicited stronger responses to antagonist. Results of competition binding experiments indicated that wild-type and representative mutant receptors bound antagonist with similar affinities. The antagonist-responsive phenotypes caused by ste2sst alleles were therefore due to defects in the ability of receptors to discriminate between agonist and antagonist peptides. One ste2sst mutation caused rapid, ligand-independent internalization of the receptor. These results demonstrate that the third cytoplasmic loop of the alpha-factor receptor is a multifunctional regulatory domain that controls pathway activation and/or desensitization and influences the processes of receptor activation, ligand discrimination, and internalization. PMID:8164685

  10. T cell antigen receptor activation and actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sudha; Curado, Silvia; Mayya, Viveka

    2013-01-01

    T cells constitute a crucial arm of the adaptive immune system and their optimal function is required for a healthy immune response. After the initial step of T cell-receptor (TCR) triggering by antigenic peptide complexes on antigen presenting cell (APC), the T cell exhibits extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. This cytoskeletal remodeling leads to formation of an immunological synapse [1] characterized by regulated clustering, segregation and movement of receptors at the interface. Synapse formation regulates T cell activation and response to antigenic peptides and proceeds via feedback between actin cytoskeleton and TCR signaling. Actin polymerization participates in various events during the synapse formation, maturation, and eventually its disassembly. There is increasing knowledge about the actin effectors that couple TCR activation to actin rearrangements [2, 3], and how defects in these effectors translate into impairment of T cell activation. In this review we aim to summarize and integrate parts of what is currently known about this feedback process. In addition, in light of recent advancements in our understanding of TCR triggering and translocation at the synapse, we speculate on the organizational and functional diversity of microfilament architecture in the T cell. PMID:23680625

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki . E-mail: naopi@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  12. Synaptic NMDA receptor activity boosts intrinsic antioxidant defences

    PubMed Central

    Papadia, Sofia; Soriano, Francesc X.; Lveill, Frdric; Martel, Marc-Andre; Dakin, Kelly A.; Hansen, Henrik H.; Kaindl, Angela; Sifringer, Marco; Fowler, Jill; Stefovska, Vanya; Mckenzie, Grahame; Craigon, Marie; Corriveau, Roderick; Ghazal, Peter; Horsburgh, Karen; Yankner, Bruce A.; Wyllie, David J. A.; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic antioxidant defences are important for neuronal longevity. We show that synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosts antioxidant defences through changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Synaptic activity enhances thioredoxin activity, facilitates the reduction of overoxidized peroxiredoxins, and promotes resistance to oxidative stress. Resistance is mediated by coordinated transcriptional changes: synaptic NMDAR activity inactivates a novel FOXO target gene, the thioredoxin inhibitor Txnip. Conversely, NMDAR blockade upregulates Txnip in vivo and in vitro, where it binds thioredoxin and promotes vulnerability to oxidative damage. Synaptic activity also up-regulates the peroxiredoxin re-activating genes Sestrin2 and Sulfiredoxin, via C/EBP? and AP-1 respectively. Mimicking these expression changes is sufficient to strengthen antioxidant defences. Trans-synaptic stimulation of synaptic NMDARs is crucial for boosting antioxidant defences: chronic bath activation of all (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs induces no antioxidative effects. Thus, synaptic NMDAR activity may influence the progression of pathological processes associated with oxidative damage. PMID:18344994

  13. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  14. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to natural sex differentiation, during sex inversion treatments, androgens, either endogenous or exogenous, participate in inducing testicular differentiation. PMID:24815887

  15. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J; Shyy, John Y-J; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-08-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-? and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics. PMID:23878263

  16. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Theoretical studies of the activation mechanism of histamine H sub 2 -receptors: Dimaprit and the receptor model

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, L.; Mazurek, A.P.; Osman, R.; Weinstein, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are used to explore the interaction of dimaprit, a histamine H,-receptor agonist, with a molecular complex designed to model the specific recognition of histamine, and the H{sub 2}-receptor activation mechanism triggered by the binding of the ligand. The stabilization of several isomeric forms of the isothiourea moiety of dimaprit in the receptor model is considered, including models for the monocationic and dicationic forms that are likely to exist under physiological conditions. The energetics of proton transfer from a receptor site to the ligand are evaluated in the presence and absence of models for other sites in the receptor. The energetic contribution of ligand desolvation to the various steps in the receptor binding and activation mechanism is estimated from calculations of the enthalpy of solvation in water represented as a continuum dielectric. The results indicate that the most likely manner in which dimaprit mimics the binding of histamine to the proposed proton donor site in the H{sub 2}-receptor model requires the sulfur in the isothiourea moiety of dimaprit to act as the proton acceptor in the activation mechanism. The simulation of this mechanism reveals its feasibility and indicates that the monocation form of dimaprit, rather than the dication, is likely to be the physiologically active species.

  18. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hoeller, Alexandre A.; Costa, Ana Paula R.; Bicca, Maíra A.; Matheus, Filipe C.; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L.; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L.; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; de Lima, Thereza C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine—a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist—displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine–an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)–prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  19. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Mara A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine-a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist-displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine-an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)-prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  20. Synaptic NMDA receptor activity boosts intrinsic antioxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Sofia; Soriano, Francesc X; Lveill, Frdric; Martel, Marc-Andre; Dakin, Kelly A; Hansen, Henrik H; Kaindl, Angela; Sifringer, Marco; Fowler, Jill; Stefovska, Vanya; McKenzie, Grahame; Craigon, Marie; Corriveau, Roderick; Ghazal, Peter; Horsburgh, Karen; Yankner, Bruce A; Wyllie, David J A; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Hardingham, Giles E

    2008-04-01

    Intrinsic antioxidant defenses are important for neuronal longevity. We found that in rat neurons, synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosted antioxidant defenses by making changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin (Prx) system. Synaptic activity enhanced thioredoxin activity, facilitated the reduction of overoxidized Prxs and promoted resistance to oxidative stress. Resistance was mediated by coordinated transcriptional changes; synaptic NMDAR activity inactivated a previously unknown Forkhead box O target gene, the thioredoxin inhibitor Txnip. Conversely, NMDAR blockade upregulated Txnip in vivo and in vitro, where it bound thioredoxin and promoted vulnerability to oxidative damage. Synaptic activity also upregulated the Prx reactivating genes Sesn2 (sestrin 2) and Srxn1 (sulfiredoxin), via C/EBPbeta and AP-1, respectively. Mimicking these expression changes was sufficient to strengthen antioxidant defenses. Trans-synaptic stimulation of synaptic NMDARs was crucial for boosting antioxidant defenses; chronic bath activation of all (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs induced no antioxidative effects. Thus, synaptic NMDAR activity may influence the progression of pathological processes associated with oxidative damage. PMID:18344994

  1. Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-02-22

    Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs) and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

  2. Involvement of Activating NK Cell Receptors and Their Modulation in Pathogen Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Marras, Francesco; Bozzano, Federica; De Maria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are endowed with cell-structure-sensing receptors providing inhibitory protection from self-destruction (inhibitory NK receptors, iNKRs, including killer inhibitory receptors and other molecules) and rapid triggering potential leading to functional cell activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine receptors, and activating NK cell receptors including natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, i.e., NKp46, NKp46, and NKp44). NCR and NKG2D recognize ligands on infected cells which may be endogenous or may directly bind to some structures derived from invading pathogens. In this paper, we address the known direct or indirect interactions between activating receptors and pathogens and their expression during chronic HIV and HCV infections. PMID:21860586

  3. The First Structure–Activity Relationship Studies for Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand–receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine (ACh), but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs, and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure–activity relationships (SARs) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10 000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3. PMID:25587888

  4. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPAR?) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  5. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  6. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (?, ?, and ?) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  7. Antitussive activity of Withania somnifera and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nosálová, Gabriela; Sivová, Veronika; Ray, Bimalendu; Fraňová, Soňa; Ondrejka, Igor; Flešková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. It contains 65% arabinose and 18% galactose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan in conscious, healthy adult guinea pigs and the role of the opioid pathway in the antitussive action. A polysaccharide extract was given orally in a dose of 50 mg/kg. Cough was induced by an aerosol of citric acid in a concentration 0.3 mol/L, generated by a jet nebulizer into a plethysmographic chamber. The intensity of cough response was defined as the number of cough efforts counted during a 3-min exposure to the aerosol. The major finding was that arabinogalactan clearly suppressed the cough reflex; the suppression was comparable with that of codeine that was taken as a reference drug. The involvement of the opioid system was tested with the use of a blood-brain barrier penetrable, naloxone hydrochloride, and non-penetrable, naloxone methiodide, to distinguish between the central and peripheral mu-opioid receptor pathways. Both opioid antagonists acted to reverse the arabinogalactan-induced cough suppression; the reversion was total over time with the latter antagonist. We failed to confirm the presence of a bronchodilating effect of the polysaccharide, which could be involved in its antitussive action. We conclude that the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from Withania somnifera has a distinct antitussive activity consisting of cough suppression and that this action involves the mu-opioid receptor pathways. PMID:25252908

  8. Role of Protease-Activated Receptor-1 in Glioma Growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Bao, Xuhui; Chen, Zhan Hong; Xu, Ying; Keep, Richard F; Muraszko, Karin M; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Activation of a thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), induces angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and invasion in tumors. The present study examined the effect of host PAR-1 gene deletion on glioma growth in a mouse model. F98 glioma cells were implanted into the right caudate of either wild type (WT) or PAR-1 knockout (KO) mice. Mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the brains were used for measurements of brain water content and tumor mass. Levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). We found brain water content in the ipsilateral hemisphere and the tumor mass were significantly lower in PAR-1 KO than WT mice at day 12 after implantation of F98 cells (p?

  9. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  10. Potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity by sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Le Drean, Yves; Mincheneau, Nathalie; Le Goff, Pascale; Michel, Denis

    2002-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor, subject to several types of posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination. We showed that the GR is covalently modified by the small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) peptide in mammalian cells. We demonstrated that GR sumoylation is not dependent on the presence of the ligand and regulates the stability of the protein as well as its transcriptional activity. SUMO-1 overexpression induces dramatic GR degradation, abolished by proteasome inhibition. We also found that SUMO-1 stimulates the transactivation capacity of GRs to an extent largely exceeding those observed so far for other sumoylated transcription factors. Overexpression of SUMO-1 specifically enhances the ligand-induced transactivation of GR up to 8-fold. However, this hyperactivation occurs only in the context of a synergy between multiple molecules of GRs. It requires more than one receptor DNA-binding site in promoter and becomes more prominent as the number of sites increases. Interestingly, these observations may be related to the transcriptional properties of the synergy control region of GRs, which precisely contains two evolutionary conserved sumoylation sites. We propose a model in which SUMO-1 regulates the synergy control function of GR and serves as a unique signal for activation and destruction. PMID:12193561

  11. A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiarlone, Anna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Blzquez, Cristina; Resel, Eva; Soria-Gmez, Edgar; Cannich, Astrid; Ferrero, Jos J.; Sagredo, Onintza; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julin; Snchez-Prieto, Jos; Lutz, Beat; Fernndez-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmn, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24843137

  12. A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Chiarlone, Anna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Blzquez, Cristina; Resel, Eva; Soria-Gmez, Edgar; Cannich, Astrid; Ferrero, Jos J; Sagredo, Onintza; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julin; Snchez-Prieto, Jos; Lutz, Beat; Fernndez-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmn, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24843137

  13. Synergistic effect of laminin and mesenchymal stem cells on tracheal mucosal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Jin Ho; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Park, Seok-Won; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have been successfully undertaken of tracheal reconstruction in terms of the maintaining the framework of the graft, most cases of reconstruction failure have resulted from delayed mucosal regeneration. The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether laminin-coated asymmetrically porous membrane (APM) scaffold enhances mucosal regeneration, to compare the mucosalization capability with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded APM, and to determine whether laminin coating and MSC seeding has a synergistic effect on mucosal regeneration. We reconstructed the full-thickness anterior tracheal defect of 36 New Zealand White rabbits with the APM scaffold. MSCs were isolated from the rabbit's inguinal fat. The animals were divided into 4 groups by the presence of laminin coating on APM and application of MSC [Group I, -/- (laminin/MSC); Group II, -/+; Group III, +/-; Group IV, +/+]. Endoscopy and histologic evaluation were performed and the results were compared among the groups. The results showed that ciliated columnar epithelium was regenerated earlier in groups II and III than in group I. Furthermore, the application of laminin and MSC had synergistic effects on tracheal epithelial regeneration. These results demonstrate that tracheal reconstruction by laminin-coated APM seeded with MSCs is most effective in enhancing tracheal mucosalization, and appears to be promising strategy in the regenerative treatment of tracheal defects. PMID:25617133

  14. Accelerated neovascularization and endothelialization of vascular grafts promoted by covalently bound laminin type 1.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart K; Kleinert, Leigh B; Patula-Steinbrenner, Vangie

    2011-10-01

    Development of a small diameter (<6 mm) synthetic vascular graft with clinically acceptable patency must overcome the inherent thrombogenicity of polymers and the development of neointimal thickening. Establishment of an endothelial cell lining on the lumenal surface has been hypothesized as a mechanism to improve the function of vascular grafts. The major aim of this study is to evaluate the use of laminin type 1, covalently bound to all surfaces of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts, on neovascularization of the interstices and lumenal surface endothelialization. One millimeter i.d. vascular grafts were surface modified through covalent attachment of laminin type 1. Grafts were subsequently implanted as interpositional aortic grafts in rats. Following 5-weeks implantation, the grafts were explanted and morphologically evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy identified an extensive coverage of antithrombogenic cells on the lumenal flow surface of laminin type 1 modified grafts. Histological evaluation confirmed the presence of endothelial cells on the midgraft lumenal surface of laminin 1 modified grafts. Extensive neovascularization of the interstices of the laminin-modified grafts occurred as compared with control grafts. We conclude that surface modification using laminin type 1 accelerates both the neovascularization and endothelialization of porous ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:21800416

  15. Neural cell alignment by patterning gradients of the extracellular matrix protein laminin

    PubMed Central

    Chelli, Beatrice; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Greco, Pierpaolo; Bystrenova, Eva; Bianchi, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic orientation and accurate positioning of neural cells is achieved by patterning stripes of the extracellular matrix protein laminin on the surface of polystyrene tissue culture dishes by micromoulding in capillaries (MIMICs). Laminin concentration decreases from the entrance of the channels in contact with the reservoir towards the end. Immunofluorescence analysis of laminin shows a decreasing gradient of concentration along the longitudinal direction of the stripes. The explanation is the superposition of diffusion and convection of the solute, the former dominating at length scales near the entrance (characteristic length around 50 ?m), the latter further away (length scale in excess of 900 ?m). These length scales are independent of the channel width explored from about 15 to 45 ?m. Neural cells are randomly seeded and selectively adhere to the pattern, leaving the unpatterned areas depleted even upon 6 days of incubation. Cell alignment was assessed by the orientation of the long axis of the 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained nuclei. Samples on patterned the laminin area exhibit a large orientational order parameter. As control, cells on the unpatterned laminin film exhibit no preferential orientation. This implies that the anisotropy of laminin stripes is an effective chemical stimulus for cell recruiting and alignment. PMID:24501672

