Sample records for laminin receptor activation

  1. 67-kDa laminin receptor-dependent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation elicits melanoma-specific antitumor activity overcoming drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shuya; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2014-11-21

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment. PMID:25294877

  2. Expression and distribution of laminin receptor precursor/laminin receptor in rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huinuan; Yang, Lifeng; Kouadir, Mohammed; Tan, Rongrong; Wu, Wenyu; Zou, Huarong; Wang, Jin; Khan, Sher Hayat; Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Xiangmei; Yin, Xiaomin; Wang, Yunsheng; Zhao, Deming

    2013-10-01

    The 37/67-kDa laminin receptor precursor (LRP)/laminin receptor (LR) is a cell surface receptor for cellular prion proteins and misfolded pathological prions. Previous research has shown that blocking or decreasing LRP/LP levels by anti-LRP/LR antibodies or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can prolong the incubation phase of experimental prion infection. This study aimed to investigate potential mechanisms contributing to prion resistance/susceptibility by using the rabbit, a species unsusceptible to prion infection, as a model. We investigated the expression level and distribution of LRP/LR in rabbit tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunochemical analysis with a monoclonal anti-67 kDa LR antibody. Our results showed LRP/LR mRNA expression in all the tissues examined. Very low LRP/LR expression levels were observed in central nervous system (CNS) tissues, whereas high expression levels were observed in reproductive and digestive tissues, which differed from the expression patterns that have been reported for prion-susceptible animals. The immunochemical staining results were generally consistent with the mRNA findings, although no LR protein was detected in CNS tissues. Our findings provide a basis for further studies on prion resistance in rabbits and other animal species. PMID:23715696

  3. Crystal structure of the human laminin receptor precursor.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Kelly V; Wu, Jinhua; Hubbard, Stevan R; Meruelo, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR. PMID:18063583

  4. Laminin receptor on platelets is the integrin VLA6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnoud Sonnenberg; Piet W. Modderman; Frans Hogervorst

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion of platelets to the subendothelial matrix of an injured vessel wall is an essential step in triggering the formation of a haemostatic plug. Fibronectin, collagen and laminin are three major components of the subendothelial matrix which support platelet adhesion1. Receptors for fibronectin and collagen have been identified on platelets and are included in the integrin family2-11. Here we report

  5. 67-Kilodalton laminin receptor expression correlates with worse prognostic indicators in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; Vignati, S; Chiné, S; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Ménard, S; Castronovo, V; Bevilacqua, G

    1997-02-01

    Tumor samples obtained from 72 patients resected for non-small cell lung cancer were stained immunohistochemically using an immunoperoxidase method and the MLuC5 monoclonal antibody specific for the 67-kDa laminin receptor. Sixty-one of 72 patients (84.7%) displayed a MLuC5-positive reaction, which was usually localized in both the inner surface of the plasmatic membranes and the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. When we compared the laminin receptor expression with clinicopathological and biological parameters such as histotype, grading, T status, N status, ploidy, proliferative activity, vessel invasion, and p53 protein accumulation, the following results were observed: (a) the mean expression of the receptor was higher in the group of patients with metastatic nodal involvement than in those with uninvolved lymph nodes (P = 0.02); (b) a high Ki-67 score (>13% of positive cells) was observed in tumors with a higher mean value of laminin receptor (P = 0.004); (c) the tumors harboring neoplastic emboli in their vessels showed a higher laminin receptor immunoreactivity (P = 0.02); and (d) a borderline association was found between the high mean value of laminin receptor immunopositivity and p53 accumulation in neoplastic cell nuclei (P = 0.05). Our observations indicate that detection of high tissue levels of 67-kDa laminin receptor is associated with an invasive phenotype in non-small cell lung cancer and may provide further information in the biological characterization of this type of cancer. PMID:9815677

  6. High-affinity laminin receptor is a receptor for Sindbis virus in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K S; Kuhn, R J; Strauss, E G; Ou, S; Strauss, J H

    1992-01-01

    Sindbis virus is an alphavirus with a very wide host range, being able to infect many birds and mammals as well as mosquitoes. We have isolated a monoclonal antibody that largely blocks virus binding to mammalian cells. This antibody was found to be directed against the C-terminal domain of the high-affinity laminin receptor, a 67-kDa protein present on the cell surface that binds with high affinity to basement membrane laminin and that is known to be important in development and in tumor invasion. This receptor is believed to be formed from a 295-amino-acid polypeptide that is modified in some unknown way after translation. The primary sequence of this 295-amino-acid protein is highly conserved among mammals. We found the hamster amino acid sequence to be identical to a mouse sequence and to differ at only two amino acids from a human sequence and at two amino acids from a bovine sequence. To verify the importance of the laminin receptor for infection by Sindbis virus, hamster cells were stably transfected with the gene encoding the 295-amino-acid protein under the control of a high-efficiency promoter. Such transfected hamster cells overexpressed the laminin receptor at the cell surface, bound severalfold more Sindbis virions than did the parental cells, and became infected by Sindbis virus with a higher efficiency. In contrast, cells transfected with the antisense gene expressed less laminin receptor on the surface and were less susceptible to the virus. Binding of the virus varied linearly with the amount of laminin receptor on the cell surface, whereas infectivity measured with a plaque assay varied with the 1.4 power of the receptor concentration, suggesting that interaction with more than one receptor aids virus penetration. By these criteria, the laminin receptor functions as the major receptor for Sindbis virus entry into mammalian cells. We also found that the anti-laminin receptor antibody partially blocked Sindbis virus binding to mosquito cells, suggesting that the laminin receptor is conserved in mosquitoes and functions as a Sindbis virus receptor in this host. The wide distribution of this highly conserved receptor may be in part responsible for the broad host range exhibited by the virus, which infects a wide range of mammals and birds as well as its mosquito vector and can infect many different tissues within these hosts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images PMID:1385835

  7. Chemical inhibition of prometastatic lysyl-tRNA synthetase-laminin receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Gyu; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Fang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Young, Nicolas L; Guo, Min; Cho, Hye Young; Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Jeon, Young Ho; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Jung Min; Kang, Ho Woong; Joo, Jae Eun; Hur, Youn; Kang, Wonyoung; Yang, Heekyoung; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Aree; Kim, Kibom; Kim, Doyeun; Kang, Eun Joo; Moon, Youngji; Rhee, Kyung Hee; Han, Byung Woo; Yang, Jee Sun; Han, Gyoonhee; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Wang, Ming-Wei; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS), a protein synthesis enzyme in the cytosol, relocates to the plasma membrane after a laminin signal and stabilizes a 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) that is implicated in cancer metastasis; however, its potential as an antimetastatic therapeutic target has not been explored. We found that the small compound BC-K-YH16899, which binds KRS, impinged on the interaction of KRS with 67LR and suppressed metastasis in three different mouse models. The compound inhibited the KRS-67LR interaction in two ways. First, it directly blocked the association between KRS and 67LR. Second, it suppressed the dynamic movement of the N-terminal extension of KRS and reduced membrane localization of KRS. However, it did not affect the catalytic activity of KRS. Our results suggest that specific modulation of a cancer-related KRS-67LR interaction may offer a way to control metastasis while avoiding the toxicities associated with inhibition of the normal functions of KRS. PMID:24212136

  8. Laminin-1-induced migration of multiple myeloma cells involves the high-affinity 67?kD laminin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vande Broek, I; Vanderkerken, K; De Greef, C; Asosingh, K; Straetmans, N; Van Camp, B; Van Riet, I

    2001-01-01

    The 67?kD laminin receptor (67LR) binds laminin-1 (LN), major component of the basement membrane, with high affinity. In this study, we demonstrated that human multiple myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and murine 5T2MM cells express 67LR. CD38bright+ plasma cells in fresh multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) samples showed weaker 67LR expression, but expression increased after direct exposure to a BM endothelial cell line (4LHBMEC). LN stimulated the in vitro migration of 3 HMCL (MM5.1, U266 and MMS.1), primary MM cells and the murine 5T2MM cells. 67LR has been shown to mediate the actions of LN through binding to CDPGYIGSR, a 9 amino acid sequence from the B1 chain of LN. MM cell migration was partially blocked by peptide 11, a synthetic nonapeptide derived from this amino sequence and also by a blocking antiserum against 67LR. Co-injection of peptide 11 with 5T2MM cells in a murine in vivo model of MM resulted in a decreased homing of 5T2MM cells to the BM compartment. In conclusion, LN acts as a chemoattractant for MM cells by interaction with 67LR. This interaction might be important during extravasation of circulating MM cells. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720479

  9. Laminin332 promotes the invasion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma via PI3K activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Baba; K-i Iyama; K Hirashima; Y Nagai; N Yoshida; N Hayashi; N Miyanari; H Baba

    2008-01-01

    Laminin-332 is major component of epithelial basement membrane, and has an important role in cell migration and tumour invasion. Recently, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation induced by laminin-332 during carcinogenesis or tumour invasion has been highlighted in skin squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of laminin-332 in 126 resected oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) specimens was immunohistochemically examined to determine its

  10. Laminin5 Is a Marker of Invading Cancer Cells in Some Human Carcinomas and Is Coexpressed with the Receptor for Urokinase Plasminogen Activator in Budding Cancer Cells in Colon Adenocarcinomas1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Pyke; Sirpa Salo; Karl Tryggvason

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant human y 2 chain of laminin-5 was expressed in Esche- ni hut coli, and used to generate specific polyclonal antibodies which were used to study the distribution of the protein in human cancers. A total of 72 biopsies of human cancers were stained, including 23 cases of colon adenocarcinomas, 16 ductal breast carcinomas, 9 malignant melanomas, 14 squamous cell

  11. Laminin receptor initiates bacterial contact with the blood brain barrier in experimental meningitis models

    PubMed Central

    Orihuela, Carlos J.; Mahdavi, Jafar; Thornton, Justin; Mann, Beth; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Abouseada, Noha; Oldfield, Neil J.; Self, Tim; Ala’Aldeen, Dlawer A.A.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2009-01-01

    A diverse array of infectious agents, including prions and certain neurotropic viruses, bind to the laminin receptor (LR), and this determines tropism to the CNS. Bacterial meningitis in childhood is almost exclusively caused by the respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae, but the mechanism by which they initiate contact with the vascular endothelium of the blood brain barrier (BBB) is unknown. We hypothesized that an interaction with LR might underlie their CNS tropism. Using affinity chromatography, coimmunoprecipitation, retagging, and in vivo imaging approaches, we identified 37/67-kDa LR as a common receptor for all 3 bacteria on the surface of rodent and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Mutagenesis studies indicated that the corresponding bacterial LR-binding adhesins were pneumococcal CbpA, meningococcal PilQ and PorA, and OmpP2 of H. influenzae. The results of competitive binding experiments suggest that a common adhesin recognition site is present in the carboxyl terminus of LR. Together, these findings suggest that disruption or modulation of the interaction of bacterial adhesins with LR might engender unexpectedly broad protection against bacterial meningitis and may provide a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:19436113

  12. In vitro adhesion of human epidermal Langerhans cells to laminin and fibronectin occurs through ?31 integrin receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Le Varlet; M. J. Staquet; C. Dezutter-Dambuyant; P Delorme; D. Schmitt

    1992-01-01

    Human epidermal Langerhans cells are den- dritic cells that can capture, process, and present antigens to T cells. It was previously shown that these Langerhans cells express the very late activation antigen (VLA) pro- tein family of \\/31 integrins. 131 integrins mainly mediate the adhesion of cells to a number of extracellular compo- nents, such as laminin, fibronectin, and collagen,

  13. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis. PMID:25720979

  14. Laminin receptor mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takanori; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2014-01-17

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic properties both in cell culture and animal models. Although adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and laminin receptor (LR) are two putative receptors for PEDF, which receptor mainly mediates the beneficial effects of PEDF is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the issue. siRNA raised against LR (siLR) and siATGL transfection dramatically decreased LR and ATGL levels in human cultured myeloma cells, respectively. Ten nM PEDF significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in siCon- or siATGL-transfected myeloma cells, whereas PEDF increased rather than decreased these gene expressions in siLR-transfected cells. Neutralizing antibody directed against LR (LR-Ab) or LR antagonist actually bound to LR and reduced mRNA levels of VEGF, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and PAI-1 in myeloma cells. Further, pre-treatment of LR-Ab or LR antagonist suppressed the binding of PEDF to LR and resultantly blocked the effects of PEDF in myeloma cells. In addition, high concentration of LR agonist mimicked the actions of PEDF on these gene expressions in myeloma cells. This study indicates that PEDF causes anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic reactions in myeloma cells through the interaction with LR. Target domain of LR agonist and antagonist might be involved in the PEDF-signaling to gene suppression in myeloma cells. PMID:24342618

  15. Identification of homologous biologically active sites on the N-terminal domain of laminin alpha chains.

    PubMed

    Nomizu, M; Yokoyama, F; Suzuki, N; Okazaki, I; Nishi, N; Ponce, M L; Kleinman, H K; Yamamoto, Y; Nakagawa, S; Mayumi, T

    2001-12-18

    Laminin, a multifunctional glycoprotein of the basement membrane, consists of three different subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma chains. To date, five different alpha chains have been identified. N-terminal domain VI in the alpha1 chain has various biological activities. Here we screened biologically active sequences on domain VI of the laminin alpha2, alpha3, and alpha5 chains using a large number of overlapping peptides. HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cell attachment to the peptides was evaluated using peptide-coated plastic plates and peptide-conjugated Sepharose beads. We identified four cell adhesive sequences from laminin alpha2 chain domain VI, two sequences from the alpha3 chain, and two sequences from the laminin alpha5 chain. Sequences homologous to A13 (RQVFQVAYIIIKA, alpha1 chain 121-133) on all the alpha chains (FQIAYVIVKA, alpha2 chain 130-139; GQLFHVAYILIKF, alpha3 chain 96-108; FHVAYVLIKA, alpha5 chain 74-83) showed strong cell attachment activity. A5-16 (LENGEIVVSLVNGR, alpha5 chain 147-160) showed the strongest cell attachment activity in the plate assay, and the homologous peptide in the alpha3 chain promoted similar strong cell attachment activity. A5-16 and its homologous peptide in the alpha2 chain promoted moderate cell attachment, while the homologous peptide to A5-16 in the alpha1 chain did not show activity. A2-7 (SPSIKNGVEYHYV, alpha2 chain 108-120) showed cell attachment activity only in the plate assay, but homologous sequences in the alpha1, alpha3, and alpha5 chains did not promote activity. A2-7 promoted endothelial cell sprouting from aortic rings in vitro and melanoma colonization to murine lungs in vivo. However, none of the homologous peptides of A2-7 promoted experimental pulmonary metastasis by B16-BL6 melanoma cells. These results indicate that there are chain-specific active sites in domain VI of the laminin alpha chains, some of which contain conserved activities. PMID:11735413

  16. Laminin ?2-Mediated Focal Adhesion Kinase Activation Triggers Alport Glomerular Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M.; Meehan, Daniel T.; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing ?1 and ?2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the ?2 chain, but not those containing the ?1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of ?2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin ?2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages. PMID:24915008

  17. Laminin ?2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M; Meehan, Daniel T; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing ?1 and ?2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the ?2 chain, but not those containing the ?1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of ?2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin ?2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages. PMID:24915008

  18. Laminin-111-derived peptides and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Laminin-111 is a large trimeric basement membrane glycoprotein with many active sites. In particular, four peptides active in tumor malignancy studies have been identified in laminin-111 using a systematic peptide screening method followed by various assays. Two of the peptides (IKVAV and AG73) are found on the ?1 chain, one (YIGSR) of the ?1 chain and one (C16) on the ?1 chain. The four peptides have distinct activities and receptors. Since three of the peptides (IKVAV, AG73 and C16) strongly promote tumor growth, this may explain the potent effects laminin-111 has on malignant cells. The peptide, YIGSR, decreases tumor growth and experimental metastasis via a 32/67 kD receptor while IKVAV increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and protease activity via integrin receptors. AG73 increases tumor growth and metastases via syndecan receptors. C16 increases tumor growth and angiogenesis via integrins. Identification of such sites on laminin-111 will have use in defining strategies to develop therapeutics for cancer. PMID:23263633

  19. Epistatic dissection of laminin-receptor interactions in dystrophic zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Sztal, Tamar E; Sonntag, Carmen; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Laminins form essential components of the basement membrane and are integral to forming and maintaining muscle integrity. Mutations in the human Laminin-alpha2 (LAMA2) gene result in the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy, MDC1A. We have previously identified a zebrafish model of MDC1A called candyfloss (caf), carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the zebrafish lama2 gene. In the skeletal muscle, laminins connect the muscle cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by binding either dystroglycan or integrins at the cell membrane. Through epistasis experiments, we have established that both adhesion systems individually contribute to the maintenance of fibre adhesions and exhibit muscle detachment phenotypes. However, larval zebrafish in which both adhesion systems are simultaneously genetically inactivated possess a catastrophic failure of muscle attachment that is far greater than a simple addition of individual phenotypes would predict. We provide evidence that this is due to other crucial laminins present in addition to Lama2, which aid muscle cell attachments and integrity. We have found that lama1 is important for maintaining attachments, whereas lama4 is localized and up-regulated in damaged fibres, which appears to contribute to fibre survival. Importantly, our results show that endogenous secretion of laminins from the surrounding tissues has the potential to reinforce fibre attachments and strengthen laminin-ECM attachments. Collectively these findings provide a better understanding of the cellular pathology of MDC1A and help in designing effective therapies. PMID:22859503

  20. Calcium channels link the muscle-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to Bassoon and CAST/Erc2 to organize presynaptic active zones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Billings, Sara E.; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Synapse formation requires the organization of presynaptic active zones, the synaptic vesicle release sites, in precise apposition to postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor clusters; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that P/Q-type and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play essential roles as scaffolding proteins in the organization of presynaptic active zones. The neuromuscular junction of double knockout mice for P/Q- and N-type VDCCs displayed a normal size, but had significantly reduced numbers of active zones and docked vesicles and featured an attenuation of the active zone proteins Bassoon, Piccolo, and CAST/Erc2. Consistent with this phenotype, direct interactions of the VDCC ?1b or ?4 subunits and the active zone-specific proteins Bassoon or CAST/Erc2 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation. A decrease in the number of active zones caused by a loss of presynaptic VDCCs resembled the pathological conditions observed in the autoimmune neuromuscular disorder Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). At the synaptic cleft of double knockout mice, we also observed a decrease of the synaptic organizer laminin ?2 protein, an extracellular ligand of P/Q- and N-type VDCCs. However, the transcription level of laminin ?2 did not decrease in double knockout mice, suggesting that the synaptic accumulation of laminin ?2 protein required its interaction with presynaptic VDCCs. These results suggest that presynaptic VDCCs link the target-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to active zone proteins and function as scaffolding proteins to anchor active zone proteins to the presynaptic membrane. PMID:21228161

  1. [Recognition and lysis by natural killers of tumor cells with participation of laminin].

    PubMed

    Filatova, N A; Tiuriaeva, I I; Ivanov, V A

    2008-01-01

    According to the data obtained in the present work, the receptor complex of mouse natural killers (NK) includes laminin, antibody to which blocks EK-activity (NKA regardless of the presence of complement. Preincubation of mouse splenocytes with anti-laminin serum led to a decrease in their NKA towards tumor cells-targets (CT), the NKA activity decreasing 2 times with respect to cultivated cells of rat hepatoma HTC, while 10 times - to cultivated cells of human erythroblastosis K562. Pretreatment of aplenocytes with noraml nonimmune serum did not lead to a change of NKA. Quite different was the pattern after the tumor cell preincubation with anti-laminin serum: pretreatment of CT K562 led to a twofold decrease in sensitivity of these cells to NK-lysis, whereas the pretreatment of CT K562, on the contrary, made them twice sensitive to NK-lysis. Electrophoretic separation of protein of CT plasma membranes with subsequent immunoblotting with anti-laminin immune serum revealed the presence oflaminin on HTC cell plasma membrane, which was identified as laminin 8/9 by the mass-spectrometry method, while no laminin was detected on K562 cells. Preincubation of splenocytes with laminin did nor affect NKA with respect to CT K562 and HTC. Pretreatment of CT K562 and HTC with laminin decreased the NKA to zero. The obtained data allow suggesting a doubtless participation of laminin and its receptors in CT cytolysis by NK. PMID:18409372

  2. Contribution of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor in the anti-metastatic PSP94-derived peptide PCK3145 cell surface binding

    SciTech Connect

    Annabi, Borhane [Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Que. (Canada); Currie, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Que. (Canada); Bouzeghrane, Mounia [Centre de Cancerologie Charles-Bruneau, Hopital Sainte-Justine-UQAM, Que. (Canada); Dulude, Helene [Procyon BioPharma, Inc., Montreal, Que. (Canada); Daigneault, Luc [Procyon BioPharma, Inc., Montreal, Que. (Canada); Garde, Seema [Procyon BioPharma, Inc., Montreal, Que. (Canada); Rabbani, Shafaat A. [Department of Medicine, Physiology, and Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Panchal, Chandra [Procyon BioPharma, Inc., Montreal, Que. (Canada); Wu, Jinzi J. [Procyon BioPharma, Inc., Montreal, Que. (Canada); Beliveau, Richard [Centre de Cancerologie Charles-Bruneau, Hopital Sainte-Justine-UQAM, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2006-07-21

    Purpose: PCK3145 is an anti-metastatic synthetic peptide with promising therapeutic efficacy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The characterization of the PCK3145 peptide cell surface binding/internalization mechanisms and of the receptors involved remained to be explored. Results: [{sup 14}C]PCK3145 cell surface binding assays showed rapid and transient kinetic profile, that was inhibited by RGD peptides, laminin, hyaluronan, and type-I collagen. RGD peptides were however unable to inhibit PCK3145 intracellular uptake. Far-Western ligand binding studies enabled the identification of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) as a potential ligand for PCK3145. Overexpression of the recombinant 37LRP indeed led to an increase in PCK3145 binding but unexpectedly not to its uptake. Conclusions: Our data support the implication of laminin receptors in cell surface binding and in transducing PCK3145 anti-metastatic effects, and provide a rational for targeting cancers that express high levels of such laminin receptors.

  3. Extraribosomal functions associated with the C terminus of the 37\\/67 kDa laminin receptor are required for maintaining cell viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Scheiman; K V Jamieson; J Ziello; J-C Tseng; D Meruelo

    2010-01-01

    The 37\\/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of

  4. Differential expression of laminin chains and receptor (LBP-32) in fetal and neoplastic hepatocytes compared to normal adult hepatocytes in vivo and in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rescan, P. Y.; Clément, B.; Yamada, Y.; Segui-Real, B.; Baffet, G.; Guguen-Guillouzo, C.; Guillouzo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Laminin deposition is increased in fetal liver and in a variety of liver diseases, including the development of carcinoma. We investigated the role of the hepatocyte in the synthesis of both laminin and its 32- to 67-kd receptor in normal adult, fetal, and diethylnitrosamine-treated rat livers, and in adult rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Laminin was localized by immunoelectron microscopy in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes in fetal-derived and in 18-month-old diethylnitrosamine-treated rat livers. Steady-state mRNA levels for the three chains of laminin (A, B1, and B2) and the laminin receptor (LBP-32) were examined. Northern-blot analyses showed that hepatocytes at all stages lacked the A-chain mRNA. B1-chain mRNA was undetectable in normal adult hepatocytes, while significant levels of B1-chain mRNA were found in fetal hepatocytes and in adult hepatocyte primary culture. In hepatocytes from diethylnitrosamine-treated rats, B1-chain mRNAs were abundant and were present mainly in nodular formations rather than in the nontumorous areas. B2-chain mRNAs were barely detectable in either normal adult or fetal hepatocytes. In diethylnitrosamine-treated rats, the steady-state B2-chain mRNA level was higher in nodules than in nontumorous areas. In primary culture, B2-chain mRNAs were present as early as 4 hours after adult hepatocyte seeding, and dramatically increased during the following 2 days. Only low levels of laminin-receptor (LBP-32) mRNAs were present in normal adult hepatocytes, whereas the levels were high in the fetal and in the tumor-containing livers. In diethylnitrosamine-treated rats, LBP-32 mRNAs were more abundant in nodular formations rather than in nontumorous areas. In hepatocyte primary culture, the expression of the LBP-32 mRNA dramatically increased during the first 24 hours. These results show that in hepatocytes, expression of laminin chains and its receptor LBP-32 are not coordinated and depends on the maturation of the cells. In addition, they suggest that the expression of B1 and B2 chains in adult hepatocytes is related to changes of the normal phenotype and/or the pericellular environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2144711

  5. Attenuated migration by green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): involvement of 67 kDa laminin receptor internalization in macrophagic cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuezhi; Guo, Xingzhi; Chen, Li; Guo, Minxia; Peng, Ning; Li, Rui

    2014-08-01

    Excessive activation of the microglia in the brain is involved in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have indicated that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major active constituent of green tea, exhibits potent suppressive effects on the activation of microglia. As the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a key element in cellular activation and migration, we investigated the effect of EGCG on cell migration and 67LR in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophagic RAW264.7 cells. The presence of EGCG (1-25 ?M) markedly attenuated LPS-induced cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the total amount of 67LR protein in the RAW264.7 cells was unaffected by EGCG, as revealed by Western blot analysis. In addition, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that EGCG caused a marked membrane translocation of 67LR from the membrane surface towards the cytoplasm. Cell-surface biotinylation analysis confirmed that EGCG induced a significant internalization of 67LR by 24-68% in a dose-dependent manner. This study helps to explain the pharmacological action of EGCG on 67LR, suggesting its potential use in the treatment of diseases associated with macrophage/microglia activation, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. PMID:24953562

  6. Restricted expression and function of laminin 1-binding integrins in normal and malignant oral mucosal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Kim, J P; Woodley, D T; Waleh, N S; Chen, Y Q; Kramer, R H

    1996-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity spreads by initial invasion of the laminin-rich basement membrane. We examined the adhesion and motility of human oral SCC cells and normal mucosal keratinocytes and found that the SCC cells readily attached and migrated on laminin 1 substrates but migrated poorly on collagen type I and fibronectin. The normal keratinocytes, however, adhered poorly to and were non-motile on laminin 1 yet readily and preferentially attached and migrated on fibronectin and collagen type I. Analysis with blocking anti-integrin antibodies showed that the SCC cells used the alpha 6 beta 1 complex to attach and migrate on laminin 1 and that this activity was confined to the E8 long arm fragment of laminin. Affinity chromatography on laminin-Sepharose columns revealed that the SCC cells, but not normal keratinocytes, expressed high levels of the alpha 6 beta 1 laminin 1 receptor. Metabolic pulse-chase analysis indicated that in contrast to the SCC cells, keratinocytes did not have a stable pool of beta 1 subunit precursor. Preferential pairing of alpha 6 with beta 4 and the deficiency in pre-beta 1 levels appear to account for the failure of keratinocytes to form significant alpha 6 beta 1 complex. Additionally, the presence of laminin 1 in co-coating experiments blocked keratinocyte adhesion to other immobilized ligands, such as collagen type I or fibronectin. This anti-adhesive effect seemed to reflect a general paralysis of cell adhesive function, since laminin 1 also diminished the adhesion of keratinocytes to substrates coated with immobilized anti-integrin subunit antibody. The inhibitory activity of laminin 1 resided in the E1' and E8 fragments, and not in the E3, E4 or G domains. Collectively, our results indicate that laminin 1 is a restrictive ligand for normal keratinocytes, apparently because of their failure to assemble and express the alpha 6 beta 1 complex or other functional laminin receptors and their sensitivity to the anti-adhesive activity of laminin itself. The elevated expression of alpha 6 beta 1 following malignant conversion of muscosal keratinocytes promotes their migration on laminin, a process important during invasion and metastasis. PMID:8969862

  7. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles ((AuNP)-Au-198-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Katti, Kavita; Upendran, Anandhi; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Nune, Satish K.; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, C. J.; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. D.; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, John R.; Cutler, Cathy; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2012-07-31

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechingallate( EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), will circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein provide unequivocal validation of our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from Au-198 isotope; the range of 198Au ?-particle ( ~ 11 mm in tissue or ~1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed ~72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 days demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative “green nanotechnological“approach serves as a basis for designing target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors.

  8. Photodynamic treatment of epithelial tissue derived from patients with endometrial cancer: a contribution to the role of laminin and epidermal growth factor receptor in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, Piotr P.; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Osiecka, Beata J.; Rabczynski, Jerzy; Gerber, Jerzy

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat endometrial G1 cancer tissue derived from patients who had undergone a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. After surgical treatment the cancerous tissue was kept in a medium containing Dulbecco solution, fetal calf serum, and antibiotics. The tissue was then exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative (0.1 mg/l) and 24 h later exposed to light (total light dose--18 J/sq cm). Necrosis depth was evaluated 24 h later using a light microscope. In order to assess the possible role of the basal membrane component laminin, as well as epidermal growth factor receptor susceptibility to PDT, immunohistochemical studies were carried out. Additionally, nucleolar organizer regions evaluation was performed. Our experiment confirmed that PDT results in the necrosis in the treated endometrial cancer, while not affecting the laminin in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, PDT strongly affects the epidermal growth factor receptor and nucleolar organizer regions in cancer cells. We suggest that laminin may contribute to the prevention of cancer dissemination in the cases where PDT has to be repeated, and that after PDT the cells become less susceptible to a mitogen, like, e.g., epidermal growth factor.

  9. Biologically-active laminin-111 fragment that modulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Horejs, Christine-Maria; Serio, Andrea; Purvis, Alan; Gormley, Adam J.; Bertazzo, Sergio; Poliniewicz, Anna; Wang, Alex J.; DiMaggio, Peter; Hohenester, Erhard; Stevens, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between the extracellular matrix and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) constitutes one of the key steps in understanding stem cell differentiation in vitro. Here we report a biologically-active laminin-111 fragment generated by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) processing, which is highly up-regulated during differentiation. We show that the ?1-chain–derived fragment interacts via ?3?1-integrins, thereby triggering the down-regulation of MMP2 in mouse and human ESCs. Additionally, the expression of MMP9 and E-cadherin is up-regulated in mouse ESCs—key players in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also demonstrate that the fragment acts through the ?3?1-integrin/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer complex. This study reveals a previously unidentified role of laminin-111 in early stem cell differentiation that goes far beyond basement membrane assembly and a mechanism by which an MMP2-cleaved laminin fragment regulates the expression of E-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9. PMID:24706882

  10. A simplified laminin nomenclature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Aumailley; Leena Bruckner-Tuderman; William G. Carter; Rainer Deutzmann; David Edgar; Peter Ekblom; Jürgen Engel; Eva Engvall; Erhard Hohenester; Jonathan C. R. Jones; Hynda K. Kleinman; M. Peter Marinkovich; George R. Martin; Ulrike Mayer; Guerrino Meneguzzi; Jeffrey H. Miner; Kaoru Miyazaki; Manuel Patarroyo; Mats Paulsson; Vito Quaranta; Joshua R. Sanes; Takako Sasaki; Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi; Lydia M. Sorokin; Jan F. Talts; Karl Tryggvason; Jouni Uitto; Ismo Virtanen; Klaus von der Mark; Ulla M. Wewer; Yoshihiko Yamada; Peter D. Yurchenco

    2005-01-01

    A simplification of the laminin nomenclature is presented. Laminins are multidomain heterotrimers composed of ?, ? and ? chains. Previously, laminin trimers were numbered with Arabic numerals in the order discovered, that is laminins-1 to -5. We introduce a new identification system for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the ?, ? and ? chain numbers. For example,

  11. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ravi; Chanda, Nripen; Zambre, Ajit; Upendran, Anandhi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R.; Nune, Satish Kumar; Casteel, Stan W.; Smith, Charles Jeffrey; Vimal, Jatin; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J. David; Kan, Para; Engelbrecht, Hendrik; Watkinson, Lisa D.; Carmack, Terry L.; Lever, John R.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Caldwell, Charles; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), would circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein support our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from the Au-198 isotope; the range of the 198Au ?-particle (approximately 11 mm in tissue or approximately 1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of a radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize the radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors, which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed approximately 72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 d demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative nanotechnological approach serves as a basis for designing biocompatible target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors. PMID:22802668

  12. A simplified laminin nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Aumailley, Monique; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Carter, William G; Deutzmann, Rainer; Edgar, David; Ekblom, Peter; Engel, Jürgen; Engvall, Eva; Hohenester, Erhard; Jones, Jonathan C R; Kleinman, Hynda K; Marinkovich, M Peter; Martin, George R; Mayer, Ulrike; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Miner, Jeffrey H; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Patarroyo, Manuel; Paulsson, Mats; Quaranta, Vito; Sanes, Joshua R; Sasaki, Takako; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sorokin, Lydia M; Talts, Jan F; Tryggvason, Karl; Uitto, Jouni; Virtanen, Ismo; von der Mark, Klaus; Wewer, Ulla M; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2005-08-01

    A simplification of the laminin nomenclature is presented. Laminins are multidomain heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. Previously, laminin trimers were numbered with Arabic numerals in the order discovered, that is laminins-1 to -5. We introduce a new identification system for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the alpha, beta and gamma chain numbers. For example, the laminin with the chain composition alpha5beta1gamma1 is termed laminin-511, and not laminin-10. The current practice is also to mix two overlapping domain and module nomenclatures. Instead of the older Roman numeral nomenclature and mixed nomenclature, all modules are now called domains. Some domains are renamed or renumbered. Laminin epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains are renumbered starting at the N-termini, to be consistent with general protein nomenclature. Domain IVb of alpha chains is named laminin 4a (L4a), domain IVa of alpha chains is named L4b, domain IV of gamma chains is named L4, and domain IV of beta chains is named laminin four (LF). The two coiled-coil domains I and II are now considered one laminin coiled-coil domain (LCC). The interruption in the coiled-coil of beta chains is named laminin beta-knob (Lbeta) domain. The chain origin of a domain is specified by the chain nomenclature, such as alpha1L4a. The abbreviation LM is suggested for laminin. Otherwise, the nomenclature remains unaltered. PMID:15979864

  13. Estrogen receptor immunocytochemical assay (ERICA) and laminin detection in 130 breast carcinomas and computerized (Samba 200) multiparametric quantitative analysis on tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Charpin, C; Martin, P M; Lissitzky, J C; Jacquemier, J; Kopp, F; Pourreau-Schneider, N; Lavaut, M N; Toga, M

    1986-01-01

    An estrogen receptor immunocytochemical assay (ER-ICA) was applied to 130 malignant breast carcinomas and the results were compared to those of steroid binding assays performed on cytosol extracts of the same tumors. Also laminin (lam) distribution was studied in the same tumors. A semi quantitative analysis and a computerized image analysis system (SAMBA 200 TITN) were used to evaluate the positive ER and lam immunostaining. Positive ER immunostaining was always located in the nucleus of tumor cells and of normal cells in adjacent breast tissue. When immunohistochemical staining was correlated to biochemical assay there was a 88% correlation staining intensity and percentage of positive cells significantly increased (p less than 0.01) with cytosolic ER levels. Lam was observed within vascular and epithelial basement membranes (BMs). Lam staining displayed a continuous linear pattern in intraductal carcinomas or was heterogeneously distributed with a discontinuous linear pattern in invasive carcinomas. No intracellular lam staining was detected. In tumors, laminin immunostaining revealed often multilayered BMs and abnormal multilayered BMs in blood vessels in the tumor stroma. These results indicated that (ER-ICA) is to date the most reliable histochemical method for ER detection and correlated in 88% of the cases with ER biochemical assay ER-ICA provides additional information for heterogeneous ER distribution within tumors ER-ICA as a qualitative method is unable to replace the quantitative ER determination obtained with biochemical assay ER-ICA based on ER antigenic site detection is complementary to biochemical assay based on ER functional site determination laminin immunostaing constitutes a new approach to the heterogeneous BM changes occurring in carcinomas, and permits a better understanding of cell diffusion processes and of stroma-tumor cells interactions: the consistent extracellular lam distribution in contact with the stroma, indicates that the latter plays an important role in the assembly of BM components the SAMBA 200 permits a reliable accurate evaluation of the percentage of the immunostained cells and surfaces. PMID:3567371

  14. C-terminal fragment of human laminin-binding protein contains a receptor domain for venezuelan equine encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Malygin, A A; Bondarenko, E I; Ivanisenko, V A; Protopopova, E V; Karpova, G G; Loktev, V B

    2009-12-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MABs) to human laminin-binding protein (LBP) can efficiently block the penetration of some alpha- and flaviviruses into the cell. A panel of 13 types of MABs to human recombinant LBP was used for more detailed study of the mechanism of this process. Competitive analysis has shown that MABs to LBP can be divided into six different competition groups. MABs 4F6 and 8E4 classified under competition groups 3 and 4 can inhibit the replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which is indicative of their interaction with the receptor domain of LBP providing for binding with virions. According to enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting data, polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to MABs 4F6 and 8E4 modeling paratopes of the LBP receptor domain can specifically interact with VEEV E2 protein and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) E protein. Mapping of binding sites of MABs 4F6 and 8E4 with LBP by constructing short deletion fragments of the human LBP molecule has shown that MAB 8E4 interacts with the fragment of amino acid residues 187-210, and MAB 4F6 interacts with the fragment of residues 263-278 of LBP protein, which is represented by two TEDWS peptides separated by four amino acid residues. This suggested that the LBP receptor domain interacting with VEEV E2 and TBEV E viral proteins is located at the C-terminal fragment of the LBP molecule. A model of the spatial structure of the LBP receptor domain distally limited by four linear loops (two of which are represented by experimentally mapped regions of amino acid residues 187-210 and 263-278) as well as the central beta-folded region turning into the alpha-helical site including residues 200-216 of the LBP molecule and providing for the interaction with the laminin-1 molecule has been proposed. PMID:19961413

  15. Laminin isoforms in development and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Schéele; Alexander Nyström; Madeleine Durbeej; Jan F. Talts; Marja Ekblom; Peter Ekblom

    2007-01-01

    The members of the laminin family of heterotrimers are major constituents of all basement membranes, sheet-like extracellular\\u000a structures, present in almost all organs. The laminins bind to cell surface receptors and thereby tightly connect the basement\\u000a membrane to the adjacent cell layer. This provides for the specific basement membrane functions to stabilize cellular structures,\\u000a to serve as effective physical barriers,

  16. Identification of Endothelial Cell Binding Sites on the Laminin g1 Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lourdes Ponce; Motoyoshi Nomizu; Mucio C. Delgado; Yuichiro Kuratomi; Matthew P. Hoffman; Sharon Powell; Yoshihiko Yamada; Hynda K. Kleinman; Katherine M. Malinda

    The laminins belong to a family of trimeric basement membrane glycoproteins with multiple domains, structures, and functions. Endothelial cells bind laminin-1 and form capillary-like structures when plated on a laminin-1-rich basement membrane matrix, Matrigel. Laminin-1 is composed of 3 chains, a1, b1, and g1. Because laminin-1 is known to contain multiple biologically active sites, we have screened 156 synthetic overlapping

  17. Cranin: a laminin-binding protein of cell membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, N R; Schwartz, N B

    1987-01-01

    We report that a 120-kDa glycoprotein is the predominant laminin-binding protein detected within plasma membranes of rodent NG108-15 neural hybrid cells, embryonic chicken brain, and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. This protein was detected when membrane extracts were separated by PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and incubated with laminin at concentrations as low as 2.8 X 10(-11) M, under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH and in the presence of calcium ions. It behaves as an integral membrane component, and its laminin-binding moiety is accessible to the external face of the cell surface. Moreover, it appears to bind to a site on laminin that is very sensitive to proteolysis. The properties of this protein, which we have termed "cranin," distinguish it from other known laminin receptors and make it a candidate to mediate some of the effects of laminin upon cells. Images PMID:2957695

  18. A novel synthetic peptide from the B1 chain of laminin with heparin- binding and cell adhesion-promoting activities

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies using solid-phase-binding assays and electron microscopy suggested the presence of a heparin-binding domain between the inner globule of a lateral short arm and the cross region of laminin. Using the information from the amino acid sequence of the B1 chain of laminin, several peptides were synthesized from areas with a low hydropathy index and a high density of lysines and/or arginines. One of these, peptide F-9 (RYVVLPRPVCFEKGMNYTVR), which is derived from the inner globular domain of the lateral short arm, demonstrated specific binding to heparin. This was tested in direct solid-phase binding assays by coating the peptide either on nitrocellulose or on polystyrene and in indirect competition assays where the peptide was in solution and either laminin or heparin was immobilized on a solid support. The binding of [3H]heparin to peptide F-9 was dramatically reduced when heparin but not other glycosaminoglycans other than heparin (dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate) were used in competition assays. Modification of the free amino groups of peptide F-9 by acetylation abolished its ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]heparin to laminin on polystyrene surfaces. Peptide F-9 promoted the adhesion of various cell lines (melanoma, fibrosarcoma, glioma, pheochromocytoma) and of aortic endothelial cells. Furthermore, when peptide F-9 was present in solution, it inhibited the adhesion of melanoma cells to laminin-coated substrates. These findings suggest that peptide F-9 defines a novel heparin-binding and cell adhesion- promoting site on laminin. PMID:3417782

  19. Our understanding of the structure and function of dystroglycan, a cell surface laminin/agrin receptor, has

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    involved in early development, organ morphogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Addresses Howard Hughes Medical [13] and synaptogenesis [18·,22·,23]. In addition, a novel function for dystroglycan as a receptor

  20. Glycosylation of the laminin receptor (?3?1) regulates its association with tetraspanin CD151: Impact on cell spreading, motility, degradation and invasion of basement membrane by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Bane, Sanjay M; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2014-04-01

    Invasion is the key requirement for cancer metastasis. Expression of ?1,6 branched N-oligosaccharides associated with invasiveness, has been shown to promote adhesion to most Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) components and haptotactic motility on ECM (fibronectin) but attenuate it on BM (laminin/matrigel) components. To explore the mechanism and to evaluate the significance of these observations in terms of invasion, highly invasive B16BL6 cells were compared with the parent (B16F10) cells or B16BL6 cells in which glycosylation was inhibited. We demonstrate that increased adhesion to matrix components induced secretion of MMP-9, important for invasion. Further, both the subunits of integrin receptors for fibronectin (?5?1) and laminin (?3?1) on B16BL6 cells were shown to carry these oligosaccharides. Although, glycosylation of receptors had no effect on their surface expression, it had same differential effect on cell spreading as haptotactic motility. Absence of correlation between invasiveness and expression of most tetraspanins (major regulators of integrin function) hints at an alternate mechanism. Here we show that glycosylation on ?3?1 impedes its association with CD151 and modulates spreading and motility of cells apparently to reach an optimum required for invasion of BM. These studies demonstrate the complex mechanisms used by cancer cells to be invasive. PMID:24530578

  1. Electron microscopy of an ?-dystroglycan fragment containing receptor sites for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and laminin, and use of the receptoid body as a reagent to neutralize virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Kunz; Lesley Calder; Michael B. A Oldstone

    2004-01-01

    We report the electron microscopic structure of an ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) fragment (DGEKFc4) that contains binding sites for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule laminin. In electron microscopic images, DGEKFc4 appears as dumbbell-shaped rods with a length of 7.5 ± 0.5 nM and width of 3 ± 0.3 nM. The C-terminal human Fc allows binding of anti-human

  2. C-terminal fragment of human laminin-binding protein contains a receptor domain for Venezuelan equine encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Malygin; E. I. Bondarenko; V. A. Ivanisenko; E. V. Protopopova; G. G. Karpova; V. B. Loktev

    2009-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MABs) to human laminin-binding protein (LBP) can efficiently block the penetration of\\u000a some alphaand flaviviruses into the cell. A panel of 13 types of MABs to human recombinant LBP was used for more detailed\\u000a study of the mechanism of this process. Competitive analysis has shown that MABs to LBP can be divided into six different\\u000a competition

  3. Primary structure of the human heparan sulfate proteoglycan from basement membrane (HSPG2/perlecan). A chimeric molecule with multiple domains homologous to the low density lipoprotein receptor, laminin, neural cell adhesion molecules, and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, A D; Dodge, G R; Cohen, I; Tuan, R S; Iozzo, R V

    1992-04-25

    We have determined the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the major protein core of the human heparan sulfate proteoglycan HSPG2/perlecan of basement membranes. Eighteen overlapping cDNA clones comprise 14.35 kilobase pairs (kb) of contiguous sequence with an open reading frame of 13.2 kb. The mature protein core, without the signal peptide of 21 amino acids, has a M(r) of 466,564. This large protein is composed of multiple modules homologous to the receptor of low density lipoprotein, laminin, neural cell adhesion molecules, and epidermal growth factor. Domain I, near the amino terminus, appears unique for the proteoglycan since it shares no significant homology with any other proteins. It contains three Ser-Gly-Asp sequences that could act as attachment sites for heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Domain II is highly homologous to the LDL receptor and contains four repeats with perfect conservation of all 6 consecutive cysteines. Next is domain III which shares homology to the short arm of laminin A chain and contains four cysteine-rich regions intercalated among three globular domains. Domain IV, the largest module with greater than 2000 residues, contains 21 repeats of the immunoglobulin type as found in neural cell adhesion molecule. Near the beginning of this domain, there is a stretch of 29 hydrophobic amino acids which could allow the molecule to interact with the plasma membrane. Domain V, similar to the carboxyl-terminal globular G-domain of laminin A and to the related protein merosin, contains three globular regions and four EGF-like repeats. In situ hybridization and immunoenzymatic studies show a close association of this gene product with a variety of cells involved in the assembly of basement membranes, in addition to being localized within the stromal elements of various connective tissues. Our studies show that this proteoglycan is present in all vascularized tissues and suggest that this unique molecule has evolved from the utilization of modular structures with adhesive and growth regulatory properties. PMID:1569102

  4. Murine laminin binds to Histoplasma capsulatum. A possible mechanism of dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, J P; Wheat, J; Sobel, M E; Pasula, R; Downing, J F; Martin, W J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, an increasingly important opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed subjects, is characterized by hematogenous dissemination of the yeast from the lung. The mechanism of this dissemination is not fully understood. Laminin, the major glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, is known to mediate the attachment of various invasive pathogens to host tissues. In the current study, laminin is demonstrated to bind to Histoplasma capsulatum in a rapid, specific, and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis with 125I-labeled laminin revealed an estimated 3.0 x 10(4) binding sites per yeast with an apparent Kd for laminin binding of 1.6 x 10(-9) M. Laminin binding to H. capsulatum was decreased from 62 +/- 1 to 17 +/- 1 ng (P < 0.001) in the presence of 3,000 nM of Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val, a pentapeptide within one major cell attachment site of laminin. A 50-kD H. capsulatum laminin-binding protein was demonstrated using an 125I-Ln blot of H. capsulatum cell wall proteins. The 50-kD protein is also recognized by antibodies directed at the 67-kD laminin receptor, suggesting they are related. This study proposes a possible mechanism for H. capsulatum attachment to laminin, an important first step required for the yeast to recognize and traverse the basement membrane. Images PMID:7635937

  5. Solubilization of active opiate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, W F; Koski, G; Streaty, R A; Hjelmeland, L M; Klee, W A

    1980-01-01

    Receptors that reversibly bind opiates and opioid peptides have been solubilized from brain and neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell NG108-15 membranes. Active receptors are specifically solubilized with a new type of detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, which is a zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid. The solubilized receptor complexes behave as large molecules with a Stokes radius of 70 A and contain protein as an essential constituent. PMID:6254034

  6. Variable region structure and staphylococcal protein A binding specificity of a mouse monoclonal IgM anti-laminin-receptor antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Feijó, G C; Sabbaga, J; Carneiro, C R; Brígido, M M

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is a cell wall-attached polypeptide that acts as a B-lymphocyte superantigen. This activation correlates with specific VH gene segment usage in the B-cell receptor. B-cell receptor assembled from members of the VH3 family in humans, or S107 family in mice, has an intrinsic affinity for protein A. Human VH3-derived antibodies bind to domain D of protein A. We have characterized a mouse IgM monoclonal antibody that binds protein A. The sequencing of the variable region suggests an almost germline-encoded VH derived from S107 family and a V kappa 8-derived VL. The binding specificity of the monoclonal antibody was tested with various recombinant constructions derived from protein A. We show that, unlike human VH3-derived antibody, mouse S107-derived immunoglobulin binds to the B domain of the bacterial superantigen. PMID:9301540

  7. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate. PMID:1600626

  8. Laminin-5 coating enhances epithelial cell attachment, spreading, and hemidesmosome assembly on Ti-6A1-4V implant material in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Ghannam, A; Starr, L; Jones, J

    1998-07-01

    Enhancement of epithelial cell attachment to laminin-5-coated titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) implant material was evaluated in vitro. Protein analysis showed that Ti-6Al-4V has a high affinity for laminin-5 and adsorbed significantly more laminin-5 than laminin-1. DNA analysis showed that laminin-5 enhanced attachment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to Ti-6Al-4V significantly more than did laminin-1 or uncoated controls. The effect of passivation on laminin-5 adsorption and activity on Ti-6Al-4V also was evaluated. Passivation had no significant effect on the amount of protein adsorbed; however, AFM, ESCA, and ToF-SIMS analyses suggested that passivation affects the conformation of adsorbed laminin-5. Although laminin-5 coating significantly enhanced rapid attachment of epithelial cells to both passivated and unpassivated Ti-6Al-4V, surface area measurements showed that cells spread on laminin-5-coated passivated Ti-6Al-4V covered a significantly larger surface area than cells spread on laminin-5-coated unpassivated samples. TEM analysis showed that cells formed significantly more hemidesmosomes on the surface of laminin-5 coated passivated than on the surface of laminin-5 coated unpassivated titanium alloy. The enhancement of rapid cell attachment, spreading, and hemidesmosome assembly on laminin-5-coated passivated samples may reflect better integration between epithelial cells and titanium alloy and thus may be predictive of long-term implant stability. PMID:9641621

  9. Constitutive activity in gonadotropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Reiter, Eric; Bousfield, George; Dias, James A; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2014-01-01

    Constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of gonadotropin receptors are, in general, rare conditions. Luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) CAMs provoke the dramatic phenotype of familial gonadotropin-independent isosexual male-limited precocious puberty, whereas in females, there is not yet any identified phenotype. Only one isolated follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) CAM (Asp567Gly) has so far been detected in a single male patient, besides other FSHR weak CAMs linked to pregnancy-associated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or to impaired desensitization and internalization. Several animal models have been developed for studying enhanced gonadotropin action; in addition to unraveling valuable new information about the possible phenotypes of isolated FSHR and LHCGR CAMs in women, the information obtained from these mouse models has served multiple translational goals, including the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic targets as well as the prediction of phenotypes for mutations not yet identified in humans. Mutagenesis and computational studies have shed important information on the physiopathogenic mechanisms leading to constitutive activity of gonadotropin receptors; a common feature in these receptor CAMs is the release of stabilizing interhelical interactions between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 3 and 6 leading to an increase, with respect to the wild-type receptor, in the solvent accessibility at the cytosolic extension of TMDs 3, 5, and 6, which involves the highly conserved Glu/Asp-Arg-Tyr/Trp sequence. In this chapter, we summarize the structural features, functional consequences, and mechanisms that lead to constitutive activation of gonadotropin receptor CAMs and provide information on pharmacological approaches that might potentially modulate gonadotropin receptor CAM function. PMID:24931192

  10. Cell and heparin binding in the distal long arm of laminin: identification of active and cryptic sites with recombinant and hybrid glycoprotein [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1993 Dec;123(6 Pt 1):1623

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The long arm of laminin, which binds heparin and cells, consists of three polypeptides (A, B1, and B2) joined in a coiled-coil rod attached to a terminal A chain globule (G). Previously, we found that recombinant globular domain (rG) supported heparin and myoblast binding (Yurchenco, P. D., U. Sung, M. D. Ward, Y. Yamada, and J. J. O'Rear. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:8356-8365). To further analyze long arm functions, we expressed the distal moiety of the mouse laminin A chain extending from the middle of the rod to the carboxyl terminus (rAiG). This larger glycoprotein, secreted by Sf9 insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus, was intercalated in vitro into the corresponding disulfide-linked B chain segments of laminin fragment E8 (distal long arm rod and proximal globule). The hybrid molecule (B- rAiG) possessed a structure similar to laminin long arm as judged by electron microscopy and limited proteolysis. By joining rAiG with E8-B chains, the affinity of G domain for heparin decreased from that observed with rAiG and rG to one similar to native protein. HT1080 cells adhered to E8, rAiG, and B-rAiG, less well to rG, and not to denatured E8/B-rAiG, the A and B chain moieties of E8, or to a mixture of rG and E8-B chains. Cell adhesion to E8 and B-rAiG, in contrast to rAiG, was inhibited with antibodies specific for alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin chains. Since intercalation (a) restored a conformationally dependent alpha 6 beta 1 integrin recognition site present in native protein, (b) inactivated a cryptic cell binding activity in the A chain, and (c) inhibited a heparin binding site present in proximal G domain, we conclude that biological activities of laminin are different from that of its isolated subunits. PMID:8267779

  11. Laminin ?2 Chain-Positive Vessels and Epidermal Growth Factor in Lung Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vitolo, Domenico; Ciocci, Luciano; Deriu, Gloria; Spinelli, Silvia; Cortese, Stefania; Masuelli, Laura; Morrone, Stefania; Filice, Mary Jo; Coloni, Giorgio Furio; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Baroni, Carlo Davide

    2006-01-01

    Capillaries expressing the laminin ?2 chain in basement membranes may be considered early developing vessels in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Therefore, we investigated whether up-regulation of this extracellular matrix protein favors transendothelial migration of neoplastic cells and then metastasis. In lung small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which exhibit a stronger metastatic tendency among carcinomas, laminin ?2 chain-positive vessels were more numerous than in carcinoid tumors and supraglottis, breast, and lung non-small cell carcinomas, suggesting a direct relationship between these vessels and metastasis. In vitro studies showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a more efficient migration of the AE-2 lung neuroendocrine carcinoma cell line through the purified laminin ?2 chain rather than through the laminin ?1 chain and fibronectin. AE-2 cells constitutively expressed all EGF receptors and the ?6?1 integrin, which is one of the laminin ?2 chain receptors. EGF up-regulated ?6?1 expression in several tumors. In this regard, we show that EGF increased the chemo-kinetic migration of AE-2 cells through EAHY endothelial monolayers, which was inhibited by the anti-?6 integrin chain monoclonal antibody. These data indicate that laminin ?2 chain and ?6?1 may be mutually involved in EGF-dependent migration of AE-2 cells and that laminin ?2 chain-positive vessels may favor metastasis of EGF-dependent tumors. PMID:16507913

  12. The Involvement of Laminin in Anti-Myocardial Cell Autoimmune Response in Murine Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyophathy associated with Chagas disease is still controversial, although evidence indicates a T cell-dependent autoimmune process. Using a mouse model for chronic Chagas disease, we previously evidenced that hearts grafted within the ears of Trypanosoma cruzi infected syngeneic recipients were rejected through a CD4+ T cell-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we showed that such a process was dependent on laminin-mediated interactions, since it could be abrogated by anti-laminin or anti-laminin receptor antibodies. In this review the same passive cell transfer model is considered for discussion: the participation of the laminin alteration in the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate formed in response to the antimyocardial autoreactive CD4+ T cells, as well as the presence of laminin-binding cytokines. Finally we suggest the existence of a relationship between the inflammatory infiltrate, the laminin contents and deposition of pro-inflammatory laminin-binding cytokines, which may act in concert during the generation of Chagas disease- related cardiomyophathy. PMID:11097219

  13. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Young [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hwan-Hee [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of)] [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Ho [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beom Joon [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoon G., E-mail: taehoon@novacelltech.com [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  14. Laminin ?1 Chain Corrects Male Infertility Caused by Absence of Laminin ?2 Chain

    PubMed Central

    Häger, Mattias; Gawlik, Kinga; Nyström, Alexander; Sasaki, Takako; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2005-01-01

    Laminins are important for basement membrane structure and function. The laminin ?2 chain is a major component of muscle basement membranes, and mutations in the laminin ?2 gene lead to congenital muscular dystrophy in humans and mice. Although the laminin ?2 chain is prominently expressed in testicular basement membranes, its role in testis has remained unclear. Here, we show that laminin ?1, ?2, ?1, ?2, ?1, and ?3 chains are the major laminin chains in basement membranes of seminiferous tubules. In laminin ?2 chain-deficient dy3K/dy3K mice, lack of laminin ?2 chain led to concurrent reduction of laminin ?3 chain and abnormal testicular basement membranes. Seminiferous tubules of laminin ?2 chain-deficient dy3K/dy3K mice displayed a defect in the timing of lumen formation, resulting in production of fewer spermatides. We also demonstrate that overexpression of laminin ?1 chain in testis of dy3K/dy3K mice compensated for laminin ?2 chain deficiency and significantly reversed the appearance of the histopathological features. We thus provide genetic data that laminin ? chains are essential for normal testicular function in vivo. PMID:16127160

  15. Laminin-based Nanomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Rebekah Anne

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing motor and sensory deficits distal to the site of injury. One option for surgical repair is the nerve conduit. Conduits currently on the market are hollow tubes into which the nerve ends are sutured. Although these conduits fill the gap, they often fail due to the slow rate of regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased speed of regeneration and greater potential for functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this dissertation, I fabricated laminin-1 and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers that mimic the geometry and functionality of the peripheral nerve basement membrane. These fibers resist hydration in aqueous media and require no harsh chemical crosslinkers. Adhesion and differentiation of both neuron-like and neuroprogenitor cells is improved on laminin nanofibrous meshes over two-dimensional laminin substrates. Blend meshes with varying laminin content were characterized for composition, tensile properties, degradation rates, and bioactivity in terms of cell attachment and axonal elongation. I have established that 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain the significant neurite-promoting effects of laminin critical in peripheral nerve repair. In addition, I utilized modified collector plate design to manipulate electric field gradients during electrospinning for the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. These aligned substrates provide enhanced directional guidance cues to the regenerating axons. Finally, I replicated the clinical problem of peripheral nerve transection using a rat tibial nerve defect model for conduit implantation. When the lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment, I observed significant recovery of sensory and motor function over six weeks. This recovery was supported by nerve conduction studies and electromyography which described impulse transmission, muscle stimulation, and foot twitch through the region of regeneration. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of natural-synthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits. The similarity in surgical technique and obvious benefit to the patient should lead to rapid translation into clinical application.

  16. Identification of Two Laminin-Binding Fimbriae, the Type 1 Fimbria of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and the G Fimbria of Escherichia coli, as Plasminogen Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAINI KUKKONEN; SIRKKU SAARELA; KAARINA LAHTEENMAKI; ULLA HYNONEN; BENITA WESTERLUND-WIKSTROM; MIKAEL RHEN; TIMO K. KORHONEN

    1998-01-01

    Plasminogen is the precursor of the human protease plasmin and is abundant in human plasma and extracellular fluids. It is converted to the active, proteolytic form plasmin by eukaryotic activators such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase. tPA is the principal activator in plasma and inter- cellular fluid, and its action is due to proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. Plasminogen

  17. Mechanisms of androgen receptor activation and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O Brinkmann; L. J Blok; P. E de Ruiter; P Doesburg; K Steketee; C. A Berrevoets; J Trapman

    1999-01-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in several stages of male development and in the maintenance of the male phenotype. Androgens act in their target cells via an interaction with the androgen receptor, resulting in direct regulation of gene expression. The androgen receptor is a phosphoprotein and modulation of the phosphorylation status of the receptor influences ligand-binding and consequently transcription activation

  18. Lung-specific loss of ?3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-04-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the ?3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the ?3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the ?3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-? was worse in mice deficient in ?3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of ?3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-?. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of ?3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression. PMID:25188360

  19. Laminins: Roles and Utility in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Valentina; Troughton, Lee D.; Hamill, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Laminins are complex extracellular macromolecules that are major players in the control of a variety of core cell processes, including regulating rates of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Laminins, and related extracellular matrix components, have essential roles in tissue homeostasis; however, during wound healing, the same proteins are critical players in re-epithelialization and angiogenesis. Understanding how these proteins influence cell behavior in these different conditions holds great potential in identifying new strategies to enhance normal wound closure or to treat chronic/nonhealing wounds. Recent Advances: Laminin-derived bioactive peptides and, more recently, laminin-peptide conjugated scaffolds, have been designed to improve tissue regeneration after injuries. These peptides have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and granulation tissue, and in promoting re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Critical Issues: Although there is now a wealth of knowledge concerning laminin form and function, there are still areas of some controversy. These include the relative contribution of two laminin-based adhesive devices (focal contacts and hemidesmosomes) to the re-epithelialization process, the impact and implications of laminin proteolytic processing, and the importance of laminin polymer formation on cell behavior. In addition, the roles in wound healing of the laminin-related proteins, netrins, and LaNts are still to be fully defined. Future Directions: The future of laminin-based therapeutics potentially lies in the bioengineering of specific substrates to support laminin deposition for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells for graft formation and transplantation. Significant recent advances suggest that this goal is within sight. PMID:25945287

  20. Rethinking Molecular Mimicry in Rheumatic Heart Disease and Autoimmune Myocarditis: Laminin, Collagen IV, CAR, and B1AR as Initial Targets of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Molecular mimicry theory (MMT) suggests that epitope mimicry between pathogens and human proteins can activate autoimmune disease. Group A streptococci (GAS) mimics human cardiac myosin in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and coxsackie viruses (CX) mimic actin in autoimmune myocarditis (AM). But myosin and actin are immunologically inaccessible and unlikely initial targets. Extracellular cardiac proteins that mimic GAS and CX would be more likely. Objectives: To determine whether extracellular cardiac proteins such as coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), beta 1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR), CD55/DAF, laminin, and collagen IV mimic GAS, CX, and/or cardiac myosin or actin. Methods: BLAST 2.0 and LALIGN searches of the UniProt protein database were employed to identify potential molecular mimics. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure antibody cross-reactivity. Measurements: Similarities were considered to be significant if a sequence contained at least 5 identical amino acids in 10. Antibodies were considered to be cross-reactive if the binding constant had a Kd less than 10-9 M. Main results: Group A streptococci mimics laminin, CAR, and myosin. CX mimics actin and collagen IV and B1AR. The similarity search results are mirrored by antibody cross-reactivities. Additionally, antibodies against laminin recognize antibodies against collagen IV; antibodies against actin recognize antibodies against myosin, and antibodies against GAS recognize antibodies against CX. Thus, there is both mimicry of extracellular proteins and antigenic complementarity between GAS-CX in RHD/AM. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease/AM may be due to combined infections of GAS with CX localized at cardiomyocytes that may produce a synergistic, hyperinflammatory response that cross-reacts with laminin, collagen IV, CAR, and/or B1AR. Epitope drift shifts the immune response to myosin and actin after cardiomyocytes become damaged. PMID:25191648

  1. Activity-Dependent Recruitment of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Activation at an AMPA Receptor-Only Synapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley A. Clark; Stuart G. Cull-Candy

    2002-01-01

    We have identified an excitatory synapse in cerebellar molec- ular layer interneurons at which the level of presynaptic activity determines the receptor type involved in the postsynaptic re- sponse. When small numbers of parallel fibers are activated, EPSCs are mediated solely by AMPA receptors (AMPARs), despite our finding that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are present in the dendrites of these cells.