  16. Laminins and Nidogens in the Pericellular Matrix of Chondrocytes: Their Role in Osteoarthritis and Chondrogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schminke, Boris; Frese, Jenny; Bode, Christa; Goldring, Mary B; Miosge, Nicolai

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of laminins and nidogen-2 in osteoarthritis (OA) and their potential to support chondrogenic differentiation. We applied immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, siRNA, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and proteome analysis for the investigation of cartilage tissue and isolated chondrocytes in three-dimensional culture obtained from patients with late-stage knee OA and nidogen-2 knockout mice. We demonstrate that subunits of laminins appear in OA cartilage and that nidogen-2-null mice exhibit typical osteoarthritic features. Chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) produced high levels of laminin-?1, laminin-?5, and nidogen-2 in their pericellular matrix, and laminin-?1 enhanced collagen type II and reduced collagen type I expression by cultured CPCs. Nidogen-2 increased SOX9 gene expression. Knockdown of nidogen-2 reduced SOX9 expression, whereas it up-regulated RUNX2 expression. This study reveals that the influence of the pericellular matrix on CPCs is important for the expression of the major regulator transcription factors, SOX9 and RUNX2. Our novel findings that laminins and nidogen-2 drive CPCs toward chondrogenesis may help in the elucidation of new treatment strategies for cartilage tissue regeneration. PMID:26683663

  17. Ligand-induced interaction between. alpha. - and. beta. -type platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors: Role of receptor heterodimers in kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakaraj, P.; Raj, S.; Bishayee, S. ); Khan, S.A. )

    1991-02-19

    Two types of PDGF receptors have been cloned and sequenced. Both receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins with a ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase site. The authors have shown earlier that ligand-induced activation of the {beta}-type PDGF receptor is due to the conversion of the monomeric form of the receptor to the dimeric form. In the present studies, they have established the ligand-binding specificity of two receptor types and extended it further to investigate the ligand-induced association state of the {alpha}-receptor and the role of {alpha}-receptor in the activation of {beta}-receptor. These studies were conducted with cells that express one or the other type of PDGF receptor as well as with cells that express both types of receptors. Moreover, ligand-binding characteristics of the receptor were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the receptor-{sup 125}I-PDGF covalent complex with type-specific anti-PDGF receptor antibodies. These studies revealed that all three isoforms of PDGF bind to {alpha}-receptor, and such binding leads to dimerization as well as activation of the receptor. In contrast, {beta}-receptor can be activated only by PDGF BB and not by PDGF AB or PDGF AA. However, by using antipeptide antibodies that are specific for {alpha}- or {beta}-type PDGF receptor, they demonstrated that in the presence of {alpha}-receptor, {beta}-receptor kinase can be activated by PDGF AB. They present here direct evidence that strongly suggests that such PDGF AB induced activation of {beta}-receptor is due to the formation of a noncovalently linked {alpha}-{beta} receptor heterodimer.

  18. Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Dou, Tonghai; Xu, Jiaxi; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Jianlei; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) plays an important role in the control of energy balance and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Different transcript variants were investigated not only in human but also in other vertebrates. To look into the evolutionary changes of these variants, we analyzed the genomic sequences of PPAR gamma genes from several vertebrate species, as well as their mRNA and EST data. Several potential alternative splicing exons at the 5'-end of the PPAR gamma gene were identified. The 5'-end of the PPAR gamma gene is discovered to be evolutionarily active and recruits new exons via different strategies. Moreover, it is shown that the only coding alternative exon (exon B) processes much higher Ka/Ks compared with its constitutive counterparts. In addition, its Ka/Ks is greater than 1 in the rat, mouse, and rabbit, indicating adaptive evolution and possible energy storage related gain-of-function for the exon. PMID:20515805

  19. Subcellular Localization of Activated AKT in Estrogen Receptor- and Progesterone Receptor-Expressing Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Badve, Sunil; Collins, Nikail R.; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Turbin, Dmitry; Leung, Samuel; Thorat, Mangesh; Dunn, Sandra E.; Geistlinger, Tim R.; Carroll, Jason S.; Brown, Myles; Bose, Shikha; Teitell, Michael A.; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2010-01-01

    Activated v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase (pAKT) is localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and/or nucleus in 50% of cancers. The clinical importance of pAKT localization and the mechanism(s) controlling this compartmentalization are unknown. In this study, we examined nuclear and cytoplasmic phospho-AKT (pAKT) expression by immunohistochemistry in a breast cancer tissue microarray (n = 377) with ≈15 years follow-up and integrated these data with the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), and FOXA1. Nuclear localization of pAKT (nuclear-pAKT) was associated with long-term survival (P = 0.004). Within the ERα+/PR+ subgroup, patients with nuclear-pAKT positivity had better survival than nuclear-pAKT–negative patients (P ≤ 0.05). The association of nuclear-pAKT with the ERα+/PR+ subgroup was validated in an independent cohort (n = 145). TCL1 family proteins regulate nuclear transport and/or activation of AKT. TCL1B is overexpressed in ERα-positive compared with ERα-negative breast cancers and in lung metastasis–free breast cancers. Therefore, we examined the possible control of TCL1 family member(s) expression by the estrogen:ERα pathway. Estradiol increased TCL1B expression and increased nuclear-pAKT levels in breast cancer cells; short- interfering RNA against TCL1B reduced nuclear-pAKT. Overexpression of nuclear-targeted AKT1 in MCF-7 cells increased cell proliferation without compromising sensitivity to the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen. These results suggest that subcellular localization of activated AKT plays a significant role in determining its function in breast cancer, which in part is dependent on TCL1B expression. PMID:20228224

  20. The activation of liver X receptors inhibits toll-like receptor-9-induced foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Morello, Silvana; Chen, Shuang; Bonavita, Eduardo; Pinto, Aldo

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are related to foam cell formation (FCF), key event in the establishment/progression of atherosclerosis. The activation of TLR2 and TLR4 can increase FCF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in FCF. Murine macrophages were treated with CpG-ODN, TLR9 agonist, and oxidized particles of LDL (Paz-PC) and FCF was analyzed by means of Oil Red O staining. The administration of CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC onto macrophages increased the amount of lipid droplets, correlated to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IFNbeta, and IP-10. The underlying mechanism by which TLR9 ligation influenced Paz-PC in the FCF was NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent, as observed by higher levels of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha, increased nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, lower levels of the total IKKalpha protein and higher release of interferon-dependent cytokines, such as IP-10. Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate lipid cellular transport and negatively modulate TLR-dependent signaling pathways. Indeed, the addition of GW3965, synthetic LXRs agonist, significantly reduced FCF after CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC stimulation. In this condition, we observed decreased levels of the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, related to the higher presence of LXRalpha into the nucleus. TNF-alpha, IP-10, and IFNbeta levels were reduced by the administration of GW3965 following CpG-ODN and Paz-PC treatment. In conclusion, the activation of TLR9 facilitates the formation of foam cells in an NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent manner, countered by the activation of LXRs. This study further support LXRs as potential anti-atherosclerotic target. PMID:20049870

  1. Gain control of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activity by receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase ?

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Gang; Xue, Sheng; Chry, Nadge; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Jindong; Kwan, Chun L.; Fu, Yang-Ping; Lu, You-Ming; Liu, Mingyao; Harder, Kenneth W.; Yu, Xian-Min

    2002-01-01

    Src kinase regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to play an important role in processes related to learning and memory, ethanol sensitivity and epilepsy. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of Src family kinase activity in the control of NMDA receptors. Here we report that the distal phosphatase domain (D2) of protein tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTP?) binds to the PDZ2 domain of post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95). Thus, Src kinase, its activator (PTP?) and substrate (NMDA receptors) are linked by the same scaffold protein, PSD95. Removal of PTP? does not affect the association of Src with NMDA receptors, but turns off the constitutive regulation of NMDA receptors by the kinase. Further more, we found that application of the PTP? catalytic domains (D1+D2) into neurones enhances NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. Conversely, the blockade of endogenous PTP? inhibits NMDA receptor activity and the induction of long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurones. Thus, PTP? is a novel up-regulator of synaptic strength in the CNS. PMID:12065411

  2. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Yang, C; Wang, Z J

    2011-10-13

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy is limited by a long-lasting painful neuropathy that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel may release mast cell tryptase, which activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and, subsequently, protein kinases A and C, resulting in mechanical and thermal (both heat and cold) hypersensitivity. Correlating with the development of neuropathy after repeated administration of paclitaxel, mast cell tryptase activity was found to be increased in the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and peripheral tissues in mice. FSLLRY-amide, a selective PAR2 antagonist, blocked paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain behaviors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, blocking downstream signaling pathways of PAR2, including phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C? (PKC), effectively attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical, heat, or cold hypersensitivity. Furthermore, sensitized pain response was selectively inhibited by antagonists of transient receptor potential (TRP) V1, TRPV4, or TRPA1. These results revealed specific cellular signaling pathways leading to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, including the activation of PAR2 and downstream enzymes PLC, PKC?, and PKA and resultant sensitization of TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for the treatment of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:21763756

  3. Block of locust muscle glutamate receptors by delta-philanthotoxin occurs after receptor activations.

    PubMed

    Clark, R B; Donaldson, P L; Gration, K A; Lambert, J J; Piek, T; Ramsey, R; Spanjer, W; Usherwood, P N

    1982-06-01

    One component (delta-philanthotoxin (delta-PTX) of the venom from the wasp Philanthus triangulum blocks transmission postsynaptically at excitatory synapses on locust muscle. delta-PTX depresses both the iontophoretic glutamate potential and the excitatory junctional current (e.j.c.) in a glutamate receptor activation-dependent manner. The rate of recovery from the effects of the toxin is reduced following either prolonged application of L-glutamate or repetitive iontophoretic application of this amino acid or high frequency neural stimulation of the muscle in the presence of delta-PTX. The decay phase of the e.j.c. is shortened by delta-PTX. The effects of delta-PTX on the e.j.c. are not voltage dependent. The open-close kinetics of glutamate channels in extrajunctional muscle membrane are modified by delta-PTX as shown by patch clamp analysis. The mean life time of the glutamate channel is reduced, whilst the mean interval between single opening events is increased with the events often occurring in bursts. These data are consistent with glutamate channel blocking by this toxin. It is proposed that the toxin blocks open channels gated by both junctional and extrajunctional glutamate receptors on locust muscle. It is further proposed that delta-PTX enters a compartment of the muscle through the glutamate open channels and that it can also block the open channels from this site. PMID:6125237

  4. Autophagy is increased in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle and its inhibition improves muscle morphology in a mouse model of MDC1A.

    PubMed

    Carmignac, Virginie; Svensson, Martina; Körner, Zandra; Elowsson, Linda; Matsumura, Cintia; Gawlik, Kinga I; Allamand, Valerie; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2011-12-15

    Congenital muscular dystrophy caused by laminin α2 chain deficiency (also known as MDC1A) is a severe and incapacitating disease, characterized by massive muscle wasting. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a major role in muscle wasting and we recently demonstrated that increased proteasomal activity is a feature of MDC1A. The autophagy-lysosome pathway is the other major system involved in degradation of proteins and organelles within the muscle cell. However, it remains to be determined if the autophagy-lysosome pathway is dysregulated in muscular dystrophies, including MDC1A. Using the dy(3K)/dy(3K) mouse model of laminin α2 chain deficiency and MDC1A patient muscle, we show here that expression of autophagy-related genes is upregulated in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle. Moreover, we found that autophagy inhibition significantly improves the dystrophic dy(3K)/dy(3K) phenotype. In particular, we show that systemic injection of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) reduces muscle fibrosis, atrophy, apoptosis and increases muscle regeneration and muscle mass. Importantly, lifespan and locomotive behavior were also greatly improved. These findings indicate that enhanced autophagic activity is pathogenic and that autophagy inhibition holds a promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of MDC1A. PMID:21920942

  5. Receptor-mediated activation of spermatozoan guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J K; Tubb, D J; Garbers, D L

    1986-11-15

    The sea urchin egg peptides speract (Gly-Phe-Asp-Leu-Asn-Gly-Gly-Gly-Val-Gly) and resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2) bind to spermatozoa of the homologous species (Lytechinus pictus or Arbacia punctulata, respectively) and cause transient elevations of cyclic GMP concentrations (Hansbrough, J. R., and Garbers, D. L. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1447-1452). The addition of these peptides to spermatozoan membrane preparations caused a rapid and dramatic (up to 25-fold) activation of guanylate cyclase. The peptide-induced activation of guanylate cyclase was transient, and the subsequent decline in enzyme activity coincided with conversion of a high Mr (phosphorylated) form of guanylate cyclase to a low Mr (dephosphorylated) form. When membranes were incubated at pH 8.0, the high Mr form was converted to the low Mr form without substantial changes in basal enzyme activity. However, the peptide-stimulated activity of the low Mr form of guanylate cyclase was much less than the peptide-stimulated activity of the high Mr form. Activation of the low Mr form by peptide was not transient and persisted for at least 10 min. In addition, the pH 8.0 treatment that caused the Mr conversion of guanylate cyclase also caused an increase in the peptide-binding capacity of the membranes. We propose a model in which activation of the membrane form of guanylate cyclase is receptor-mediated; the extent of enzyme activation is modulated by its phosphorylation state. PMID:2876990

  6. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  7. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  8. Structure-dependent binding and activation of perfluorinated compounds on human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lianying; Ren, Xiao-Min; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2014-09-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been shown to disrupt lipid metabolism and even induce cancer in rodents through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Lines of evidence showed that PPAR? was activated by PFCs. However, the information on the binding interactions between PPAR? and PFCs and subsequent alteration of PPAR? activity is still limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present study, in vitro binding of 16 PFCs to human PPAR? ligand binding domain (hPPAR?-LBD) and their activity on the receptor in cells were investigated. The results showed that the binding affinity was strongly dependent on their carbon number and functional group. For the eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), the binding affinity increased with their carbon number from 4 to 11, and then decreased slightly. The binding affinity of the three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) was stronger than their PFCA counterparts. No binding was detected for the two fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). Circular dichroim spectroscopy showed that PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. In dual luciferase reporter assays using transiently transfected Hep G2 cells, PFCs acted as hPPAR? agonists, and their potency correlated with their binding affinity with hPPAR?-LBD. Molecular docking showed that PFCs with different chain length bind with the receptor in different geometry, which may contribute to their differences in binding affinity and transcriptional activity. - Highlights: Binding affinity between PFCs and PPAR? was evaluated for the first time. The binding strength was dependent on fluorinated carbon chain and functional group. PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. PFCs could act as hPPAR? agonists in Hep G2 cells.