  2. Protease activated receptors modulate aortic vascular tone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold I. Magazine; Jonathan M. King; Kamal D. Srivastava

    1996-01-01

    The effect of agonists of the known protease activated receptors (PAR), the thrombin and the PAR-2 receptors, on vasoactive mediator release and vascular tone were studied using rings of rat aorta. Stimulation of aortic rings with the thrombin receptor agonist, Trap-14, or the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL, resulted in a rapid release of nitric oxide. Trap-14 and SLIGRL-induced nitric oxide release

  3. Therapieresistentes Anti-Laminin-332-Schleimhautpemphigoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Recke; I. Shimanovich; P. Steven; L. Westermann; D. Zillikens; E. Schmidt

    Zusammenfassung  Das Schleimhautpemphigoid (SHP) ist eine Erkrankung, die mit ausgeprägten Erosionen der Schleimhäute einhergeht und bei Befall\\u000a der Konjunktiven zur Erblindung führen kann. Beim SHP wurden Autoantikörper gegen verschiedene Proteine der dermoepidermalen\\u000a Junktionszone beschrieben, darunter bei etwa einem Viertel der Patienten gegen Laminin 332. Das Anti-Laminin-332-SHP mit okulärer\\u000a Beteiligung ist meist schwierig zu behandeln. Bei einem 46 Jahre alten Patienten mit Anti-Laminin-332-Pemphigoid und

  4. Proteinase-Activated Receptors and Arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona A. Russell; Jason J. McDougall

    \\u000a The novel family of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) is activated through proteolytic cleavage by serine proteinases.\\u000a This family of G protein-coupled receptors and their activating enzymes are found widely throughout the body. It has been\\u000a known for some time that during arthritic conditions, high levels of serine proteinases are released from joint tissue and\\u000a contribute to joint degradation. Expression of PARs

  5. Mineralocorticoid Receptors: Distribution and Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Funder

    2005-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) bind both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids with high affinity (deoxycorticosterone = corticosterone = aldosterone = cortisol), and are found in both Na+ transporting epithelia (e.g. kidney, colon) and nonepithelial tissues (e.g. heart, brain). MR evolved before aldosterone synthase, consistent with their acting in nonepithelial tissues as high affinity glucocorticoid receptors, essentially always occupied by normal levels of endogenous

  6. GABAB Receptor Activation Modulates GABAA ReceptorMediated Inhibition in Chicken Nucleus Magnocellularis Neurons

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    the ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus. GABA activates both ligand-gated Cl channels [GABAA receptors (GABAARsGABAB Receptor Activation Modulates GABAA Receptor­Mediated Inhibition in Chicken Nucleus Rubel. GABAB receptor activation modulates GABAA receptor­mediated inhibition in chicken nucleus

  7. Notch Receptor Activation Inhibits Oligodendrocyte Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songli Wang; Andrei D Sdrulla; Guy diSibio; Gay Bush; Donna Nofziger; Carol Hicks; Gerry Weinmaster; Ben A Barres

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we show that oligodendrocyte differentiation is powerfully inhibited by activation of the Notch pathway. Oligodendrocytes and their precursors in the developing rat optic nerve express Notch1 receptors and, at the same time, retinal ganglion cells express Jagged1, a ligand of the Notch1 receptor, along their axons. Jagged1 expression is developmentally regulated, decreasing with a time course that

  8. Coupled expression and colocalization of 140K cell adhesion molecules, fibronectin, and laminin during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of chick lung cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression and distribution of fibronectin, laminin, and the 140K cell adhesion molecules (140K complex) in embryonic chick lung cells by a combination of biochemical and immunofluorescent approaches. The 140K complex was identified by monoclonal antibody JG22E as a complex of glycoproteins averaging 140,000 Mr and has been implicated in vitro as a receptor for fibronectin and laminin. Our studies provide the first description that the 140K complex is developmentally regulated, and that the 140K complex appears to be involved in adhesion of epithelial and endothelial cells during morphogenesis. We have shown that the 140K complex is expressed in high quantity in embryonic lung cell types, but is markedly reduced in all of the differentiated cell types except smooth muscle. Embryonic lung cells are enriched in 140K complex on portions of cells in close proximity to areas rich in fibronectin. For example, during the formation of airways and alveolar tissues, 140K complex is concentrated at the basal surfaces of epithelial cells adjacent to fibronectin. Likewise, during the angiogenic invasion of capillaries into lung mesenchyme, the 140K complex becomes localized at sites on the basal surfaces of endothelial cells in close contact with fibronectin. Finally, cytodifferentiating lung smooth muscle cells show unusually high levels of 140K complex, fibronectin, and laminin that persist into the adult. In contrast to fibronectin, laminin is found to be uniformly distributed in the basement membranes of differentiating epithelial cells. It becomes prominent in adult alveolar epithelium and airway epithelium concomitant with a reduction or loss of 140K complex and fibronectin at cell-basement membrane attachment sites. Surprisingly, laminin is also present in a punctate pattern in the mesenchyme of early lung buds, however, laminin, fibronectin, and 140K complex are greatly reduced or lost during mesenchymal maturation. Our results are consistent with the active participation of the 140K complex in cell-to-matrix adhesion during morphogenesis of alveolar walls and cytodifferentiation of mesenchymal and smooth muscle cells. PMID:3528168

  9. Glomerular laminin isoform transitions: errors in metanephric culture are corrected by grafting.

    PubMed

    St John, P L; Wang, R; Yin, Y; Miner, J H; Robert, B; Abrahamson, D R

    2001-04-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly and maturation are marked by the replacement of laminin-1 (containing alpha 1-, beta 1-, and gamma 1-chains) with laminin-11 (consisting of alpha 5-, beta 2-, and gamma 1-chains). Similarly, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-chains of type IV collagen are replaced by collagen alpha 3-, alpha 4-, and alpha 5(IV)-chains. The cellular origins of these molecules and mechanisms for isoform removal and substitution are unknown. To explore glomerular laminin isoform transitions in vitro, we assessed metanephric organ cultures. Standard culture conditions do not support endothelial cell differentiation, and glomerular structures that form in vitro are avascular. Nevertheless, extensive podocyte development occurs in these cultures, including the formation of foot processes and assembly of a GBM-like matrix. Here, we show that the podocyte-specific markers, glomerular epithelial protein 1 and nephrin, which are normally expressed in capillary loop stage glomeruli in vivo, are also expressed by glomerular figures that form in organ culture. However, the GBM-like segments that form in vitro do not undergo normal laminin isoform switching. Instead, both laminin alpha 1- and alpha 5-chains are present, as is the beta 1-chain, but not beta 2. When avascular organ-cultured kidneys are grafted into anterior eye chambers, however, kidney-derived angioblasts establish extensive vasculature by 6 days, and glomeruli are lined by endothelial cells. We evaluated embryonic day 12 (E12) vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk1)-lacZ kidneys that had first been grown in organ culture for 6--7 days and then grafted into wild-type mice. Correct laminin isoform substitution occurred and correlated with the appearance of endothelial cells expressing Flk1. Our findings indicate that endothelial cells, and/or factors present in the circulation, mediate normal GBM laminin isoform transitions in vivo. PMID:11249861

  10. Glycine-dependent activation of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kirstie A; Popescu, Gabriela K

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the only neurotransmitter receptors whose activation requires two distinct agonists. Heterotetramers of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, NMDA receptors are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they mediate excitatory currents in response to synaptic glutamate release. Pore opening depends on the concurrent presence of glycine, which modulates the amplitude and time course of the glutamate-elicited response. Gating schemes for fully glutamate- and glycine-bound NMDA receptors have been described in sufficient detail to bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic receptor behaviors; for several receptor isoforms, these schemes include glutamate-binding steps. We examined currents recorded from cell-attached patches containing one GluN1/GluN2A receptor in the presence of several glycine-site agonists and used kinetic modeling of these data to develop reaction schemes that include explicit glycine-binding steps. Based on the ability to match a series of experimentally observed macroscopic behaviors, we propose a model for activation of the glutamate-bound NMDA receptor by glycine that predicts apparent negative agonist cooperativity and glycine-dependent desensitization in the absence of changes in microscopic binding or desensitization rate constants. These results complete the basic steps of an NMDA receptor reaction scheme for the GluN1/GluN2A isoform and prompt a reevaluation of how glycine controls NMDA receptor activation. We anticipate that our model will provide a useful quantitative instrument to further probe mechanisms and structure-function relationships of NMDA receptors and to better understand the physiological and pathological implications of endogenous fluctuations in extracellular glycine concentrations. PMID:25964432

  11. Hypoxia activated cell signaling receptors in cancer

    E-print Network

    Lester, Robin D.

    2008-01-01

    prognosis in lymph node-positive breast cancer. Clin Cancerwith lymph node negative breast carcinoma. Cancer. 97:1573-lymph node metastasis in human melanoma xenografts by up-regulating the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Cancer

  12. Laminin Expression in Adult and Developing Retinae: Evidence of Two Novel CNS Laminins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Libby; Marie-France Champliaud; Thomas Claudepierre; Yin Xu; Erin P. Gibbons; Manuel Koch; Robert E. Burgeson; Dale D. Hunter; William J. Brunken

    2000-01-01

    Components of the extracellular matrix exert myriad effects on tissues throughout the body. In particular, the laminins, a family of heterotrimeric extracellular glycoproteins, have been shown to affect tissue development and integrity in such diverse organs as the kidney, lung, skin, and nervous system. Of these, we have focused on the roles that laminins play in the differentiation and maintenance

  13. A role for the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex as a transmembrane linker between laminin and actin

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex was tested for interaction with several components of the extracellular matrix as well as actin. The 156-kD dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (156-kD dystroglycan) specifically bound laminin in a calcium-dependent manner and was inhibited by NaCl (IC50 = 250 mM) but was not affected by 1,000-fold (wt/wt) excesses of lactose, IKVAV, or YIGSR peptides. Laminin binding was inhibited by heparin (IC50 = 100 micrograms/ml), suggesting that one of the heparin-binding domains of laminin is involved in binding dystroglycan while negatively charged oligosaccharide moieties on dystroglycan were found to be necessary for its laminin-binding activity. No interaction between any component of the dystrophin- glycoprotein complex and fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, entactin, or heparan sulfate proteoglycan was detected by 125I-protein overlay and/or extracellular matrix protein-Sepharose precipitation. In addition, laminin-Sepharose quantitatively precipitated purified dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, demonstrating that the laminin-binding site is accessible when dystroglycan is associated with the complex. Dystroglycan of nonmuscle tissues also bound laminin. However, the other proteins of the striated muscle dystrophin-glycoprotein complex appear to be absent, antigenically dissimilar or less tightly associated with dystroglycan in nonmuscle tissues. Finally, we show that the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex cosediments with F-actin but does not bind calcium or calmodulin. Our results support a role for the striated muscle dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in linking the actin- based cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, our results suggest that dystrophin and dystroglycan may play substantially different functional roles in nonmuscle tissues. PMID:8349731

  14. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  15. Antibodies to laminin in Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We have found that sera from humans with Chagas' disease and Rhesus monkeys infected with Trypanosoma cruzi contain IgM and IgG antibodies, which react with structures in a variety of connective tissues. These antibodies react with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components like collagen types I, III, IV, and V, fibronectin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, or chondronectin. The tissue-reacting antibodies were isolated by absorption to a laminin- Sepharose column. The bound fraction contained all the tissue-reacting antibodies. These antibodies strongly stained trypomastigotes and amastigotes, but weakly stained epimastigotes. These studies show that sera from T. cruzi-infected primates contain antilaminin antibodies, which may be produced by those host in response to a laminin-like molecule present in the parasite. PMID:6801186

  16. Roles for Laminin in Embryogenesis: Exencephaly, Syndactyly, and Placentopathy in Mice Lacking the Laminin a 5 Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey H. Miner; Jeanette Cunningham; Joshua R. Sanes

    Laminins are the major noncollagenous gly- coproteins of all basal laminae (BLs). They are a \\/ b \\/ g heterotrimers assembled from 10 known chains, and they subserve both structural and signaling roles. Previ- ously described mutations in laminin chain genes result in diverse disorders that are manifested postnatally and therefore provide little insight into laminin's roles in embryonic development.

  17. A Conformational Intermediate in Glutamate Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Albert Y.; Salazar, Héctor; Blachowicz, Lydia; Ghisi, Valentina; Plested, Andrew J.R.; Roux, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) transduce the chemical signal of neurotransmitter release into membrane depolarization at excitatory synapses in the brain. The opening of the transmembrane ion channel of these ligand-gated receptors is driven by conformational transitions that are induced by the association of glutamate molecules to the ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Here, we describe the crystal structure of a GluA2 LBD tetramer in a configuration that involves an ~30° rotation of the LBD dimers relative to the crystal structure of the full-length receptor. The configuration is stabilized by an engineered disulfide crosslink. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on full-length receptors incorporating either this crosslink or an engineered metal bridge show that this LBD configuration corresponds to an intermediate state of receptor activation. GluA2 activation therefore involves a combination of both intra-LBD (cleft closure) and inter-LBD dimer conformational transitions. Overall, these results provide a comprehensive structural characterization of an iGluR intermediate state. PMID:23931998

  18. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  19. Agonist activation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    How does an agonist activate a receptor? In this article I consider the activation process in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), a prototype for understanding the energetics of binding and gating in other ligand-gated ion channels. Just as movements that generate gating currents activate voltage-gated ion channels, movements at binding sites that generate an increase in affinity for the agonist activate ligand-gated ion channels. The main topics are: i) the schemes and intermediate states of AChR activation, ii) the energy changes of each of the steps, iii) the sources of the energies, iv) the three kinds of AChR agonist binding site and v) the correlations between binding and gating energies. The binding process is summarized as sketches of different conformations of an agonist site. The results suggest that agonists lower the free energy of the active conformation of the protein in stages by establishing favorable, local interactions at each binding site, independently. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25446670

  20. Activation of Trk neurotrophin receptors in the absence of neurotrophins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis S. Lee; Moses V. Chao

    2001-01-01

    Neurotrophins regulate neuronal cell survival and synaptic plasticity through activation of Trk receptor tyrosine kinases. Binding of neurotrophins to Trk receptors results in receptor autophosphorylation and downstream phosphorylation cascades. Here, we describe an approach to use small molecule agonists to transactivate Trk neurotrophin receptors. Activation of TrkA receptors in PC12 cells and TrkB in hippocampal neurons was observed after treatment

  1. Regulation of cellular interactions with laminin by integrin cytoplasmic domains: the A and B structural variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin differentially modulate the adhesive strength, morphology, and migration of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M

    1994-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits have structural variants that are identical in their extracellular and transmembrane domains but that differ in their cytoplasmic domains. The functional significance of these variants, however, is unknown. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the A and B variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin laminin receptor differ in function. For this purpose, we expressed the alpha 6A and alpha 6B cDNAs, as well as a truncated alpha 6 cDNA (alpha 6-delta CYT) in which the cytoplasmic domain sequence was deleted after the GFFKR pentapeptide, in P388D1 cells, an alpha 6 deficient macrophage cell line. Populations of stable alpha 6A, alpha 6B, and alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants that expressed equivalent levels of cell surface alpha 6 were obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorter and shown to form heterodimers with endogenous beta 1 subunits. Upon attachment to laminin, the alpha 6A transfectants extended numerous pseudopodia. In contrast, the alpha 6B transfectants remained rounded and extended few processes. The transfectants were also examined for their ability to migrate toward a laminin substratum using Transwell chambers. The alpha 6A transfectants were three- to fourfold more migratory than the alpha 6B transfectants. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants did not attach to laminin in normal culture medium, but they did attach in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants migrated to a lesser extent than either the alpha 6A or alpha 6B transfectants in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6 transfectants differed significantly in the concentration of substratum bound laminin required for half-maximal adhesion in the presence of Mn2+:alpha 6A (2.1 micrograms/ml), alpha 6B (6.3 micrograms/ml), and alpha 6-delta CYT (8.8 micrograms/ml). Divalent cation titration studies revealed that these transfectants also differed significantly in both the [Ca2+] and [Mn2+] required to obtain half-maximal adhesion to laminin. These data demonstrate that the A and B variants of the alpha 6 cytoplasmic domain can differentially modulate the function of the alpha 6 beta 1 extracellular domain. Images PMID:7949424

  2. Mouse Acetylcholinesterase Enhances Neurite Outgrowth of Rat R28 Cells Through Interaction With Laminin-1

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Laura E.; Klaczinski, Janine; Schütz, Corina; Rudolph, Lydia; Layer, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates synaptic transmission at cholinergic synapses by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, but can also exert ‘non-classical’, morpho-regulatory effects on developing neurons such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Here, we investigated the role of AChE binding to laminin-1 on the regulation of neurite outgrowth by using cell culture, immunocytochemistry, and molecular biological approaches. To explore the role of AChE, we examined fiber growth of cells overexpressing different forms of AChE, and/or during their growth on laminin-1. A significant increase of neuritic growth as compared with controls was observed for neurons over-expressing AChE. Accordingly, addition of globular AChE to the medium increased total length of neurites. Co-transfection with PRIMA, a membrane anchor of AChE, led to an increase in fiber length similar to AChE overexpressing cells. Transfection with an AChE mutant that leads to the retention of AChE within cells had no stimulatory effect on neurite length. Noticeably, the longest neurites were produced by neurons overexpressing AChE and growing on laminin-1, suggesting that the AChE/laminin interaction is involved in regulating neurite outgrowth. Our findings demonstrate that binding of AChE to laminin-1 alters AChE activity and leads to increased neurite growth in culture. A possible mechanism of the AChE effect on neurite outgrowth is proposed due to the interaction of AChE with laminin-1. PMID:22570738

  3. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  4. The Heterotrimeric Laminin Coiled-Coil Domain Exerts Anti-Adhesive Effects and Induces a Pro-Invasive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Valle, Patricia; Guijarro-Muñoz, Irene; Cuesta, Ángel M.; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Villate, Maider; Álvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz, Laura; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric cross-shaped extracellular matrix glycoproteins with terminal globular domains and a coiled-coil region through which the three chains are assembled and covalently linked. Laminins are key components of basement membranes, and they serve as attachment sites for cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In this work, we produced a recombinant fragment comprising the entire laminin coiled-coil of the ?1-, ?1-, and ?1-chains that assemble into a stable heterotrimeric coiled-coil structure independently of the rest of the molecule. This domain was biologically active and not only failed to serve as a substrate for cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation but also inhibited cell adhesion to laminin when added to cells in a soluble form at the time of seeding. Furthermore, gene array expression profiling in cells cultured in the presence of the laminin coiled-coil domain revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell motility and invasion. These findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and zymography assays. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the laminin coiled-coil domain displays anti-adhesive functions and has potential implications for cell migration during matrix remodeling. PMID:22723936

  5. The role of laminins in basement membrane function

    PubMed Central

    AUMAILLEY, MONIQUE; SMYTH, NEIL

    1998-01-01

    Laminins are a family of multifunctional macromolecules, ubiquitous in basement membranes, and represent the most abundant structural noncollagenous glycoproteins of these highly specialised extracellular matrices. Their discovery started with the difficult task of isolating molecules produced by cultivated cells or extracted from tissues. The development of molecular biology techniques has facilitated and accelerated the identification and the characterisation of new laminin variants making it feasible to identify full-length polypeptides which have not been purified. Further, genetically engineered laminin fragments can be generated for studies of their structure-function relationship, permitting the demonstration that laminins are involved in multiple interactions with themselves, with other components of the basal lamina, and with cells. It endows laminins with a central role in the formation, the architecture, and the stability of basement membranes. In addition, laminins may both separate and connect different tissues, i.e. the parenchymal and the interstitial connective tissues. Laminins also provide adjacent cells with a mechanical scaffold and biological information either directly by interacting with cell surface components, or indirectly by trapping growth factors. In doing so they trigger and control cellular functions. Recently, the structural and biological diversity of the laminins has started to be elucidated by gene targeting and by the identification of laminin defects in acquired or inherited human diseases. The consequent phenotypes highlight the pivotal role of laminins in determining heterogeneity in basement membrane functions. PMID:9758133

  6. Sarcospan integration into laminin-binding adhesion complexes that ameliorate muscular dystrophy requires utrophin and ?7 integrin.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jamie L; Oh, Jennifer; Chou, Eric; Lee, Joy A; Holmberg, Johan; Burkin, Dean J; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2015-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, a laminin receptor that connects the myofiber to its surrounding extracellular matrix. Utrophin, a dystrophin ortholog that is normally localized to the neuromuscular junction, is naturally upregulated in DMD muscle, which partially compensates for the loss of dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin causes broad sarcolemma localization of utrophin, restoration of laminin binding and amelioration of disease in the mdx mouse model of DMD. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of sarcospan, a dystrophin- and utrophin-binding protein, ameliorates mdx muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan boosts levels of utrophin to therapeutic levels at the sarcolemma, where attachment to laminin is restored. However, understanding the compensatory mechanism is complicated by concomitant upregulation of ?7?1 integrin, which also binds laminin. Similar to the effects of utrophin, transgenic overexpression of ?7 integrin prevents DMD disease in mice and is accompanied by increased abundance of utrophin around the extra-synaptic sarcolemma. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sarcospan 'rescue' of muscular dystrophy, we created double-knockout mice to test the contributions of utrophin or ?7 integrin. We show that sarcospan-mediated amelioration of muscular dystrophy in DMD mice is dependent on the presence of both utrophin and ?7?1 integrin, even when they are individually expressed at therapeutic levels. Furthermore, we found that association of sarcospan into laminin-binding complexes is dependent on utrophin and ?7?1 integrin. PMID:25504048

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (?, ?, ?, and ?). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPAR? and PPAR? agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPAR? agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  8. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, ?3, ?3 and ?2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  9. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, ?3, ?3 and ?2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  10. Protease-activated receptor 3 is a second thrombin receptor in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ishihara; Andrew J. Connolly; Dewan Zeng; Mark L. Kahn; Yao Wu Zheng; Courtney Timmons; Tracy Tram; Shaun R. Coughlin

    1997-01-01

    Thrombin is a coagulation protease that activates platelets, leukocytes, endothelial and mesenchymal cells at sites of vascular injury, acting partly through an unusual proteolytically activated G-protein-coupled receptor1-3. Knockout of the gene encoding this receptor provided definitive evidence for a second thrombin receptor in mouse platelets and for tissue-specific roles for different thrombin receptors4. We now report the cloning and characterization

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Regulates Airway Epithelial Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela C. C. Wang; Xinhua Dai; Bao Luu; Douglas J. Conrad

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone transcription factors that regulate genes as- sociated with lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR- ? may also act as a negative immunomodu- lator. To investigate the potential role of PPAR- ? in regulating airway inflammation, we characterized the expression and function of PPAR- ? in airway epithelial cells. Airway

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Receptor Activators Prevent Cardiac Fibrosis in Mineralocorticoid-Dependent Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Iglarz; Rhian M. Touyz; Emilie C. Viel; Pierre Paradis; Farhad Amiri; Quy N. Diep; Ernesto L. Schiffrin

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation may prevent cardiac hypertrophy and inhibit production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a hypertrophic agent. The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effects of PPAR activators on cardiac remodeling in DOCA-salt rats, a model overexpressing ET-1. Unilaterally nephrectomized 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (Uni-Nx) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control rats, DOCA-salt, DOCA-saltrosiglitazone (PPAR-

  13. The giant protein AHNAK involved in morphogenesis and laminin substrate adhesion of myelinating Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Salim, Claudio; Boxberg, Ysander V; Alterio, Jeanine; Féréol, Sophie; Nothias, Fatiha

    2009-04-01

    Within the nervous system, expression of the intriguing giant protein AHNAK had been reported so far only for blood-brain barrier forming vascular endothelium. In a screen for genes upregulated after spinal cord injury, we recently identified ahnak as being highly expressed by non-neuronal cells invading the lesion, delimiting the interior surface of cystic cavities in front of barrier-forming astrocytes. Here, we show for the first time that AHNAK is constitutively expressed in peripheral nervous system, notably by myelinating Schwann cells (SCs), in which we investigated its function. During sciatic nerve development, AHNAK is redistributed from adaxonal toward abaxonal SC compartments in contact with basement membrane. AHNAK labeling on myelinated fibers from adult nerve delineates the so-called "Cajal bands," constituting the residual peripheral SC cytoplasm. Its distribution pattern is complementary to that of periaxin, known to be involved in the myelination process. In vitro, nonconfluent cultured primary SCs seeded on laminin express high levels of AHNAK concentrated in their processes, whereas at confluence, AHNAK is downregulated together with laminin receptor dystroglycan. AHNAK silencing by siRNA interference affects SC morphology and laminin-substrate attachment, as well as expression and distribution of dystroglycan. Thus, our results clearly show the implication of AHNAK in SC adhesion to laminin, probably via targeting of the dystroglycan-associated receptor complex. These findings are of high interest regarding the importance of SC-basal lamina interactions for myelination and myelin maintenance, and open up new perspectives for investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying demyelinating neuropathies. PMID:18837049

  14. Inhibition of the Dihydrotestosterone-Activated Androgen Receptor by Nuclear Receptor Corepressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHINTA CHENG; SABRINA BRZOSTEK; SUZANNE R. LEE; ANTHONY N. HOLLENBERG; STEVEN P. BALK

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) mediates transcriptional repression by unliganded nuclear receptors and certain steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) bound to nonphysiological antagonists, but has not been found to regulate SHRs bound to their natural ligands. This report demonstrates that NCoR interacts directly with the androgen receptor (AR) and represses dihydrotestosterone-stimu- lated AR transcriptional activity. The NCoR C ter- minus, containing the

  15. Plant Immunity: The Origami of Receptor Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Schulze-Lefert

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in plant cytosolic HSP90 genes have been found to impair the immune responses triggered by host pathogen receptors. HSP90 links the plant receptors to other components essential for receptor function. The new findings suggest mechanistic parallels with steroid receptor regulation in animals.

  16. IP3 Receptors: Toward Understanding Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Colin W.; Tovey, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and their relatives, ryanodine receptors, are the channels that most often mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Their regulation by Ca2+ allows them also to propagate cytosolic Ca2+ signals regeneratively. This brief review addresses the structural basis of IP3R activation by IP3 and Ca2+. IP3 initiates IP3R activation by promoting Ca2+ binding to a stimulatory Ca2+-binding site, the identity of which is unresolved. We suggest that interactions of critical phosphate groups in IP3 with opposite sides of the clam-like IP3-binding core cause it to close and propagate a conformational change toward the pore via the adjacent N-terminal suppressor domain. The pore, assembled from the last pair of transmembrane domains and the intervening pore loop from each of the four IP3R subunits, forms a structure in which a luminal selectivity filter and a gate at the cytosolic end of the pore control cation fluxes through the IP3R. PMID:20980441

  17. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Assimakopoulou; Maria Kondyli; George Gatzounis; Theodore Maraziotis; John Varakis

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or

  18. Pronociceptive response elicited by TRPA1 receptor activation in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Andrade; A. P. Luiz; J. Ferreira; J. B. Calixto

    2008-01-01

    Ankyrin-repeat transient receptor potential 1 (TRPA1) is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and it is found in sensory neurons. In the present study, we found that TRPA1 receptor activation with allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde caused dose-dependent spontaneous nociception when injected into the mouse hind paw. Very similar results were obtained when stimulating transient receptor potential

  19. Activation of neurotensin receptor type 1 attenuates locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Vadnie, Chelsea A; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF-81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of laminin expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anupriya, S; Mahesh, Pushpalatha; Sharada, P; Swaminathan, Uma; Nagamalini, BR; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study aims at the observation of the immunohistochemical expression of laminin in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of salivary gland origin and to analyze the distribution of laminin in various components of the tumor and correlate the expression of laminin with the growth and differentiation of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of ACC were subjected to immunohistochemical study using polyclonal antihuman laminin primary antibody, distribution of laminin in each case of ACC was observed in the following areas: Intracellularly, inner borders of the pseudocystic spaces, within the lumen of the pseudocysts, around the tumor islands and in the intervening stroma. Results: Laminin positivity was observed in the inner aspect of the pseudocystic spaces in 15 cases, within the lumen of pseudocystic spaces in 22 cases, in the intervening stroma in 20 cases, bordering the tumor islands in 16 cases and intracellularly in 4 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: Based on these observations, it can be assumed that laminin plays a major role in proliferation of the tumor cells and in pseudocyst formation. Thus, laminin might play a significant role in the growth and differentiation of ACC and also help in assessing the prognosis of the tumor. PMID:25364175

  1. Arrestin2 modulates androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Purayil, H T; Zhang, Y; Dey, A; Gersey, Z; Espana-Serrano, L; Daaka, Y

    2015-06-11

    Androgen receptor (AR) has a pivotal role in the growth and survival of prostate cancer (PCa). Arrestin2 (Arr2) is a ubiquitous scaffolding/adaptor protein first characterized as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. In this study, we report that Arr2 additionally functions as a positive regulator of AR expression and function in PCa cells. Expression level of Arr2 correlates with that of AR, and knockdown of Arr2 inhibits the expression of AR and its effectors prostate-specific antigen, transmembrane protease serine 2, FK506-binding protein 51 and fatty acid synthase. Mechanistically, the knockdown of Arr2 attenuates the binding of AR to androgen response elements and consequently decreases transcription of AR-regulated genes. The inhibition of AR by Arr2 knockdown occurs in both androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) cells, although the effect is more prominent in CRPC. Arr2 knockdown inhibits the in vitro CRPC cell proliferation, prostasphere growth and invasion, as well as the in vivo prostate tumor formation, local invasion and distant metastasis. These results illustrate a new role for Arr2 in the expression and activation of AR and its potential relevance as a target for therapeutic intervention and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:25109335

  2. The Effect of Laminin-1-Doped Nanoroughened Implant Surfaces: Gene Expression and Morphological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Bougas, Kostas; Coelho, Paulo G.; Xue, Ying; Hayashi, Mariko; Faeda, Rafael Silveira; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici; Ono, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Mustafa, Kamal; Wennerberg, Ann; Jimbo, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to observe the morphological and molecular effect of laminin-1 doping to nanostructured implant surfaces in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods. Nanostructured implants were coated with laminin-1 (test; dilution, 100??g/mL) and inserted into the rabbit tibiae. Noncoated implants were used as controls. After 2 weeks of healing, the implants were removed and subjected to morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression analysis using the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. SEM revealed bony tissue attachment for both control and test implants. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of osteoblast markers RUNX-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I was higher (1.62-fold, 1.53-fold, 1.97-fold, and 1.04-fold, resp.) for the implants modified by laminin-1 relative to the control. All osteoclast markers investigated in the study presented higher expression on the test implants than controls as follows: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (1.67-fold), calcitonin receptor (1.35-fold), and ATPase (1.25-fold). The test implants demonstrated higher expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-10 (1.53-fold) and tumour necrosis factor-? (1.61-fold) relative to controls. Conclusion. The protein-doped surface showed higher gene expression of typical genes involved in the osseointegration cascade than the control surface. PMID:23304151

  3. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

  4. Local Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation Decreases Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tânia C. Chicre-Alcântara; Karla E. Torres-Chávez; Luana Fischer; Juliana T. Clemente-Napimoga; Vilma Melo; Carlos Amílcar Parada; Claudia Herrera Tambeli

    In an attempt to decrease central side effects associated with the use of opioids, some strategies have been developed by\\u000a targeting peripheral opioid receptors. In this context, kappa receptors are of major interest, since, in contrast to other\\u000a opioid receptors, their activation is not associated with potent peripheral side effects. We have recently demonstrated that\\u000a local activation of kappa opioid

  5. Sigma Receptors Suppress Multiple Aspects of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hall Aaron, A.; Yelenis, Herrera; Ajmo Craig, T.; Javier, Cuevas; Pennypacker Keith, R.

    2009-01-01

    During brain injury, microglia become activated and migrate to areas of degenerating neurons. These microglia release pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species causing additional neuronal death. Microglia express high levels of sigma receptors, however, the function of these receptors in microglia and how they may affect the activation of these cells remain poorly understood. Using primary rat microglial cultures, it was found that sigma receptor activation suppresses the ability of microglia to rearrange their actin cytoskeleton, migrate, and release cytokines in response to the activators adenosine triphosphate (ATP), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Next, the role of sigma receptors in the regulation of calcium signaling during microglial activation was explored. Calcium fluorometry experiments in vitro show that stimulation of sigma receptors suppressed both transient and sustained intracellular calcium elevations associated with the microglial response to these activators. Further experiments showed that sigma receptors suppress microglial activation by interfering with increases in intracellular calcium. In addition, sigma receptor activation also prevented membrane ruffling in a calcium-independent manner, indicating that sigma receptors regulate the function of microglia via multiple mechanisms. PMID:19031439

  6. Original article Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in liver and skeletal muscle Group, Clermont-Ferrand, 25-27 May 1988) Summary ― Insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor have been measu- red in the liver and muscles of rats fed or submitted to a 72-h

  7. Protease activated receptors in cardiovascular function and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junor A. Barnes; Shamjeet Singh; Aldrin V. Gomes

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a novel class of protease activated receptors (PARs), which are composed of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled domains, are activated by serine proteases such as thrombin, trypsin and tryptase. Although four types (PAR 1, PAR 2, PAR 3 and PAR 4) of this class of receptors have been identified, their discrete physiological and pathological roles are

  8. Defining the Interaction of the Treponema pallidum Adhesin Tp0751 with Laminin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. Cameron; Nathan L. Brouwer; Lisa M. Tisch; Janelle M. Y. Kuroiwa

    2005-01-01

    Various invasive pathogens attach to host tissues via the extracellular matrix component laminin, the major glycoprotein found within basement membranes. Previous investigations identified the laminin-binding adhe- sin Tp0751 within the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. In the current study, Tp0751 was shown to attach to a variety of laminin isoforms that are widely distributed throughout the host, including laminins 1, 2,

  9. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Potential for modulation of inflammatory disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. O'Sullivan; D. A. Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids act via cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the ion channel receptor TRPV1. Evidence has now emerged suggesting that an additional target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. There are three PPAR subtypes ?, ? (also known as ?) and ?, which regulate cell differentiation, metabolism and immune function. The major endocannabinoids,

  10. Active Nuclear Receptors Exhibit Highly Correlated AF-2 Domain Motions

    PubMed Central

    Teotico, Denise G.; Frazier, Monica L.; Ding, Feng; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBDs) convert ligand binding events into changes in gene expression by recruiting transcriptional coregulators to a conserved activation function-2 (AF-2) surface. While most nuclear receptor LBDs form homo- or heterodimers, the human nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) forms a unique and essential homodimer and is proposed to assemble into a functional heterotetramer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). How the homodimer interface, which is located 30 Å from the AF-2, would affect function at this critical surface has remained unclear. By using 20- to 30-ns molecular dynamics simulations on PXR in various oligomerization states, we observed a remarkably high degree of correlated motion in the PXR–RXR heterotetramer, most notably in the four helices that create the AF-2 domain. The function of such correlation may be to create “active-capable” receptor complexes that are ready to bind to transcriptional coactivators. Indeed, we found in additional simulations that active-capable receptor complexes involving other orphan or steroid nuclear receptors also exhibit highly correlated AF-2 domain motions. We further propose a mechanism for the transmission of long-range motions through the nuclear receptor LBD to the AF-2 surface. Taken together, our findings indicate that long-range motions within the LBD scaffold are critical to nuclear receptor function by promoting a mobile AF-2 state ready to bind coactivators. PMID:18617990

  11. Two non-contiguous regions contribute to nidogen binding to a single EGF-like motif of the laminin gamma 1 chain.

    PubMed Central

    Pöschl, E; Fox, J W; Block, D; Mayer, U; Timpl, R

    1994-01-01

    High affinity binding of nidogen to laminin is mediated by an EGF-like repeat gamma 1III4 of the mouse laminin gamma 1 chain and has now been restricted to two short noncontiguous regions of its 56 residue sequence by use of synthetic peptides and recombinant mutants. Disulfide loop a,b of the repeat and a modified loop a,c could completely inhibit binding, with a 5000-fold or 300-fold reduced affinity respectively. Synthetic loops c and d lacked inhibitory activity. Some binding contribution of Tyr819 in loop c was, however, shown by mutation and side chain modification. Together with studies of loop chimeras, this indicated a distinct cooperativity between the two binding sites. The major binding site of loop a was localized to the heptapeptide NIDPNAV (position 798-804). A change of Asp800 to Asn or Ala803 to Val caused a strong reduction in binding activity, while only small effects were observed for the changes Pro801 to Gln and Ile799 to Val. The latter replacement corresponds to the single substitution found in the same region of the Drosophila laminin gamma 1 chain. However, the changes Asn802 to Ser or Val804 to Ser, both known to exist in the laminin gamma 2 chain, were deleterious mutations. This demonstrated conservation of binding structures in laminins of distantly related species, but not between homologous chains of laminin isoforms. Images PMID:8070402

  12. Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

  13. Regulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor mRNA Expression by Activation of Homologous and Heterologous Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth A. Habecker; Neil M. Nathanson

    1992-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the embryonic chicken heart undergo agonist-induced internalization and a subsequent decrease in receptor number (downregulation). Cloning studies have identified two subtypes of mAChR expressed in the embryonic chicken heart, the cm2 and cm4 receptors. We report here that persistent activation of the mAChR in cultured chicken heart cells with the cholinergic agonist carbachol causes significant

  14. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Michigan-Med)

    2011-11-17

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  15. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cação-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  16. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cação-Benedini, L.O.; Ribeiro, P.G.; Prado, C.M.; Chesca, D.L.; Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  17. Vitamin D receptor activation: cardiovascular and renal implications

    PubMed Central

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Thadhani, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of vitamin D receptor activation on cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension and cardiac dysfunction, are areas of active investigation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about vitamin D receptor activation with respect to blood pressure, heart, and vascular health, as well as to chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Potential biological mechanisms, the role of vitamin D-binding protein, and data from observational and randomized controlled trials on this topic are summarized. PMID:25019025

  18. Contacts between membrane proximal regions of the PDGF receptor ectodomain are required for receptor activation but not for receptor dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Yuzawa, Satoru; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of PDGF-receptor ? (PDGFR?) activation was explored by analyzing the properties of mutant receptors designed based on the crystal structure of the extracellular region of the related receptor tyrosine kinase KIT/stem cell factor receptor. Here, we demonstrate that PDGF-induced activation of a PDGFR? mutated in Arg-385 or Glu-390 in D4 (the fourth Ig-like domain of the extracellular region) was compromised, resulting in impairment of a variety of PDGF-induced cellular responses. These experiments demonstrate that homotypic D4 interactions probably mediated by salt bridges between Arg-385 and Glu-390 play an important role in activation of PDGFR? and all type III receptor tyrosine kinases. We also used a chemical cross-linking agent to covalently cross-link PDGF-stimulated cells to demonstrate that a Glu390Ala mutant of PDGFR? undergoes typical PDGF-induced receptor dimerization. However, unlike WT PDGFR that is expressed on the surface of ligand-stimulated cells in an active state, PDGF-induced Glu390Ala dimers are inactive. Although the conserved amino acids that are required for mediating D4 homotypic interactions are crucial for PDGFR? activation, these interactions are dispensable for PDGFR? dimerization. Moreover, PDGFR? dimerization is necessary but not sufficient for tyrosine kinase activation. PMID:18505839

  19. LAMININ2\\/4 FROM HUMAN PLACENTA IS A BETTER ADHESION AGENT FOR PRIMARY KERATINOCYTES THAN LAMININ1 FROM EHS SARCOMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Gorelik; O. A. Cherepanova; I. V. Voronkina; I. A. Diakonov; M. I. Blinova; G. P. Pinaev

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of the adhesion of human primary keratinocytes to laminin-1 from murine EHS sarcoma and laminin-2\\/4 from human placenta was carried out using two methods, cell adhesion to substrates covered with the laminin isoforms, and interaction of keratinocytes from suspension with latex beads coated with the proteins. Laminin-2\\/4 was considerably more potent as a promoter of attachment of primary

  20. Interplay of protease-activated receptors and NOD pattern recognition receptors in epithelial innate immune responses to bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whasun O. Chung; Jonathan Y. An; Lei Yin; Beth M. Hacker; Maryam G. Rohani; Henrik Dommisch; Dennis H. DiJulio

    2010-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in innate immunity, but little is known about interaction between these receptors. The goal of this study was to investigate how silencing one receptor affects the expression of other receptors and downstream innate immune markers in response to bacteria. Human gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were

  1. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  2. Review article Insulin receptor : tyrosine kinase activity and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Insulin receptor : tyrosine kinase activity and insulin action R. Ballotti, Y. Le; The first step in insulin action consists in binding of the hormone to specific cell sur- face receptors enzymic function is essential for generation of the metabolic and growth-promoting effects of insulin

  3. The growth hormone receptor: mechanism of activation and clinical implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Waters; Andrew J. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone is widely used clinically to promote growth and anabolism and for other purposes. Its actions are mediated via the growth hormone receptor, both directly by tyrosine kinase activation and indirectly by induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Insensitivity to growth hormone (Laron syndrome) can result from mutations in the growth hormone receptor and can be treated with

  4. Activities of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate neurotransmission and synaptic architecture

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Akira; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in a broad spectrum of brain function, and its failure has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Acetylcholine transduces signals through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which influence synaptic plasticity and cognition. However, the mechanisms that relate the rapid gating of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to persistent changes in brain function have remained elusive. Recent evidence indicates that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activities affect synaptic morphology and density, which result in persistent rearrangements of neural connectivity. Further investigations of the relationships between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and rearrangements of neural circuitry in the central nervous system may help understand the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25657733

  5. {beta}2-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms and Signaling: Do Variants Influence the "Memory" of Receptor Activation?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul A. Insel (University of California at San Diego; Departments of Pharmacology and Medicine REV)

    2011-08-09

    Nonsynonymous, coding sequence single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ?2-adrenergic receptors were first recognized almost 20 years ago, but a full understanding of their impact on signal transduction—especially on receptor abundance in native cells and their clinical importance—remains unclear. New evidence has revealed a feature of the Arg16Gly variant of ?2-adrenergic receptors that has not been previously noted: a difference in the rate of response upon repeated stimulation of the receptors, such that the Arg16 variant shows slower activation and the Gly16 variant faster activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation—a feature that the authors term “receptor memory.” This is an intriguing idea but will require confirmation and demonstration of its functional importance in vivo and its possible contribution to clinical responses, especially in terms of the administration of ?2-adrenergic agonists.

  6. Differential effects on bone of estrogen receptor and androgen receptor activation in orchidectomized adult male mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Movérare; Katrien Venken; Anna-Lena Eriksson; Niklas Andersson; Stanko Skrtic; Jon Wergedal; Subburaman Mohan; Phil Salmon; Roger Bouillon; Jan-Åke Gustafsson; Dirk Vanderschueren; Claes Ohlsson

    2003-01-01

    Androgens may regulate the male skeleton either directly by stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly by aromatization of androgens into estrogens and, thereafter, by stimulation of the estrogen receptors (ERs). To directly compare the effect of ER activation on bone in vivo with the effect of AR activation, 9-month-old orchidectomized wild-type and ER-inactivated mice were treated with the

  7. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and G?s-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both G?s and G?12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  8. Activation of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Increases Striatin Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luminita H. Pojoga; Patricia Coutinho; Alicia Rivera; Tham M. Yao; Enrique R. Maldonado; Rodeler Youte; Gail K. Adler; Jonathan Williams; Alexander Turchin; Gordon H. Williams; Jose R. Romero

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundAldosterone (ALDO), a critical regulator of sodium homeostasis, mediates its effects via activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) through mechanisms that are not entirely clear. Striatin, a membrane associated protein, interacts with estrogen receptors in endothelial cells.MethodsWe studied the effects of MR activation in vitro and in vivo on striatin levels in vascular tissue.ResultsWe observed that dietary sodium restriction was

  9. Insights into the activation mechanism of the visual receptor rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven O

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in the structural biology of GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) have provided insights into their structure and function. Comparisons of the visual and ligand-activated receptors highlight the unique elements of rhodopsin that allow it to function as a highly sensitive dim-light photoreceptor in vertebrates, as well as the common elements that it shares with the large class A GPCR family. However, despite progress, a number of questions remain unanswered about how these receptors are activated. PMID:22435817

  10. M5 receptor activation produces opposing physiological outcomes in dopamine neurons depending on the receptor's location.

    PubMed

    Foster, Daniel J; Gentry, Patrick R; Lizardi-Ortiz, Jose E; Bridges, Thomas M; Wood, Michael R; Niswender, Colleen M; Sulzer, David; Lindsley, Craig W; Xiang, Zixiu; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2014-02-26

    Of the five muscarinic receptor subtypes, the M5 receptor is the only one detectable in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, making it an attractive potential therapeutic target for treating disorders in which dopaminergic signaling is disrupted. However, developing an understanding of the role of M5 in regulating midbrain dopamine neuron function has been hampered by a lack of subtype-selective compounds. Here, we extensively characterize the novel compound VU0238429 and demonstrate that it acts as a positive allosteric modulator with unprecedented selectivity for the M5 receptor. We then used VU0238429, along with M5 knock-out mice, to elucidate the role of this receptor in regulating substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neuron physiology in both mice and rats. In sagittal brain slices that isolate the SNc soma from their striatal terminals, activation of muscarinic receptors induced Ca2+ mobilization and inward currents in SNc dopamine neurons, both of which were potentiated by VU0238429 and absent in M5 knock-out mice. Activation of M5 also increased the spontaneous firing rate of SNc neurons, suggesting that activation of somatodendritic M5 increases the intrinsic excitability of SNc neurons. However, in coronal slices of the striatum, potentiation of M5 with VU0238429 resulted in an inhibition in dopamine release as monitored with fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Accordingly, activation of M5 can lead to opposing physiological outcomes depending on the location of the receptor. Although activation of somatodendritic M5 receptors on SNc neurons leads to increased neuronal firing, activation of M5 receptors in the striatum induces an inhibition in dopamine release. PMID:24573284

  11. AT1-receptor heterodimers show enhanced G-protein activation and altered receptor sequestration.

    PubMed

    AbdAlla, S; Lother, H; Quitterer, U

    2000-09-01

    The vasopressor angiotensin II regulates vascular contractility and blood pressure through binding to type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1; refs 1, 2). Bradykinin, a vasodepressor, is a functional antagonist of angiotensin II (ref. 3). The two hormone systems are interconnected by the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which releases angiotensin II from its precursor and inactivates the vasodepressor bradykinin. Here we show that the AT1 receptor and the bradykinin (B2) receptor also communicate directly with each other. They form stable heterodimers, causing increased activation of G alpha(q) and G alpha(i) proteins, the two major signalling proteins triggered by AT1. Furthermore, the endocytotic pathway of both receptors changed with heterodimerization. This is the first example of signal enhancement triggered by heterodimerization of two different vasoactive hormone receptors. PMID:10993080

  12. Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to ?v?3 integrin, but was moderate to weak with ?v?5, ?v?6, ?2?1, and ?6?1. Interestingly, the inhibition of r-Cam-dis on pancreatic cancer cell lines adhesion to laminin-1 was more effective than that to vitronectin. Based on our binding results to integrin receptors and previous adhesion studies using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, it is suggested that r-Cam-dis could be inhibiting adhesion of pancreatic cancer cell lines through integrins ?2?1, ?6?1, ?v?5, and ?v?6.

  13. Understanding Cytokine and Growth Factor Receptor Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Mariya; Whitty, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the detailed mechanism of action of cytokine and growth factor receptors – and particularly our quantitative understanding of the link between structure, mechanism and function – lags significantly behind our knowledge of comparable functional protein classes such as enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors, and ion channels. In particular, it remains controversial whether such receptors are activated by a mechanism of ligand-induced oligomerization, versus a mechanism in which the ligand binds to a pre-associated receptor dimer or oligomer that becomes activated through subsequent conformational rearrangement. A major limitation to progress has been the relative paucity of methods for performing quantitative mechanistic experiments on unmodified receptors expressed at endogenous levels on live cells. In this article we review the current state of knowledge on the activation mechanisms of cytokine and growth factor receptors, critically evaluate the evidence for and against the different proposed mechanisms, and highlight other key questions that remain unanswered. New approaches and techniques have led to rapid recent progress in this area, and the field is poised for major advances in the coming years, which promises to revolutionize our understanding of this large and biologically and medically important class of receptors. PMID:23046381

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activates Human Macrophage Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Linking Mannose Receptor Recognition to Regulation of Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Brooks, Michelle N.; Morris, Jessica D.; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Azad, Abul K.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances its survival in macrophages by suppressing immune responses in part through its complex cell wall structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a nuclear receptor superfamily member, is a transcriptional factor that regulates inflammation and has high expression in alternatively activated alveolar macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells, both cell types relevant to tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we show that virulent M. tuberculosis and its cell wall mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan induce PPAR? expression through a macrophage mannose receptor-dependent pathway. When activated, PPAR? promotes IL-8 and cyclooxygenase 2 expression, a process modulated by a PPAR? agonist or antagonist. Upstream, MAPK-p38 mediates cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation, which is required for PPAR? ligand production. The induced IL-8 response mediated by mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan and the mannose receptor is independent of TLR2 and NF-?B activation. In contrast, the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin induces less PPAR? and preferentially uses the NF-?B–mediated pathway to induce IL-8 production. Finally, PPAR? knockdown in human macrophages enhances TNF production and controls the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. These data identify a new molecular pathway that links engagement of the mannose receptor, an important pattern recognition receptor for M. tuberculosis, with PPAR? activation, which regulates the macrophage inflammatory response, thereby playing a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:20554962

  15. Functions of the extracellular histidine residues of receptor activity-modifying proteins vary within adrenomedullin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)], E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka [Circulation and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2008-12-05

    Receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP)-2 and -3 chaperone calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane, where together they form heterodimeric adrenomedullin (AM) receptors. We investigated the contributions made by His residues situated in the RAMP extracellular domain to AM receptor trafficking and receptor signaling by co-expressing hCRLR and V5-tagged-hRAMP2 or -3 mutants in which a His residue was substituted with Ala in HEK-293 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that hRAMP2-H71A mediated normal hCRLR surface delivery, but the resultant heterodimers showed significantly diminished [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-evoked cAMP production. Expression of hRAMP2-H124A and -H127A impaired surface delivery of hCRLR, which impaired or abolishing AM binding and receptor signaling. Although hRAMP3-H97A mediated full surface delivery of hCRLR, the resultant heterodimers showed impaired AM binding and signaling. Other His residues appeared uninvolved in hCRLR-related functions. Thus, the His residues of hRAMP2 and -3 differentially govern AM receptor function.

  16. Gene expression analysis of laminin-1-induced neurite outgrowth in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mruthyunjaya, S; Parveen, D; Shah, Reecha D; Manchanda, Rumma; Godbole, Ravibhushan; Vasudevan, Madavan; Shastry, Padma

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying the differentiation of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward neuronal cell type are not clearly understood. Earlier, we reported that laminin-1 induces neurite outgrowth in human MSCs via c-Jun/AP-1 activation through ERK, JNK, and Akt pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-1 increases the expression of proneural gene, neuroD1 and induces the expression of immediate-early biomarkers of neuronal cell-programming-Egr1, Egr3, PC3, and PC4. Gene expression profiling of MSCs cultured on laminin-1 and Poly-l-lysine for 12 h revealed differential regulation of 267 genes (>1.5 fold, p < 0.05), predominantly in the category of nervous system development and affected the pathways involved in TGF-?/TNF-? signaling, regulation of MAPK and JNK cascade. Data for 11 selected genes related to nervous system development was validated by real time PCR. Transcriptional regulatory network analysis revealed c-Jun as the key transcription factor regulating majority of differentially expressed genes and identified Disrupted in schizophrenia 1, as a novel target of c-Jun. Modeling and analysis of biological network showed selective induction of Growth Arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45B) and repression of NF-?B inhibitor A (NF?BIA). Collectively, our findings provide the basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with laminin-1-induced neurogenic expression in MSCs. PMID:24866321

  17. Androgen receptor non-nuclear regulation of prostate cancer cell invasion mediated by Src and matriptase

    PubMed Central

    Zarif, Jelani C.; Lamb, Laura E.; Schulz, Veronique S.; Nollet, Eric A.; Miranti, Cindy K.

    2015-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancers still depend on nuclear androgen receptor (AR) function despite their lack of dependence on exogenous androgen. Second generation anti-androgen therapies are more efficient at blocking nuclear AR; however resistant tumors still develop. Recent studies indicate Src is highly active in these resistant tumors. By manipulating AR activity in several different prostate cancer cell lines through RNAi, drug treatment, and the use of a nuclear-deficient AR mutant, we demonstrate that androgen acting on cytoplasmic AR rapidly stimulates Src tyrosine kinase via a non-genomic mechanism. Cytoplasmic AR, acting through Src enhances laminin integrin-dependent invasion. Active Matriptase, which cleaves laminin, is elevated within minutes after androgen stimulation, and is subsequently shed into the medium. Matriptase activation and shedding induced by cytoplasmic AR is dependent on Src. Concomitantly, CDCP1/gp140, a Matriptase and Src substrate that controls integrin-based migration, is activated. However, only inhibition of Matriptase, but not CDCP1, suppresses the AR/Src-dependent increase in invasion. Matriptase, present in conditioned medium from AR-stimulated cells, is sufficient to enhance invasion in the absence of androgen. Thus, invasion is stimulated by a rapid but sustained increase in Src activity, mediated non-genomically by cytoplasmic AR, leading to rapid activation and shedding of the laminin protease Matriptase. PMID:25730905

  18. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid–Activated Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X. Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H. Eric

    2008-01-01

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 Å crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix ?10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation. PMID:18798693

  19. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  20. Laminin-111: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goudenege, Sébastien; Lamarre, Yann; Dumont, Nicolas; Rousseau, Joël; Frenette, Jérôme; Skuk, Daniel; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) still needs effective treatments, and myoblast transplantation (MT) is considered as an approach to repair damaged skeletal muscles. DMD is due to the complete loss of dystrophin from muscles. The lack of link between the contracting apparatus and the extracellular matrix leads to frequent damage to the sarcolemma triggering muscle fiber necrosis. Laminins are major proteins in the extracellular matrix. Laminin-111 is normally present in skeletal and cardiac muscles in mice and humans but only during embryonic development. In this study, we showed that intramuscular injection of laminin-111 increased muscle strength and resistance in mdx mice. We also used laminin-111 as a coadjuvant in MT, and we showed this protein decreased considerably the repetitive cycles of degeneration, inflammatory reaction, and regeneration. Moreover, MT is significantly improved. To explain the improvement, we confirmed with the same myoblast cell batch that laminin-111 improves proliferation and drastically increases migration in vitro. These results are extremely important because DMD could be treated only by the injection of a recombinant protein, a simple and safe therapy to prevent loss of muscle function. Moreover, the improvement in MT would be significant to treat the muscles of DMD patients who are already weak. PMID:20683444

  1. Proteinase-activated receptors in the nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farshid Noorbakhsh; Nathalie Vergnolle; Morley D. Hollenberg; Christopher Power

    2003-01-01

    Recent data point to important roles for proteinases and their cognate proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in the ontogeny and pathophysiology of the nervous system. PARs are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that can affect neural cell proliferation, morphology and physiology. PARs also have important roles in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia, Alzheimer's disease and pain. These

  2. Kinetic deuterium isotope effects in glucocorticoid receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranyi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Activation and deactivation of the chick thymus glucocorticoid receptor protein was studied in ordinary and heavy water by DNA-cellulose binding of the tritiated triamcinolone acetonide-receptor complex. Activation was significantly slower in heavy water if it was promoted by incubation at elevated temperature in buffers of low ionic strength. In the presence of 300 mM KC1 or after separation from the low molecular weight cytosol constituents, the complex was activated at the same rate in both solvents. Deactivation (time dependent loss of DNA-binding capacity) was much faster in ordinary than in heavy water regardless of gel filtration or the presence of KC1. A model of receptor activation-deactivation was constructed on the basis of these data that accounts for the observed kinetic deuterium isotope effects and reveals some submolecular details of the process.

  3. Glycine Receptor ?2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Ariel; Vidal, Pía M.; Dear, T. Neil; Harvey, Robert J.; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Nguyen, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the ?2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR ?2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis. PMID:23954789

  4. Adenosine A1 Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phospholipase C in Cultured Astrocytes Depends on the Level of Receptor Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Biber; Karl-Norbert Klotz; Mathias Berger; Peter J. Gebicke-Harter; Dietrich van Calker

    1997-01-01

    Adenosine A1 receptors induce an inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via G-proteins of the Gi\\/o family. In addition, simultaneous stimulation of A1 receptors and of receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) results in a synergistic potentiation of PLC activity. Evidence has accumulated that Gbg subunits mediate this potentiating effect. However, an A1 receptor- mediated increase in extracellular glutamate was suggested to

  5. Profiling receptor tyrosine kinase activation by using Ab microarrays

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    lysates. Ab microarrays are an extension of DNA microarrays. In both cases, ratiometric comparisonsProfiling receptor tyrosine kinase activation by using Ab microarrays Ulrik B. Nielsen* , Mike H to measure the amounts and activ- ities of multiple proteins in a rapid and accurate manner. Ab microarrays

  6. Migration by haptotaxis of a Schwann cell tumor line to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Laminin is a large (greater than 850-kdalton) glycoprotein that is localized within basement membranes. Recent work has indicated that this protein is present within the endoneurium of mouse sciatic nerve. Furthermore, it has been shown that a rat Schwannoma cell line, RN22F, produced laminin and that laminin promoted the attachment of these cells to bacterial plastic. This report presents evidence that RN22F cells migrate in vitro to laminin in a concentration-dependent fashion. Laminin was extracted from the mouse EHS tumor and purified by molecular sieve and heparin-agarose affinity chromatography. The migration of Schwannoma cells to laminin, as assessed in a microwell modified Boyden chamber, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by affinity-purified antilaminin antibody. Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard analysis experiments indicated that laminin stimulated both random and directed movement of RN22F cells. Additionally, reversal of the laminin gradient in the chambers also stimulated RN22F migration in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that directed migration of RN22F cells was due to a substratum-bound laminin (haptotaxis) as opposed to cell movement in response to fluid-phase laminin (chemotaxis). Binding studies using [3H]laminin demonstrated that laminin bound to the filter surface under the assay conditions used, and support the contention that cells are migrating to substrate-bound material. Furthermore, RN22F cells were shown to migrate on filters coated with laminin in the absence of additional fluid-phase laminin. The magnitude of this response could be altered by changing the relative density of bound laminin. In contrast, fibronectin promoted only marginal migration of RN22F cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that haptotaxis may be a mechanism by which laminin may guide cells during development and raise the possibility that it may be involved in peripheral nervous system myelination. PMID:6885918

  7. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  8. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoic acid receptors (RXRs) in rat cortical neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cimini; E. Benedetti; L. Cristiano; P. Sebastiani; M. A. D'amico; B. D'angelo; S. Di Loreto

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation is a complex process involving the sequential expression of several factors. The important role of lipid molecules in brain development is well known. Many fatty acid cell signaling activities are mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the steroid, thyroid and retinoid nuclear receptor superfamily. They are activated by fatty acids and

  9. Activation of Xenobiotic Receptors: Driving into the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haishan; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Xenobiotic receptors (XRs) play pivotal roles in regulating the expression of genes that determine the clearance and detoxification of xenobiotics, such as drugs and environmental chemicals. Recently, it has become increasingly evident that most XRs shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus, and activation of such receptors is directly associated with xenobiotic-induced nuclear import. Areas covered in this review The scope of this review covers research literature that discusses nuclear translocation and activation of XRs, as well as unpublished data generated from this laboratory. Specific emphasis is given to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. What the readers will gain A number of molecular chaperons presumably associated with cellular localization of XRs have been identified. Primary hepatocyte cultures have been established as a unique model retaining inactive CAR in the cytoplasm. Moreover, several splicing variants of human CAR exhibit altered cellular localization and chemical activation. Take home message Nuclear accumulation is an essential step in the activation of XRs. Although great strides have been made, much remains to be understood concerning the mechanisms underlying intracellular localization and trafficking of XRs, which involve both direct ligand-binding and indirect pathways. PMID:20113149

  10. Chlorotriazines do not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the oestrogen receptor or the thyroid receptor in in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Navas, José M; Fernández-Cruz, María L

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine, prometryn, propazine and simazine are chlorotriazines that are commonly employed as herbicides. However, their use is a major cause of concern, due to their reported endocrine disrupting effects in different taxa. Data from studies on the molecular and cellular processes underlying the hormonal action of these substances are contradictory. The ability of these chlorotriazines and the atrazine metabolites, desethyl-s-chlorotriazine and desisopropyl-s-chlorotriazine, to trigger responses mediated by the oestrogen receptor (ER), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thyroid receptor (TR), was studied by using in vitro approaches. Transcriptional activation assays were applied to observe the activation of ER and TR. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the RTG-2 cell line served as an indicator of AhR activation. No responses were found in any of the assays, with any of the six chlorotriazines tested. Our observations indicate that the chlorotriazines tested are unlikely to cause their endocrine effects via these receptors. PMID:24773485

  11. Toll-like receptors: Activation, signalling and transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Dominic

    2015-08-01

    Families of innate immune receptors serve as the bodies primary defence system by recognising and rapidly responding to infection by microorganisms or to endogenous danger signals and initiating inflammatory processes. Whilst Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family to be discovered, important and exciting discoveries continue to emerge into the molecular mechanisms that control their activation and regulation. Herein, I will provide an overview of TLR activation and their downstream signalling cascades, and discuss some of the recent findings concerning the assembly of a TLR oligomeric signalling platform, known as the Myddosome. Further, a brief examination of the importance of crosstalk between multiple TLRs or between TLRs and other innate immune receptors for appropriate and coordinated immune responses will be presented. Finally, I will discuss the importance of mechanisms that regulate TLRs with a focus on the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in modulating transcriptional responses downstream of TLRs. PMID:25846205

  12. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Gennaro; Guizzetti, Marina; Dao, Khoi; Mattison, Hayley A.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2011-01-01

    In an in vitro co-culture system of astrocytes and neurons, stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in astrocytes had been shown to cause neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons, and this effect was inhibited by ethanol. The present study sought to confirm these earlier findings in a more complex system, in vitro rat hippocampal slices in culture. Exposure of hippocampal slices to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (1 mM for 24 h) induced neurite outgrowth in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which was mediated by activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. Specifically, carbachol induced a >4-fold increase in the length of the longest neurite, and a 4-fold increase in the length of minor neurites and in the number of branches. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol (50 mM) resulted in significant inhibition of the effects induced by carbachol on all parameters measured. Neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons is dependent on various permissive factors that are produced and released by glial cells. In hippocampal slices carbachol increased the levels of two extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and laminin-1, by 1.6-fold, as measured by Western blot. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol significantly inhibited these increases. Carbachol-induced increases in levels of extracellular matrix proteins were antagonized by a M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, function-blocking fibronectin or laminin-1 antibodies antagonized the effect of carbachol on neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that in hippocampal slices stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors induces neurite outgrowth, which is mediated by fibronectin and laminin-1, two extracellular matrix proteins released by astrocytes. By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol. PMID:21884684

  13. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  14. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor ? by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPAR? in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPAR? action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPAR? and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPAR? mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPAR? mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPAR? transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  15. Modulation of Opioid Receptor Ligand Affinity and Efficacy Using Active and Inactive State Receptor Models

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Jessica P.; Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2012-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are widely used for the treatment of pain; however chronic use results in the development of tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist maintains the analgesia associated with MOR agonists, but with reduced negative side effects. Using our newly refined opioid receptor models for structure-based ligand design, we have synthesized several pentapeptides with tailored affinity and efficacy profiles. In particular, we have obtained pentapeptides 8, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]NH2, and 12, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]OH, which demonstrates high affinity and full agonist behavior at MOR, high affinity but very low efficacy for DOR, and minimal affinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Functional properties of these peptides as MOR agonists/DOR antagonists lacking undesired KOR activity make them promising candidates for future in vivo studies of MOR/DOR interactions. Subtle structural variation of 12, by substituting D-Cys5 for L-Cys5, generated analog 13 which maintains low nanomolar MOR and DOR affinity, but which displays no efficacy at either receptor. These results demonstrate the power and utility of accurate receptor models for structure-based ligand design, as well as the profound sensitivity of ligand function on its structure. PMID:22882801

  16. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  17. Differential Effects of Allosteric M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists on Receptor Activation, Arrestin 3 Recruitment, and Receptor Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are drug targets for multiple neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, but the full therapeutic potential of mAChR-targeted drugs has not been realized, mainly because of a lack of subtype-selective agonists. Recent advances have allowed the development of highly selective agonists that bind to an allosteric site on the M1 mAChR that is spatially distinct from the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site, but less is known about the profile of intracellular signals activated by orthosteric versus allosteric M1 mAChR agonists. We investigated the activation and regulatory mechanisms of two structurally distinct allosteric M1 mAChR agonists, AC260584 and TBPB. We show that allosteric agonists potently activate multiple signal transduction pathways linked to the M1 mAChR receptor but, compared to orthosteric agonists, much less efficiently recruit arrestin 3, a protein involved in the regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Consistent with decreased arrestin recruitment, both allosteric agonists showed blunted responses in measurements of receptor desensitization, internalization, and downregulation. These results advance the understanding of mAChR biology and may shed light on unanticipated differences in the pharmacology of orthosteric versus allosteric agonists that might be capitalized upon for drug development for the treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:20835371

  18. Protease-activated receptor 1-dependent neuronal damage involves NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Cecily E.; Mannaioni, Guido; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Sastre, Aristide A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed throughout the central nervous system. PAR1 activation by brain-derived as well as blood-derived proteases has been shown to have variable and complex effects in a variety of animal models of neuronal injury and inflammation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of PAR1 on lesion volume in wild-type or PAR1?/? C57Bl/6 mice subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or injected with NMDA in the striatum. We found that removal of PAR1 reduced infarct volume following transient focal ischemia to 57% of control. Removal of PAR1 or application of a PAR1 antagonist also reduced the neuronal injury associated with intrastriatal injection of NMDA to 60% of control. To explore whether NMDA receptor potentiation by PAR1 activation contributes to the harmful effects of PAR1, we investigated the effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on the neuroprotective phenotype of PAR1?/? mice. We found that MK801 reduced penumbral but not core neuronal injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or intrastriatal NMDA injection. Lesion volumes in both models were not significantly different between PAR1?/? mice treated with and without MK801. Use of the NMDA receptor antagonist and dissociative anesthetic ketamine also renders NMDA-induced lesion volumes identical in PAR1?/? mice and wild-type mice. These data suggest that the ability of PAR1 activation to potentiate NMDA receptor function may underlie its harmful actions during injury. PMID:19416668

  19. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ? quercetin ? Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity. PMID:24895146

  20. Platelet-activating factor: receptors and signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, W; Olson, M S

    1993-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies describing the chemistry and biology of PAF have been extensive. This potent phosphoacylglycerol exhibits a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects in various cells and tissues. PAF acts, through specific receptors and a variety of signal transduction systems, to elicit diverse biochemical responses. Several important future directions can be enumerated for the characterization of PAF receptors and their attendant signalling mechanisms. The recent cloning and sequence analysis of the gene for the PAF receptor will allow a number of important experimental approaches for characterizing the structure and analysing the function of the various domains of the receptor. Using molecular genetic and immunological technologies, questions relating to whether there is receptor heterogeneity, the precise mechanism(s) for the regulation of the PAF receptor, and the molecular details of the signalling mechanisms in which the PAF receptor is involved can be explored. Another area of major significance is the examination of the relationship between the signalling response(s) evoked by PAF binding to its receptor and signalling mechanisms activated by a myriad of other mediators, cytokines and growth factors. A very exciting recent development in which PAF receptors undoubtedly play a role is in the regulation of the function of various cellular adhesion molecules. Finally, there remain many incompletely characterized physiological and pathophysiological situations in which PAF and its receptor play a crucial signalling role. Our laboratory has been active in the elucidation of several tissue responses in which PAF exhibits major autocoid signalling responses, e.g. hepatic injury and inflammation, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and cerebral stimulation and/or trauma. As new experimental strategies are developed for characterizing the fine structure of the molecular mechanisms involved in tissue injury and inflammation, the essential role of PAF as a primary signalling molecule will be affirmed. Doubtless the next 20 years of experimental activity will be even more interesting and productive than the past two decades. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8391253

  1. Memory retrieval requires ongoing protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity-mediated AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joëlle; Gamache, Karine; Schneider, Rilla; Nader, Karim

    2015-02-11

    Whereas consolidation and reconsolidation are considered dynamic processes requiring protein synthesis, memory retrieval has long been considered a passive readout of previously established plasticity. However, previous findings suggest that memory retrieval may be more dynamic than previously thought. This study therefore aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying memory retrieval in the rat. Infusion of protein synthesis inhibitors (rapamycin or anisomycin) in the amygdala 10 min before memory retrieval transiently impaired auditory fear memory expression, suggesting ongoing protein synthesis is required to enable memory retrieval. We then investigated the role of protein synthesis in NMDA receptor activity-mediated AMPA receptor trafficking. Coinfusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist (ifenprodil) or infusion of an AMPA receptor endocytosis inhibitor (GluA23Y) before rapamycin prevented this memory impairment. Furthermore, rapamycin transiently decreased GluA1 levels at the postsynaptic density (PSD), but did not affect extrasynaptic sites. This effect at the PSD was prevented by an infusion of GluA23Y before rapamycin. Together, these data show that ongoing protein synthesis is required before memory retrieval is engaged, and suggest that this protein synthesis may be involved in the NMDAR activity-mediated trafficking of AMPA receptors that takes place during memory retrieval. PMID:25673841

  2. An estrogen receptor alpha activity indicator model in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; O'Malley, Bert W; DeMayo, Francesco J

    2009-12-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), plays essential roles in the female reproduction. To investigate the dynamic changes in ERalpha activity in vivo, we have developed an ER Alpha Activity Indicator (ERAAI) mouse. This ERAAI mouse harbors both a modified ERalpha Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone and a reporter gene which is regulated specifically by the modified receptor. The ERalpha modification (Gal4-ERalpha) consists replacing the DNA binding domain (DBD) of ERalpha with the DBD of yeast Gal4 transcription factor. This reporter transgene consisting of a humanized renilla Green Fluorescent Protein (hrGFP) sequence controlled by the Upstream Activating Sequences for the Gal4 gene (UAS(G)) was inserted into the modified ERalpha BAC clone. Expression of Gal4-ERalpha and hrGFP reliably recapitulates endogenous ERalpha expression and activity in the estrogen target tissues in response to estrogen stimulation. Therefore, the ERAAI mouse represents a novel animal model to investigate dynamic ERalpha activity in vivo. PMID:19882671