  9. High constitutive activity of native H3 receptors regulates histamine neurons in brain.

    PubMed

    Morisset, S; Rouleau, A; Ligneau, X; Gbahou, F; Tardivel-Lacombe, J; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Ganellin, C R; Schwartz, J C; Arrang, J M

    2000-12-14

    Some G-protein-coupled receptors display 'constitutive activity', that is, spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist. This means that a proportion of the receptor population spontaneously undergoes an allosteric transition, leading to a conformation that can bind G proteins. The process has been shown to occur with recombinant receptors expressed at high density, and/or mutated, but also non-mutated recombinant receptors expressed at physiological concentrations. Transgenic mice that express a constitutively active mutant of the beta2-adrenergic receptor display cardiac anomalies; and spontaneous receptor mutations leading to constitutive activity are at the origin of some human diseases. Nevertheless, this process has not previously been found to occur in animals expressing normal levels of receptor. Here we show that two isoforms of the recombinant rat H3 receptor display high constitutive activity. Using drugs that abrogate this activity ('inverse agonists') and a drug that opposes both agonists and inverse agonists ('neutral antagonist'), we show that constitutive activity of native H3 receptors is present in rodent brain and that it controls histaminergic neuron activity in vivo. Inverse agonists may therefore find therapeutic applications, even in the case of diseases involving non-mutated receptors expressed at normal levels. PMID:11130725

  10. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Sophora flavescens Activates Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laiyou; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Li, Guodong; Li, Dan; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Guo, Grace L.

    2010-01-01

    Sophora flavescens (SF) is an herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and skin diseases. It was recently reported that SF up-regulates CYP3A expression. The mechanism of SF-induced CYP3A expression is unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that SF-induced CYP3A expression is mediated by the activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR). We used two cell lines, DPX2 and HepaRG, to investigate the role of PXR in SF-induced CYP3A expression. The DPX2 cell line is derived from HepG2 cells with the stable transfection of human PXR and a luciferase reporter gene linked with a human PXR response element identified in the CYP3A4 gene promoter. In DPX2 cells, SF activated PXR in a concentration-dependent manner. We used a metabolomic approach to identify the chemical constituents in SF, which were further analyzed for their effect on PXR activation and CYP3A regulation. One chemical in SF, N-methylcytisine, was identified as an individual chemical that activated PXR. HepaRG is a highly differentiated hepatoma cell line that mimics human hepatocytes. In HepaRG cells, N-methylcytisine significantly induced CYP3A4 expression, and this induction was suppressed by the PXR antagonist sulforaphane. These results suggest that SF induces CYP3A expression via the activation of PXR. PMID:20736322

  11. Preadipocyte proliferation is elevated by calcium sensing receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gladys; Villalobos, Elisa; Fuentes, Cecilia; Villarroel, Pia; Reyes, Marcela; Daz, Ximena; Mattar, Pamela; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide problem, despite considerable efforts against it. While excess body fat defines obesity, adipose tissue quality and functionality are key to whether cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities develop. Adipose tissue cellular composition can vary considerably, and excess adipocyte progenitors (preadipocytes) is associated with obesity. We have proposed that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activation in adipose tissue leads to dysfunction. This study evaluated whether CaSR activation elevates preadipocyte proliferation. Human LS14 preadipocytes were exposed to CaSR activators cinacalcet (2?M), GdCl3 (5?M) and spermine (1?M), and cell viability was evaluated after 72h. CaSR activators elevated proliferation by 19-24%, and CaSR silencing (siRNA) abolished the effect. Cinacalcet elevated phospho-ERK1/2 content, and upstream inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reverted cinacalcet-induced proliferation. Cinacalcet also elevated expression of the proinflammatory factors IL1?, IL6 and CCL2. The results suggest that CaSR induces preadipocyte proliferation, partly through ERK1/2 activation. Considering reported proinflammatory and adipogenic CaSR effects, excess preadipocyte proliferation further supports the dysfunctional effect of CaSR in obesity. PMID:25986659

  12. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  13. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha down-regulate platelet-activating-factor receptor expression in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hourton, D; Delerive, P; Stankova, J; Staels, B; Chapman, M J; Ninio, E

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of the expression of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor by atherogenic lipoproteins might contribute to atherogenesis. We show that progressive oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) gradually inhibits PAF receptor expression on the macrophage cell surface. We tested the effect of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on PAF receptor expression in human monocytes that do not contain peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor activated by oxLDL. OxLDL decreased by 50% (P < or = 0.001) and by 29% (P < or = 0.05) the binding of PAF and the expression of PAF receptor mRNA respectively. Next we demonstrated that progressive oxidation of LDLs significantly activated PPARalpha-dependent transcription in transfected mouse aortic endothelial cells. Finally we demonstrated, in mature macrophages, that fenofibrate (20 microM), a specific PPARalpha agonist, but not the specific PPARgamma agonist BRL49653 (20 nM), significantly decreased both PAF binding and PAF receptor mRNA expression, by 65% and 40% (P < or = 0.001) respectively. Additionally, another PPARalpha agonist, Wy14,643, decreased PAF receptor promoter activity by 70% (P < or = 0.05) in transfected THP-1 cells, suggesting the involvement of the proximal promoter region (-980 to -500) containing a series of four nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB motifs. Thus PPARalpha might be involved in the down-regulation of PAF receptor gene expression by oxLDLs in human monocytes/macrophages. The oxidation of one or more lipid components of LDLs might result in the formation of natural activators of PPARalpha. It is hypothesized that such activators might modulate inflammation and apoptosis upon atherogenesis by decreasing the expression of PAF receptor. PMID:11171098

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  15. SHP-1 phosphatase activity counteracts increased T cell receptor affinity

    PubMed Central

    Hebeisen, Michael; Baitsch, Lukas; Presotto, Danilo; Baumgaertner, Petra; Romero, Pedro; Michielin, Olivier; Speiser, Daniel E.; Rufer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Anti-self/tumor T cell function can be improved by increasing TCR-peptide MHC (pMHC) affinity within physiological limits, but paradoxically further increases (Kd < 1 ?M) lead to drastic functional declines. Using human CD8+ T cells engineered with TCRs of incremental affinity for the tumor antigen HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this high-affinityassociated loss of function. As compared with cells expressing TCR affinities generating optimal function (Kd = 5 to 1 ?M), those with supraphysiological affinity (Kd = 1 ?M to 15 nM) showed impaired gene expression, signaling, and surface expression of activatory/costimulatory receptors. Preferential expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) was limited to T cells with the highest TCR affinity, correlating with full functional recovery upon PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade. In contrast, upregulation of the Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1/PTPN6) was broad, with gradually enhanced expression in CD8+ T cells with increasing TCR affinities. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of SHP-1 with sodium stibogluconate augmented the function of all engineered T cells, and this correlated with the TCR affinitydependent levels of SHP-1. These data highlight an unexpected and global role of SHP-1 in regulating CD8+ T cell activation and responsiveness and support the development of therapies inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases to enhance T cellmediated immunity. PMID:23391724

  16. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly to reach a peak that corresponds to PO ∼0.96. PMID:26206191

  17. Full and partial agonists of thromboxane prostanoid receptor unveil fine tuning of receptor superactive conformation and G protein activation.

    PubMed

    Capra, Valrie; Busnelli, Marta; Perenna, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Manuela; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gals, Celine; Chini, Bice; Rovati, G Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The intrahelical salt bridge between E/D(3.49) and R(3.50) within the E/DRY motif on helix 3 (H3) and the interhelical hydrogen bonding between the E/DRY and residues on H6 are thought to be critical in stabilizing the class A G protein-coupled receptors in their inactive state. Removal of these interactions is expected to generate constitutively active receptors. This study examines how neutralization of E(3.49/6.30) in the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor alters ligand binding, basal, and agonist-induced activity and investigates the molecular mechanisms of G protein activation. We demonstrate here that a panel of full and partial agonists showed an increase in affinity and potency for E129V and E240V mutants. Yet, even augmenting the sensitivity to detect constitutive activity (CA) with overexpression of the receptor or the G protein revealed resistance to an increase in basal activity, while retaining fully the ability to cause agonist-induced signaling. However, direct G protein activation measured through bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) indicates that these mutants more efficiently communicate and/or activate their cognate G proteins. These results suggest the existence of additional constrains governing the shift of TP receptor to its active state, together with an increase propensity of these mutants to agonist-induced signaling, corroborating their definition as superactive mutants. The particular nature of the TP receptor as somehow "resistant" to CA should be examined in the context of its pathophysiological role in the cardiovascular system. Evolutionary forces may have favored regulation mechanisms leading to low basal activity and selected against more highly active phenotypes. PMID:23555978

  18. Downregulation of vasopressin V2 receptor promoter activity via V1a receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Mori, Tomohiko; Miyazaki, Hiroki; Inoue, Hideki; Kohda, Yukimasa; Inoue, Takeaki; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi; Tomita, Kimio

    2007-05-01

    Vasopressin V(1a) and V(2) receptors (V(1a)R and V(2)R, respectively) distribute in the collecting duct of the kidney. Although the function of V(2)R mediating the antidiuretic effect of AVP has been investigated in detail, the role of V(1a)R in the collecting ducts has not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the role of the V(1a)R pathway in V(2)R promoter activity. We cloned the 5'-flanking region of rat V(2)R (rV(2)R) and investigated rV(2)R promoter activity in the LLC-PK(1) cell line transfected to express rat V(1a)R (rV(1a)R) dominantly (LLC-PK(1)/rV(1a)R). AVP induced a transient increase, followed by a sustained decrease, of rV(2)R promoter activity in these cells. This AVP-induced decrease of rV(2)R promoter activity was inhibited by V(1a)R, but not V(2)R, antagonist. PMA mimicked this decrease of rV(2)R promoter activity. On the contrary, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP increased rV(2)R promoter activity. These PMA- and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP-induced effects were not observed on the deletion segment of the 5'-flanking region lacking CAAT and SP1 sites. In conclusion, 1) expression of the V(2)R is downregulated via the V(1a)R pathway in LLC-PK(1)/rV(1a)R cells, and 2) expression of the V(2)R is downregulated by the PMA-induced PKC pathway and upregulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. These opposite effects of PKC and PKA appear to be regulated by the same promoter region of CAAT and SP1. PMID:17213462

  19. The Structure of the GM-CSF Receptor Complex Reveals a Distinct Mode of Cytokine Receptor Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; McClure, Barbara J.; Stomski, Frank C.; Dottore, Mara; Powell, Jason; Ramshaw, Hayley; Woodcock, Joanna M.; Xu, Yibin; Guthridge, Mark; McKinstry, William J.; Lopez, Angel F.; Parker, Michael W.

    2008-08-11

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers therapeutic value for other diseases. Its receptors are heterodimers consisting of a ligand-specific {alpha} subunit and a {beta}c subunit that is shared with the interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 receptors. How signaling is initiated remains an enigma. We report here the crystal structure of the human GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor ternary complex and its assembly into an unexpected dodecamer or higher-order complex. Importantly, mutagenesis of the GM-CSF receptor at the dodecamer interface and functional studies reveal that dodecamer formation is required for receptor activation and signaling. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics.

  20. Distribution of laminin and fibronectin isoforms in oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kosmehl, H; Berndt, A; Strassburger, S; Borsi, L; Rousselle, P; Mandel, U; Hyckel, P; Zardi, L; Katenkamp, D

    1999-01-01

    The expression of laminin and fibronectin isoforms varies with cellular maturation and differentiation and these differences may well influence cellular processes such as adhesion and motility. The basement membrane (BM) of fetal oral squamous epithelium contains the laminin chains, ?2, ?3, ?5, ?1, ?2, ?3, ?1 and ?2. The BM of adult normal oral squamous epithelium comprises the laminin chains, ?3, ?5, ?1, ?3, ?1 and ?2. A re-expression of the laminin ?2 and ?2 chains could be shown in adult hyperproliferative, dysplastic and carcinomatous lesions. In dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), multifocal breaks of the BM are present as indicated by laminin chain antibodies. These breaks correlate to malignancy grade in their extent. Moreover, in the invasion front the ?3 and ?2 chain of laminin-5 can immunohistochemically be found outside the BM within the cytoplasm of budding carcinoma cells and in the adjacent stroma. The correlation between the morphological pattern of invasive tumour clusters and a laminin-5 immunostaining in the adjacent stroma may suggest, first, that a laminin-5 deposition outside the BM is an immunohistochemical marker for invasion and second, that OSCC invasion is guided by the laminin-5 matrix. Expression of oncofetal fibronectins (IIICS de novo glycosylated fibronectin and ED-B fibronectin) could be demonstrated throughout the stromal compartment. However, the ED-B fibronectin synthesizing cells (RNA/RNA in situ hybridization) are confined to small stroma areas and to single stroma and inflammatory cells in the invasion front. A correlation of the number of ED-B fibronectin synthesizing cells to malignancy grade could not be seen. ED-B fibronectin mRNA-positive cells seem to be concentrated in areas of fibrous stroma recruitment with a linear alignment of stromal fibro-/myofibroblasts (desmoplasia). Double staining experiments (ED-B fibronectin in situ hybridization and ?-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry) indicated that the stroma myofibroblasts are a preferential source of ED-B fibronectin. In conclusion, in OSCC, a fetal extracellular matrix conversion is demonstrable. Tumour cells (laminin ?2 and ?2 chain) and recruited stromal myofibroblasts (oncofetal ED-B fibronectin) contribute to the fetal extracellular matrix milieu. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576667

  1. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. ); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. ); Rouvinen, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  2. Laminins and TGF-beta maintain cell polarity and functionality of human gastric glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Basque, Jean-René; Chailler, Pierre; Ménard, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    The human gastric glandular epithelium produces a gastric lipase enzyme (HGL) that plays an important role in digestion of dietary triglycerides. To assess the involvement of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the regulation of this enzymic function, normal gastric epithelial cells were cultured on collagen type I, Matrigel, and laminins (LN)-1 and -2 with or without TGF-beta1. Epithelial morphology and HGL expression were evaluated using microscopy techniques, enzymic assays, Western blot, Northern hybridization, and RT-PCR. A correlation was observed between the cell polarity status and the level of HGL expression. TGF-beta1 alone or individual matrix components stimulated cell spreading and caused a downfall of HGL activity and mRNA. By contrast, Matrigel preserved the morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells and maintained HGL expression. The combination of LNs with TGF-beta1 (two constituents of Matrigel) exerted similar beneficial effects on epithelial cell polarity and evoked a 10-fold increase of HGL levels that was blunted by a neutralizing antibody against the alpha(2)-integrin subunit and by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD-98059 (p42/p44) or SB-203580 (p38). This investigation demonstrates for the first time that a powerful synergism between a growth factor and basement membrane LNs positively influences cell polarity and functionality of the human gastric glandular epithelium through an activation of the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin and effectors of two MAPK pathways. PMID:11880276