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and retinoid X receptor agonists inhibit inflammatory responses of astrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Xu; Janet A. Chavis; Michael K. Racke; Paul D. Drew

    2006-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated that administration of the PPAR-? agonists gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, inhibit the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonists on primary mouse astrocytes, a cell type

  4. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPAR? agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 ? M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPAR?, PPAR? and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a ?-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  5. Laminins 411 and 421 differentially promote tumor cell migration via ?6?1 integrin and MCAM (CD146).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Taichi; Wondimu, Zenebech; Oikawa, Yuko; Gentilcore, Giusy; Kiessling, Rolf; Egyhazi Brage, Suzanne; Hansson, Johan; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    ?4-laminins, such as laminins 411 and 421, are mesenchymal laminins expressed by blood and lymphatic vessels and some tumor cells. Laminin-411 promotes migration of leukocytes and endothelial cells, but the effect of this laminin and laminin-421 on tumor cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that laminin-411 and, to a greater extent, laminin-421 significantly promote migration of tumor cells originated from melanomas, gliomas and different carcinomas via ?6?1 integrin. In solid-phase binding assays, both laminins similarly bound ?6?1 integrin but only laminin-421, among several laminin isoforms, readily bound MCAM (CD146), a cell-surface adhesion molecule strongly associated with tumor progression. Accordingly, a function-blocking mAb to MCAM inhibited tumor cell migration on laminin-421 but not on laminins 411 or 521. In tumor tissues, melanoma cells co-expressed MCAM, laminin ?4, ?1, ?2 and ?1 chains, and integrin ?6 and ?1 chains. The present data highlight the novel role of ?4-laminins in tumor cell migration and identify laminin-421 as a primary ligand for MCAM and a putative mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:24951930

  6. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity. PMID:24625928

  7. Trk receptors need neutral sphingomyelinase activity to promote cell viability.

    PubMed

    Candalija, Ana; Cubí, Roger; Ortega, Arturo; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a group of secreted polypeptides, which comprises Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Each neurotrophin can bind specifically to a tyrosine kinase Trk receptor (TrkA, TrkB or TrkC), while all of the neurotrophins can bind, with similar affinity, to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). Experiments on cell viability promotion by BDNF in granule neurons or by NGF in PC12 cells show that neurotrophin-exerted cell viability is neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-dependent, since GW4869 or siRNA knockdown abrogates the protective effects, as well as neurotrophin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Finally, the assessment of nSMase activity promotion drives to the conclusion that neurotrophins can promote cell viability through Trk receptors in a manner depending on basal nSMase but not through SMase activity enhancement. PMID:24316227

  8. Coagulation, protease-activated receptors, and viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling, and heart failure. A recent study using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin, and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-? expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new strategy to reduce viral myocarditis. PMID:24203054

  9. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation. PMID:25386994

  10. Dependence of neurotrophic factor activation of Trk tyrosine kinase receptors on cellular sialidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicja Woronowicz; Schammim R. Amith; Kristof De Vusser; Wouter Laroy; Roland Contreras; Sameh Basta; Myron R. Szewczuk

    2006-01-01

    A direct link between receptor glycosylation and acti- vation following natural ligand interaction has not been observed. Here, we discover a membrane sialidase- controlling mechanism that depends on ligand binding to its receptor to induce enzyme activity which targets and desialylates the receptor and, consequently, causes the induction of receptor dimerization and activation. We also identify a specific sialyl a-2,3-linked

  11. The two-state model of receptor activation: The agonist and the efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Lynn Blevins

    1999-01-01

    The Two State model describes how drugs activate receptors by inducing or supporting a conformational change in the receptor from “off” to “on”. The beta 2 adrenergic receptor system is the model system which was used to formalize the concept of two states, and the mechanism of hormone agonist stimulation of this receptor is similar to ligand activation of other

  12. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-05-15

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4-7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 ?M taurine or 10 ?M glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 ?M 4-aminopyridine in low Mg(2+) solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 ?M strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 ?M), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl(-) accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (? 1 mM) or glycine (100 ?M) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 ?M) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  13. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 ?m taurine or 10 ?m glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 ?m 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 ?m strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 ?m), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl? accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (?1 mm) or glycine (100 ?m) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 ?m) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  14. Cofactoring and Dimerization of Proteinase-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huilan; Liu, Allen P.; Smith, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein–coupled receptors that transmit cellular responses to extracellular proteases and have important functions in vascular physiology, development, inflammation, and cancer progression. The established paradigm for PAR activation involves proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus, which reveals a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand by binding intramolecularly to the receptor to trigger transmembrane signaling. Most cells express more than one PAR, which can influence the mode of PAR activation and signaling. Clear examples include murine PAR3 cofactoring of PAR4 and transactivation of PAR2 by PAR1. Thrombin binds to and cleaves murine PAR3, which facilitates PAR4 cleavage and activation. This process is essential for thrombin signaling and platelet activation, since murine PAR3 cannot signal alone. Although PAR1 and PAR4 are both competent to signal, PAR1 is able to act as a cofactor for PAR4, facilitating more rapid cleavage and activation by thrombin. PAR1 can also facilitate PAR2 activation through a different mechanism. Cleavage of the PAR1 N terminus by thrombin generates a tethered ligand domain that can bind intermolecularly to PAR2 to activate signaling. Thus, PARs can regulate each other’s activity by localizing thrombin when in complex with PAR3 and PAR4 or by cleaved PAR1, providing its tethered ligand domain for PAR2 activation. The ability of PARs to cofactor or transactivate other PARs would necessitate that the two receptors be in close proximity, likely in the form of a heterodimer. Here, we discuss the cofactoring and dimerization of PARs and the functional consequences on signaling. PMID:24064459

  15. Endocannabinoid tone versus constitutive activity of cannabinoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Allyn C; Reggio, Patricia H; Childers, Steven R; Hampson, Robert E; Ulloa, Nadine M; Deutsch, Dale G

    2011-01-01

    This review evaluates the cellular mechanisms of constitutive activity of the cannabinoid (CB) receptors, its reversal by inverse agonists, and discusses the pitfalls and problems in the interpretation of the research data. The notion is presented that endogenously produced anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) serve as autocrine or paracrine stimulators of the CB receptors, giving the appearance of constitutive activity. It is proposed that one cannot interpret inverse agonist studies without inference to the receptors' environment vis-à-vis the endocannabinoid agonists which themselves are highly lipophilic compounds with a preference for membranes. The endocannabinoid tone is governed by a combination of synthetic pathways and inactivation involving transport and degradation. The synthesis and degradation of 2-AG is well characterized, and 2-AG has been strongly implicated in retrograde signalling in neurons. Data implicating endocannabinoids in paracrine regulation have been described. Endocannabinoid ligands can traverse the cell's interior and potentially be stored on fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Molecular modelling predicts that the endocannabinoids derived from membrane phospholipids can laterally diffuse to enter the CB receptor from the lipid bilayer. Considering that endocannabinoid signalling to CB receptors is a much more likely scenario than is receptor activation in the absence of agonist ligands, researchers are advised to refrain from assuming constitutive activity except for experimental models known to be devoid of endocannabinoid ligands. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21545414

  16. Extrasynaptic targeting of NMDA receptors following D1 dopamine receptor activation and cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ortinski, Pavel I.; Turner, Jill R.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that after repeated exposure to cocaine, D1-like dopamine receptor (D1DR) stimulation reverses plastic changes of AMPA receptor-mediated signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell. However, there is little information on the impact of cocaine self-administration on D1-NMDA receptor interactions in this brain region. Here, we assessed whether cocaine self-administration alters the effects of D1DR stimulation on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In slices from cocaine-naïve rats, pre-treatment with a D1DR agonist decreased synaptic NMDAR receptor-mediated currents and increased the contribution of extrasynaptic NMDARs. In contrast, neither cocaine self-administration alone nor cocaine experience followed by D1DR stimulation had an effect on synaptic or extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs relies on the availability of extracellular glutamate, which is regulated primarily by glutamate transporters. In cocaine-experienced animals, administration of a glutamate re-uptake blocker, DL-threo-?-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), revealed increased extrasynaptic NMDAR activity and stronger baseline activity of glutamate uptake transporters relative to cocaine-naïve rats. In cocaine-naïve rats, the D1DR-mediated increase in extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling was independent of the activity of glutamate re-uptake transporters. Taken together, these results indicate that cocaine experience blunts the influence of D1DRs on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Additionally, prior cocaine self-administration limits activation of the extrasynaptic NMDAR pool by increasing glutamate re-uptake. These findings outline a pattern of adaptive interactions between D1DRs and NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens shell and demonstrate up-regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling as a novel consequence of cocaine self-administration. PMID:23719812

  17. Distribution of Fibronectin and Laminin in Basal Cell Epitheliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Nelson; Charles D. Little; Gary Ballan

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) in basal cell epithelioma was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence. FN is a glycoprotein which promotes interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix, and is present at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) and throughout the dermis, but absent in the normal epidermis. LM, a noncollagenous basement membrane protein, plays a role in epithelial adhesion

  18. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARa,...

  19. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor c in

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor c in colonic epithelial cells protects against experimental inflammatory bowel disease M Adachi, R Kurotani, K Morimura, Y Shah, M nflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, is associated

  20. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  1. Retinoic acid receptor agonist activity of naturally occurring diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Yasui, Tomohiro; Kotani, Hitoshi; Nagatsu, Akito; Makishima, Makoto; Amagaya, Sakae; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-06-15

    Recent accumulating evidence indicates that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may be useful for preventing or treating inflammation, allergy, and autoimmune diseases, despite its severe side effects. In this study, screening of 99 crude drugs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligands by luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the methanol extract of Aralia cordata Rhizoma most effectively activates the transcriptional activity of RAR?. Pimaradienoic acid (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) was subsequently isolated as the constituent capable of activating RAR. Pimaric acid and abietic acid, which have similar structures to pimaradienoic acid, were also found to be novel RAR agonists, although abietic acid only slightly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These three natural RAR agonists with diterpene structures, while structurally different from ATRA, were able to increase the mRNA levels of the constitutive androstane receptor in HepG2 cells, induce F9 cell differentiation followed by Cyp26a1 mRNA expression, and differentiate HL-60 cells via RAR activation in a different manner from ATRA. These results demonstrate that some diterpenes exist as naturally occurring RAR agonists and that the differences in chemical structure between ATRA and these diterpenes may induce distinct gene activation and a specific cellular response. PMID:24799257

  2. Coexpression of Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor and Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 or 3 Mediates the Antimigratory Effect of Adrenomedullin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOZOMI FUKAI; MASAYOSHI SHICHIRI; NAOKO OZAWA; MIKA MATSUSHITA; YUKIO HIRATA

    2003-01-01

    Three isoforms of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) are thought to transport the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane to function as cal- citonin gene-related peptide or adrenomedullin receptors, but their role remains largely unknown. We investigated whether coexpression of RAMP and CRLR are involved in the regulation of cell migration using a monolayer-wounding pro- tocol. Quantification of

  3. Fast oscillatory activity induced by kainate receptor activation in the rat basolateral amygdala in vitro.

    PubMed

    Randall, Fiona E; Whittington, Miles A; Cunningham, Mark O

    2011-03-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) has a fundamental role in affective processing. In vivo studies have revealed rhythmic population activity of a similar type to that seen in the hippocampus and cortical areas during learning tasks. The amygdala contains densely interconnected networks of inhibitory interneurons similar to those responsible for fast network activity generation in the hippocampus and other cortical structures. Here we report that neuronal networks of the BLA in isolation generate persistent, gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations upon kainate receptor activation with kainic acid. We show that, like other cortical structures, BLA oscillations are completely dependent upon ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition. GABA(A) receptor blockade abolished all oscillations, and the activity was also sensitive to the barbiturate, pentobarbital. Blockade of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors had no significant effect on gamma activity. However, the GluR5-containing kainate receptor-specific antagonist (S)-1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxybenzyl) pyrimidine-2,4-dione (UBP302) abolished oscillations-evidence that glutamatergic receptor involvement is predominantly kainate receptor mediated. The mixed AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]quinoxalone-2,3-dione disodium (NBQX) abolished all oscillatory activity in 8/14 of slices tested. In the remaining slices, gamma frequency activity was abolished to reveal a low-amplitude, NMDA receptor-dependent, beta frequency (10-20 Hz) oscillation. Gamma oscillations are abolished by gap junction blockade. While these data show the BLA capable of generating gamma rhythms in common with other cortical areas studied to date, the network mechanisms appear to be different, suggesting a unique network structure underlies amygdala rhythmogenesis. Understanding how BLA networks produce synchronous activity is paramount to understanding how the BLA executes influence on important cognitive processes such as emotional learning. PMID:21255131

  4. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    The dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in renal proximal tubule cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pretreatment with PD128077 for 1 week augmented the antihypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension. PMID:25368031

  5. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Giraldi; Pia Giovannelli; Marzia Di Donato; Gabriella Castoria; Antimo Migliaccio; Ferdinando Auricchio

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment\\u000a of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional\\u000a activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids\\u000a fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to

  6. A hydrophobic area of the GABA ?? receptor containing phenylalanine 124 influences both receptor activation and deactivation.

    PubMed

    Carland, J E; Yamamoto, I; Hanrahan, J R; Abdel-Halim, H; Lewis, T M; Absalom, N; Chebib, M

    2015-02-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that GABA ?1 receptors are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of a range of neurological conditions, including anxiety and sleep disorders. Homology modelling of the GABA ?1 extracellular N-terminal domain has revealed a novel hydrophobic area that extends beyond, but not including the GABA-binding site. Phenylalanine 124 (F124) is predicted to be involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the orthosteric-binding site. We have assessed the activity of a series of GABA ?1 receptors that incorporate a mutation at F124. Wild-type and mutant human GABA ?1 subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and AD293 cells, and the pharmacology and kinetic properties of the receptors were measured using electrophysiological analysis. Mutation of F124 had minimal effect on receptor pharmacology. However, the rate of deactivation was significantly increased compared to wild type. This study provides further information about the role of residues within a novel hydrophobic area of the GABA ?1 receptor. This knowledge can help future studies into the design of potent and subtype-selective ligands with therapeutic value. PMID:24816654

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko, E-mail: satosho@rs.tus.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Hitoshi, E-mail: shirakah@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Tomita, Shuhei, E-mail: tomita@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Tohkin, Masahiro, E-mail: tohkin@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Medical Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 267-8603 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: gonzalef@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Komai, Michio, E-mail: mkomai@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  8. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  9. Striatal cholinergic receptors and dyskinetic motor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Forchetti, C; Scarnati, E; Pacitti, C; Agnoli, A

    1980-12-01

    An injection of D-tubocurarine into the rat striatum produces a complex motor syndrome resembling in part that induced by picrotoxin. The destruction of the dopaminergic terminals by 6-hydroxydopamine does not prevent these effects of D-tubocurarine on motor activity. Hence neither dopamine release nor the presynaptic acetylcholine receptors are responsible for the D-tubocurarine-induced movements. On the other hand, lesion of the striatum by kainic acid abolishes the motor abnormalities due to D-tubocurarine but not those due to picrotoxin injection. Therefore, the effects of picrotoxin might be attributable to an action on GABA receptors still present in the kainic acid-treated striatum, whereas the effects of D-tubocurarine might be due to its action on striatal postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:7443082

  10. Models for the activation pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, S.R.; Niyogi, S.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor's intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which occurs upon formation of the receptor-ligand complex, is the critical regulatory event affecting the subsequent EGF-dependent cellular responses leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism by which EGF-dependent activation of receptor kinase activity takes place is not clearly understood. In this study, the growth factor-dependent activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase was examined in vitro using detergent-solubilized, partially purified GEF receptors from A5431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Evaluation of the cooperativity observed in the EGF-dependent activation of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase would suggest a mechanism requiring the binding of the EGF peptide to both ligand binding sites on a receptor dimer to induce full receptor kinase activity. Equations describing potential cooperative kinase activation pathways have been examined. The theoretical system which best simulates the allosteric regulation observed in the experimental kinase activation data is that describing multiple essential activation. In addition, studies using mutant analogs of the EGF peptide ligand appear to confirm the requirement for an essential conformational change in the receptor-ligand complex to activate the receptor kinase activity. Several mutant growth factor analogues are able to occupy the ligand binding sites on the receptor without inducing the fully active receptor conformation.

  11. Activation State of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulates Mammalian Odorant Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun Rose; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    A diverse repertoire of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) enables cells to sense their environment. Mammalian olfaction requires the activation of odorant receptors (ORs), the largest family of GPCRs; however, whether ORs functionally interact with other families of GPCRs is unclear. We show that the interaction of ORs with the type 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-R), which is found in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), modulated OR responses to cognate odorants. In human embryonic kidney–293T cells, ORs and the M3-R physically interacted, and the M3-R increased the potency and efficacy of odorant-elicited responses of several ORs. Selective M3-R antagonists attenuated odorant-dependent activation of OSNs, and, when the M3-R and ORs were expressed in transfected cells, OR activation was enhanced by muscarinic agonists and inhibited by muscarinic antagonists. Furthermore, M3-R–dependent potentiation of OR signaling synergized with that of receptor transporting protein 1S (RTP1S), an accessory factor required for the efficient membrane targeting of ORs. However, the M3-R did not enhance the abundance of ORs at the cell surface, suggesting that the M3-R acted through a distinct mechanism independent of RTP1S. Finally, the activation of ORs by cognate odorants transactivated the M3-R in the absence of its agonist. The cross talk between ORs and the M3-R suggests that the functional coupling of ORs and the M3-R is required for robust OR activation. PMID:21224444

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? ameliorates pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahan; Tian, Xiao Yu; Mao, Guangmei; Fang, Xi; Fung, Man Lung; Shyy, John Y-J; Huang, Yu; Wang, Nanping

    2012-12-01

    An elevated plasma level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or upregulation of 5-HT receptor signaling or both is implicated in vascular contraction and remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recently, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists have been shown to ameliorate PAH. However, their effects on the 5-HT-induced contraction of pulmonary arteries remain unknown. Here, we examined the role of PPAR? in inhibiting 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) to ameliorate PAH. Pulmonary arteries from PAH rats induced by monocrotaline or chronic hypoxia showed an enhanced vasoconstriction in response to BW723C86, a specific agonist for 5-HT2BR. Expression of 5-HT2BR was also increased in pulmonary arteries from the PAH rats, accompanied by vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone in vivo reversed the expression and the vasocontractive effect of 5-HT2BR as well as the thickening of pulmonary arteries. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, 5-HT induced the gene expression of 5-HT2BR, which was inhibited by rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of constitutively activated PPAR?. The pharmacological effect of PPAR? was through the suppression of the 5-HT-induced activator protein-1 activity. These results demonstrated the beneficial effect of PPAR? on 5-HT2BR-mediated vasocontraction, providing a new mechanism for the potential use of PPAR? agonists in PAH. PMID:23108648

  13. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand. PMID:25916672

  14. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani França; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane – subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies - whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  15. Ligand binding and activation of the secretin receptor, a prototypic family B G protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence J; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G

    2012-01-01

    The secretin receptor is a prototypic member of family B G protein-coupled receptors that binds and responds to a linear 27-residue peptide natural ligand. The carboxyl-terminal region of this peptide assumes a helical conformation that occupies the peptide-binding cleft within the structurally complex disulphide-bonded amino-terminal domain of this receptor. The amino terminus of secretin is directed toward the core helical bundle domain of this receptor that seems to be structurally distinct from the analogous region of family A G protein-coupled receptors. This amino-terminal region of secretin is critical for its biological activity, to stimulate Gs coupling and the agonist-induced cAMP response. While the natural peptide ligand is known to span the two key receptor domains, with multiple residue-residue approximation constraints well established, the orientation of the receptor amino terminus relative to the receptor core helical bundle domain is still unclear. Fluorescence studies have established that the mid-region and carboxyl-terminal end of secretin are protected by the receptor peptide-binding cleft and the amino terminus of secretin is most exposed to the aqueous milieu as it is directed toward the receptor core, with the mid-region of the peptide becoming more exposed upon receptor activation. Like other family B peptide hormone receptors, the secretin receptor is constitutively present in a structurally specific homo-dimeric complex built around the lipid-exposed face of transmembrane segment four. This complex is important for facilitating G protein association and achieving the high affinity state of this receptor. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1 PMID:21542831

  16. Structure of Human Urokinase Plasminogen Activator in Complex with Its Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Huai; Andrew P. Mazar; Alice Kuo; Graham C. Parry; David E. Shaw; Jennifer Callahan; Yongdong Li; Cai Yuan; Chuanbing Bian; Liqing Chen; Bruce Furie; Barbara C. Furie; Douglas B. Cines; Mingdong Huang

    2006-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator binds to its cellular receptor with high affinity and initiates signaling cascades that are implicated in pathological processes including tumor growth, metastasis, and inflammation. We report the crystal structure at 1.9 angstroms of the urokinase receptor complexed with the urokinase amino-terminal fragment and an antibody against the receptor. The three domains of urokinase receptor form a

  17. Dopamine-2 receptor activation suppresses PACAP expression in gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Winters, Stephen J; Ghooray, Dushan T; Yang, Rong Q; Holmes, Joshua B; O'Brien, Andrew Rw; Morgan, Jay; Moore, Joseph P

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is expressed at a high level in the fetal pituitary and decreases profoundly between embryonic day 19 and postnatal day 1 (PN1), with a further decrease from PN1 to PN4. In this series of experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that dopamine 2 receptor (Drd2) activation interrupts a cAMP-dependent feed-forward loop that maintains PACAP expression at a high level in the fetal pituitary. Using single-cell RT-PCR of pituitary cell cultures from newborn rats, Drd2 mRNA was identified in gonadotrophs that were also positive for PACAP mRNA. PACAP expression in pituitary cultures from embryonic day 19 rats was suppressed by the PACAP6-38 antagonist and by the Drd2 agonist bromocriptine. Increasing concentrations of bromocriptine inhibited cAMP production as well as cAMP signaling based on cAMP response element-luciferase activity, decreased PACAP promoter activity, and decreased PACAP mRNA levels in ?T3-1 gonadotroph cells. Furthermore, blockade of dopamine receptors by injecting haloperidol into newborn rat pups partially reversed the developmental decline in pituitary PACAP mRNA that occurs between PN1 and PN4. These results provide evidence that dopamine receptor signaling regulates PACAP expression under physiological conditions and lend support to the hypothesis that a rise in hypothalamic dopamine at birth abrogates cAMP signaling in fetal gonadotrophs to interrupt a feed-forward mechanism that maintains PACAP expression at a high level in the fetal pituitary. We propose that this perinatal decline in pituitary PACAP reduces pituitary follistatin which permits GnRH receptors and FSH-? to increase to facilitate activation of the neonatal gonad. PMID:24823390

  18. NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

    2014-03-19

    Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  19. Intermolecular Forces and Enthalpies in the Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and an Antigen I/II-Deficient Mutant to Laminin Films?

    PubMed Central

    Busscher, Henk J.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Norde, Willem; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Scheie, Anne A.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant IB03987 was nearly unable to adhere to laminin films under flow conditions due to a lack of specific interactions (0.8 × 106 and 1.1 × 106 cells cm?2 at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) compared with parent strain LT11 (21.8 × 106 and 26.1 × 106 cells cm?2). The adhesion of both the parent and mutant strains was slightly greater at pH 6.8 than at pH 5.8. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrated that the parent strain experienced less repulsion when it approached a laminin film than the mutant experienced. Upon retraction, combined specific and nonspecific adhesion forces were stronger for the parent strain (up to ?5.0 and ?4.9 nN at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) than for the mutant (up to ?1.5 and ?2.1 nN), which was able to interact only through nonspecific interactions. Enthalpy was released upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of the parent strain but not upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of IB03987. A comparison of the adhesion forces in AFM with the adhesion forces reported for specific ligand-receptor complexes resulted in the conclusion that the number of antigen I/II binding sites for laminin on S. mutans LT11 is on the order of 6 × 104 sites per organism and that the sites are probably arranged along exterior surface structures, as visualized here by immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:17277062

  20. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation induces 11

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -activated receptor activation induces 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in human alternative macrophages Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi 1 # , Mohamed Amine Bouhlel 1 # , Corinne Copin 1 , Christian Duhem 1 Objectives 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 -HSD1) catalyses the intracellular reduction

  1. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARa in rodents inc...

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases mediated by cell type-dependent transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhe; Buck, David C; Yang, Rui; Macey, Tara A; Neve, Kim A

    2005-05-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in non-neuronal human embryonic kidney 293 cells was dependent on transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, as demonstrated by the effect of the PDGF receptor inhibitors tyrphostin A9 and AG 370 on quinpirole-induced phosphorylation of ERKs and by quinpirole-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor. In contrast, ectopically expressed D2 receptor or endogenous D2-like receptor activation of ERKs in NS20Y neuroblastoma cells, which express little or no PDGF receptor, or in rat neostriatal neurons was largely dependent on transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, as demonstrated using the EGF receptor inhibitor AG 1478 and by quinpirole-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The D2 receptor agonist quinpirole enhanced the coprecipitation of D2 and EGF receptors in NS20Y cells, suggesting that D2 receptor activation induced the formation of a macromolecular signaling complex that includes both receptors. Transactivation of the EGF receptor also involved the activity of a matrix metalloproteinase. Thus, although D2 receptor stimulation of ERKs in both cell lines was decreased by inhibitors of ERK kinase, Src-family protein tyrosine kinases, and serine/threonine protein kinases, D2-like receptors activated ERKs via transactivation of the EGF receptor in NS20Y neuroblastoma cells and rat embryonic neostriatal neurons, but via transactivation of the PDGF receptor in 293 cells. PMID:15857393

  3. N-desmethylclozapine, an allosteric agonist at muscarinic 1 receptor, potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Sur, Cyrille; Mallorga, Pierre J; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene A; Pascarella, Danette; Williams, Jacinta B; Brandish, Philip E; Pettibone, Douglas J; Scolnick, Edward M; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2003-11-11

    The molecular and neuronal substrates conferring on clozapine its unique and superior efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia remain elusive. The interaction of clozapine with many G protein-coupled receptors is well documented but less is known about its biologically active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine. Recent clinical and preclinical evidences of the antipsychotic activity of the muscarinic agonist xanomeline prompted us to investigate the effects of N-desmethylclozapine on cloned human M1-M5 muscarinic receptors. N-desmethylclozapine preferentially bound to M1 muscarinic receptors with an IC50 of 55 nM and was a more potent partial agonist (EC50, 115 nM and 50% of acetylcholine response) at this receptor than clozapine. Furthermore, pharmacological and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that N-desmethylclozapine preferentially activated M1 receptors by interacting with a site that does not fully overlap with the acetylcholine orthosteric site. As hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-driven neuronal ensembles has been implicated in psychotic disorders, the neuronal activity of N-desmethylclozapine was electrophysiologically investigated in hippocampal rat brain slices. N-desmethylclozapine was shown to dose-dependently potentiate NMDA receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal cells by 53% at 100 nM, an effect largely mediated by activation of muscarinic receptors. Altogether, our observations provide direct evidence that the brain penetrant metabolite N-desmethylclozapine is a potent, allosteric agonist at human M1 receptors and is able to potentiate hippocampal NMDA receptor currents through M1 receptor activation. These observations raise the possibility that N-desmethylclozapine contributes to clozapine's clinical activity in schizophrenics through modulation of both muscarinic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:14595031

  4. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  5. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? in Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su; Gu, Hongwei; Hu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR ?), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the control of a variety of physiological processes. The last decade has witnessed an increasing interest for the role played by the agonists of PPAR ? in antiangiogenesis, antifibrosis, anti-inflammation effects and in controlling oxidative stress response in various organs. As the pathologic mechanisms of major blinding diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), keratitis, and optic neuropathy, often involve neoangiogenesis and inflammation- and oxidative stress-mediated cell death, evidences are accumulating on the potential benefits of PPAR ? to improve or prevent these vision threatening eye diseases. In this paper we describe what is known about the role of PPAR ? in the ocular pathophysiological processes and PPAR ? agonists as novel adjuvants in the treatment of eye diseases. PMID:26146566

  6. Monocyte signal transduction receptors in active and latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Janiszewska-Drobinska, Beata; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Zawadzka, Joanna; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Szpakowski, Piotr; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that promote either resistance or susceptibility to TB disease remain insufficiently understood. Our aim was to compare the expression of cell signaling transduction receptors, CD14, TLR2, CD206, and ?2 integrin LFA-1 on monocytes from patients with active TB or nonmycobacterial lung disease and healthy individuals with M.tb latency and uninfected controls to explain the background of the differences between clinical and subclinical forms of M.tb infection. A simultaneous increase in the expression of the membrane bound mCD14 receptor and LFA-1 integrin in patients with active TB may be considered a prodrome of breaking immune control by M.tb bacilli in subjects with the latent TB and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:23401703

  7. Morpheus: a conformation-activity relationships and receptor modeling package.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P R; Quint, G; Winkler, D A; Richardson, D; Sadek, M; Spurling, T H

    1989-09-01

    Our molecular modeling software package, MORPHEUS, allows the study of the interactions between biologically active molecules and their receptors. The package is capable of exploring the multidimensional conformational space accessible to each molecule of the data set under study. By specifying distance constraints or hypothetical receptor binding points, the package is able to filter the biologically accessible conformations of each active compound and deduce a three-dimensional model of the binding sites consistent with the properties of the agonists (or antagonists) under scrutiny. The electrostatic potentials in the environment of a putative binding site can also be investigated using the MORPHEUS package. The molecular modeling module CRYS-X, which is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC machines, is capable of building, displaying and manipulating molecules. PMID:2562236

  8. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chen; C. Yang; Z. J. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy is limited by a long-lasting painful neuropathy that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel may release mast cell tryptase, which activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and, subsequently, protein kinases A and C, resulting in mechanical and thermal (both heat and cold) hypersensitivity. Correlating with the development of neuropathy after repeated administration

  9. Activation of signalling by the activin receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Montalvo, E; Massagué, J

    1996-01-01

    Activin exerts its effects by simultaneously binding to two types of p rotein serine/threonine kinase receptors, each type existing in various isoforms. Using the ActR-IB and ActR-IIB receptor isoforms, we have investigated the mechanism of activin receptor activation. ActR-IIB are phosphoproteins with demonstrable affinity for each other. However, activin addition strongly promotes an interaction between these two proteins. Activin binds directly to ActR-IIB, and this complex associates with ActR-IB, which does not bind ligand on its own. In the resulting complex, ActR-IB becomes hyperphosphorylated, and this requires the kinase activity of ActR-IIB. Mutation of conserved serines and threonines in the GS domain, a region just upstream of the kinase domain in ActR-IB, abrogates both phosphorylation and signal propagation, suggesting that this domain contains phosphorylation sites required for signalling. ActR-IB activation can be mimicked by mutation of Thr-206 to aspartic acid, which yields a construct, ActR-IB(T206D), that signals in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, the signalling activity of this mutant construct is undisturbed by overexpression of a dominant negative kinase-defective ActR-IIB construct, indicating that ActR-IB(T206D) can signal independently of ActR-IIB. The evidence suggests that ActR-IIB acts as a primary activin receptor and ActR-IB acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals. PMID:8622651

  10. Transcriptional activation and transient expression of the human androgen receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianshu Gao; Marco Marcelli; Michael J. McPhaul

    1996-01-01

    A series of cDNAs containing deletions within the open-reading frame of the human androgen receptor (AR) were constructed and transiently expressed in CV1 cells to investigate the effects of these alterations on the level of expression of the protein and on its capacity to activate a model reporter gene (MMTV-luciferase). The levels of AR expression were assayed using immunoblots made

  11. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by proteinase-activated receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianna D. A Gaça; Xiaoying Zhou; R. Christopher Benyon

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Thrombin and MC tryptase, which are agonists for proteinase-activated receptors-1 and -2, respectively, are both increased in injured liver. We have examined if rat stellate cells express these receptors and if receptor agonists influence stellate cell activation.Methods: Expression of mRNA for proteinase activated receptors-1 and -2 were examined by RT-PCR and Northern blotting in lysates of cultured stellate cells

  12. BDNF Modulation of NMDA Receptors Is Activity Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Robert A.; Bi, Caixia; Han, Yu R.; Plummer, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a potent modulator of synaptic transmission, is known to influence associative synaptic plasticity and refinement of neural connectivity. We now show that BDNF modulation of glutamate currents in hippocampal neurons exhibits the additional property of use dependence, a postsynaptic mechanism resulting in selective modulation of active channels. We demonstrate selectivity by varying the repetition rate of iontophoretically applied glutamate pulses during BDNF exposure. During relatively high-frequency glutamate pulses (0.1 Hz), BDNF application elicited a doubling of the glutamate current. During low-frequency pulses (0.0033 Hz), however, BDNF evoked a dramatically diminished response. This effect was apparently mediated by calcium because manipulations that prevented elevation of intracellular calcium largely eliminated the action of BDNF on glutamate currents. To confirm N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor involvement and assess spatial requirements, we made cell-attached single-channel recordings from somatic NMDA receptors. Inclusion of calcium in the pipette was sufficient to produce enhancement of channel activity by BDNF. Substitution of EGTA for calcium prevented BDNF effects. We conclude that BDNF modulation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors requires concurrent neuronal activity potentially conferring synaptic specificity on the neurotrophin's actions. PMID:18842955

  13. T cell antigen receptor activation and actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sudha; Curado, Silvia; Mayya, Viveka; Dustin, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    T cells constitute a crucial arm of the adaptive immune system and their optimal function is required for a healthy immune response. After the initial step of T cell-receptor (TCR) triggering by antigenic peptide complexes on antigen presenting cell (APC), the T cell exhibits extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. This cytoskeletal remodeling leads to the formation of an "immunological synapse" [1] characterized by regulated clustering, segregation and movement of receptors at the interface. Synapse formation regulates T cell activation and response to antigenic peptides and proceeds via feedback between actin cytoskeleton and TCR signaling. Actin polymerization participates in various events during the synapse formation, maturation, and eventually its disassembly. There is increasing knowledge about the actin effectors that couple TCR activation to actin rearrangements [2,3], and how defects in these effectors translate into impairment of T cell activation. In this review we aim to summarize and integrate parts of what is currently known about this feedback process. In addition, in light of recent advancements in our understanding of TCR triggering and translocation at the synapse, we speculate on the organizational and functional diversity of microfilament architecture in the T cell. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé. PMID:23680625

  14. [Screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hao-Sheng; Zhang, Xian-Xie; Xiao, Yong; Lu, Bei-Bei; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Liang, Qian-De; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Tan, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    In order to study effects of ginseng on the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides was performed by reporter assay. Based on PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines, 13 ginsenosides were screened for pregnane X receptor activation by reporter assays, and RIF as the positive control. The effect of ginsenosides Rg1 onCYP3A4 mRNA expression was also investigated by RT-PCR. The PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines had good response to RIF, and the EC50 is 2.51 micro mol x L(-1). When the condition of final concentration was 10 micromol x L(-1), ginsenoside F2 and protopanaxatriol had moderate inductive effects on PXR. Panaxotriol, Rg2, pseudoginsenoside F11, Rg1, ginsenoside and Rb3 had inhibitory effects on PXR. Ginsenoside Rf1, Rg3, Rh2 and protopanaxdiol had no obvious effects on PXR. Rg1 down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation of pregnane X receptor by ginsenosides may influence the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, and cause ginseng-drug interactions. PMID:23600156

  15. Structure and function of laminin: anatomy of a multidomain glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konrad Beck; Irene Hunter; Jurgen Engel

    ABSTRACT Laminin,is a large,(900 kDa),mosaic,protein,composed of many,distinct,domains,with,different,structures,and functions.,Globular,and,rodlike,domains,are arranged in an extended four-armed, cruciform shape that is well,suited,for mediating,between,distant,sites on cells and,other,components,of the extracellular,matrix.,The a-helical coiled-coil domain,of the long,arm,is involved in the specific assembly of the three chains (A, Bi, B2, and,possible,variants),of laminin,and,is the,only,do- main,composed,of multiple,chains. It is terminated,by a large,globular,domain,composed,of five homologous subdomains,formed,by the COOH-terminal,part of the A chain.