  3. La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole; Huber, Heidemarie; Beug, Hartmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LamB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between -293 and -1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT. PMID:21896617

  4. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  5. RSUME Enhances Glucocorticoid Receptor SUMOylation and Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Druker, Jimena; Liberman, Ana C.; Antunica-Noguerol, Mara; Gerez, Juan; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Rein, Theo; Iiguez-Lluh, Jorge A.; Holsboer, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity is modulated by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. The GR has three SUMOylation sites: lysine 297 (K297) and K313 in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and K721 within the ligand-binding domain. SUMOylation of the NTD sites mediates the negative effect of the synergy control motifs of GR on promoters with closely spaced GR binding sites. There is scarce evidence on the role of SUMO conjugation to K721 and its impact on GR transcriptional activity. We have previously shown that RSUME (RWD-containing SUMOylation enhancer) increases protein SUMOylation. We now demonstrate that RSUME interacts with the GR and increases its SUMOylation. RSUME regulates GR transcriptional activity and the expression of its endogenous target genes, FKBP51 and S100P. RSUME uncovers a positive role for the third SUMOylation site, K721, on GR-mediated transcription, demonstrating that GR SUMOylation acts positively in the presence of a SUMOylation enhancer. Both mutation of K721 and small interfering RNA-mediated RSUME knockdown diminish GRIP1 coactivator activity. RSUME, whose expression is induced under stress conditions, is a key factor in heat shock-induced GR SUMOylation. These results show that inhibitory and stimulatory SUMO sites are present in the GR and at higher SUMOylation levels the stimulatory one becomes dominant. PMID:23508108

  6. Linking estrogen receptor ? expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity.

    PubMed

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa; Conti, Lucia; Gessani, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)? expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-? therapy and responsive to treatment, ER? expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ER? expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ER? expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ER? downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ER? as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  7. Utilizing Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Direct Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, David L.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent an attractive lymphocyte population for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to lyse tumor targets without prior sensitization and without need for human leukocyte antigens-matching. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are able to enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies. CARs consist of an external recognition domain (typically a small chain variable fragment) directed at a specific tumor antigen that is linked with one or more intracellular signaling domains that mediate lymphocyte activation. Most CAR studies have focused on their expression in T cells. However, use of CARs in NK cells is starting to gain traction because they provide a method to redirect these cells more specifically to target refractory cancers. CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated using NK cell lines, as well as NK cells isolated from peripheral blood, and NK cells produced from human pluripotent stem cells. This review will outline the CAR constructs that have been reported in NK cells with a focus on comparing the use of different signaling domains in combination with other co-activating domains. PMID:25972867

  8. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  9. Visualization of Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Marnie E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and affect multiple tissues. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate transcription by binding to DNA at conserved estrogen response elements, and such elements have been used to report ER activity in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. We generated stable, transgenic zebrafish containing five consecutive elements upstream of a c-fos minimal promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize and quantify transcriptional activation in live larvae. Transgenic larvae show robust, dose-dependent estrogen-dependent fluorescent labeling in the liver, consistent with er gene expression, whereas ER antagonists inhibit GFP expression. The nonestrogenic steroids dexamethasone and progesterone fail to activate GFP, confirming ER selectivity. Natural and synthetic estrogens activated the transgene with varying potency, and two chemicals, genistein and bisphenol A, preferentially induce GFP expression in the heart. In adult fish, fluorescence was observed in estrogenic tissues such as the liver, ovary, pituitary gland, and brain. Individual estrogen-responsive neurons and their projections were visualized in the adult brain, and GFP-positive neurons increased in number after 17β-estradiol exposure. The transgenic estrogen-responsive zebrafish allow ER signaling to be monitored visually and serve as in vivo sentinels for detection of estrogenic compounds. PMID:21540282

  10. Modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor activity by ROS and RNS.

    PubMed

    Donoso, Paulina; Sanchez, Gina; Bull, Ricardo; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Calcium release through cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) triggers heart muscle contraction. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), normally produced in the heart, promote endogenous RyR2 S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation. These reversible redox modifications increase RyR2 activity in vitro, and presumably also in vivo. RyR2 S-glutathionylation increases under physiologically relevant conditions (tachycardia and exercise), suggesting that cardiac cells utilize this redox modification to increase RyR2 activity under increased demand. In contrast, in vivo changes in RyR2 S-nitrosylation in response to physiological stimuli remain uncharacterized. The number and identity of the highly reactive RyR2 cysteine residues and the nature of the redox modification they undergo are presently unknown. Likewise, the physiological sources of ROS/RNS responsible for functionally relevant RyR2 redox modifications have not been completely identified. The redox state of RyR2 is altered in heart failure leading to enhanced RyR2 activity, which presumably contributes to decrease SR calcium content and induce other calcium release abnormalities observed in heart failure. Greater understanding of RyR2 redox modulation is necessary to counteract the deleterious consequences of RyR2 activity deregulation caused by oxidative stress. PMID:21196188

  11. PTEROSTILBENE AS A NEW AGONIST FOR THE PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA ISOFORM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pterostilbene, a stilbenoid antioxidant found in blueberries, grapes, other small fruits, and in woody plants was shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) isoform. This nuclear receptor is proposed to mediate the activity of lipid-lowering drugs such as th...

  12. Bicyclic heterocyclic anthranilic diamides as ryanodine receptor modulators with insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Jeanguenat, Andr; Durieux, Patricia; Edmunds, Andrew J F; Hall, Roger G; Hughes, Dave; Loiseleur, Olivier; Pabba, Jagadish; Stoller, Andr; Trah, Stephan; Wenger, Jean; Dutton, Anna; Crossthwaite, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The diamide insecticides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR). The synthesis of various bicyclic anthranilic derivatives is reported. Their activity against the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR) and their insecticidal activity in the greenhouse is presented, as well as structure activity relationship considerations. PMID:26688073

  13. Purinergic signaling negatively regulates activity of an olfactory receptor in an odorant-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhang, C

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular purines and pyrimidines are important signaling molecules that mediate diverse biological functions via cell surface purinergic receptors. Although purinergic modulation to olfactory activity has been reported, cell-specific expression and action of purinergic receptors deserve further exploration. We physiologically characterized expression of purinergic receptors in a set of olfactory sensory neurons that are responsive to both acetophenone and benzaldehyde (AB-OSNs). Sparsely distributed in the most ventral olfactory receptor zone, AB-OSNs were activated by P2 purinergic receptor agonists but not by P1 purinergic receptor agonist adenosine. Both P2X-selective agonist α,β-methylene ATP and P2Y-selective agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) were stimulatory to AB-OSNs, indicating expression of both P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors in AB-OSNs. Pharmacological characterization of receptor specificity using various P2X and P2Y agonists and antagonists illustrated that P2X1 and P2Y2 receptors played major roles in purinergic signaling in AB-OSNs. Interestingly, the results of purinergic modulation to acetophenone-evoked responses were different from those to benzaldehyde-evoked responses within the same neurons. Activation of P2X1 receptors had more profound inhibitory effects on benzaldehyde-evoked intracellular calcium elevation than on acetophenone-evoked responses within the same neurons, and the reverse was true when P2Y2 receptors were activated. Cross-adaptation data showed that acetophenone and benzaldehyde bound to the same olfactory receptor. Thus, our study has demonstrated that purinergic signaling of P2X and P2Y receptors has different effects on olfactory transduction mediated by a defined olfactory receptor and the consequences of purinergic modulation of olfactory activity might depend on stereotypic structures of the odorant-receptor complex. PMID:24928349

  14. Effect of chemoreceptor and pulmonary receptor stimulation on dilator nares EMG activity in the dog.

    PubMed

    Blum, D J; McCaffrey, T V

    1983-12-01

    To define the relationship between central control of upper airway muscles and respiratory muscle function, the electromyographic responses of the dilator nares muscles to stimulation of chemoreceptors and pulmonary receptors were studied in six anesthetized dogs. Only at maximal levels of hypoxia was the inspiratory activity of the dilator nares significantly increased. Hypercapnic stimulation increased the inspiratory activity with each incremental increase in CO2. Pulmonary stretch receptor stimulation produced by lung inflation inhibited dilator nares activity. Pulmonary irritant receptor stimulation by intravenously administered histamine increased dilator nares activity, as did pulmonary J receptor stimulation by the intravenous administration of capsaicin. PMID:6420746

  15. His499 Regulates Dimerization and Prevents Oncogenic Activation by Asparagine Mutations of the Human Thrombopoietin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Emilie; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Sato, Takeshi; Dass, Sharmila; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Shwe, Myat M; Staerk, Judith; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Smith, Steven O

    2016-02-01

    Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR) imparts a specific orientation on the transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domains of the receptors that is required for physiologic activation via receptor dimerization. To map the inactive and active dimeric orientations of the TM helices, we performed asparagine (Asn)-scanning mutagenesis of the TM domains of the murine and human TpoR. Substitution of Asn at only one position (S505N) activated the human receptor, whereas Asn substitutions at several positions activated the murine receptor. Second site mutational studies indicate that His(499) near the N terminus of the TM domain is responsible for protecting the human receptor from activation by Asn mutations. Structural studies reveal that the sequence preceding His(499) is helical in the murine receptor but non-helical in peptides corresponding to the TM domain of the inactive human receptor. The activating S505N mutation and the small molecule agonist eltrombopag both induce helix in this region of the TM domain and are associated with dimerization and activation of the human receptor. Thus, His(499) regulates the activation of human TpoR and provides additional protection against activating mutations, such as oncogenic Asn mutations in the TM domain. PMID:26627830

  16. Pathway-selective antagonism of proteinase activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Suen, J Y; Cotterell, A; Lohman, R J; Lim, J; Han, A; Yau, M K; Liu, L; Cooper, M A; Vesey, D A; Fairlie, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a GPCR associated with inflammation, metabolism and disease. Clues to understanding how to block PAR2 signalling associated with disease without inhibiting PAR2 activation in normal physiology could be provided by studies of biased signalling. Experimental Approach PAR2 ligand GB88 was profiled for PAR2 agonist and antagonist properties by several functional assays associated with intracellular G-protein-coupled signalling in vitro in three cell types and with PAR2-induced rat paw oedema in vivo. Key Results In HT29 cells, GB88 was a PAR2 antagonist in terms of Ca2+ mobilization and PKC phosphorylation, but a PAR2 agonist in attenuating forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, myosin phosphatase phosphorylation and actin filament rearrangement. In CHO-hPAR2 cells, GB88 inhibited Ca2+ release, but activated Gi/o and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In human kidney tubule cells, GB88 inhibited cytokine secretion (IL6, IL8, GM-CSF, TNF-α) mediated by PAR2. A rat paw oedema induced by PAR2 agonists was also inhibited by orally administered GB88 and compared with effects of locally administered inhibitors of G-protein coupled pathways. Conclusions and Implications GB88 is a biased antagonist of PAR2 that selectively inhibits PAR2/Gq/11/Ca2+/PKC signalling, leading to anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, while being an agonist in activating three other PAR2-activated pathways (cAMP, ERK, Rho) in human cells. These findings highlight opportunities to design drugs to block specific PAR2-linked signalling pathways in disease, without blocking beneficial PAR2 signalling in normal physiology, and to dissect PAR2-associated mechanisms of disease in vivo. PMID:24821440

  17. Determinants of the Heightened Activity of Glucocorticoid Receptor Translational Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Ingrid K.; Cao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Translational isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor α (GR-A, -B, -C1, -C2, -C3, -D1, -D2, and -D3) have distinct tissue distribution patterns and unique gene targets. The GR-C3 isoform-expressing cells are more sensitive to glucocorticoid killing than cells expressing other GRα isoforms and the GR-D isoform–expressing cells are resistant to glucocorticoid killing. Whereas a lack of activation function 1 (AF1) may underlie the reduced activity of the GR-D isoforms, it is not clear how the GR-C3 isoform has heightened activity. Mutation analyses and N-terminal tagging demonstrated that steric hindrance is probably the mechanism for the GR-A, -B, -C1, and -C2 isoforms to have lower activity than the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, truncation scanning analyses revealed that residues 98 to 115 are critical in the hyperactivity of the human GR-C3 isoform. Chimera constructs linking this critical fragment with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain showed that GR residues 98 to 115 do not contain any independent transactivation activity. Mutations at residues Asp101 or Gln106 and Gln107 all reduced the activity of the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, functional studies indicated that Asp101 is crucial for the GR-C3 isoform to recruit coregulators and to mediate glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Thus, charged and polar residues are essential components of an N-terminal motif that enhances the activity of AF1 and the GR-C3 isoform. These studies, together with the observations that GR isoforms have cell-specific expression patterns, provide a molecular basis for the tissue-specific functions of GR translational isoforms. PMID:23820903

  18. Chronic activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus increases excitatory synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimok; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in regulating neuronal activity have been extensively characterized. Although early studies show that CB1 receptors are present in the nervous system and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are in the immune system, recent evidence indicates that CB2 receptors are also expressed in the brain. Activation or blockade of CB2 receptors in vivo induces neuropsychiatric effects, but the cellular mechanisms of CB2 receptor function are unclear. The aim of this study is to determine how activation of CB2 receptors present in the hippocampus regulates synaptic function. Here, we show that when organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampal slices were treated with a CB2 receptor agonist (JWH133 or GP1a) for 7–10 days, quantal glutamate release became more frequent and spine density was increased via extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Chronic intraperitoneal injection of JWH133 into mice also increased excitatory synaptic transmission. These effects were blocked by a CB2 receptor antagonist (SR144528) or absent from hippocampal slices of CB2 receptor knock-out mice. This study reveals a novel cellular function of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus and provides insights into how cannabinoid receptor subtypes diversify the roles of cannabinoids in the brain. PMID:25504573

  19. Immunomodulator CD200 Promotes Neurotrophic Activity by Interacting with and Activating the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Bjornsdottir, Halla; Christensen, Claus; Zhang, Lanjun; Li, Shizhong; Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The CD200 ligand is expressed by a variety of cell types, including vascular endothelia, kidney glomeruli, some subsets of T and B cells, and neurons in the brain and periphery. In contrast, the receptor of CD200, CD200R, has a limited expression pattern and is mainly expressed by cells of myeloid origin. A recently solved crystal structure of the CD200-CD200R ectodomain complex suggests involvement of the first immunoglobulin (Ig)-like modules in ligand-receptor binding, resulting in the inhibition of myeloid cell function. In the central nervous system, CD200 has been implicated in the suppression of microglia activation. We for the first time demonstrated that CD200 can interact with and transduce signaling through activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), thereby inducing neuritogenesis and promoting neuronal survival in primary neurons. CD200-induced FGFR phosphorylation was abrogated by CD200R, whereas FGF2-induced FGFR activation was inhibited by CD200. We also identified a sequence motif located in the first Ig-like module of CD200, likely representing the minimal CD200 binding site for FGFR. The FGFR binding motif overlaps with the CD200R binding site, suggesting that they can compete for CD200 binding in cells that express both receptors. We propose that CD200 in neurons functions as a ligand of FGFR. PMID:25502296

  20. Ghrelin receptor: high constitutive activity and methods for developing inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Els, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Chollet, Constance

    2010-01-01

    The ghrelin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mainly distributed in the brain, and also expressed in peripheral tissues. Remarkably, the ghrelin receptor possesses a naturally high constitutive activity representing 50% of its maximal activity. Its endogenous ligand ghrelin is the only known orexigenic gastrointestinal peptide and plays a central role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy homeostasis. Reducing the constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor by inverse agonists is the strategy adopted by our group to develop anti-obesity drugs. Therefore, short peptides were synthesized and showed high inverse agonist potency toward the ghrelin receptor. This review describes the methods used to synthesize the peptides and to evaluate their biological activity. Peptide synthesis was performed on solid phase using a Fmoc/tBu-strategy. Peptide potency was measured with a signal transduction assay, the inositol trisphosphate turnover assay, adapted to a receptor expressing constitutive activity. PMID:21050913

  1. The Lutheran/Basal Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Tumor Cell Migration by Modulating Integrin-mediated Cell Attachment to Laminin-511 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Ogawa, Takaho; Sudo, Ryo; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-matrix interactions are critical for tumor cell migration. Lutheran (Lu), also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM), competes with integrins for binding to laminin ?5, a subunit of LM-511, a major component of basement membranes. Here we show that the preferential binding of Lu/B-CAM to laminin ?5 promotes tumor cell migration. The attachment of Lu/B-CAM transfectants to LM-511 was slightly weaker than that of control cells, and this was because Lu/B-CAM disturbed integrin binding to laminin ?5. Lu/B-CAM induced a spindle cell shape with pseudopods and promoted cell migration on LM-511. In addition, blocking with an anti-Lu/B-CAM antibody led to a flat cell shape and inhibited migration on LM-511, similar to the effects of an activating integrin ?1 antibody. We conclude that tumor cell migration on LM-511 requires that Lu/B-CAM competitively modulates cell attachment through integrins. We suggest that this competitive interaction is involved in a balance between static and migratory cell behaviors. PMID:24036115

  2. Identification of new human coding steroid receptor RNA activator isoforms.

    PubMed

    Emberley, Ethan; Huang, Guo-Jian; Hamedani, Mohammad K; Czosnek, Anna; Ali, Djiae; Grolla, Allen; Lu, Biao; Watson, Peter H; Murphy, Leigh C; Leygue, Etienne

    2003-02-01

    SRA is a steroid receptor co-activator which acts as a functional RNA and is classified as belonging to the growing family of functional non-coding RNAs. None of the different SRA transcripts described to date encode a detectable SRA protein following in vitro and in vivo translation experiments. We have identified three new SRA-RNA isoforms differing mainly from the originally cloned SRA by an extended 5(') extremity. These long SRA isoforms, able to encode a stable protein in vitro, led to the production in vivo of a nuclear protein when transfected into the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis of RNA and protein extracts from different breast cancer cell lines confirmed the presence of endogenous coding SRA isoforms and their corresponding proteins. Our results demonstrate that full-length SRA-RNAs likely to encode stable proteins are widely expressed in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:12565891

  3. Effects of penicillin and erythromycin on adherence of invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes to laminin

    PubMed Central

    mitran, Aleksandra; Vukovi?, Dragana; Gaji?, Ina; Marinkovi?, Jelena; Ranin, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between the invasiveness of group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains and their abilities to adhere to laminin and assessed the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin and erythromycin on the ability of GAS to adhere to laminin. The adherence of noninvasive and highly invasive isolates of GAS to laminin was significantly higher than the adherence displayed by isolates of low invasiveness. Antibiotic treatment caused significant reductions in adherence to laminin in all three groups of strains. Penicillin was more successful in reducing the adherence abilities of the tested GAS strains than erythromycin. PMID:26270594

  4. Mechanisms Governing the Activation and Trafficking of Yeast G Protein-coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Christopher J.; Overton, Mark C.; Blumer, Kendall J.

    1998-01-01

    We have addressed the mechanisms governing the activation and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by analyzing constitutively active mating pheromone receptors (Ste2p and Ste3p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Substitution of the highly conserved proline residue in transmembrane segment VI of these receptors causes constitutive signaling. This proline residue may facilitate folding of GPCRs into native, inactive conformations, and/or mediate agonist-induced structural changes leading to G protein activation. Constitutive signaling by mutant receptors is suppressed upon coexpression with wild-type, but not G protein coupling-defective, receptors. Wild-type receptors may therefore sequester a limiting pool of G proteins; this apparent “precoupling” of receptors and G proteins could facilitate signal production at sites where cell surface projections form during mating partner discrimination. Finally, rather than being expressed mainly at the cell surface, constitutively active pheromone receptors accumulate in post-endoplasmic reticulum compartments. This is in contrast to other defective membrane proteins, which apparently are targeted by default to the vacuole. We suggest that the quality-control mechanism that retains receptors in post-endoplasmic reticulum compartments may normally allow wild-type receptors to fold into their native, fully inactive conformations before reaching the cell surface. This may ensure that receptors do not trigger a response in the absence of agonist. PMID:9529386

  5. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  6. GABAB Receptor Activation Inhibits Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning in the Entorhinal Cortex by Activating TREK-2 K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Yang, Chuanxiu; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Grisanti, Laurel; Watt, John; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Liu, Rugao; Porter, James E.; Lei, Saobo

    2009-01-01

    Summary The entorhinal cortex (EC) is regarded as the gateway to the hippocampus and thus is essential for learning and memory. Whereas the EC expresses a high density of GABAB receptors, the functions of these receptors in this region remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of GABAB receptor activation on neuronal excitability in the EC and spatial learning. Application of baclofen, a specific GABAB receptor agonist, inhibited significantly neuronal excitability in the EC. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition in the EC was mediated via activating TREK-2, a type of two-pore domain K+ channels and required the functions of inhibitory G proteins and protein kinase A pathway. Depression of neuronal excitability in the EC underlies GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of spatial learning as assessed by Morris water maze. Our study indicates that GABAB receptors exert a tight control over spatial learning by modulating neuronal excitability in the EC. PMID:19640481

  7. Targeted inactivation of murine laminin gamma2-chain gene recapitulates human junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianmin; Klement, John F; Leperi, Dominic A; Birk, David E; Sasaki, Takako; Timpl, Rupert; Uitto, Jouni; Pulkkinen, Leena

    2003-10-01

    Junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) are associated with mutations in six distinct genes expressed in the cutaneous basement membrane zone; these include LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, which encode laminin 5 subunit polypeptides, the alpha3-, beta3-, and gamma2-chains, respectively. Here we generated a mouse model for JEB by inactivating the laminin gamma2-chain gene by targeted frameshift deletion of exon 8 in Lamc2. Heterozygous mice were phenotypically normal, whereas the majority of Lamc2-/- mice showed blistering phenotype on days 1 to 2 and died within 5 days of birth. The Lamc2-/- mice demonstrated absent expression of laminin gamma2-chain on the basement membrane zone as well as attenuated expression of alpha3- and beta3-chains of laminin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed rudimentary, poorly developed hemidesmosomes. The epidermis of the Lamc2-/- mice revealed induced apoptosis in the basal cells of the blistered skin, suggesting that cell-matrix adhesion provided by laminin 5 plays a role in cell survival in vivo. Cultured Lamc2-/- keratinocytes demonstrated slightly positive staining with gamma2-chain-specific antibodies, which could be explained by the presence of a transcript with partial restoration of the reading frame owing to alternative splicing in vitro. These cells proliferated in different matrices and attached to type IV collagen and Matrigel as efficiently as the wild-type keratinocytes, whereas their attachment on plastic and laminin was significantly weaker. In summary, Lamc2-/- mouse recapitulates human JEB and provides novel insight into the role of laminin 5 in keratinocyte biology. PMID:14632187

  8. Laminin-1 promotes differentiation of fetal mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F X; Cram, D S; DeAizpurua, H J; Harrison, L C

    1999-04-01

    Extracellular factors that regulate the growth and differentiation of cell lineages in the pancreatic primordia are poorly understood. Identification of these factors for pancreatic islet beta-cells could open new avenues for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. We developed a low cell density serum-free culture system for dissociated pancreatic cells from the 13.5-day mouse fetus and investigated the effects of extracellular matrix proteins on differentiation of islet cells. After 4 days in culture, total cell number decreased by two-thirds, but insulin-positive beta-cell number increased 10-fold. Both of collagens I and IV inhibited cell survival (by >50%), whereas fibronectin had no effect. In the presence of soluble laminin-1, however, the number of beta-cells increased linearly by 60-fold without an increase in the total cell number; glucagon-positive cell number was unchanged, and somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide-positive cells were not detected. The effect of laminin-1 was completely blocked by a monoclonal rat anti-laminin-1 antibody. In the presence of laminin-1, the thymidine analogue, BrdU, was incorporated into only 2.5% of cells, which were mainly insulin-negative at days 1-3. Laminin-1 appeared, therefore, to induce differentiation of beta-cells from precursor cells in day-13.5 fetal pancreas. Laminin-1 was shown to be expressed in the epithelial basement membrane of the 13.5- to 17.5-day fetal pancreas. These findings provide the first evidence of a role for laminin-1 to promote differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:10102687

  9. Differential inhibition of receptor activation by two mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for the human leukotriene B4 receptor, BLT1.

    PubMed

    Sabirsh, A; Pettersson, A; Boketoft, A; Kotarsky, K; Owman, C

    2003-12-01

    The inflammatory mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) binds to and activates a G-protein-coupled receptor named BLT(1). We have previously produced two monoclonal antibodies, named 7B1 and 14F11, that bind specifically to this receptor. Using a HeLa cell line expressing human BLT(1), we find that both antibodies inhibit LTB(4)-induced calcium release, and activation of a MAP-kinase-sensitive luciferase reporter system. The normal chemotactic movement of polymorphonuclear cells towards higher LTB(4) concentrations was also strongly inhibited by both antibodies. Neither antibody was found to activate BLT(1), and experiments using cyclic peptide fragments of the BLT(1) n-terminal and extracellular loops showed that these antibodies bind only to complex epitopes in the tertiary, membrane bound, conformation of the receptor protein. In ligand binding experiments, 7B1 was found to be a competitive antagonist, while 14F11 was a noncompetitive antagonist that inhibited receptor activation, but not agonist (LTB(4)) binding. 14F11 will be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of receptor activation. PMID:14636832

  10. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  11. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

  12. Novel Leptospira interrogans protein Lsa32 is expressed during infection and binds laminin and plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Renan F; Fernandes, Luis G; Romero, Eliete C; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease of human and veterinary concern. The quest for novel antigens that could mediate host-pathogen interactions is being pursued. Owing to their location, these antigens have the potential to elicit numerous activities, including immune response and adhesion. This study focuses on a hypothetical protein of Leptospira, encoded by the gene LIC11089, and its three derived fragments: the N-terminal, intermediate and C terminus regions. The gene coding for the full-length protein and fragments was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(SI) strain by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein and fragments tagged with hexahistidine at the N terminus were purified by metal affinity chromatography. The leptospiral full-length protein, named Lsa32 (leptospiral surface adhesin, 32 kDa), adheres to laminin, with the C terminus region being responsible for this interaction. Lsa32 binds to plasminogen in a dose-dependent fashion, generating plasmin when an activator is provided. Moreover, antibodies present in leptospirosis serum samples were able to recognize Lsa32. Lsa32 is most likely a new surface protein of Leptospira, as revealed by proteinase K susceptibility. Altogether, our data suggest that this multifaceted protein is expressed during infection and may play a role in host-L. interrogans interactions. PMID:25627443

  13. Omigapil ameliorates the pathology of muscle dystrophy caused by laminin-alpha2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Erb, Michael; Meinen, Sarina; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Courdier-Frh, Isabelle; Regg, Markus A; Meier, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Laminin alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A, is a rare, devastating genetic disease characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia ("floppy infant syndrome"), peripheral neuropathy, inability to stand or walk, respiratory distress, and premature death in early life. Transgenic overexpression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein BCL-2, or deletion of the proapoptotic Bax gene in a mouse model for MDC1A prolongs survival and mitigates pathology, indicating that apoptotic events are involved in the pathology. Here we demonstrate that the proapoptotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-Siah1-CBP/p300-p53 pathway is activated in a mouse model for MDC1A. Moreover, we show that omigapil, which inhibits GAPDH-Siah1-mediated apoptosis, ameliorates several pathological hallmarks in the MDC1A mouse model. Specifically, we demonstrate that treatment with omigapil inhibits apoptosis in muscle, reduces body weight loss and skeletal deformation, increases locomotive activity, and protects from early mortality. These data qualify omigapil, which is in late phase of clinical development for human use, as a drug candidate for the treatment of MDC1A. PMID:19759319

  14. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  15. Evidence for antagonist activity of the dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist, BP 897, at human dopamine D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wood, M D; Boyfield, I; Nash, D J; Jewitt, F R; Avenell, K Y; Riley, G J

    2000-10-27

    The dopaminergic system has long been implicated in the mechanisms of reward and addiction. 1-(4-(2-Naphthoylamino)butyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1A-piperazine HCl (BP 897) has been claimed to be a selective dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist and has recently been shown to inhibit cocaine-seeking behaviour, suggesting a role for dopamine D3 receptor agonists in the treatment of addiction. We have previously characterised the pharmacological profile of the human dopamine D3 and D2(long) receptors using microphysiometry and radioligand binding and we have now studied the interaction of BP 897 with the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors using these methods. At both human dopamine D3 and D2 receptors, BP 897 lacked agonist activity but was a potent and selective antagonist with pK(b) values of 8.05+/-0.16 (4) and 9.43+/-0.22 (4) at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, respectively. These results, therefore, suggest that it may be the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist properties of BP 897 which have potential in the treatment of addiction and withdrawal. PMID:11050289

  16. Activation of 5-hyrdoxytryptamine 7 receptors within the rat nucleus tractus solitarii modulates synaptic properties.

    PubMed

    Matott, Michael P; Kline, David D

    2016-03-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent neuromodulator with multiple receptor types within the cardiorespiratory system, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) - the central termination site of visceral afferent fibers. The 5-HT7 receptor facilitates cardiorespiratory reflexes through its action in the brainstem and likely in the nTS. However, the mechanism and site of action for these effects is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression and function of 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. 5-HT7 receptor mRNA and protein were identified across the rostrocaudal extent of the nTS. To determine 5-HT7 receptor function, we examined nTS synaptic properties following 5-HT7 receptor activation in monosynaptic nTS neurons in the in vitro brainstem slice preparation. Application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists altered tractus solitarii evoked and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents which were attenuated with a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated changes in excitatory postsynaptic currents were also altered by block of 5-HT1A and GABAA receptors. Interestingly, 5-HT7 receptor activation also reduced the amplitude but not frequency of GABAA-mediated inhibitory currents. Together these results indicate a complex role for 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS that mediate its diverse effects on cardiorespiratory parameters. PMID:26779891

  17. Trigeminal Medullary Dorsal Horn Neurons Activated by Nasal Stimulation Coexpress AMPA, NMDA, and NK1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P. F.; DiNovo, K. M.; Westerhaus, D. J.; Vizinas, T. A.; Peevey, J. F.; Lach, M. A.; Czarnocki, P.