  16. Laminin E8 fragments support efficient adhesion and expansion of dissociated human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Suemori, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Yamada, Masashi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Hayashi, Maria; Kumagai, Hideaki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Kawase, Eihachiro

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the potential to provide an infinite source of tissues for regenerative medicine. Although defined xeno-free media have been developed, culture conditions for reliable propagation of hESCs still require considerable improvement. Here we show that recombinant E8 fragments of laminin isoforms (LM-E8s), which are the minimum fragments conferring integrin-binding activity, promote greater adhesion of hESCs and hiPSCs than do Matrigel and intact laminin isoforms. Furthermore, LM-E8s sustain long-term self-renewal of hESCs and hiPSCs in defined xeno-free media with dissociated cell passaging. We successfully maintained three hESC and two hiPSC lines on LM-E8s in three defined media for 10 passages. hESCs maintained high level expression of pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype after 30 passages and could differentiate into all three germ layers. This culture system allows robust proliferation of hESCs and hiPSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:23212365

  17. Methylthioadenosine Reprograms Macrophage Activation through Adenosine Receptor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Keyel, Peter A.; Romero, Matthew; Wu, Wenbo; Kwak, Daniel H.; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Salter, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of inflammation is necessary to balance sufficient pathogen clearance with excessive tissue damage. Central to regulating inflammation is the switch from a pro-inflammatory pathway to an anti-inflammatory pathway. Macrophages are well-positioned to initiate this switch, and as such are the target of multiple therapeutics. One such potential therapeutic is methylthioadenosine (MTA), which inhibits TNF? production following LPS stimulation. We found that MTA could block TNF? production by multiple TLR ligands. Further, it prevented surface expression of CD69 and CD86 and reduced NF-KB signaling. We then determined that the mechanism of this action by MTA is signaling through adenosine A2 receptors. A2 receptors and TLR receptors synergized to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as MTA enhanced LPS tolerance. In contrast, IL-1? production and processing was not affected by MTA exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MTA reprograms TLR activation pathways via adenosine receptors to promote resolution of inflammation. PMID:25117662

  18. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Background DEET, 2-undecanone (2-U), IR3535 and Picaridin are widely used as insect repellents to prevent interactions between humans and many arthropods including mosquitoes. Their molecular action has only recently been studied, yielding seemingly contradictory theories including odorant-dependent inhibitory and odorant-independent excitatory activities on insect olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and odorant receptor proteins (ORs). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the action of these repellents on two Aedes aegypti ORs, AaOR2 and AaOR8, individually co-expressed with the common co-receptor AaOR7 in Xenopus oocytes; these ORs are respectively activated by the odors indole (AaOR2) and (R)-(?)-1-octen3-ol (AaOR8), odorants used to locate oviposition sites and host animals. In the absence of odorants, DEET activates AaOR2 but not AaOR8, while 2-U activates AaOR8 but not AaOR2; IR3535 and Picaridin do not activate these ORs. In the presence of odors, DEET strongly inhibits AaOR8 but not AaOR2, while 2-U strongly inhibits AaOR2 but not AaOR8; IR3535 and Picaridin strongly inhibit both ORs. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that repellents can act as olfactory agonists or antagonists, thus modulating OR activity, bringing concordance to conflicting models. PMID:20725637

  19. The Novel Leptospiral Surface Adhesin Lsa20 Binds Laminin and Human Plasminogen and Is Probably Expressed during Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Renata Siqueira; Von Atzingen, Marina; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Gonçales, Amane Paldes; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Asega, Amanda F.; Romero, Eliete Caló; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Nascimento, Ana Lucia Tabet O.

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. In this work, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of two predicted leptospiral outer membrane proteins, LIC11469 and LIC11030. The LIC11469 protein is well conserved among leptospiral strains, while LIC11030 was identified only in Leptospira interrogans. We confirmed by surface proteolysis of intact leptospires with proteinase K that these proteins are most likely new surface leptospiral proteins. The recombinant proteins were evaluated for their capacity to attach to extracellular matrix (ECM) components and to plasminogen. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC11469, named Lsa20 (leptospiral surface adhesin of 20 kDa), binds to laminin and to plasminogen. The binding with both components was not detected when Lsa20 was previously denatured or blocked with anti-Lsa20 antibodies. Moreover, Lsa20 binding to laminin was also confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Laminin competes with plasminogen for binding to Lsa20, suggesting the same ligand-binding site. Lsa20-bound plasminogen could be converted to enzymatically active plasmin, capable of cleaving plasmin substrate d-valyl-leucyl-lysine-p-nitroanilide dihydrochloride. Lsa20 was recognized by antibodies in confirmed-leptospirosis serum samples, suggesting that this protein is expressed during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Lsa20 is a novel leptospiral adhesin that in concert with the host-derived plasmin may help the bacteria to adhere and to spread through the hosts. PMID:21844229

  20. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Streuli; Christian Schmidhauser; Nina Bailey; Peter Yurchenco; Amy P. N. Skubitz; Calvin Roskelley; Mina J. Bissell

    1995-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells

  1. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Zeynep; Duong, Frank L; Hawkes, Wayne C

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation, differentiation, and motility. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a highly conserved, diet-regulated 9kDa thioredoxin-like protein required for normal cell cycle progression. We report here that SEPW1 is required for EGF-induced EGFR activation and that it functions by suppressing EGFR ubiquitination and receptor degradation. SEPW1 depletion inhibited EGF-dependent cell cycle entry in breast and prostate epithelial cells. In prostate cells, SEPW1 depletion decreased EGFR auto-phosphorylation, while SEPW1 overexpression increased EGFR auto-phosphorylation. SEPW1 depletion increased the rate of EGFR degradation, which decreased total and surface EGFR and suppressed EGF-dependent EGFR endocytosis, EGFR dimer formation, and activation of EGF-dependent pathways. EGFR ubiquitination was increased in SEPW1-depleted cells - in agreement with the increased rate of EGFR degradation, and suggests that SEPW1 suppresses EGFR ubiquitination. Ubiquitination-directed lysozomal degradation controls post-translational EGFR expression and is dysregulated in many cancers. Thus, suppression of EGFR ubiquitination by SEPW1 may be related to the putative increase in cancer risk associated with high selenium intakes. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying SEPW1's regulation of EGFR ubiquitination may reveal new opportunities for nutritional cancer prevention or cancer drug development. PMID:25721765

  2. Short Laminin Peptide for Improved Neural Stem Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Josey, Benjamin; Chou, C. James; Tan, Yu; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) are very difficult to culture and require human or animal source extracellular matrix molecules, such as laminin or collagen type IV, to support attachment and to regulate their survival and proliferation. These extracellular matrix molecules are difficult to purify from human or animal tissues, have high batch-to-batch variability, and may cause an immune response if used in clinical applications. Although several laminin- and collagen IV-derived peptides are commercially available, they do not support long-term hNSC attachment and growth. To solve this problem, we developed a novel peptide sequence with only 12 amino acids based on the Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val, or IKVAV, sequence: Ac-Cys-Cys-Arg-Arg-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val-Trp-Leu-Cys. This short peptide sequence, similar to tissue-derived full laminin molecules, supported hNSCs to attach and proliferate to confluence for continuous passage and subculture. This short peptide also directed hNSCs to differentiate into neurons. When conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels, this short peptide benefited hNSC attachment and proliferation on the surface of hydrogels and promoted cell migration inside the hydrogels with maximum enhancement at a peptide density of 10 ?M. This novel short peptide shows great promise in artificial niche development for supporting hNSC culture in vitro and in vivo and for promoting hNSC transplantation in future clinical therapy. PMID:24692587

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid-dependent activation of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Makino, I

    1992-10-30

    Therapeutic effectiveness of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for primary biliary cirrhosis strongly indicates that UDCA possesses immunomodulatory activities. In order to further investigate mechanical background of such UDCA action, we first asked whether UDCA modulates glucocorticoid-mediated signal transduction. Using electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, we demonstrated that treatment with UDCA promoted the specific complex formation between the cytosol protein and the glucocorticoid-response element DNA in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro, and also nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in vivo. Gene transfer experiments revealed that UDCA induced cellular CAT activities in a GR-dependent fashion, but rather weakly as compared to synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. PMID:1359888

  4. An Orphan Nuclear Receptor Activated by Pregnanes Defines a Novel Steroid Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Kliewer; John T. Moore; Laura Wade; Jeff L. Staudinger; Michael A. Watson; Stacey A. Jones; David D. McKee; Beverly B. Oliver; Timothy M. Willson; Rolf H. Zetterstrom; Thomas Perlmann; Jürgen M Lehmann

    1998-01-01

    Steroid hormones exert profound effects on differentiation, development, and homeostasis in higher eukaryotes through interactions with nuclear receptors. We describe a novel orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that is activated by naturally occurring steroids such as pregnenolone and progesterone, and synthetic glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. PXR exists as two isoforms, PXR.1 and PXR.2, that are differentially activated

  5. Liver X Receptors Regulate the Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor: Implications for the Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Nancy; Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Wang, Yonghong; Abel, Brent S.; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige

    2012-01-01

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS are steroid hormones that strongly influence intermediary carbohydrate metabolism by increasing the transcription rate of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, and suppress the immune system through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The liver X receptors (LXRs), on the other hand, bind to cholesterol metabolites, heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and regulate the cholesterol turnover, the hepatic glucose metabolism by decreasing the expression of G6Pase, and repress a set of inflammatory genes in immune cells. Since the actions of these receptors overlap with each other, we evaluated the crosstalk between the GR- and LXR-mediated signaling systems. Transient transfection-based reporter assays and gene silencing methods using siRNAs for LXRs showed that overexpression/ligand (GW3965) activation of LXRs/RXRs repressed GR-stimulated transactivation of certain glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-driven promoters in a gene-specific fashion. Activation of LXRs by GW3965 attenuated dexamethasone-stimulated elevation of circulating glucose in rats. It also suppressed dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in rats, mice and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, whereas endogenous, unliganded LXRs were required for dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In microarray transcriptomic analysis of rat liver, GW3965 differentially regulated glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of about 15% of endogenous glucocorticoid-responsive genes. To examine the mechanism through which activated LXRs attenuated GR transcriptional activity, we examined LXR?/RXR? binding to GREs. Endogenous LXR?/RXR? bound GREs and inhibited GR binding to these DNA sequences both in in vitro and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, while their recombinant proteins did so on classic or G6Pase GREs in gel mobility shift assays. We propose that administration of LXR agonists may be beneficial in glucocorticoid treatment- or stress-associated dysmetabolic states by directly and gene-specifically attenuating the transcriptional activity of the GR on glucose and/or lipid metabolism. PMID:22457708

  6. Acute Activation, Desensitization and Smoldering Activation of Human Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Campling, Barbara G.; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained “smoldering activation” occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human ?4?2, ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of ?4?2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The ?4?2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (?4?2)2?2 and (?4?2)2?4. The (?4?2)2?2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of ?4?2 AChRs, but full agonists on ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (?4?2)2?4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained. PMID:24244538

  7. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Campling, Barbara G; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human ?4?2, ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of ?4?2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The ?4?2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (?4?2)2?2 and (?4?2)2?4. The (?4?2)2?2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of ?4?2 AChRs, but full agonists on ?3?4 and ?7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (?4?2)2?4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained. PMID:24244538

  8. Laminin mediates tethering and spreading of colon cancer cells in physiological shear flow.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, J; Nagawa, H; Tsuno, N; Osada, T; Hatano, K; Sunami, E; Saito, H; Muto, T

    1999-08-01

    Under the physiological shear condition, cultured colon cancer cells bound to laminin (LM), but not to fibronectin or vitronectin. Most of the tethered cells did not roll, but arrested immediately and spread within 10-30 min on LM under the continuous presence of shear flow. The tethering of Colo201 was partially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to alpha6 integrin and a combination of mAbs to beta1 and beta4 integrins, but not by mAb to 67KD laminin receptor. Some Colo201 cells still tethered at 4 degrees C. This suggests that alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 integrins participate in Colo201 tethering on LM, although other non-integrin molecules play roles. In contrast, the spread of Colo201 was effectively inhibited by the mAbs to integrin alpha2, alpha6 and beta1 chains. The effect of anti-alpha2 plus anti-alpha6 mAbs was almost equal to anti-beta1, suggesting that Colo201 cells mainly use alpha2beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins for spreading on LM. When the cells were perfused on subconfluent endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured on LM, they did not tether on HUVEC but did on coated LM exposed at intercellular gap area. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LM abundantly existed in the cytosol of human portal and hepatic vein endothelial cells. These data suggest that LM can mediate from tethering to spreading of colon cancer cells under the blood flow and plays an essential role in haematogeneous metastasis. PMID:10471041

  9. Merosin, a tissue-specific basement membrane protein, is a laminin-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrig, K; Leivo, I; Argraves, W S; Ruoslahti, E; Engvall, E

    1990-01-01

    Merosin is a basement membrane-associated protein found in placenta, striated muscle, and peripheral nerve. A 3.6-kilobase merosin cDNA clone was isolated from a placental cDNA expression library. The clone contained a 3.4-kilobase open reading frame, the 3' portion of which includes protein sequences of proteolytic fragments of merosin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the merosin polypeptide was similar to that of the COOH-terminal region of the 400-kDa A chain of laminin. This part of laminin forms the large globule at the end of the long arm of the laminin cross and is thought to contain the neurite-promoting site and the major cell binding site(s) in laminin. The sequence identity between merosin and the laminin A chain in this region is nearly 40%. An antiserum against a synthetic peptide from the middle of the merosin cDNA sequence identified a 300-kDa polypeptide in placental extracts, indicating that the merosin polypeptide is similar in size to the laminin A chain. Intact merosin was isolated from placental extracts and shown to be covalently associated with the laminin B chains and to have a cross-like structure similar to that of laminin. The similarities between merosin and laminin show that both proteins are members of the same family of basement membrane proteins. Images PMID:2185464

  10. Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 Signaling in Activated Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Xie, Zhihua; Panas, Helen N.; Hoener, Marius C.; Vallender, Eric J.; Miller, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most research to date on Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) has focused on its role in the brain, it has been recognized since its discovery in 2001 that TAAR1 mRNA is expressed in peripheral tissues as well, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in non-neurological pathways. This study reports TAAR1 expression, signaling and functionality in rhesus monkey lymphocytes. We detected a high level of TAAR1 protein in immortalized rhesus monkey B cell lines and a significant upregulation of TAAR1 protein expression in rhesus monkey lymphocytes following PHA treatment. Through screening a wide range of signaling pathways for their upregulation following TAAR1 activation by its potent agonist methamphetamine, we identified two transcription factors, CREB and NFAT, which are commonly associated with immune activation. Furthermore, we observed a TAAR1-dependent phosphorylation of PKA and PKC following treatment with methamphetamine in transfected HEK293 cells, immortalized rhesus monkey B cells and PHA-activated rhesus monkey lymphocytes. Accordingly, the high levels of TAAR1 that we observed on lymphocytes are inducible and fully functional, capable of transmitting a signal likely via PKA and PKC activation following ligand binding. More importantly, an increase in TAAR1 receptor expression is concomitant with lymphocyte immune activation, suggesting a possible role for TAAR1 in the generation or regulation of an immune response. TAAR1 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target, with regard to its ability to modulate brain monoamines. The current data raises the possibility that TAAR1-targeted drugs may also alter immune function. PMID:22038157

  11. Trace amine associated receptor 1 signaling in activated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Panas, Michael W; Xie, Zhihua; Panas, Helen N; Hoener, Marius C; Vallender, Eric J; Miller, Gregory M

    2012-12-01

    Although most research to date on Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) has focused on its role in the brain, it has been recognized since its discovery in 2001 that TAAR1 mRNA is expressed in peripheral tissues as well, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in non-neurological pathways. This study reports TAAR1 expression, signaling and functionality in rhesus monkey lymphocytes. We detected a high level of TAAR1 protein in immortalized rhesus monkey B cell lines and a significant upregulation of TAAR1 protein expression in rhesus monkey lymphocytes following PHA treatment. Through screening a wide range of signaling pathways for their upregulation following TAAR1 activation by its potent agonist methamphetamine, we identified two transcription factors, CREB and NFAT, which are commonly associated with immune activation. Furthermore, we observed a TAAR1-dependent phosphorylation of PKA and PKC following treatment with methamphetamine in transfected HEK293 cells, immortalized rhesus monkey B cells and PHA-activated rhesus monkey lymphocytes. Accordingly, the high levels of TAAR1 that we observed on lymphocytes are inducible and fully functional, capable of transmitting a signal likely via PKA and PKC activation following ligand binding. More importantly, an increase in TAAR1 receptor expression is concomitant with lymphocyte immune activation, suggesting a possible role for TAAR1 in the generation or regulation of an immune response. TAAR1 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target, with regard to its ability to modulate brain monoamines. The current data raises the possibility that TAAR1-targeted drugs may also alter immune function. PMID:22038157

  12. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  13. Oxidative Stress Can Activate the Epidermal Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B. Travers

    1999-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-glycerophosphocholine) is a lipid mediator that has been implicated in keratinocyte function and cutaneous inflammation. Keratinocytes both synthesize platelet-activating factor and express functional platelet-activating factor receptors linked to calcium mobilization. Oxidative stress to various cells including keratinocytes can also result in the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, a known stimulus for platelet-activating factor biosynthesis. The ability of the epidermal

  14. Platelet-derived growth factor-a receptor activation is required for human cytomegalovirus infection

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    LETTERS Platelet-derived growth factor-a receptor activation is required for human cytomegalovirus understood4 . Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor-a receptor (PDGFR-a) is specif- ically

  15. Depersonalization disorder may be related to glutamate receptor activation imbalance.

    PubMed

    Pikwer, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Low-dose ketamine administration mimics, both clinically and on gross neuroimaging, depersonalization disorder. The perceptual effects of ketamine may be due to secondary stimulation of glutamate release and lamotrigine, possibly by inhibited glutamate release, may reduce some of ketamine's so-called dissociative effects. However, lamotrigine does not seem to be useful in the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Glutamate release in prefrontal cortex is increased by subanaesthetic doses of ketamine, resulting in increased inhibition, possibly via intercalated GABAerg cells, of projections from amygdala, affecting structures critically involved in depersonalization. I speculate that, in depersonalization disorder, the increased glutamate activity in prefrontal cortex is due to intrinsic imbalance, resulting in long-term potentiation, at the postsynaptic glutamate receptors on the GABAerg interneurons while the same receptor abnormality at the synapses on the intercalated GABAerg cells of the amygdala result in long-term depression in the case of either normal or high glutamate release. PMID:21742442

  16. Cardiomyocyte lipids impair ?-adrenergic receptor function via PKC activation.

    PubMed

    Drosatos, Konstantinos; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Ikeda, Shota; Khan, Raffay; Hu, Yunying; Agarwal, Rajiv; Yu, Shuiqing; Jiang, Hongfeng; Steinberg, Susan F; Blaner, William S; Koch, Walter J; Goldberg, Ira J

    2011-03-01

    Normal hearts have increased contractility in response to catecholamines. Because several lipids activate PKCs, we hypothesized that excess cellular lipids would inhibit cardiomyocyte responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli. Cardiomyocytes treated with saturated free fatty acids, ceramide, and diacylglycerol had reduced cellular cAMP response to isoproterenol. This was associated with increased PKC activation and reduction of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) density. Pharmacological and genetic PKC inhibition prevented both palmitate-induced ?-AR insensitivity and the accompanying reduction in cell surface ?-ARs. Mice with excess lipid uptake due to either cardiac-specific overexpression of anchored lipoprotein lipase, PPAR?, or acyl-CoA synthetase-1 or high-fat diet showed reduced inotropic responsiveness to dobutamine. This was associated with activation of protein kinase C (PKC)? or PKC?. Thus, several lipids that are increased in the setting of lipotoxicity can produce abnormalities in ?-AR responsiveness. This can be attributed to PKC activation and reduced ?-AR levels. PMID:21139071

  17. An antiglycolipid antibody inhibits Madin-Darby canine kidney cell adhesion to laminin and interferes with basolateral polarization and tight junction formation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Epithelial cells polarize not only in response to cell-cell contacts, but also to contacts with a substratum composed of extracellular matrix molecules. To probe the role of specific matrix constituents in epithelial cell polarization, we investigated the effects of an adhesion-blocking mAb, 12B12, on initial polarization of MDCK cells. The 12B12 antibody, raised against whole MDCK cells, blocks adhesion to laminin by 65% but has no effect on adhesion of cells to collagen type I. Taking advantage of this antibody's function-blocking activity, as well as the fact that MDCK cells secrete laminin, the role of endogenous laminin in polarization was examined by plating cells on collagen-coated substrata in the presence of the antibody. Under these conditions, cell spreading was reduced 1.5h after plating, and cells were flatter and had fewer microvilli after 24 h. Even though lateral cell membranes were closely apposed, transepithelial resistance in the presence of the antibody was significantly reduced relative to controls. When the polarization of specific apical and basolateral markers was examined both biochemically and immunocytochemically in the presence of the antibody, we observed that the apical marker polarized at normal rates while basolateral markers did not. Surprisingly, the 12B12 antibody was not directed against any known cell adhesion protein but reacted specifically with Forssman antigen, a glycosphingolipid. These results suggest that glycolipids may play a significant role in cell adhesion via laminin and in epithelial cell polarization. PMID:8636242

  18. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARa) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor activation induces 11-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 activity in human alternative macrophages

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor activation induces 11-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 activity in human alternative macrophages Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi 1,2,3,4* , Mohamed Amine;32(3):677-85" DOI : 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.241364 #12;2 Abstract Objectives - 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1

  20. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. PMID:25970033

  1. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Tanaka, Naoki [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan) and Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)]. E-mail: naopi@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Nakajima, Takero [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Kamijo, Yuji [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  3. D-Serine Regulation of NMDA Receptor Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Herman Wolosker (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology; Department of Biochemistry REV)

    2006-10-10

    The N-Methyl-D-aspartate–type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in several important processes involving the nervous system, including brain development, synaptic plasticity, and learning. Unlike other neurotransmitter receptors, which are activated by individual neurotransmitters, activation of NMDARs requires the binding of a coagonist (D-serine or glycine) in addition to glutamate. Although previously considered an "unnatural" amino acid, D-serine is a key regulator of NMDAR activity and may be the main physiological ligand at the coagonist site. D-Serine is synthesized in the mammalian brain and is enriched in astrocytes, a class of glial cells that ensheath synapses in the brain. Astrocytes physiologically affect NMDAR neurotransmission by releasing D-serine, suggesting that D-serine acts as a gliotransmitter. However, recent findings indicate that D-serine signaling does not depend solely on glia, because D-serine and its biosynthetic enzyme are also present in substantial amounts in neurons. Here, we discuss these new findings, which begin to shed light on the relative roles of glia and neurons in D-serine signaling.

  4. Activity of lingual, laryngeal and oesophageal receptors in conscious sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Falempin, M; Rousseau, J P

    1984-01-01

    Vagal afferent impulse traffic has been studied in conscious sheep by electromyographic recording from the motor units of the sterno-cleido-mastoid (s.c.m.) muscle reinnervated by sensory vagal axons. Units which responded during movements of the tongue and during the pharyngolaryngeal and oesophageal stages of swallowing were chosen for this study. Lingual units showed a phasic discharge bearing a temporal relation to movements of the tongue during licking of the lips or chewing of a bolus before swallowing. Laryngeal units had no spontaneous activity. A discharge occurred with the ascending movement of the larynx during swallowing. Oesophageal units did not exhibit any tonic activity. They fired only at the time of primary or secondary oesophageal peristalsis. The oesophageal units showed a bimodal distribution. The oesophageal receptors are more concentrated at the beginning and the end of the thoracic oesophagus. During primary peristalsis, the afferent discharge was reinforced in only 57% of the cases when sheep swallowed a bolus (pellets or inflated balloons). When the discharge was reinforced, its increase ceased as volumes of the bolus were increased from 20 to 40 ml. During local oesophageal contractions, the afferent discharge was only present when the inflated balloon was located at the site of the receptor. It was enhanced at the time the primary peristaltic wave passed over the balloon. Inflation of a second balloon cranially in the oesophagus led to abolition of the activity of the unit at the caudal site though the distension there was maintained. PMID:6707965

  5. Resolvin E1 receptor activation signals phosphorylation and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Taisuke; Arita, Makoto; Omori, Kazuhiro; Recchiuti, Antonio; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Serhan, Charles N

    2010-01-29

    Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid that regulates leukocyte migration and enhances macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils to resolve inflammation. In the inflammatory milieu, RvE1 mediates counter-regulatory actions initiated via specific G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we have identified RvE1-specific signaling pathways initiated by the RvE1 receptor ChemR23. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that was both ligand- and receptor-dependent. RvE1 regulated Akt phosphorylation in a time (0-15 min)- and dose-dependent (0.01-100 nm) manner in human ChemR23-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of both Akt and a 30-kDa protein, a downstream target of Akt, identified using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody. The 30-kDa protein was identified as ribosomal protein S6, a translational regulator, and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) but not by a p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Ribosomal protein S6 is a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as well as the Raf/ERK pathway. In ChemR23-expressing differentiated HL60 cells, RvE1 also stimulated the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. In addition, RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan A by human macrophages, which are inhibited by PD98059 and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). These results indicate that RvE1 initiates direct activation of ChemR23 and signals receptor-dependent phosphorylation. These phosphorylation-signaling pathways identified for RvE1 receptor-ligand interactions underscore the importance of endogenous pro-resolving agonists in resolving acute inflammation. PMID:19906641

  6. In Vitro Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor ? by Some Extracts from Food Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHE-YI CHAO; CHING-jANG HUANG

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport. Activators of PPAR? may be potential hypolipidemic agents, like the fibrate-type drugs. This study was therefore aimed at identifying potential hypolipidemic functional foods by screening activators of PPAR? from food materials. CHO-K1 cells were stably transfected with

  7. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor   by Substituted Urea-Derived Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Fang; Shanming Hu; Takaho Watanabe; Neal L. Weintraub; Gary D. Snyder; Jianrong Yao; Yi Liu; John Y.-J. Shyy; Bruce D. Hammock; Arthur A. Spector

    2005-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a major role in regulating vascular epoxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolism and function, and substituted urea derivatives that inhibit sEH activity reduce blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We found that substituted urea derivatives containing a dodecanoic acid group, besides effectively inhibiting sEH, increased peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor (PPAR) activity. In PPAR transfected COS-7 cells, treatment with 10

  8. A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiarlone, Anna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Blázquez, Cristina; Resel, Eva; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Cannich, Astrid; Ferrero, José J.; Sagredo, Onintza; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julián; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Lutz, Beat; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmán, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24843137

  9. The Environmental Estrogen, Nonylphenol, Activates the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Juan P.; Huang, Wendong; Chapman, Laura M.; Chua, Steven; Moore, David D.; Baldwin, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) and its parent compounds, the nonylphenol ethoxylates are some of the most prevalent chemicals found in U.S. waterways. NP is also resistant to biodegradation and is a known environmental estrogen, which makes NP a chemical of concern. Our data show that NP also activates the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), an orphan nuclear receptor important in the induction of detoxification enzymes, including the P450s. Transactivation assays demonstrate that NP increases murine CAR (mCAR) transcriptional activity, and NP treatment can overcome the inhibitory effects of the inverse agonist, androstanol, on mCAR activation. Treatment of wild-type (CAR +/+) mice with NP at 50 or 75 mg/kg/day increases Cyp2b protein expression in a dose-dependent manner as demonstrated by Western blotting, and was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR of Cyp2b10 transcript levels. CAR-null (CAR ?/?) mice show no increased expression of Cyp2b following NP treatment, indicating that CAR is required for NP-mediated Cyp2b induction. In addition, NP increases the translocation of CAR into the nucleus, which is the key step in the commencement of CAR's transcriptional activity. NP also induced CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes, and increased Cyp2b10 messenger RNA and protein expression in humanized CAR mice, indicating that NP is an activator of human CAR as well. In conclusion, NP is a CAR activator, and this was demonstrated in vitro with transactivation assays and in vivo with transgenic CAR mouse models. PMID:17483497

  10. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-?-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to natural sex differentiation, during sex inversion treatments, androgens, either endogenous or exogenous, participate in inducing testicular differentiation. PMID:24815887

  11. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J.; Shyy, John Y.-J.; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-? and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics. PMID:23878263

  12. Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Protect Human Skin from Ultraviolet-B-Light-Induced Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Kippenberger; Stefan Marcel Loitsch; Marcella Grundmann-Kollmann; Stephanie Simon; Tu-Anh Dang; Katja Hardt-Weinelt; Roland Kaufmann; August Bernd

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, which were initially described in the context of fatty acid degradation and adipocyte differentiation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation also controls inflammation. In an in vitro model with human keratinocytes inflammation was mimicked by irradiation with ultraviolet B light (150 mJ per

  13. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  14. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-04-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  15. The Mechanism of Ligand-Induced Activation or Inhibition of ?- and ?-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuguang; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Peng, Qian; Kolinski, Michal; Vogel, Horst; Filipek, Slawomir

    2015-06-22

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important targets for treating severe diseases. However why certain molecules act as activators whereas others, with similar structures, block GPCR activation, is poorly understood since the same molecule can activate one receptor subtype while blocking another closely related receptor. To shed light on these central questions, we used all-atom, long-time-scale molecular dynamics simulations on the ?-opioid and ?-opioid receptors (?OR and ?OR). We found that water molecules penetrating into the receptor interior mediate the activating versus blocking effects of a particular ligand-receptor interaction. Both the size and the flexibility of the bound ligand regulated water influx into the receptor. The solvent-accessible inner surface area was found to be a parameter that can help predict the function of the bound ligand. PMID:25968837

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Activation Elicits Sustained, Recurring Depolarizations in Reticulospinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Smetana, R. W.; Alford, S.; Dubuc, R.