    2013-01-01

    Afferent information initiating the cardiorespiratory responses during nasal stimulation projects from the nasal passages to neurons within the trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) via the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN). Central AEN terminals are thought to release glutamate to activate the MDH neurons. This study was designed to determine which neurotransmitter receptors (AMPA, kainate, or NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes or the Substance P receptor NK1) are expressed by these activated MDH neurons. Fos was used as a neuronal marker of activated neurons, and immunohistochemistry combined with epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine which neurotransmitter receptor subunits were coexpressed by activated MDH neurons. Results indicate that, during nasal stimulation with ammonia vapors in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, activated neurons within the superficial MDH coexpress the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 (95.8%) and GluA2/3 (88.2%), the NMDA glutamate receptor subunits GluN1 (89.1%) and GluN2A (41.4%), and NK1 receptors (64.0%). It is therefore likely that during nasal stimulation the central terminals of the AEN release glutamate and substance P that then produces activation of these MDH neurons. The involvement of AMPA and NMDA receptors may mediate fast and slow neurotransmission, respectively, while NK1 receptor involvement may indicate activation of a nociceptive pathway. PMID:24967301

  18. Laminin Peptide-Immobilized Hydrogels Modulate Valve Endothelial Cell Hemostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Balaoing, Liezl Rae; Post, Allison Davis; Lin, Adam Yuh; Tseng, Hubert; Moake, Joel L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Valve endothelial cells (VEC) have unique phenotypic responses relative to other types of vascular endothelial cells and have highly sensitive hemostatic functions affected by changes in valve tissues. Furthermore, effects of environmental factors on VEC hemostatic function has not been characterized. This work used a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel platform to evaluate the effects of substrate stiffness and cell adhesive ligands on VEC phenotype and expression of hemostatic genes. Hydrogels of molecular weights (MWs) 3.4, 8, and 20 kDa were polymerized into platforms of different rigidities and thiol-modified cell adhesive peptides were covalently bound to acrylate groups on the hydrogel surfaces. The peptide RKRLQVQLSIRT (RKR) is a syndecan-1 binding ligand derived from laminin, a trimeric protein and a basement membrane matrix component. Conversely, RGDS is an integrin binding peptide found in many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor (VWF). VECs adhered to and formed a stable monolayer on all RKR-coated hydrogel-MW combinations. RGDS-coated platforms supported VEC adhesion and growth on RGDS-3.4 kDa and RGDS-8 kDa hydrogels. VECs cultured on the softer RKR-8 kDa and RKR-20 kDa hydrogel platforms had significantly higher gene expression for all anti-thrombotic (ADAMTS-13, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator) and thrombotic (VWF, tissue factor, and P-selectin) proteins than VECs cultured on RGDS-coated hydrogels and tissue culture polystyrene controls. Stimulated VECs promoted greater platelet adhesion than non-stimulated VECs on their respective culture condition; yet stimulated VECs on RGDS-3.4 kDa gels were not as responsive to stimulation relative to the RKR-gel groups. Thus, the syndecan binding, laminin-derived peptide promoted stable VEC adhesion on the softer hydrogels and maintained VEC phenotype and natural hemostatic function. In conclusion, utilization of non-integrin adhesive peptide sequences derived from basement membrane ECM may recapitulate balanced VEC function and may benefit endothelialization of valve implants. PMID:26090873

  19. Dysregulation of matricellular proteins is an early signature of pathology in laminin-deficient muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MDC1A is a congenital neuromuscular disorder with developmentally complex and progressive pathologies that results from a deficiency in the protein laminin ?2. MDC1A is associated with a multitude of pathologies, including increased apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. In order to assess and treat a complicated disease such as MDC1A, we must understand the natural history of the disease so that we can identify early disease drivers and pinpoint critical time periods for implementing potential therapies. Results We found that DyW mice show significantly impaired myogenesis and high levels of apoptosis as early as postnatal week 1. We also saw a surge of inflammatory response at the first week, marked by high levels of infiltrating macrophages, nuclear factor ?B activation, osteopontin expression and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines. Fibrosis markers and related pathways were also observed to be elevated throughout early postnatal development in these mice, including periostin, collagen and fibronectin gene expression, as well as transforming growth factor ? signaling. Interestingly, fibronectin was found to be the predominant fibrous protein of the extracellular matrix in early postnatal development. Lastly, we observed upregulation in various genes related to angiotensin signaling. Methods We sought out to examine the dysregulation of various pathways throughout early development (postnatal weeks 1-4) in the DyW mouse, the most commonly used mouse model of laminin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Muscle function tests (stand-ups and retractions) as well as gene (qRT-PCR) and protein levels (western blot, ELISA), histology (H&E, picrosirius red staining) and immunohistochemistry (fibronectin, TUNEL assay) were used to assess dysregulation of matricelluar protieins. Conclusions Our results implicate the involvement of multiple signaling pathways in driving the earliest stages of pathology in DyW mice. As opposed to classical dystrophies, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the dysregulation of various matricellular proteins appears to be a distinct feature of the early progression of DyW pathology. On the basis of our results, we believe that therapies that may reduce apoptosis and stabilize the homeostasis of extracellular matrix proteins may have increased efficacy if started at a very early age. PMID:25075272

  20. Triclocarban Mediates Induction of Xenobiotic Metabolism through Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Li, Tao; Evans, Ronald M.; Hammock, Bruce; Tukey, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is used as a broad-based antimicrobial agent that is commonly added to personal hygiene products. Because of its extensive use in the health care industry and resistance to degradation in sewage treatment processes, TCC has become a significant waste product that is found in numerous environmental compartments where humans and wildlife can be exposed. While TCC has been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, few studies have been conducted linking exposure to TCC and induction of xenobiotic metabolism through regulation by environmental sensors such as the nuclear xenobiotic receptors (XenoRs). To identify the ability of TCC to activate xenobiotic sensors, we monitored XenoR activities in response to TCC treatment using luciferase-based reporter assays. Among the XenoRs in the reporter screening assay, TCC promotes both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) activities. TCC treatment to hUGT1 mice resulted in induction of the UGT1A genes in liver. This induction was dependent upon the constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) because no induction occurred in hUGT1Car−/− mice. Induction of the UGT1A genes by TCC corresponded with induction of Cyp2b10, another CAR target gene. TCC was demonstrated to be a phenobarbital-like activator of CAR in receptor-based assays. While it has been suggested that TCC be classified as an endocrine disruptor, it activates ERα leading to induction of Cyp1b1 in female ovaries as well as in promoter activity. Activation of ERα by TCC in receptor-based assays also promotes induction of human CYP2B6. These observations demonstrate that TCC activates nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and ERα both in vivo and in vitro and might have the potential to alter normal physiological homeostasis. Activation of these xenobiotic-sensing receptors amplifies gene expression profiles that might represent a mechanistic base for potential human health effects from exposure to TCC. PMID:22761658

  1. Triclocarban mediates induction of xenobiotic metabolism through activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and the estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Li, Tao; Evans, Ronald M; Hammock, Bruce; Tukey, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is used as a broad-based antimicrobial agent that is commonly added to personal hygiene products. Because of its extensive use in the health care industry and resistance to degradation in sewage treatment processes, TCC has become a significant waste product that is found in numerous environmental compartments where humans and wildlife can be exposed. While TCC has been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, few studies have been conducted linking exposure to TCC and induction of xenobiotic metabolism through regulation by environmental sensors such as the nuclear xenobiotic receptors (XenoRs). To identify the ability of TCC to activate xenobiotic sensors, we monitored XenoR activities in response to TCC treatment using luciferase-based reporter assays. Among the XenoRs in the reporter screening assay, TCC promotes both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) activities. TCC treatment to hUGT1 mice resulted in induction of the UGT1A genes in liver. This induction was dependent upon the constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) because no induction occurred in hUGT1Car(-/-) mice. Induction of the UGT1A genes by TCC corresponded with induction of Cyp2b10, another CAR target gene. TCC was demonstrated to be a phenobarbital-like activator of CAR in receptor-based assays. While it has been suggested that TCC be classified as an endocrine disruptor, it activates ER? leading to induction of Cyp1b1 in female ovaries as well as in promoter activity. Activation of ER? by TCC in receptor-based assays also promotes induction of human CYP2B6. These observations demonstrate that TCC activates nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and ER? both in vivo and in vitro and might have the potential to alter normal physiological homeostasis. Activation of these xenobiotic-sensing receptors amplifies gene expression profiles that might represent a mechanistic base for potential human health effects from exposure to TCC. PMID:22761658

  2. Shift in Kiss1 cell activity requires estrogen receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Frazo, Renata; Cravo, Roberta M.; Donato, Jos; Ratra, Dhirender; Clegg, Deborah; Elmquist, Joel K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Kevin W.; Elias, Carol F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reproductive function requires timely secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone, which is controlled by a complex excitatory/inhibitory network influenced by sex steroids. Kiss1 neurons are fundamental players in this network, but it is currently unclear whether different conditions of circulating sex steroids directly alters Kiss1 neuronal activity. Here, we show that Kiss1 neurons in the anteroventral periventricular and anterior periventricular nuclei (AVPV/PeN) of males and females exhibit a bimodal resting membrane potential (RMP) influenced by KATP channels, suggesting the presence of two neuronal populations defined as Type I (irregular firing patterns) and Type II (quiescent). Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) are also composed of firing and quiescent cells, but unlike AVPV/PeN neurons, the range of RMPs did not follow a bimodal distribution. Moreover, Kiss1 neuronal activity in the AVPV/PeN, but not in the Arc, is sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol shifts the firing pattern of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons and alters cell capacitance and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSCs) amplitude of AVPV/PeN and Arc Kiss1 populations in an opposite manner. Notably, mice with selective deletion of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) from Kiss1 neurons show cellular activity similar to that observed in ovariectomized females, suggesting that estradiol-induced changes in Kiss1 cellular properties require ER?. We also show that female prepubertal Kiss1 neurons are under higher inhibitory influence while all AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are spontaneously active. Collectively, our findings indicate that changes in cellular activity may underlie Kiss1 action in pubertal initiation and female reproduction. PMID:23407940

  3. Characterization and partial purification of solubilized active opiate receptors from toad brain.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegg, U T; Cuenod, S; Hiller, J M; Gioannini, T; Howells, R D; Simon, E J

    1981-01-01

    Opiate receptors have been solubilized from toad brain membranes in active form by using digitonin. Between 40% and 50% of the stereospecific binding activity present in toad brain membranes is recoverable in the ultracentrifugal supernatant of digitonin extracts. Binding of opiates to the solubilized receptor is enhanced 4- to 5-fold by decreasing digitonin concentration to 0.1% or less prior to binding. The solubilized receptor is similar to the membrane-bound receptor in its affinity for various ligands and its sensitivity to heat, trypsin, and N-ethylmaleimide. Moreover, the sodium effect seen in membrane-bound receptor is retained in the solubilized preparation. Both membrane-bound and soluble toad receptors show weak binding of enkephalins, suggesting that they are predominantly of the mu type. The solubilized opiate receptor has an approximate molecular weight of 350,000-400,000. Purification of up to 20-fold has been achieved by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B. PMID:6270689

  4. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  5. Ligand Affinity and Kinase Activity are Independent of Bacterial Chemotaxis Receptor Concentration: Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sferdean, Fe C.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2013-01-01

    Attractant binding to bacterial chemotaxis receptors initiates a transmembrane signal that inhibits the kinase CheA bound about 300 away at the other end of the receptor. Chemoreceptors form large clusters in many bacterial species, and the extent of clustering has been reported to vary with signaling state. To test whether ligand binding regulates kinase activity by modulating a clustering equilibrium, we measured the effects of two-dimensional receptor concentration on kinase activity in proteoliposomes containing the purified E. coli serine receptor reconstituted into vesicles at a range of lipid-to-protein molar ratios. The IC50 of kinase inhibition was unchanged despite a 10-fold change in receptor concentration. Such a change in concentration would have produced a measurable shift in the IC50 if receptor clustering were involved in kinase regulation, based on a simple model in which the receptor oligomerization and ligand binding equilibria are coupled. These results indicate that the primary signal, ligand control of kinase activity, does not involve a change in receptor oligomerization state. In combination with previous work on cytoplasmic fragments assembled on vesicle surfaces [Besschetnova et al. (2008) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1228912294], this suggests that ligand binding to chemotaxis receptors inhibits the kinase by inducing a conformational change that expands the membrane area occupied by the receptor cytoplasmic domain, without changing the number of associated receptors in the signaling complex. PMID:22870954

  6. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits. PMID:26187692

  7. Receptor activity of rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS28.

    PubMed Central

    Au, K S; Chan, W K; Burns, J W; Estes, M K

    1989-01-01

    Rotavirus morphogenesis involves the budding of subviral particles through the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membrane of infected cells. During this process, particles acquire the outer capsid proteins and a transient envelope. Previous immunocytochemical and biochemical studies have suggested that a rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein, NS28, encoded by genome segment 10, is a transmembrane RER protein and that about 10,000 Mr of its carboxy terminus is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the RER. We have used in vitro binding experiments to examine whether NS28 serves as a receptor that binds subviral particles and mediates the budding process. Specific binding was observed between purified simian rotavirus SA11 single-shelled particles and RER membranes from SA11-infected monkey kidney cells and from SA11 gene 10 baculovirus recombinant-infected insect cells. Membranes from insect cells synthesizing VP1, VP4, NS53, VP6, VP7, or NS26 did not possess binding activity. Comparison of the binding of single-shelled particles to microsomes from infected monkey kidney cells and from insect cells indicated that a membrane-associated component(s) from SA11-infected monkey kidney cells interfered with binding. Direct evidence showing the interaction of NS28 and its nonglycosylated 20,000-Mr precursor expressed in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and single-shelled particles was obtained by cosedimentation of preformed receptor-ligand complexes through sucrose gradients. The domain on NS28 responsible for binding also was characterized. Reduced binding of single-shelled particles to membranes was seen with membranes treated with (i) a monoclonal antibody previously shown to interact with the C terminus of NS28, (ii) proteases known to cleave the C terminus of NS28, and (iii) the Enzymobead reagent. VP6 on single-shelled particles was suggested to interact with NS28 because (i) a monoclonal antibody to the subgroup I epitope on VP6 reduced particle binding, (ii) a purified polyclonal antiserum raised against recombinant baculovirus-produced VP6 reduced ligand binding, and (iii) a monoclonal antibody to a conserved epitope on VP6 augmented ligand binding. These experimental data provide support for the hypothesized receptor role of NS28 before the budding stage of rotavirus morphogenesis. Images PMID:2552139