    2008-01-01

    In lampreys, brain stem reticulospinal (RS) neurons constitute the main descending input to the spinal cord and activate the spinal locomotor central pattern generators. Cholinergic nicotinic inputs activate RS neurons, and consequently, induce locomotion. Cholinergic muscarinic agonists also induce locomotion when applied to the brain stem of birds. This study examined whether bath applications of muscarinic agonists could activate RS neurons and initiate motor output in lampreys. Bath applications of 25 ?M muscarine elicited sustained, recurring depolarizations (mean duration of 5.0 ± 0.5 s recurring with a mean period of 55.5 ± 10.3 s) in intracellularly recorded rhombencephalic RS neurons. Calcium imaging experiments revealed that muscarine induced oscillations in calcium levels that occurred synchronously within the RS neuron population. Bath application of TTX abolished the muscarine effect, suggesting the sustained depolarizations in RS neurons are driven by other neurons. A series of lesion experiments suggested the caudal half of the rhombencephalon was necessary. Microinjections of muscarine (75 ?M) or the muscarinic receptor (mAchR) antagonist atropine (1 mM) lateral to the rostral pole of the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus induced or prevented, respectively, the muscarinic RS neuron response. Cells immunoreactive for muscarinic receptors were found in this region and could mediate this response. Bath application of glutamatergic antagonists (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione/D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid) abolished the muscarine effect, suggesting that glutamatergic transmission is needed for the effect. Ventral root recordings showed spinal motor output coincides with RS neuron sustained depolarizations. We propose that unilateral mAchR activation on specific cells in the caudal rhombencephalon activates a circuit that generates synchronous sustained, recurring depolarizations in bilateral populations of RS neurons. PMID:17344371

  17. GFAP, FVIII\\/RAg, Laminin, and fibronectin in gliosarcomas: An immunohistochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schiffer; M. T. Giordana; A. Mauro; A. Migheli

    1984-01-01

    GFAP, Factor VIII\\/RAg, laminin, and fibronectin were immunohistochemically investigated in 15 glioblastomas and 15 gliosarcomas. GFAP was found variably positive in the glial areas. F VIII\\/RAg characterizes the endothelial cells and in gliosarcomas suggests the origin of the sarcomatous component from the endothelial proliferations. Laminin separates the two components and characterizes the inner and the outer basement membranes in the

  18. Upregulation of Gamma-2 Laminin-332 in the Mouse Ear Vesicant Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Sabourin, Carol L. K.; Lu, Shou-En; Sasaki, Takako; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.; Gordon, Marion K.; Riley, David J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Gerecke, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cell migration during wound healing is regulated in part by enzymatic processing of laminin-332 (formerly LN-5), a heterodimer formed from ?, ?, and ? polypeptide chains. Under static conditions, laminin-332 is secreted into the extracellular matrix as a proform and has two chains processed to smaller forms, allowing it to anchor epithelial cells to the basement membrane of the dermis. During incisional wounding, laminin ?2 chains in particular are processed to smaller sizes and function to promote epithelial sheet migration over the wound bed. The present study examines whether this same function occurs following chemical injury. The mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) was used to follow the pathology in the ear and test whether processed laminin-332 enhances epithelial cell migration. Skin biopsies of sulfur mustard (SM) exposed ears for several time points were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis. SM exposure greatly increased mRNA levels for laminin-?2 in comparison to the other two chains. Protein production of laminin-?2 was upregulated, and there was an increase in the processed forms. Protein production was in excess of the amount required to form heterotrimeric laminin-332 and was associated with the migrating epithelial sheet, suggesting a potential role in wound healing for monomeric laminin-?2. PMID:19526566

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE The cellular origin of laminin determines its role in blood pressure

    E-print Network

    - tinct functions. In addition to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), aorta also contains a small phenotype with reduced elasticity, whereas NKO SMCs switched to the synthetic phenotype and showed muscle cells Á Aorta Abbreviations BP Blood pressure Ctr Control F/F Laminin c1flox/flox SKO Laminin c1

  20. Sigma1 receptors modulate functional activity of rat splenocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhong Liu; Ben B. Whitlock; Joseph A. Pultz; Seth A. Wolfe

    1995-01-01

    Neuroleptics, opiates, and cocaine are commonly prescribed for or abused by humans. Although primarily used for their actions at other receptors in brain, these compounds also act at sigma receptors. We have previously identified sigma-1 receptors on human peripheral blood leukocytes and rat spleen, and in the present study we demonstrate a correlation between the pharmacology of these receptors and

  1. Identification of a nuclear receptor that is activated by farnesol metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry M Forman; Elizabeth Goode; Jasmine Chen; Anthony E Oro; David J Bradley; Thomas Perlmann; Daniel J Noonan; Leo T Burka; Trevor McMorris; William W Lamph; Ronald M Evans; Cary Weinberger

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional activities of steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormones. A growing number of related proteins have been identified that possess the structural features of hormone receptors, but that lack known ligands. Known as orphan receptors, these proteins represents targets for novel signaling molecules. We have isolated a mammalian

  2. Intracellular sigma 1 Receptor Modulates Phospholipase C and Protein Kinase C Activities in the Brainstem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Morin-Surun; T. Collin; M. Denavit-Saubie; E.-E. Baulieu; F. P. Monnet

    1999-01-01

    Most physiological effects of sigma 1 receptor ligands are sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting a coupling with cell membrane-bound G proteins. However, the cloning of the sigma 1 receptor has allowed the identification of an intracellular protein anchored on the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show, using the isolated adult guinea pig brainstem preparation, that activation of the sigma 1 receptor

  3. Absence of Constitutively Activating Mutations in the GHRH Receptor in GH-Producing Pituitary Tumors

    E-print Network

    Mayo, Kelly E.

    , such as hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas (TSH receptor) (3), familial male-limited preco- cious puberty (LH receptor) (4 activation to the receptors and result in cellular proliferation and increased hormone synthesis-secreting tumor was es- tablished by measurement of GH and IGF-1 and confirmed in all cases by positive

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: are they involved in atherosclerosis progression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Puddu; Giovanni M. Puddu; Antonio Muscari

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors present in several organs and cell types. They are subdivided into PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma and PPAR delta (or beta). PPAR alpha and gamma are the two main categories of these receptors, which are both characterized by their ability to influence lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as

  5. Agonist-activated ionic channels in acetylcholine receptor reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Boheim, G; Hanke, W; Barrantes, F J; Eibl, H; Sakmann, B; Fels, G; Maelicke, A

    1981-01-01

    Planar lipid bilayers were formed with the mixed chain phospholipid 1-stearoyl-3-myristolglycero-2-phosphocholine. Acetylcholine receptor membrane fragments or the purified receptor protein was incorporated into these bilayers by fusing receptor-containing vesicles with the planar membranes a few degrees below the lipid phase transition temperature. Single-channel currents activated by nicotinic agonists in the reconstituted system resembled those observed in intact rat and frog muscle membrane as measured by the patch clamp technique. The observed channel characteristics did not depend on the degree of receptor purification. Thus, the receptor-enriched fragments and those depleted of nonreceptor peripheral peptides, the purified receptor monomer/dimer mixtures, and the isolated receptor monomer as defined by gel electrophoresis all shared similar electrochemical properties in the synthetic lipid bilayer. The agonist-activated ionic channel seems, therefore, to be contained within the receptor monomer. PMID:6267599

  6. Smad3 allostery links TGF- receptor kinase activation to transcriptional control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Y. Qin; Suvana S. Lam; John J. Correia; Kai Lin

    Smad3 transduces the signals of TGF-s, coupling transmembrane receptor kinase activation to transcriptional control. The membrane-associated molecule SARA (Smad Anchor for Receptor Activation) recruits Smad3 for phosphorylation by the receptor kinase. Upon phosphorylation, Smad3 dissociates from SARA and enters the nucleus, in which its transcriptional activity can be repressed by Ski. Here, we show that SARA and Ski recognize specifically

  7. Profiling receptor tyrosine kinase activation by using Ab microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Cardone, Mike H.; Sinskey, Anthony J.; MacBeath, Gavin; Sorger, Peter K.

    2003-01-01

    Signal transduction in mammalian cells is mediated by complex networks of interacting proteins. Understanding these networks at a circuit level requires devices to measure the amounts and activities of multiple proteins in a rapid and accurate manner. Ab microarrays have previously been applied to the quantification of labeled recombinant proteins and proteins in serum. The development of methods to analyze intracellular signaling molecules on microarrays would make Ab arrays widely useful in systems biology. Here we describe the fabrication of multiplex Ab arrays sensitive to the amounts and modification states of signal transduction proteins in crude cell lysates and the integration of these arrays with 96-well microtiter plate technology to create microarrays in microplates. We apply the Ab arrays to monitoring the activation, uptake, and signaling of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases in human tumor cell lines. Data obtained from multicolor ratiometric microarrays correlate well with data obtained by using traditional approaches, but the arrays are faster and simpler to use. The integration of microplate and microarray methods for crude cell lysates should make it possible to identify and analyze small molecule inhibitors of signal transduction processes with unprecedented speed and precision. We demonstrate the future potential of this approach by characterizing the action of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor PD153035 on cells by using Ab arrays; direct scale-up to array-based screening in 96- and 384-well plates should allow small molecules to be identified with specific inhibitory profiles against a signaling network. PMID:12876202

  8. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Brown; Malika Fezoui; William M. Selig; Carl E. Schwartz; James L. Ellis

    2004-01-01

    1 Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and

  9. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha gene level differently

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic ; PPAR alpha ; agonists ; genetics-activated receptor-alpha gene level differently affects lipid metabolism and inflammation in apolipoprotein E2 knock-Activated Receptor (PPAR ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism

  10. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Rouvinen, J. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist regulation of glial activation: Relevance to CNS inflammatory disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Drew; Jihong Xu; Paul D. Storer; Janet A. Chavis; Michael K. Racke

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play key roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Recent studies indicated that PPARs are also capable of modulating immune responses. Microglia and astrocytes are cells resident to the central nervous system (CNS) that function to protect against environmental insults including pathogens. However, following CNS inflammation, reactive gliosis occurs which is characterized by astrocyte hypertrophy and increased

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha activation and its consequences in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Hertz; Jacob Bar-Tana

    1998-01-01

    Amphipathic carboxylates collectively defined as peroxisome proliferators (PP) induce in rodents a pleiotropic effect, mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Treatment with PP results in rodents in hypolipidemia, peroxisome proliferation and liver hypertrophy and hyperplasia leading to non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis. In contrast to rodents, the hypolipidemic effect exerted by PP in humans is not accompanied by peroxisome proliferation nor

  13. Activity Differentially Regulates the Surface Expression of Synaptic AMPA and NMDA Glutamate Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri V. Lissin; Stephen N. Gomperts; Reed C. Carroll; Chadwick W. Christine; Daniel Kalman; Marina Kitamura; Stephen Hardy; Roger A. Nicoll; Robert C. Malenka; Mark von Zastrow

    1998-01-01

    Distinct subtypes of glutamate receptors often are colocalized at individual excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain yet appear to subserve distinct functions. To address whether neuronal activity may differentially regulate the surface expression at synapses of two specific subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors we epitope-tagged an AMPA (alpha -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor subunit (GluR1) and an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor subunit (NR1)

  14. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Yang, C; Wang, Z J

    2011-10-13

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy is limited by a long-lasting painful neuropathy that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel may release mast cell tryptase, which activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and, subsequently, protein kinases A and C, resulting in mechanical and thermal (both heat and cold) hypersensitivity. Correlating with the development of neuropathy after repeated administration of paclitaxel, mast cell tryptase activity was found to be increased in the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and peripheral tissues in mice. FSLLRY-amide, a selective PAR2 antagonist, blocked paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain behaviors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, blocking downstream signaling pathways of PAR2, including phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C? (PKC), effectively attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical, heat, or cold hypersensitivity. Furthermore, sensitized pain response was selectively inhibited by antagonists of transient receptor potential (TRP) V1, TRPV4, or TRPA1. These results revealed specific cellular signaling pathways leading to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, including the activation of PAR2 and downstream enzymes PLC, PKC?, and PKA and resultant sensitization of TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for the treatment of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:21763756

  15. Cib2 Binds Integrin ?7B?1D and Is Reduced in Laminin ?2 Chain-deficient Muscular Dystrophy*S?

    PubMed Central

    Häger, Mattias; Bigotti, Maria Giulia; Meszaros, Renata; Carmignac, Virginie; Holmberg, Johan; Allamand, Valérie; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Brancaccio, Andrea; Mayer, Ulrike; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding laminin ?2 chain cause congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A. In skeletal muscle, laminin ?2 chain binds at least two receptor complexes: the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and integrin ?7?1. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder, we performed gene expression profiling of laminin ?2 chain-deficient mouse limb muscle. One of the down-regulated genes encodes a protein called Cib2 (calcium- and integrin-binding protein 2) whose expression and function is unknown. However, the closely related Cib1 has been reported to bind integrin ?IIb and may be involved in outside-in-signaling in platelets. Since Cib2 might be a novel integrin ?7?1-binding protein in muscle, we have studied Cib2 expression in the developing and adult mouse. Cib2 mRNA is mainly expressed in the developing central nervous system and in developing and adult skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, Cib2 colocalizes with the integrin ?7B subunit at the sarcolemma and at the neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions. Finally, we demonstrate that Cib2 is a calcium-binding protein that interacts with integrin ?7B?1D. Thus, our data suggest a role for Cib2 as a cytoplasmic effector of integrin ?7B?1D signaling in skeletal muscle. PMID:18611855

  16. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

  17. Selective Antibody Intervention of Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation through Fc ? Receptor Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Limin; Daubeuf, Bruno; Triantafilou, Martha; Olden, Robin; Dépis, Fabien; Raby, Anne-Catherine; Herren, Suzanne; Dos Santos, Anaelle; Malinge, Pauline; Dunn-Siegrist, Irene; Benmkaddem, Sanae; Geinoz, Antoine; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Rousseau, François; Buatois, Vanessa; Salgado-Pires, Susana; Reith, Walter; Monteiro, Renato; Pugin, Jérôme; Leger, Olivier; Ferlin, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Triantafilou, Kathy; Elson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is mediated mainly by leukocytes that express both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Fc ? receptors (Fc?R). Dysregulated activation of leukocytes via exogenous and endogenous ligands of TLR4 results in a large number of inflammatory disorders that underlie a variety of human diseases. Thus, differentially blocking inflammatory cells while sparing structural cells, which are Fc?R-negative, represents an elegant strategy when targeting the underlying causes of human diseases. Here, we report a novel tethering mechanism of the Fv and Fc portions of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies that achieves increased potency on inflammatory cells. In the presence of ligand (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), TLR4 traffics into glycolipoprotein microdomains, forming concentrated protein platforms that include Fc?Rs. This clustering produces a microenvironment allowing anti-TLR4 antibodies to co-engage TLR4 and Fc?Rs, increasing their avidity and thus substantially increasing their inhibitory potency. Tethering of antibodies to both TLR4 and Fc?Rs proves valuable in ameliorating inflammation in vivo. This novel mechanism of action therefore has the potential to enable selective intervention of relevant cell types in TLR4-driven diseases. PMID:24737331

  18. Fetal epidermal differentiation and barrier development In vivo is accelerated by nuclear hormone receptor activators.

    PubMed

    Hanley, K; Kömüves, L G; Bass, N M; He, S S; Jiang, Y; Crumrine, D; Appel, R; Friedman, M; Bettencourt, J; Min, K; Elias, P M; Williams, M L; Feingold, K R

    1999-11-01

    Nuclear receptors which interact with the retinoid X receptor are involved in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and development. We have recently shown that activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and of the farnesoid X-activated receptor accelerate epidermal barrier maturation in fetal rat skin in vitro. In this study we asked whether cutaneous development in utero was affected by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor or farnesoid X-activated receptor activators, or by an activator of another retinoid X receptor partner, liver X receptor. Activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (clofibrate or linoleic acid), farnesoid X-activated receptor (farnesol or juvenile hormone III), or liver X receptor (22R-hydroxycholesterol), were injected into the amniotic fluid of fetal rats on gestational day 17. Fetal epidermal barrier function and morphology was assessed on day 19. Whereas vehicle-treated fetal rats displayed no measurable barrier (transepidermal water loss > 10 mg per cm2 per h), a measurable barrier was induced by the intra-amniotic administration of all activators tested (transepidermal water loss range 4.0-8.5 mg per cm2 per h). By light microscopy, control pups lacked a well-defined stratum corneum, whereas a distinct stratum corneum and a thickened stratum granulosum were present in treated pups. By electron microscopy, the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum in control pups revealed a paucity of mature lamellar unit structures, whereas these structures filled the stratum corneum interstices in treated pups. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of loricrin and filaggrin, two structural proteins of stratum corneum, were increased in treated epidermis, as were the activities of two lipid catabolic enzymes critical to stratum corneum function, beta-glucocerebrosidase and steroid sulfatase. Finally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -delta and liver X receptor-alpha and -beta mRNAs were detected in fetal epidermis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and northern analyses. The presence of these receptors and the ability of their activators to stimulate epidermal barrier and stratum corneum development suggest a physiologic role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and liver X receptor and their endogenous ligands in the regulation of cutaneous development. PMID:10571735

  19. Protein Profiling of Mouse Livers with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor   Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiyin Chu; Hanjo Lim; Laura Brumfield; Hong Liu; Chris Herring; Peter Ulintz; Janardan K. Reddy; Matthew Davison

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleio- tropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with

  20. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? activity to regulate energy metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenxian Wang; Chi-Wai Wong

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription\\u000a factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1? at\\u000a serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors\\u000a that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we

  1. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Is Coupled to Enhancement of Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channel Currents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Mok

    2013-01-01

    The calcium-activated K+ (BKCa) channel is one of the potassium-selective ion channels that are present in the nervous and vascular systems. Ca2+ is the main regulator of BKCa channel activation. The BKCa channel contains two high affinity Ca2+ binding sites, namely, regulators of K+ conductance, RCK1 and the Ca2+ bowl. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 1-radyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate) is one of the neurolipids. LPA affects diverse cellular functions on many cell types through G protein-coupled LPA receptor subtypes. The activation of LPA receptors induces transient elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels through diverse G proteins such as G?q/11, G?i, G?12/13, and G?s and the related signal transduction pathway. In the present study, we examined LPA effects on BKCa channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes, which are known to endogenously express the LPA receptor. Treatment with LPA induced a large outward current in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, repeated treatment with LPA induced a rapid desensitization, and the LPA receptor antagonist Ki16425 blocked LPA action. LPA-mediated BKCa channel activation was also attenuated by the PLC inhibitor U-73122, IP3 inhibitor 2-APB, Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, or PKC inhibitor calphostin. In addition, mutations in RCK1 and RCK2 also attenuated LPA-mediated BKCa channel activation. The present study indicates that LPA-mediated activation of the BKCa channel is achieved through the PLC, IP3, Ca2+, and PKC pathway and that LPA-mediated activation of the BKCa channel could be one of the biological effects of LPA in the nervous and vascular systems. PMID:23776399

  2. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  3. The Structure of the GM-CSF Receptor Complex Reveals a Distinct Mode of Cytokine Receptor Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; McClure, Barbara J.; Stomski, Frank C.; Dottore, Mara; Powell, Jason; Ramshaw, Hayley; Woodcock, Joanna M.; Xu, Yibin; Guthridge, Mark; McKinstry, William J.; Lopez, Angel F.; Parker, Michael W. (SVIMR-A); (Hanson)

    2008-08-11

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers therapeutic value for other diseases. Its receptors are heterodimers consisting of a ligand-specific {alpha} subunit and a {beta}c subunit that is shared with the interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 receptors. How signaling is initiated remains an enigma. We report here the crystal structure of the human GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor ternary complex and its assembly into an unexpected dodecamer or higher-order complex. Importantly, mutagenesis of the GM-CSF receptor at the dodecamer interface and functional studies reveal that dodecamer formation is required for receptor activation and signaling. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics.

  4. Domains for activation and inactivation in G protein-coupled receptors--a mutational analysis of constitutive activity of the adenosine A2B receptor.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Miriam C; Li, Qilan; Elands, Rachel; van Westen, Gerard J P; Lenselink, Eelke B; Müller, Christa E; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-11-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major drug target and can be activated by a range of stimuli, from photons to proteins. Most, if not all, GPCRs also display a basal level of biological response in the absence of such a stimulus. This level of so-called constitutive activity results from a delicate energy equilibrium that exists between the active and the inactive state of the receptor and is the first determinant in the GPCR activation mechanism. Here we describe new insights in specific regions of the adenosine A2B receptor that are essential in activation and inactivation. We developed a new screening method using the MMY24 S. Cerevisiae strain by which we were able to screen for constitutively inactive mutants receptors (CIMs). We applied this screening method on a mutagenic library of the adenosine A2B receptor, where random mutations were introduced in transmembrane domains four and five (TM4 and TM5) linked by extracellular loop 2 (EL2). The screen resulted in the identification of 22 single and double mutant receptors, all showing a decrease in constitutive activity as well as in agonist potency. By comparing these results with a previous screen of the same mutagenic library for constitutively active mutant receptors (CAMs), we discovered specific regions in this G protein-coupled receptor involved in either inactivation or activation or both. The results suggest the activation mechanism of GPCRs to be much less restricted to sites of high conservation or direct interaction with the ligand or G protein and illustrate how dynamic the activation process of GPCRs is. PMID:25179146

  5. Factors Influencing Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores via Activation of Nutrient Receptors by High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Black, Elaine P.; Koziol-Dube, Kasia; Guan, Dongsheng; Wei, Jie; Setlow, Barbara; Cortezzo, Donnamaria E.; Hoover, Dallas G.; Setlow, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Different nutrient receptors varied in triggering germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with a pressure of 150 MPa, the GerA receptor being more responsive than the GerB receptor and even more responsive than the GerK receptor. This hierarchy in receptor responsiveness to pressure was the same as receptor responsiveness to a mixture of nutrients. The levels of nutrient receptors influenced rates of pressure germination, since the GerA receptor is more abundant than the GerB receptor and elevated levels of individual receptors increased spore germination by 150 MPa of pressure. However, GerB receptor variants with relaxed specificity for nutrient germinants responded as well as the GerA receptor to this pressure. Spores lacking dipicolinic acid did not germinate with this pressure, and pressure activation of the GerA receptor required covalent addition of diacylglycerol. However, pressure activation of the GerB and GerK receptors displayed only a partial (GerB) or no (GerK) diacylglycerylation requirement. These effects of receptor diacylglycerylation on pressure germination are similar to those on nutrient germination. Wild-type spores prepared at higher temperatures germinated more rapidly with a pressure of 150 MPa than spores prepared at lower temperatures; this was also true for spores with only one receptor, but receptor levels did not increase in spores made at higher temperatures. Changes in inner membrane unsaturated fatty acid levels, lethal treatment with oxidizing agents, or exposure to chemicals that inhibit nutrient germination had no major effect on spore germination by 150 MPa of pressure, except for strong inhibition by HgCl2. PMID:16204500

  6. Factors influencing germination of Bacillus subtilis spores via activation of nutrient receptors by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Black, Elaine P; Koziol-Dube, Kasia; Guan, Dongsheng; Wei, Jie; Setlow, Barbara; Cortezzo, Donnamaria E; Hoover, Dallas G; Setlow, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Different nutrient receptors varied in triggering germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with a pressure of 150 MPa, the GerA receptor being more responsive than the GerB receptor and even more responsive than the GerK receptor. This hierarchy in receptor responsiveness to pressure was the same as receptor responsiveness to a mixture of nutrients. The levels of nutrient receptors influenced rates of pressure germination, since the GerA receptor is more abundant than the GerB receptor and elevated levels of individual receptors increased spore germination by 150 MPa of pressure. However, GerB receptor variants with relaxed specificity for nutrient germinants responded as well as the GerA receptor to this pressure. Spores lacking dipicolinic acid did not germinate with this pressure, and pressure activation of the GerA receptor required covalent addition of diacylglycerol. However, pressure activation of the GerB and GerK receptors displayed only a partial (GerB) or no (GerK) diacylglycerylation requirement. These effects of receptor diacylglycerylation on pressure germination are similar to those on nutrient germination. Wild-type spores prepared at higher temperatures germinated more rapidly with a pressure of 150 MPa than spores prepared at lower temperatures; this was also true for spores with only one receptor, but receptor levels did not increase in spores made at higher temperatures. Changes in inner membrane unsaturated fatty acid levels, lethal treatment with oxidizing agents, or exposure to chemicals that inhibit nutrient germination had no major effect on spore germination by 150 MPa of pressure, except for strong inhibition by HgCl2. PMID:16204500

  7. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 modulates dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Lothar; Meyer, Claas Aiko; Jeanneau, Karine; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Ozmen, Laurence; Bluethmann, Horst; Bettler, Bernhard; Wettstein, Joseph G; Borroni, Edilio; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C

    2008-03-01

    The recent identification of the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR)1 provides an opportunity to dissociate the effects of trace amines on the dopamine transporter from receptor-mediated effects. To separate both effects on a physiological level, a Taar1 knockout mouse line was generated. Taar1 knockout mice display increased sensitivity to amphetamine as revealed by enhanced amphetamine-triggered increases in locomotor activity and augmented striatal release of dopamine compared with wild-type animals. Under baseline conditions, locomotion and extracellular striatal dopamine levels were similar between Taar1 knockout and wild-type mice. Electrophysiological recordings revealed an elevated spontaneous firing rate of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of Taar1 knock-out mice. The endogenous TAAR1 agonist p-tyramine specifically decreased the spike frequency of these neurons in wild-type but not in Taar1 knockout mice, consistent with the prominent expression of Taar1 in the ventral tegmental area. Taken together, the data reveal TAAR1 as regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:18083911

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- ? in Thyroid Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) ? expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-? agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-? agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  9. Determinants of the Heightened Activity of Glucocorticoid Receptor Translational Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Ingrid K.; Cao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Translational isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor ? (GR-A, -B, -C1, -C2, -C3, -D1, -D2, and -D3) have distinct tissue distribution patterns and unique gene targets. The GR-C3 isoform-expressing cells are more sensitive to glucocorticoid killing than cells expressing other GR? isoforms and the GR-D isoform–expressing cells are resistant to glucocorticoid killing. Whereas a lack of activation function 1 (AF1) may underlie the reduced activity of the GR-D isoforms, it is not clear how the GR-C3 isoform has heightened activity. Mutation analyses and N-terminal tagging demonstrated that steric hindrance is probably the mechanism for the GR-A, -B, -C1, and -C2 isoforms to have lower activity than the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, truncation scanning analyses revealed that residues 98 to 115 are critical in the hyperactivity of the human GR-C3 isoform. Chimera constructs linking this critical fragment with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain showed that GR residues 98 to 115 do not contain any independent transactivation activity. Mutations at residues Asp101 or Gln106 and Gln107 all reduced the activity of the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, functional studies indicated that Asp101 is crucial for the GR-C3 isoform to recruit coregulators and to mediate glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Thus, charged and polar residues are essential components of an N-terminal motif that enhances the activity of AF1 and the GR-C3 isoform. These studies, together with the observations that GR isoforms have cell-specific expression patterns, provide a molecular basis for the tissue-specific functions of GR translational isoforms. PMID:23820903

  10. Dietary flavonoids activate the constitutive androstane receptor CAR

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ruiquing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Tateishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is known as a xeno-sensor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic excretion and energy metabolism. This study tested a variety of polyphenols for their ability to modulate CAR activity. HepG2 cells were transfected with a CAR expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid containing the human CYP2B6 regulatory region and then treated with flavonoids, catechins and other bioactive polyphenols. Luciferase assays revealed that baicalein (5, 6, 7-OH flavone) was a potent activator of both human and mouse CAR. Catechin gallates also activated human and mouse CAR. Wild-type and CAR knockout mice were treated with baicalein and chrysin (5, 7-OH flavone), and their liver mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR. A significant increase in cyp2b10 mRNA content was observed only in wild-type mice fed chrysin. These results suggest that dietary flavonoids regulate CAR activity and thereby accelerate both detoxification and energy metabolism. PMID:20099825

  11. Negative Modulation of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Daxx

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ding-Yen; Fang, Hsin-I; Ma, Ai-Hong; Huang, Yen-Sung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Jenster, Guido; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Shih, Hsiu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) modulated by positive or negative regulators plays a critical role in controlling the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Although numerous positive regulators have been identified, negative regulators of AR are less well understood. We report here that Daxx functions as a negative AR coregulator through direct protein-protein interactions. Overexpression of Daxx suppressed AR-mediated promoter activity in COS-1 and LNCaP cells and AR-mediated prostate-specific antigen expression in LNCaP cells. Conversely, downregulation of endogenous Daxx expression by RNA interference enhances androgen-induced prostate-specific antigen expression in LNCaP cells. In vitro and in vivo interaction studies revealed that Daxx binds to both the amino-terminal and the DNA-binding domain of the AR. Daxx proteins interfere with the AR DNA-binding activity both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, sumoylation of AR at its amino-terminal domain is involved in Daxx interaction and trans-repression. Together, these findings not only provide a novel role of Daxx in controlling AR transactivation activity but also uncover the mechanism underlying sumoylation-dependent transcriptional repression of the AR. PMID:15572661

  12. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Equipped with Estrogen Receptor Modulation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Rood, Michael K.; Johnson, Kenyetta A.; Patil, Vishal; Raftery, Eric D.; Yao, Li-Pan D.; Rice, Marcie; Azizi, Bahareh; Doyle, Donald F.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    We described a set of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) equipped with either an antagonist or an agonist of the estrogen receptor (ER) to confer selective activity against breast cancers. These bifunctional compounds potently inhibit HDAC at nanomolar concentrations, and either agonize or antagonize ER? and ER?. The ER antagonist activities of tamoxifen-HDACi conjugates (Tam-HDACi) are nearly identical to those of tamoxifen. Conversely, ethynyl-estradiol HDACi conjugates (EED-HDACi) have attenuated ER agonist activities relative to the parent ethynyl-estradiol. In silico docking analysis provides structural basis for the trends of ER agonism/antagonism and ER subtype selectivity. Excitingly, lead Tam-HDACi conjugates show anticancer activity that is selectively more potent against MCF-7 (ER? positive breast) compared to MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer), DU145 (prostate cancer) or Vero (non-cancerous cell line). This dual-targeting approach illustrates the utility of designing small molecules with an emphasis on cell-type selectivity, not merely improved potency, working towards a higher therapeutic index at the earliest stages of drug development. PMID:23786452

  13. Utilizing Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Direct Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, David L.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent an attractive lymphocyte population for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to lyse tumor targets without prior sensitization and without need for human leukocyte antigens-matching. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are able to enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies. CARs consist of an external recognition domain (typically a small chain variable fragment) directed at a specific tumor antigen that is linked with one or more intracellular signaling domains that mediate lymphocyte activation. Most CAR studies have focused on their expression in T cells. However, use of CARs in NK cells is starting to gain traction because they provide a method to redirect these cells more specifically to target refractory cancers. CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated using NK cell lines, as well as NK cells isolated from peripheral blood, and NK cells produced from human pluripotent stem cells. This review will outline the CAR constructs that have been reported in NK cells with a focus on comparing the use of different signaling domains in combination with other co-activating domains. PMID:25972867

  14. ERK kinase inhibition stabilizes the aryl hydrocarbon receptor: implications for transcriptional activation and protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Operaña, Theresa; Bonzo, Jessica; Nguyen, Nghia; Tukey, Robert H

    2005-02-11

    The ultimate carcinogen and metabolite of benzo-[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol, benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide (+/-), stimulates apoptosis, and this process can be blocked by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) kinase inhibitors. However, we show here that Erk kinase inhibitors were unable to prevent B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-induced apoptosis, leading us to speculate that Erk kinases are linked to regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Cotreatment of hepa1c1c7 cells with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Erk kinase inhibitor PD98059, U0126, or SL327 led to enhanced nuclear accumulation of Ah receptor but with a reduced capacity to complement TCDD induction of Cyp1a1. This is explained in part by the ability of Erk kinase inhibitors to alter the steady-state levels of cellular Ah receptor, a result that leads to a dramatic induction in detectable receptor levels. These changes in cellular Ah receptor levels are associated with delayed degradation of the Ah receptor because TCDD-initiated degradation is reversed when cells are co-treated with TCDD and Erk kinase inhibitors. Erk kinase is linked to Ah receptor expression, as demonstrated by reductions in total Ah receptor levels after overexpression of constitutively active MEK1. In addition, Erk kinase activity modulates the transcriptional response because MEK1 overexpression enhances TCDD-initiated transactivation potential of the receptor. Thus, Erk kinase activity facilitates ligand-initiated transcriptional activation while targeting the Ah receptor for degradation. Immunoprecipitation experiments of the Ah receptor indicate that Erk kinase activity is associated with the receptor. It is interesting that the carboxyl region of the Ah receptor is associated with the transactivation region as well as the site for ubiquitination, indicating that Erk kinase-dependent phosphorylation targets the carboxyl region of the receptor. PMID:15572374

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Activators Inhibit Gene Expression and Migration in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Marx; Uwe Schonbeck; Mitchell A. Lazar; Peter Libby; Jorge Plutzky

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherogenesis and restenosis after arterial interventions. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, contributes to VSMC migration. This process requires degradation of basal laminae and other components of the arterial extracellular matrix. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear receptor family, regulate gene expression after activation

  16. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  17. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha ¿(PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  18. MAPK/ERK-Dependent Translation Factor Hyperactivation and Dysregulated Laminin ?2 Expression in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Martin; Natarajan, Easwar; Barron, Patricia; Widlund, Hans R.; Rheinwald, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Lesions displaying a variety of dysplastic changes precede invasive oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, there are no histopathological criteria for either confirming or staging premalignancy. SCCs and dysplasias frequently contain cells that abnormally express the ?2 subunit of laminin-332. We developed cell culture models to investigate ?2 dysregulation. Normal human keratinocytes displayed density-dependent repression of ?2, whereas premalignant keratinocytes and SCC cells overexpressed ?2 and secreted laminin assembly intermediates. Neoplastic cells had hyperactive EGFR/MAPK(ERK) signaling coordinate with overexpressed ?2, and EGFR and MEK inhibitors normalized ?2 expression. Keratinocytes engineered to express HPV16 E6 or activated mutant HRAS, cRAF1, or MEK1 lost density repression of ?2 and shared with neoplastic cells signaling abnormalities downstream of ERK, including increased phosphorylation of S6 and eIF4 translation factors. Notably, qPCR results revealed that ?2 overexpression was not accompanied by increased ?2 mRNA levels, consistent with ERK-dependent, eIF4B-mediated translation initiation of the stem-looped, 5?-untranslated region of ?2 mRNA in neoplastic cells. Inhibitors of MEK, but not of TORC1/2, blocked S6 and eIF4B phosphorylation and ?2 overexpression. Immunostaining of oral dysplasias identified ?2 overexpression occurring within fields of basal cells that had elevated p-S6 levels. These results reveal a causal relationship between ERK-dependent translation factor activation and laminin ?2 dysregulation and identify new markers of preinvasive neoplastic change during progression to SCC. PMID:22546478

  19. IgG autoantibodies to type VII collagen and an exclusive IgG3 reactivity to the laminin alpha3 chain in a patient with an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease.