  8. Effect of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, J F; Grémeaux, T; Rochet, N; Van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1987-01-01

    To explain the insulin resistance induced by catecholamines, we studied the tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors in a state characterized by elevated noradrenaline concentrations in vivo, i.e. cold-acclimation. Insulin receptors were partially purified from brown adipose tissue of 3-week- or 48 h-cold-acclimated mice. Insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors prepared from cold-acclimated mice were decreased. Since the effect of noradrenaline is mediated by cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, we tested the effect of the purified catalytic subunit of this enzyme on insulin receptors purified by wheat-germ agglutinin chromatography. The catalytic subunit had no effect on basal phosphorylation, but completely inhibited the insulin-stimulated receptor phosphorylation. Similarly, receptor kinase activity towards exogenous substrates such as histone or a tyrosine-containing copolymer was abolished. This inhibitory effect was observed with receptors prepared from brown adipose tissue, isolated hepatocytes and skeletal muscle. The same results were obtained on epidermal-growth-factor receptors. Further, the catalytic subunit exerted a comparable effect on the phosphorylation of highly purified insulin receptors. To explain this inhibition, we were able to rule out the following phenomena: a change in insulin binding, a change in the Km of the enzyme for ATP, activation of a phosphatase activity present in the insulin-receptor preparation, depletion of ATP, and phosphorylation of a serine residue of the receptor. These results suggest that the alteration in the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity induced by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase could contribute to the insulin resistance produced by catecholamines. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2822014

  9. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha ?(PPAR?)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  10. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  11. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Shifts Temporally Engendered Patterns of Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55?212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval durationsuggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55?212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent mannersuggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55?212-2. PMID:24345819

  12. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  13. CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zheng, Qiang; Xiao, Li; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, is well known to exhibit oxidative stress and lung injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) activation to ameliorate the proinflammatory activity induced by PQ in rats. JWH133, a CB2 agonist, was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to PQ exposure. After PQ exposure for 4, 8, 24, and 72 h, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the arterial blood samples were collected for detection of PaO2 level. At 72 h after PQ exposure, lung tissues were collected to determine the lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, myeloperoxidase activity, lung histopathology, the protein expression level of CB2, MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK1/2), and NF-κBp65. After rats were pretreated with JWH133, PQ-induced lung edema and lung histopathological changes were significantly attenuated. PQ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF, increases of PaO2 in arterial blood, and MPO levels in the lung tissue were significantly reduced. JWH133 could efficiently activate CB2, while inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB activation. The results suggested that activating CB2 receptor exerted protective activity against PQ-induced ALI, and it potentially contributed to the suppression of the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24963491

  14. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Hyun Keun

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  15. Structural determinants of subtype selectivity and functional activity of angiotensin II receptors.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Jessica; Wallinder, Charlotta; Hallberg, Anders; Åqvist, Johan; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo

    2016-02-15

    Agonists of the angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2), a G-protein coupled receptor, promote tissue protective effects in cardiovascular and renal diseases, while antagonists reduce neuropathic pain. We here report detailed molecular models that explain the AT2 receptor selectivity of our recent series of non-peptide ligands. In addition, minor structural changes of these ligands that provoke different functional activity are rationalized at a molecular level, and related to the selectivity for the different receptor conformations. These findings should pave the way to structure based drug discovery of AT2 receptor ligands. PMID:26810314

  16. Linking receptor activation to changes in Sw I and II of Gα proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Heidi E.; Kaya, Ali I.; Gilbert, James A.; Preininger, Anita M.

    2013-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors catalyze nucleotide exchange on G proteins, which results in subunit dissociation and effector activation. In the recent β2AR-Gs structure, portions of Switch I and II of Gα are not fully elucidated. We paired fluorescence studies of receptor-Gαi interactions with the β2AR-Gs and other Gi structures to investigate changes in Switch I and II during receptor activation and GTP binding. The β2/β3 loop containing Leu194 of Gαi is located between Switches I and II, in close proximity to IC2 of the receptor and the C-terminus of Gα, thus providing an allosteric connection between these Switches and receptor activation. We compared the environment of residues in myristoylated Gαi proteins in the heterotrimer to that upon receptor activation and subsequent GTP binding. Upon receptor activation, residues in both Switch regions are less solvent-exposed, as compared to the heterotrimer. Upon GTPγS binding, the environment of several residues in Switch I resemble the receptor-bound state, while Switch II residues display effects on their environment which are consistent with their role in GTP binding and Gβγ dissociation. The ability to merge available crystal structures with solution studies is a powerful tool to gain insight into conformational changes associated with receptor-mediated Gi protein activation. PMID:23466875

  17. Laminin deficits induce alterations in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Viktória; Witkovsky, Paul; Koch, Manuel; Hunter, Dale D.; Pinzón-Duarte, Germán; Brunken, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified mice lacking the β2 laminin chain (β2null), the γ3 laminin chain (γ3 null), or both β2/γ3 chains (compound null) were produced. The development of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in these mouse lines was studied between birth and postnatal day (P) 20. Compared to wild type mice, no alterations were seen in γ3 null mice. In β2 null mice, however, the large, type I TH neurons appeared later in development, were at a lower density and had reduced TH immunoreactivity, although TH process number and size were not altered. In the compound null mouse, the same changes were observed together with reduced TH process outgrowth. Surprisingly, in the smaller, type II TH neurons, TH immunoreactivity was increased in laminin-deficient compared to wild type mice. Other retinal defects we observed were a patchy disruption of the inner limiting retinal basement membrane and a disoriented growth of Müller glial cells. Starburst and AII type amacrine cells were not apparently altered in laminin-deficient relative to wild type mice. We postulate that laminin-dependent developmental signals are conveyed to TH amacrine neurons through intermediate cell types, perhaps the Müller glial cell and/or the retinal ganglion cell. PMID:17711601

  18. Hydrophobic interactions drive ligand-receptor recognition for activation and inhibition of staphylococcal quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse S.; Lyon, Gholson J.; George, Elizabeth A.; Muir, Tom W.; Novick, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    Two-component systems represent the most widely used signaling paradigm in living organisms. Encoding the prototypical two-component system in Gram-positive bacteria, the staphylococcal agr (accessory gene regulator) operon uses a polytopic receptor, AgrC, activated by an autoinducing peptide (AIP), to coordinate quorum sensing with the global synthesis of virulence factors. The agr locus has undergone evolutionary divergence, resulting in the formation of several distinct inter- and intraspecies specificity groups, such that most cross-group AIP-receptor interactions are mutually inhibitory. We have exploited this natural diversity by constructing and analyzing AgrC chimeras generated by exchange of intradomain segments between receptors of different agr groups. Functional chimeras fell into three general classes: receptors with broadened specificity, receptors with tightened specificity, and receptors that lack activation specificity. Testing of these chimeric receptors against a battery of AIP analogs localized the primary ligand recognition site to the receptor distal subdomain and revealed that the AIPs bind primarily to a putative hydrophobic pocket in the receptor. This binding is mediated by a highly conserved hydrophobic patch on the AIPs and is an absolute requirement for interactions in self-activation and cross-inhibition of the receptors. It is suggested that this recognition scheme provides the fundamental basis for agr activation and interference. PMID:15528279

  19. Upregulation of Monocyte Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor during Human Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Pascale E. P.; ten Hove, Tessa; te Velde, Anje A.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) (CD87) plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. To assess the effect of endotoxin on cellular uPAR, uPAR expression was determined on leukocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in seven healthy subjects following intravenous injection of endotoxin (lot G; 4 ng/kg). Endotoxin induced a transient increase in uPAR expression on monocytes, reaching a 92% ± 46% increase over baseline expression after 6 h (P < 0.05). Endotoxin did not influence uPAR expression on granulocytes, while uPAR remained undetectable on lymphocytes. Endotoxin also increased soluble uPAR levels in plasma (P < 0.05). Stimulation of human whole blood with endotoxin or gram-positive stimuli in vitro also resulted in an upregulation of monocyte uPAR expression. Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) upregulated monocyte uPAR expression, anti-TNF did not influence the endotoxin-induced increase in monocyte uPAR expression. These data suggest that infectious stimuli may influence monocyte function in vivo by enhancing the expression of uPAR. PMID:10722614

  20. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Brengre; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma. PMID:26308584

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  2. Etodolac activates and desensitizes transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenglan; Dai, Yi; Kogure, Yoko; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Zhang, Wensheng; Noguchi, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is well known as a sensor to environmental irritant compounds, cold, and endogenous proalgesic agents. TRPA1 is expressed on sensory neurons and is involved in pain modulation. Etodolac is a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor that belongs to the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A recent study indicates that etodolac inhibits allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced calcium influx in heterologous HEK293 cells and sensory neurons. To examine whether and how etodolac modulates the TRPA1 channels, we applied etodolac to TRPA1-transfected HEK293 cells or rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and recorded the currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that etodolac at higher doses could activate and then desensitize TRPA1 channels in heterologous expressing HEK293 cells as well as in DRG neurons. The etodolac-induced currents were significantly attenuated in cysteine residues mutated human TRPA1-transfected HEK293 cells. Interestingly, application of etodolac at drug plasma levels in clinical usage did not induce significant TRPA1 currents but reduced the subsequent AITC-induced currents to 25% in HEK293 cells expressing TRPA1. Moreover, no modulatory effect of etodolac on TRPA1 was detected in the cysteine mutant cells. These data indicate a novel mechanism of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic clinical effects of etodolac, which may be involved with its direct activation and the subsequent desensitization of TRPA1 through the covalent modification of cysteine residues. PMID:24027177

  3. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  4. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR-?/?) inhibits human breast cancer cell line tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Morales, Jose L; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of activation and overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPAR-?/? in human MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative; ER(-)) and MCF7 (estrogen-receptor-positive; ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines was examined. Target gene induction by ligand activation of PPAR-?/? was increased by overexpression of PPAR-?/? compared with controls. Overexpression of PPAR-?/? caused a decrease in cell proliferation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared with controls, whereas ligand activation of PPAR-?/? further inhibited proliferation of MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression and/or ligand activation of PPAR-?/? in MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 cells had no effect on experimental apoptosis. Decreased clonogenicity was observed in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 overexpressing PPAR-?/? in response to ligand activation of PPAR-?/? as compared with controls. Ectopic xenografts developed from MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells overexpressing PPAR-?/? were significantly smaller, and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? caused an even greater reduction in tumor volume as compared with controls. Interestingly, the decrease in MDA-MB-231 tumor size after overexpressing PPAR-?/? and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? correlated with increased necrosis. These data show that ligand activation and/or overexpression of PPAR-?/? in two human breast cancer cell lines inhibits relative breast cancer tumorigenicity and provide further support for the development of ligands for PPAR-?/? to specifically inhibit breast carcinogenesis. These new cell-based models will be invaluable tools for delineating the role of PPAR-?/? in breast cancer and evaluating the effects of PPAR-?/? agonists. PMID:24464939

  5. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  6. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  7. Mutations of CB1 T210 Produce Active and Inactive Receptor Forms

    PubMed Central

    DAntona, Aaron M.; Ahn, Kwang H.; Kendall, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) has attracted substantial interest as a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and other obsessive disorders. An understanding of the mechanism governing the transition of the CB1 receptor between its inactive and active states is critical for understanding how therapeutics can selectively regulate receptor activity. We have examined the importance of the Thr at position 210 in CB1 in this transition, a residue predicted to be on the same face of the helix as the Arg of the DRY motif highly conserved in the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This Thr was substituted with Ile and Ala via mutagenesis, and the receptors, T210I and T210A, were expressed in HEK 293 cells. The T210I receptor exhibited enhanced agonist and diminished inverse agonist affinity relative to the wild type, consistent with a shift toward the active form. However, treatment with GTP?S to inhibit G protein coupling diminished the affinity change for the inverse agonist SR141716A. The decreased thermal stability of the T210I receptor and increased level of internalization of a T210I receptorGFP chimera were also observed, consistent with constitutive activity. In contrast, the T210A receptor exhibited the opposite profile: diminished agonist and enhanced inverse agonist affinity. The T210A receptor was found to be more thermally stable than the wild type, and high levels of a T210A receptorGFP chimera were localized to the cell surface as predicted for an inactive receptor form. These results suggest that T210 plays a key role in governing the transition between inactive and active CB1 receptor states. PMID:16634642

  8. Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yip, Linda; Woehrle, Tobias; Corriden, Ross; Hirsh, Mark; Chen, Yu; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Ferrari, Vhe; Insel, Paul A; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2009-06-01

    T-cell activation requires the influx of extracellular calcium, although mechanistic details regarding such activation are not fully defined. Here, we show that P2X(7) receptors play a key role in calcium influx and downstream signaling events associated with the activation of T cells. By real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we find that Jurkat T cells and human CD4(+) T cells express abundant P2X(7) receptors. We show, using a novel fluorescent microscopy technique, that T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation triggers the rapid release of ATP (<100 microM). This release of ATP is required for TCR-mediated calcium influx, NFAT activation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. TCR activation up-regulates P2X(7) receptor gene expression. Removal of extracellular ATP by apyrase or alkaline phosphatase treatment, inhibition of ATP release with the maxi-anion channel blocker gadolinium chloride, or siRNA silencing of P2X(7) receptors blocks calcium entry and inhibits T-cell activation. Moreover, lymphocyte activation is impaired in C57BL/6 mice that express poorly functional P2X(7) receptors, compared to control BALB/c mice, which express fully functional P2X(7) receptors. We conclude that ATP release and autocrine, positive feedback through P2X(7) receptors is required for the effective activation of T cells. PMID:19211924

  9. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse olfactory sensory neurons with defined odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Timothy; Savigner, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems need to tease out stimulation-evoked activity against a noisy background. In the olfactory system, the odor response profile of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is dependent on the type of odorant receptor it expresses. OSNs also exhibit spontaneous activity, which plays a role in establishing proper synaptic connections and may also increase the sensitivity of the cells. However, where the spontaneous activity originates and whether it informs sensory-evoked activity remain unclear. We addressed these questions by examining patch-clamp recordings of genetically labeled mouse OSNs with defined odorant receptors in intact olfactory epithelia. We show that OSNs expressing different odorant receptors had significantly different rates of basal activity. Additionally, OSNs expressing an inactive mutant I7 receptor completely lacked spontaneous activity, despite being able to fire action potentials in response to current injection. This finding strongly suggests that the spontaneous firing of an OSN originates from the spontaneous activation of its G protein-coupled odorant receptor. Moreover, OSNs expressing the same receptor displayed considerable variation in their spontaneous activity, and the variation was broadened upon odor stimulation. Interestingly, there is no significant correlation between the spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in these neurons. This study reveals that the odorant receptor type determines the spontaneous firing rate of OSNs, but the basal activity does not correlate with the activity induced by near-saturated odor stimulation. The implications of these findings on olfactory information processing are discussed. PMID:23596334

  10. Ligand-independent activation of the oestrogen receptor by mutation of a conserved tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    White, R; Sjberg, M; Kalkhoven, E; Parker, M G

    1997-01-01

    The oestrogen receptor is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors which, on binding the steroid hormone 17beta-oestradiol, interacts with co-activator proteins and stimulates gene expression. Replacement of a single tyrosine in the hormone-binding domain generated activated forms of the receptor which stimulated transcription in the absence of hormone. This increased activation is related to a decrease in hydrophobicity and a reduction in size of the side chain of the amino acid with which the tyrosine is replaced. Ligand-independent, in common with ligand-dependent transcriptional activation, requires an amphipathic alpha-helix at the C-terminus of the ligand-binding domain which is essential for the interaction of the receptor with a number of potential co-activator proteins. In contrast to the wild-type protein, constitutively active receptors were able to bind both the receptor-interacting protein RIP-140 and the steroid receptor co-activator SRC-1 in a ligand-independent manner, although in the case of SRC-1 this was only evident when the receptors were prebound to DNA. We propose, therefore, that this tyrosine is required to maintain the receptor in a transcriptionally inactive state in the absence of hormone. Modification of this residue may generate a conformational change in the ligand-binding domain of the receptor to form an interacting surface which allows the recruitment of co-activators independent of hormone binding. This suggests that this tyrosine may be a target for a different signalling pathway which forms an alternative mechanism of activating oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. PMID:9135157

  11. Effects of platelet activating factor receptor antagonists on intracellular platelet activating factor function in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Koike, H; Imanishi, N; Natsume, Y; Morooka, S

    1994-11-15

    We investigated the effects of the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists, SM-12502 ((+)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(pyridyl)- thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride), WEB-2086 (3-(4-(2-chlorphenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno(3,2-f)-(1,2,4)triazolo(4, 3- a)(1,4)diazepin-2-yl)-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone) and RP-48740 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole-7-carboxamide) on the PAF-mediated activation of rat neutrophils. These antagonists inhibited PAF-induced degranulation and chemotaxis in neutrophils at a dose that correlated well with PAF-induced platelet aggregation based on the statistical analyses. N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L- phenylalanin (fMLP)-induced cellular responses were also inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonists, but their inhibitory potencies did not correlate with those for PAF-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, the doses required for inhibition were higher than those required against PAF-induced responses (i.e. IC50 ratio of WEB-2086, SM-12502 and RP-48740 in fMLP-induced/PAF-induced degranulation was 40.0, 2.8 and 5.6, respectively). PAF receptor antagonists inhibited inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production and the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store site after stimulation with PAF. In the fMLP-induced responses, PAF receptor antagonists did not inhibit IP3 production and Ca2+ release, but did inhibit transmembrane Ca2+ influx. These results suggest the presence of distinct PAF receptor subtype, to which exogenously added PAF binds, while endogenously produced PAF binds to the other. Intracellular PAF, which was produced by fMLP-stimulation, may play an important role in the late phase of signal transduction, and may participate in the transmembrane Ca2+ influx. PMID:7895770

  12. Effect of Laminin-A4 inhibition on cluster formation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moazedi-Fuerst, Florentine C; Gruber, Gerald; Stradner, Martin H; Guidolin, Diego; Jones, Jonathan C; Bodo, Koppany; Wagner, Karin; Peischler, Daniela; Krischan, Verena; Weber, Jennifer; Sadoghi, Patrick; Glehr, Mathias; Leithner, Andreas; Graninger, Winfried B

    2016-03-01

    Formation of chondrocyte clusters is not only a morphological sign of osteoarthritis but it is also observed in cell culture. Active locomotion of chondrocytes is controlled by integrins in vitro. Integrins bind to Laminin-A4 (LAMA4), a protein that is highly expressed in vivo in clusters of hypertrophic chondrocytes. We tested if LAMA4 is relevant for cluster formation. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a 2D matrigel model and treated with different concentrations of a monoclonal inhibitory anti-LAMA4-antibody. Migration and cluster formation was analysed using live cell imaging technique. Full genome gene expression analysis was performed to assess the effect of LAMA4 inhibition. The data set were screened for genes relevant to cell motility. F-actin staining was performed to document cytoskeletal changes. Anti-LAMA4 treatment significantly reduced the rate of cluster formation in human chondrocytes. Cells changed their surface morphology and exhibited fewer protrusions. Expression of genes associated with cellular motility and migration was affected by anti-LAMA4 treatment. LAMA4-integrin signalling affects chondrocyte morphology and gene expression in vitro, thereby contributing to cluster formation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:419-426, 2016. PMID:26295200

  13. Effects of LIF dose and laminin plus fibronectin on axotomized sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, B J; Hayes, A; Bennett, T M; Morrison, W A; Messina, A

    2000-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine which has neurotrophic and myotrophic activities, has been shown to enhance nerve regeneration and consequent return of muscle function in the entubulation model of sciatic nerve repair. Fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) are two extracellular matrix (ECM) components that, when combined, promote axon growth in the entubulation model. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal LIF dose and the efficacy of FN plus LN administered either alone or simultaneously with the optimal LIF dose. We found that at 12 weeks following nerve repair, a single 10 ng LIF dose produced the largest medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle mass (P < 0.0001) and maximum force contraction (P < 0.001). The diameter of the axons in the FN plus LN group were significantly greater than for saline (P < 0.001) and the LIF dose groups (P < 0.01). When 10 ng LIF was combined with FN plus LN, the MG muscle mass was significantly greater than the optimal LIF dose (P < 0.05), suggesting an additive effect. Our findings support the view that combinations of factors, which perhaps act on complementary mechanisms for nerve regeneration, will be required to maximally potentiate nerve regeneration and return of muscle function after nerve injury. PMID:10951438

  14. Pleiotropic Activities of Vitamin D Receptors – Adequate Activation for Multiple Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jackson W; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, elicits physiological regulation of gene transcription following binding of its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological activities of vitamin D contribute to regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D, like other steroid hormone receptors, can regulate a diverse range of biological activities across many tissues. Such properties raise the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be detrimental to bone and muscular health, but also a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes including increased risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immune system disorders and cancer. Advances in transcriptional research provide data not only on ligand-dependent activities of the VDR, but other activities of vitamin D extending to rapid modulation of intra-cellular signaling pathways as well as apparent ligand-independent interactions between the VDR and other transcriptionally active proteins. In this review, we detail the chief molecular activities of the VDR in regulating gene transcription, intracellular signaling and actions of VDR via binding to transcriptional regulating proteins. The breadth of biological activities attributed to vitamin D informs clinical biochemists and health care professionals on the implications of vitamin D deficiency for health. PMID:26224895

  15. Apoptotic Mechanisms of Peroxisome ProliferatorActivated Receptor-? Activation in Acinar Cells During Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Lou, Xiao-Li; Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which activation of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? promotes apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreatitis. Methods AR42j cells pretreated with the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone were activated by cerulein as an in vitro model of acute pancreatitis. Inflammatory cytokines and amylase were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Activity of caspases was determined. Bax and Bcl-2 levels were assayed by Western blot. Results Cytokines, amylase, and cellular proliferation decreased in pioglitazone-pretreated cells. Pioglitazone increased the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in cerulein-activated AR42j cells as well as in the pancreas of rats 3 hours after induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Acinar cell apoptosis was induced by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential in the pioglitazone group. Pioglitazone increased expression of proapoptotic Bax proteins and decreased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in cerulein-induced AR42j cells and decreased Bcl-2 levels in pancreatic tissue of severe acute pancreatitis rats 1 and 3 hours after induction. Conclusion Pioglitazone may promote apoptosis of acinar cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26495791

  16. Activation of 5-HT2A/C receptor reduces glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured auditory cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao

    2016-02-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) permeable to chloride only mediate tonic inhibition in the cerebral cortex where glycinergic projection is completely absent. The functional modulation of GlyRs was largely studied in subcortical brain regions with glycinergic transmissions, but the function of cortical GlyRs was rarely addressed. Serotonin could broadly modulate many ion channels through activating 5-HT2 receptor, but whether cortical GlyRs are subjected to serotonergic modulation remains unexplored. The present study adopted patch clamp recordings to examine functional regulation of strychnine-sensitive GlyRs currents in cultured cortical neurons by DOI (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. DOI caused a concentration-dependent reduction of GlyR currents with unchanged reversal potential. This reduction was blocked by the selective receptor antagonists (ritanserin and risperidone) and G protein inhibitor (GDP-?-s) demonstrated that the reducing effect of DOI on GlyR current required the activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Strychnine-sensitive tonic currents revealed the inhibitory tone mediated by nonsynaptic GlyRs, and DOI similarly reduced the tonic inhibition. The impaired microtube-dependent trafficking or clustering of GlyRs was thought to be involved in that nocodazole as a microtube depolymerizing drug largely blocked the inhibition mediated by 5-HT2A/C receptors. Our results suggested that activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors might suppress cortical tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and the findings would provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and possibly facilitate to develop the therapeutic treatment of neurological diseases such as tinnitus through regulating cortical GlyRs. PMID:26371055

  17. TOPICAL APPLICATION OF LAMININ-322 TO DIABETIC MOUSE WOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen R.; Underwood, Robert A.; Sigle, Randall O.; Fukano, Yuko; Muffley, Lara A.; Usui, Marcia L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Antezana, Marcos A.; Carter, William G.; Olerud, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Keratinocyte migration is essential for wound healing and diabetic wound keratinocytes migrate poorly. Keratinocyte migration and anchorage appears to be mediated by laminin-332 (LM-332). Impaired diabetic wound healing may be due to defective LM-332 mediated keratinocyte migration. Objective To evaluate LM-332 expression in diabetic (db/db) and control (db/-) mice and to test LM-332 wound healing effects when applied to mouse wounds. Methods LM-332 expression in mouse wounds was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. LM-332 wound healing effects were evaluated by directly applying soluble LM-332, a LM-332 biomaterial, or a control to mouse wounds. Percent wound closure and histology score, based on healing extent, were measured. Results Precursor LM-332 expression was markedly reduced in db/db when compared to db/- mice. In vitro, soluble LM-332 and LM-332 biomaterial demonstrated significant keratinocyte adhesion. In vivo, soluble LM-332 treated wounds had the highest histology score, but significant differences were not found between wound treatments (p>0.05). No differences in percentage wound closure between treatment and control wounds were found (p>0.05). Conclusion The db/db wounds express less precursor LM-332 when compared to db/-. However, LM-332 application did not improve db/db wound healing. LM-332 purified from keratinocytes was primarily physiologically cleaved LM-332 and may not regulate keratinocyte migration. Application of precursor LM-332 rather than cleaved LM-332 may be necessary to improve wound healing, but this isoform is not currently available in quantities sufficient for testing. PMID:17719208

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPAR?/? in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPAR?/? agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPAR?/? enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPAR?/? enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. PMID:26768366

  19. Cyclin D1 stimulation of estrogen receptor transcriptional activity independent of cdk4.

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, E; Ladha, M H; Lin, N; Upton, T M; Miller, S J; DiRenzo, J; Pestell, R G; Hinds, P W; Dowdy, S F; Brown, M; Ewen, M E

    1997-01-01

    Cyclin D1 plays an important role in the development of breast cancer and is required for normal breast cell proliferation and differentiation associated with pregnancy. We show that ectopic expression of cyclin D1 can stimulate the transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol and that this activity can be inhibited by 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780. Cyclin D1 can form a specific complex with the estrogen receptor. Stimulation of the estrogen receptor by cyclin D1 is independent of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Cyclin D1 may manifest its oncogenic potential in breast cancer in part through binding to the estrogen receptor and activation of the transcriptional activity of the receptor. PMID:9271411

  20. T cell receptor dwell-times control the kinase activity of ZAP-70

    PubMed Central

    Klammt, Christian; Novotná, Lucie; Li, Dongyang T.; Wolf, Miriam; Blount, Amy; Zhang, Kai; Fitchett, Jonathan R.; Lillemeier, Björn F.

    2015-01-01

    Kinase recruitment to membrane receptors is essential for signal transduction. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated how conformational changes control T cell receptor (TCR) association and activity of ZAP-70 kinase. Structural analysis of ZAP-70 showed that TCR binding or phosphorylation trigger transition from the closed/auto-inhibited conformation to an open conformation. Using ZAP-70 mutants with defined conformations, we found that TCR dwell-times control kinase activity. The auto-inhibited conformation minimizes receptor dwell-times and thereby avoids activation by membrane-associated kinases. Parallel recruitment of co-receptor-associated Lck kinase to the TCR ensures ZAP-70 phosphorylation and stabilizes ZAP-70 binding. Our study suggests that recruitment dynamics of cytosolic enzymes to the membrane regulate the activity and function of receptors lacking intrinsic catalytic activity. PMID:26237552

  1. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  2. Analysis of cold and warm receptor activity in vampire bats and mice.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K; Braun, H A; Kürten, L

    1988-07-01

    The response characteristics of facial thermoreceptors of the common vampire bat and of the mouse have been quantitatively studied. Cold receptors were identified in bat and mouse; warm receptors were only established in the bat. Cold and warm receptor populations of the two species share most of their properties with facial thermoreceptor populations of various mammalian species investigated so far. The temporal pattern of activity of cold receptors of the mouse corresponded to that observed in cats, dogs and monkeys: impulse groups at lower, and beating activity at higher temperatures. At maintained temperature, no impulse groups were initiated in cold receptors of the bat. However, cooling steps from various initial temperatures induced a transient grouped discharge in both cold receptor populations. A discharge in regular groups of impulses was occasionally generated in warm receptors of the bat at maintained temperatures and following warming steps. The data indicate that the temperature dependence of periodic activity in warm receptors is not as uniform as it is in cold receptors. It is concluded that cyclic processes are involved in sensory transduction of both warm and cold receptors, and that this cyclic behavior seems to be a general property of thermoreceptors of presumably all vertebrate species. PMID:3174381

  3. Repression of p65 transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor in the absence of receptor-coactivator interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Yu; Dietz, Jessica; Lala, Deepak S

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are among the most potent antiinflammatory agents, acting through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to suppress gene expression of a variety of cytokines. This appears to be via transcriptional interference (or transrepression) of key regulatory factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein 1. Ligand-bound GR can also activate gene transcription (transactivation) via direct binding to glucocorticoid response elements. Transactivation by GR is potentiated by accessory coactivators such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1, whereas the role of these proteins in transrepression is unclear.Here, we show that GR can recruit several coactivator receptor interacting domains in a ligand-dependent manner. All interactions require the charge clamp defined by K579/E755, while a subset also requires a second charge clamp defined by R585/D590, within the GR ligand-binding domain. A point mutation, E755A, abolished all GR-receptor interacting domain interactions and led to a decrease in GR-mediated transactivation, but did not significantly affect GR-mediated transrepression of Gal4-p65 activit