    PubMed

    Baican, Adrian; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yancey, Kim B; Zillikens, Detlef; Sitaru, Cassian

    2005-09-01

    We describe a patient with widespread skin lesions and circulating IgG autoantibodies to both type VII collagen and laminin 5. Although autoantibodies to type VII collagen belonged to IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses, laminin 5 was targeted exclusively by IgG3 autoantibodies. Interestingly, despite the presence of IgG3 autoantibodies, the patient's serum failed to fix complement to the dermoepidermal junction. In addition, these autoantibodies did not recruit and activate leukocytes or induce dermoepidermal separation in skin sectioned by cryostat. We report a most unusual case of an autoimmune subepidermal blistering with an exclusive IgG3 reactivity to laminin 5. PMID:16112366

  20. Ion transport induced by proteinase-activated receptors (PAR2) in colon and airways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Kunzelmann; Rainer Schreiber; jens König; Marcus Mall

    2002-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors type 2 (PAR2) are activated by serine proteases like trypsin and mast cell tryptase. The function\\u000a and physiological significance of PAR2 receptors is poorly understood, but recent studies suggest a role during inflammatory\\u000a processes in both airways and intestine. PAR2 receptors are also likely to participate in the control of ion transport in\\u000a these tissues. We demonstrate that

  1. Activation of GABAA receptors containing the  4 subunit by GABA and pentobarbital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav Akk; John Bracamontes; Joe Henry Steinbach

    2004-01-01

    The activation properties of GABAA receptors containing ?4?2?2 and ?4?2? subunits were examined in the presence of GABA or pentobarbital. The receptors were expressed trans- iently in HEK 293 cells, and the electrophysiological experiments were carried out using cell- attached single-channel patch clamp or whole-cell macroscopic recordings. The data show that GABA is a stronger activator of ?4?2?2 receptors than

  2. Transcriptional activation of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor by insect and plant ecdysteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith D Baker; James T Warren; Carl S Thummel; Lawrence I Gilbert; David J Mangelsdorf

    2000-01-01

    A number of insect ecdysteroids, plant ecdysteroids and juvenoids were assayed for their ability to activate Drosophila nuclear receptors in transfected tissue culture cells. Discrete modifications to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the apparent natural ligand for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), conferred dramatic changes on the transcriptional activity of this receptor, suggesting that other biologically relevant EcR ligands may exist. Conversely, none of the

  3. Novel protein interactors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Ahmed H; De Bock, Charles E; Lin, Zhen; Morris, David L; Wang, Yao; Pourgholami, Mohammad H

    2010-09-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in tumor growth and metastasis. The crystal structure of uPAR revealed that the external surface is largely free to interact with a number of proteins. Additionally, due to absence of an intracellular cytoplasmic protein domain, many of the biological functions of uPAR necessitate interactions with other proteins. Here, we used yeast two-hybrid screening of breast cancer cDNA library to identify hSpry1 and HAX1 proteins as putative candidate proteins that interact with uPAR bait constructs. Interaction between these two candidates and uPAR was confirmed by GST-pull down, co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy. These novel interactions that have been identified may also provide further evidence that uPAR can interact with a number of other proteins which may influence a range of biological functions. PMID:20696135

  4. Ligand Affinity and Kinase Activity are Independent of Bacterial Chemotaxis Receptor Concentration: Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sferdean, Fe C.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2013-01-01

    Attractant binding to bacterial chemotaxis receptors initiates a transmembrane signal that inhibits the kinase CheA bound about 300 Å away at the other end of the receptor. Chemoreceptors form large clusters in many bacterial species, and the extent of clustering has been reported to vary with signaling state. To test whether ligand binding regulates kinase activity by modulating a clustering equilibrium, we measured the effects of two-dimensional receptor concentration on kinase activity in proteoliposomes containing the purified E. coli serine receptor reconstituted into vesicles at a range of lipid-to-protein molar ratios. The IC50 of kinase inhibition was unchanged despite a 10-fold change in receptor concentration. Such a change in concentration would have produced a measurable shift in the IC50 if receptor clustering were involved in kinase regulation, based on a simple model in which the receptor oligomerization and ligand binding equilibria are coupled. These results indicate that the primary signal, ligand control of kinase activity, does not involve a change in receptor oligomerization state. In combination with previous work on cytoplasmic fragments assembled on vesicle surfaces [Besschetnova et al. (2008) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 12289–12294], this suggests that ligand binding to chemotaxis receptors inhibits the kinase by inducing a conformational change that expands the membrane area occupied by the receptor cytoplasmic domain, without changing the number of associated receptors in the signaling complex. PMID:22870954

  5. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  6. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ai-Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Xing; Yu, Ai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered as the most promising cells source for bone engineering. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors play important roles in bone mass turnover. The aim of this study is to test if activation of CB2 receptor by chemical agonist could enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone BM-MSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining and real time PCR were performed to test the osteogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was carried out to examine the mineralization. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to study the role of CB2 receptor in osteogenic differentiation. Results showed activation of CB2 receptor increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes, and enhanced deposition of calcium in extracellular matrix. Knockdown of CB2 receptor by siRNA inhibited ALP activity and mineralization. Results of immunofluorescent staining showed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase is reduced by knocking down of CB2 receptor. Finally, bone marrow samples demonstrated that expression of CB2 receptor is much lower in osteoporotic patients than in healthy donors. Taken together, data from this study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays important role in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Lack of CB2 receptor may be related to osteoporosis. PMID:25685815

  7. The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

  8. The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E; Papke, Jason B; Kutosky, Hannah P; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A; Harkins, Amy B; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL(-1) supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL(-1). When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration. PMID:22736189

  9. Tissue distribution of the laminin ?1 and ?2 chain during embryonic and fetal human development

    PubMed Central

    Roediger, Matthias; Miosge, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    Laminins are the major glycoproteins present in all basement membranes. Previously, we showed that perlecan is present during human development. Although an overview of mRNA-expression of the laminin ?1 and ?2 chains in various developing fetal organs is already available, a systematic localization of the laminin ?1 and ?2 chains on the protein level during embryonic and fetal human development is missing. Therefore, we studied the immunohistochemical expression and tissue distribution of the laminin ?1 and ?2 chains in various developing embryonic and fetal human organs between gestational weeks 8 and 12. The laminin ?1 chain was ubiquitously expressed in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, blood vessels, liver, kidney, skin, pancreas, intestine, heart and skeletal system. Furthermore, the laminin ?2 chain was present in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, skin, heart and skeletal system. The findings of this study support and expand upon the theory that these two laminin chains are important during human development. PMID:20552257

  10. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse olfactory sensory neurons with defined odorant receptors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Timothy; Savigner, Agnes; Ma, Minghong

    2013-07-01

    Sensory systems need to tease out stimulation-evoked activity against a noisy background. In the olfactory system, the odor response profile of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is dependent on the type of odorant receptor it expresses. OSNs also exhibit spontaneous activity, which plays a role in establishing proper synaptic connections and may also increase the sensitivity of the cells. However, where the spontaneous activity originates and whether it informs sensory-evoked activity remain unclear. We addressed these questions by examining patch-clamp recordings of genetically labeled mouse OSNs with defined odorant receptors in intact olfactory epithelia. We show that OSNs expressing different odorant receptors had significantly different rates of basal activity. Additionally, OSNs expressing an inactive mutant I7 receptor completely lacked spontaneous activity, despite being able to fire action potentials in response to current injection. This finding strongly suggests that the spontaneous firing of an OSN originates from the spontaneous activation of its G protein-coupled odorant receptor. Moreover, OSNs expressing the same receptor displayed considerable variation in their spontaneous activity, and the variation was broadened upon odor stimulation. Interestingly, there is no significant correlation between the spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in these neurons. This study reveals that the odorant receptor type determines the spontaneous firing rate of OSNs, but the basal activity does not correlate with the activity induced by near-saturated odor stimulation. The implications of these findings on olfactory information processing are discussed. PMID:23596334

  11. Nuclear II-Tubulin Associates with the Activated Notch Receptor to Modulate Notch Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien-Shun Yeh; Rong-Hong Hsieh; Shing-Chuan Shen; Shwu-Huey Wang; Min-Jen Tseng; Chwen-Ming Shih

    2004-01-01

    The Notch signal pathway plays important roles in proliferation, apo- ptosis, and differentiation. Abnormalities in Notch signaling are linked to many human diseases. After ligand binding, Notch signaling is activated through the cleavage of Notch receptors to release and translocate the Notch intracellular domain into the nucleus. The Notch1 receptor intra- cellular domain (N1IC), the activated form of the Notch1

  12. Conservation and evolutionary divergence in the activity of receptor-regulated smads

    E-print Network

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    Conservation and evolutionary divergence in the activity of receptor-regulated smads Sorrentino et Open Access Conservation and evolutionary divergence in the activity of receptor-regulated smads Gina M transduction proteins (R-Smads) of the TGF pathway, which instruct both axial patterning and tissue

  13. Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yip, Linda; Woehrle, Tobias; Corriden, Ross; Hirsh, Mark; Chen, Yu; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Ferrari, Vhe; Insel, Paul A; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2009-06-01

    T-cell activation requires the influx of extracellular calcium, although mechanistic details regarding such activation are not fully defined. Here, we show that P2X(7) receptors play a key role in calcium influx and downstream signaling events associated with the activation of T cells. By real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we find that Jurkat T cells and human CD4(+) T cells express abundant P2X(7) receptors. We show, using a novel fluorescent microscopy technique, that T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation triggers the rapid release of ATP (<100 microM). This release of ATP is required for TCR-mediated calcium influx, NFAT activation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. TCR activation up-regulates P2X(7) receptor gene expression. Removal of extracellular ATP by apyrase or alkaline phosphatase treatment, inhibition of ATP release with the maxi-anion channel blocker gadolinium chloride, or siRNA silencing of P2X(7) receptors blocks calcium entry and inhibits T-cell activation. Moreover, lymphocyte activation is impaired in C57BL/6 mice that express poorly functional P2X(7) receptors, compared to control BALB/c mice, which express fully functional P2X(7) receptors. We conclude that ATP release and autocrine, positive feedback through P2X(7) receptors is required for the effective activation of T cells. PMID:19211924

  14. Heterologous Activation of Protein Kinase C Stimulates Phosphorylation of -Opioid Receptor at Serine 344, Resulting

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Heterologous Activation of Protein Kinase C Stimulates Phosphorylation of -Opioid Receptor of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our

  15. In vitro inhibitory effect of SR 27417, a potent platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short Note In vitro inhibitory effect of SR 27417, a potent platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, on the PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation Miriam BASTOS DA SILVAa, Annie of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, on PAF-induced platelet aggregation was studied in blood

  16. Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in

    E-print Network

    Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets Amal Arachiche, Mari´a de la Fuente, Marvin T. Nieman* Department study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in skin health, repair and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane Michalik; Walter Wahli

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPAR?, PPAR?\\/? and PPAR?, are fatty acid activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. While they are best known as transcriptional regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, evidence has also accumulated for their importance in skin homeostasis. The three PPAR isotypes are expressed in rodent and human skin. Various cell culture and in

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in reproductive tissues: from gametogenesis to parturition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Froment; F Gizard; D Defever; B Staels; J Dupont; P Monget

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR, PPAR\\/ and PPAR) are a family of nuclear receptors that are activated by binding of natural ligands, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or by synthetic ligands. Syn- thetic molecules of the glitazone family, which bind to PPAR, are currently used to treat type II diabetes and also to attenuate the secondary clinical symptoms fre- quently associated

  19. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by eugenol.

    PubMed

    Chung, G; Im, S T; Kim, Y H; Jung, S J; Rhyu, M-R; Oh, S B

    2014-03-01

    Eugenol is a bioactive plant extract used as an analgesic agent in dentistry. The structural similarity of eugenol to cinnamaldehyde, an active ligand for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), suggests that eugenol might produce its effect via TRPA1, in addition to TRPV1 as we reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of eugenol on TRPA1, by fura-2-based calcium imaging and patch clamp recording in trigeminal ganglion neurons and in a heterologous expression system. As the result, eugenol induced robust calcium responses in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that responded to a specific TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and not to capsaicin. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist failed to inhibit eugenol-induced calcium responses in AITC-responding neurons. In addition, eugenol response was observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons from TRPV1 knockout mice and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines that express human TRPA1, which was inhibited by TRPA1-specific antagonist HC-030031. Eugenol-evoked TRPA1 single channel activity and eugenol-induced TRPA1 currents were dose-dependent with EC50 of 261.5?M. In summary, these results demonstrate that the activation of TRPA1 might account for another molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of eugenol. PMID:24384226

  20. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

  1. A Mechanism of Intracellular P2X Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Venketesh; Fountain, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-activated calcium-permeable ligand-gated ion channels traditionally viewed as sensors of extracellular ATP during diverse physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and taste. However, in addition to a cell surface residency P2XRs also populate the membranes of intracellular compartments, including mammalian lysosomes, phagosomes, and the contractile vacuole (CV) of the amoeba Dictyostelium. The function of intracellular P2XRs is unclear and represents a major gap in our understanding of ATP signaling. Here, we exploit the genetic versatility of Dictyostelium to investigate the effects of physiological concentrations of ATP on calcium signaling in isolated CVs. Within the CV, an acidic calcium store, P2XRs are orientated to sense luminal ATP. Application of ATP to isolated vacuoles leads to luminal translocation of ATP and release of calcium. Mechanisms of luminal ATP translocation and ATP-evoked calcium release share common pharmacology, suggesting that they are linked processes. The ability of ATP to mobilize stored calcium is reduced in vacuoles isolated from P2XAR knock-out amoeba and ablated in cells devoid of P2XRs. Pharmacological inhibition of luminal ATP translocation or depletion of CV calcium attenuates CV function in vivo, manifesting as a loss of regulatory cell volume decrease following osmotic swelling. We propose that intracellular P2XRs regulate vacuole activity by acting as calcium release channels, activated by translocation of ATP into the vacuole lumen. PMID:22736763

  2. Localization of laminin B1 mRNA in retinal ganglion cells by in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    In the nervous system, neuronal migration and axonal growth are dependent on specific interactions with extracellular matrix proteins. During development of the vertebrate retina, ganglion cell axons extend along the internal limiting (basement) membrane and form the optic nerve. Laminin, a major component of basement membranes, is known to be present in the internal limiting membrane, and might be involved in the growth of ganglion cell axons. The identity of the cells that produce retinal laminin, however, has not been established. In the present study, we have used in situ hybridization to localize the sites of laminin B1 mRNA synthesis in the developing mouse retina. Our results show that there are at least two principal sites of laminin B1 mRNA synthesis: (a) the hyaloid vessels and the lens during the period of major axonal outgrowth, and (b) the retinal ganglion cells at later development stages. Muller (glial) cells, the major class of nonneuronal cells in the retina, do not appear to express laminin B1 mRNA either during development or in the adult retina. In Northern blots, we found a single transcript of approximately 6-kb size that encodes the laminin B1 chain in the retina. Moreover, laminin B1 mRNA level was four- to fivefold higher in the postnatal retina compared to that in the adult. Our results show that in addition to nonneuronal cells, retinal ganglion cells also synthesize laminin. The function of laminin in postnatal retinas, however, remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, our findings raise the possibility that neurons in other parts of the nervous system might also synthesize extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:2351694

  3. Aberrant expression of laminin-332 promotes cell proliferation and cyst growth in ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Suparna; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yoder, Bradley; Torres, Vicente E.; Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane abnormalities have often been observed in kidney cysts of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and animal models. There is an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, including laminin-?3,?3,?2 (laminin-332), in human autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Knockdown of PKD1 paralogs in zebrafish leads to dysregulated synthesis of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that altered basement membrane assembly may be a primary defect in ADPKD. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-332 is aberrantly expressed in cysts and precystic tubules of human autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) kidneys as well as in the kidneys of PCK rats, an orthologous ARPKD model. There was aberrant expression of laminin-?2 as early as postnatal day 2 and elevated laminin-332 protein in postnatal day 30, coinciding with the formation and early growth of renal cysts in PCK rat kidneys. We also show that a kidney cell line derived from Oak Ridge polycystic kidney mice, another model of ARPKD, exhibited abnormal lumen-deficient and multilumen structures in Matrigel culture. These cells had increased proliferation rates and altered expression levels of laminin-332 compared with their rescued counterparts. A function-blocking polyclonal antibody to laminin-332 significantly inhibited their abnormal proliferation rates and rescued their aberrant phenotype in Matrigel culture. Furthermore, abnormal laminin-332 expression in cysts originating from collecting ducts and proximal tubules as well as in precystic tubules was observed in a human end-stage ADPKD kidney. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of laminin-332 contributes to the aberrant proliferation of cyst epithelial cells and cyst growth in genetic forms of PKD. PMID:24370592

  4. Shift in Kiss1 cell activity requires estrogen receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Renata; Cravo, Roberta M.; Donato, José; Ratra, Dhirender; Clegg, Deborah; Elmquist, Joel K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Kevin W.; Elias, Carol F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reproductive function requires timely secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone, which is controlled by a complex excitatory/inhibitory network influenced by sex steroids. Kiss1 neurons are fundamental players in this network, but it is currently unclear whether different conditions of circulating sex steroids directly alters Kiss1 neuronal activity. Here, we show that Kiss1 neurons in the anteroventral periventricular and anterior periventricular nuclei (AVPV/PeN) of males and females exhibit a bimodal resting membrane potential (RMP) influenced by KATP channels, suggesting the presence of two neuronal populations defined as Type I (irregular firing patterns) and Type II (quiescent). Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) are also composed of firing and quiescent cells, but unlike AVPV/PeN neurons, the range of RMPs did not follow a bimodal distribution. Moreover, Kiss1 neuronal activity in the AVPV/PeN, but not in the Arc, is sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol shifts the firing pattern of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons and alters cell capacitance and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSCs) amplitude of AVPV/PeN and Arc Kiss1 populations in an opposite manner. Notably, mice with selective deletion of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) from Kiss1 neurons show cellular activity similar to that observed in ovariectomized females, suggesting that estradiol-induced changes in Kiss1 cellular properties require ER?. We also show that female prepubertal Kiss1 neurons are under higher inhibitory influence while all AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are spontaneously active. Collectively, our findings indicate that changes in cellular activity may underlie Kiss1 action in pubertal initiation and female reproduction. PMID:23407940

  5. Dual and pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) co-agonism: the bezafibrate lessons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Tenenbaum; Michael Motro; Enrique Z Fisman

    2005-01-01

    There are three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) subtypes which are commonly designated PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma and PPAR beta\\/delta. PPAR alpha activation increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol synthesis, stimulates \\

  6. Lysophosphatidic Acid Upregulates Laminin-332 Expression during A431 Cell Colony Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hironobu; Tripathi, Manisha; Jourquin, Jerome; Kam, Yoonseok; Liu, Shanshan; Weidow, Brandy; Quaranta, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that affects various biological functions, such as cell proliferation, migration, survival, wound healing, and tumor invasion through LPA receptors. Previously, we reported that LPA induces A431 colony dispersal, accompanied by disruption of cell-cell contacts and cell migration. However, it remains unclear how LPA affects cell migration and gene expression during A431 colony dispersal. In this paper, we performed cDNA microarray analysis to investigate this question by comparing gene expression between untreated and LPA-treated A431 cells. Interestingly, these results revealed that LPA treatment upregulates several TGF-?1 target genes, including laminin-332 (Ln-332) components (?3, ?3, and ?2 chains). Western blot analysis also showed that LPA increased phosphorylation of Smad2, an event that is carried out by TGF-?1 interactions. Among the genes upregulated, we further addressed the role of Ln-332. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the transcriptional upregulation of all ?3, ?3, and ?2 chains of Ln-332 by LPA, corresponding to the protein level increases revealed by western blot. Further, the addition of anti-Ln-332 antibody prevented LPA-treated A431 colonies from dispersing. Taken together, our results suggest that LPA-induced Ln-332 plays a significant role in migration of individual cells from A431 colonies. PMID:20862207

  7. Pertussis Toxin Up-regulates Angiotensin Type 1 Receptors through Toll-like Receptor 4-mediated Rac Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Motohiro; Suda, Reiko; Nagamatsu, Yuichi; Tanabe, Shihori; Onohara, Naoya; Nakaya, Michio; Kanaho, Yasunori; Shibata, Takahiro; Uchida, Koji; Sumimoto, Hideki; Sato, Yoji; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) is recognized as a specific tool that uncouples receptors from Gi and Go through ADP-ribosylation. During the study analyzing the effects of PTX on Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) function in cardiac fibroblasts, we found that PTX increases the number of AT1Rs and enhances AT1R-mediated response. Microarray analysis revealed that PTX increases the induction of interleukin (IL)-1? among cytokines. Inhibition of IL-1? suppressed the enhancement of AT1R-mediated response by PTX. PTX increased the expression of IL-1? and AT1R through NF-?B, and a small GTP-binding protein, Rac, mediated PTX-induced NF-?B activation through NADPH oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species. PTX induced biphasic increases in Rac activity, and the Rac activation in a late but not an early phase was suppressed by IL-1? siRNA, suggesting that IL-1?-induced Rac activation contributes to the amplification of Rac-dependent signaling induced by PTX. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) abolished PTX-induced Rac activation and enhancement of AT1R function. However, ADP-ribosylation of Gi/Go by PTX was not affected by inhibition of TLR4. Thus, PTX binds to two receptors; one is TLR4, which activates Rac, and another is the binding site that is required for ADP-ribosylation of Gi/Go. PMID:20231290

  8. Post-translational glycosylation-induced activation of aglycoinsulin receptor accumulated during tunicamycin treatment.

    PubMed

    Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D

    1981-05-25

    Tunicamycin, which inhibits N-linked oligosaccharide chain addition to nascent polypeptides, interrupts glycosylation of the insulin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes giving rise to inactive receptors. Chronic exposure of cells to low levels (100 ng/ml) of high performance liquid chromatography-purified tunicamycin causes a greater than or equal to 90% depletion of insulin binding to cell surface and Triton X-100-extractable receptors and a 93% inhibition of [3H]glucosamine incorporation into protein in alkali-stable form. Under identical conditions, protein synthesis was inhibited less than 10%. Recovery of insulin binding activity after the removal of tunicamycin achieves 70-80% of control activity within 36 h. Concomitant with the withdrawal of tunicamycin, cells were shifted to medium containing heavy (greater than 95% 15N, 13C, 2H) amino acids after which Triton X-100-solubilized "light" and "heavy" insulin receptors were separated isopycnically on CsCl density gradients. A kinetic analysis of the recovery of functional receptors revealed that the initial appearance of previously synthesized light receptor was followed, after a short lag, by newly synthesized heavy receptor. Similar levels of light receptor, but no new heavy receptor, accrue in the presence of cycloheximide. This strongly suggests that inactive aglycoinsulin receptor accumulated post-translationally during chronic treatment with tunicamycin and then re-entered the glycosylation pathway when the inhibitor was removed giving rise to a functional insulin receptor. PMID:7228853

  9. Cholesterol Sulfate Alters Substrate Preference of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 and Promotes Degradations of Pericellular Laminin-332 and Fibronectin*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Higashi, Shouichi

    2010-01-01

    Localization of secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on the cell surface is required not only for processing of cell surface proteins, but also for controlled degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Our previous study demonstrated that binding of MMP-7 (matrilysin) to cell surface cholesterol sulfate (CS) is essential for the cell membrane-associated proteolytic action of this MMP. In this study, we investigated the role of CS in the MMP-7-catalyzed degradation of protein components of ECM. We found that the degradation of laminin-332 (laminin-5) catalyzed by MMP-7 was accelerated dramatically in the presence of CS, whereas the sulfated lipid inhibited the degradation of casein catalyzed by the protease. The MMP-7-catalyzed degradation of fibronectin was partially inhibited in the presence of low concentrations of CS, whereas it was accelerated significantly at high concentrations of the lipid. Therefore, it is likely that CS alters the substrate preference of MMP-7. We also found that the proteins of which MMP-7-catalyzed degradation were accelerated by CS also had affinities for CS, suggesting that CS facilitates the proteolyses by cross-linking MMP-7 to its substrates. Moreover, MMP-7 tethered to cancer cell surface via CS degraded fibronectin and laminin-332 coated on a culture plate. The degradations of the adhesive proteins led to significant detachment of the cells from the plate. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism in which cell surface CS promotes the proteolytic activities of MMP-7 toward selective substrates in the pericellular ECM, thereby contributing to cancer cell migration and metastasis. PMID:20605794

  10. Differential and Opposing Regulation of PAI-1 Promoter Activity by Estrogen Receptor and Estrogen Receptor in Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Layton Harris Smith; Stephen R. Coats; Hao Qin; Matthew S. Petrie; Joseph W. Covington; Ming Su; Mesut Eren; Douglas E. Vaughan

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the estrogen-dependent control of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression in vascular cells, we compared the transactivation properties of estrogen receptors (ER and ER) in regulating the activity of a human PAI-1 promoter reporter construct in transfected bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). ER increased PAI-1 promoter activity in BAECs by an estrogen-dependent mechanism,

  11. NPS-1034, a novel MET inhibitor, inhibits the activated MET receptor and its constitutively active mutants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Sik; Hong, Seung-Woo; Moon, Jai-Hee; Kim, Jin-Sun; Jung, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Seung-Mi; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, InKi; Yoon, Seon-Joo; Lee, Chang-Gyu; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Bongcheol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Shin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Tae Won

    2014-06-01

    The MET proto-oncogene product, which is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Point mutations in MET lead to the aberrant activation of the receptor in many types of human malignancies, and the deregulated activity of MET has been correlated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. MET has therefore attracted considerable attention as a potential target in anticancer therapy. Here, we report that a novel MET kinase inhibitor, NPS-1034, inhibits various constitutively active mutant forms of MET as well as HGF-activated wild-type MET. NPS-1034 inhibited the proliferation of cells expressing activated MET and promoted the regression of tumors formed from such cells in a mouse xenograft model through anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions. NPS-1034 also inhibited HGF-stimulated activation of MET signaling in the presence or absence of serum. Furthermore, when tested on 27 different MET variants, NPS-1034 inhibited 15 of the 17 MET variants that exhibited autophosphorylation with nanomolar potency; only the F1218I and M1149T variants were not inhibited by NPS-1034. Notably, NPS-1034 inhibited three MET variants that are resistant to the MET inhibitors SU11274, NVP-BVU972, and PHA665752. Together, these results suggest that NPS-1034 can be used as a potent therapeutic agent for human malignancies bearing MET point mutations or expressing activated MET. PMID:24173966

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Smads 2, 3, and 4 Permits Sensing of TGF-? Receptor Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth J. Inman; Francisco J. Nicolás; Caroline S. Hill

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? stimulation leads to phosphorylation and activation of Smad2 and Smad3, which form complexes with Smad4 that accumulate in the nucleus and regulate transcription of target genes. Here we demonstrate that, following TGF-? stimulation of epithelial cells, receptors remain active for at least 3–4 hr, and continuous receptor activity is required to maintain active Smads in the

  13. Activation of 5-HT6 Receptors Modulates Sleep–Wake Activity and Hippocampal Theta Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The modulatory role of 5-HT neurons and a number of different 5-HT receptor subtypes has been well documented in the regulation of sleep–wake cycles and hippocampal activity. A high level of 5-HT6 receptor expression is present in the rat hippocampus. Further, hippocampal function has been shown to be modulated by both 5-HT6 agonists and antagonists. In the current study, the potential involvement of 5-HT6 receptors in the control of hippocampal theta rhythms and sleep–wake cycles has been investigated. Hippocampal activity was recorded by intracranial hippocampal electrodes both in anesthetized (n = 22) and in freely moving rats (n = 9). Theta rhythm was monitored in different sleep–wake states in freely moving rats and was elicited by stimulation of the brainstem reticular formation under anesthesia. Changes in theta frequency and power were analyzed before and after injection of the 5-HT6 antagonist (SAM-531) and the 5-HT6 agonist (EMD386088). In freely moving rats, EMD386088 suppressed sleep for several hours and significantly decreased theta peak frequency, while, in anesthetized rats, EMD386088 had no effect on theta power but significantly decreased theta frequency, which could be blocked by coadministration of SAM-531. SAM-531 alone did not change sleep–wake patterns and had no effect on theta parameters in both unanesthetized and anesthetized rats. Decreases in theta frequency induced by the 5-HT6 receptor agonist correspond to previously described electrophysiological patterns shared by all anxiolytic drugs, and it is in line with its behavioral anxiolytic profile. The 5-HT6 antagonist, however, failed to potentiate theta power, which is characteristic of many pro-cognitive substances, indicating that 5-HT6 receptors might not tonically modulate hippocampal oscillations and sleep–wake patterns. PMID:23336058

  14. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Shifts Temporally Engendered Patterns of Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55?212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration—suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55?212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner—suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55?212-2. PMID:24345819

  15. Nicotine Activation of ?4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with ?4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering ?4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of ?4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of ?4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  16. Effects of Sulfonylureas on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activity and on Glucose Uptake by Thiazolidinediones

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Ku, Yun Hyi; Kim, Min; Ahn, Byung Yong; Chung, Sung Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Sulfonylurea primarily stimulates insulin secretion by binding to its receptor on the pancreatic ?-cells. Recent studies have suggested that sulfonylureas induce insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), one of the nuclear receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulfonylurea on PPAR? transcriptional activity and on the glucose uptake via PPAR?. Methods Transcription reporter assays using Cos7 cells were performed to determine if specific sulfonylureas stimulate PPAR? transactivation. Glimepiride, gliquidone, and glipizide (1 to 500 µM) were used as treatment, and rosiglitazone at 1 and 10 µM was used as a control. The effects of sulfonylurea and rosiglitazone treatments on the transcriptional activity of endogenous PPAR? were observed. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with rosiglitazone (10 µM), glimepiride (100 µM) or both to verify the effect of glimepiride on rosiglitazone-induced glucose uptake. Results Sulfonylureas, including glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide, increased PPAR? transcriptional activity, gliquidone being the most potent PPAR? agonist. However, no additive effects were observed in the presence of rosiglitazone. When rosiglitazone was co-treated with glimepiride, PPAR? transcriptional activity and glucose uptake were reduced compared to those after treatment with rosiglitazone alone. This competitive effect of glimepiride was observed only at high concentrations that are not achieved with clinical doses. Conclusion Sulfonylureas like glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide increased the transcriptional activity of PPAR?. Also, glimepiride was able to reduce the effect of rosiglitazone on PPAR? agonistic activity and glucose uptake. However, the competitive effect does not seem to occur at clinically feasible concentrations. PMID:21977453

  17. NMDA receptor activation regulates sociability by its effect on mTOR signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Tang, Amy H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is one example of a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorder associated with disinhibited activity of mTORC1 in neurons (e.g., cerebellar Purkinje cells). mTORC1 is a complex protein possessing serine/threonine kinase activity and a key downstream molecule in a signaling cascade beginning at the cell surface with the transduction of neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate and acetylcholine) and nerve growth factors (e.g., Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor). Interestingly, the severity of the intellectual disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex may relate more to this metabolic disturbance (i.e., overactivity of mTOR signaling) than the density of cortical tubers. Several recent reports showed that rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, improved sociability and other symptoms in mouse models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with mTORC1 overactivity playing an important pathogenic role. NMDA receptor activation may also dampen mTORC1 activity by at least two possible mechanisms: regulating intraneuronal accumulation of arginine and the phosphorylation status of a specific extracellular signal regulating kinase (i.e., ERK1/2), both of which are "drivers" of mTORC1 activity. Conceivably, the prosocial effects of targeting the NMDA receptor with agonists in mouse models of autism spectrum disorders result from their ability to dampen mTORC1 activity in neurons. Strategies for dampening mTORC1 overactivity by NMDA receptor activation may be preferred to its direct inhibition in chronic neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25703582

  18. Opioid receptor mechanisms at the hypoglossal motor pool and effects on tongue muscle activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hajiha, Mohammad; DuBord, Marq-André; Liu, Hattie; Horner, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Opioids can modulate breathing and predispose to respiratory depression by actions at various central nervous system sites, but the mechanisms operating at respiratory motor nuclei have not been studied. This study tests the hypotheses that (i) local delivery of the ?-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl into the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) will suppress genioglossus activity in vivo, (ii) a component of this suppression is mediated by opioid-induced acetylcholine release acting at muscarinic receptors, and (iii) ?- and ?-opioid receptors also modulate genioglossus activity. Seventy-two isoflurane-anaesthetised, tracheotomised, spontaneously breathing rats were studied during microdialysis perfusion into the HMN of (i) fentanyl and naloxone (?-opioid receptor antagonist), (ii) fentanyl with and without co-application of muscarinic receptor antagonists, and (iii) ?- and ?-opioid receptor agonists and antagonists. The results showed (i) that fentanyl at the HMN caused a suppression of genioglossus activity (P < 0.001) that reversed with naloxone (P < 0.001), (ii) that neither atropine nor scopolamine affected the fentanyl-induced suppression of genioglossus activity, and (iii) that ?-, but not ?-, opioid receptor stimulation also suppressed genioglossus activity (P= 0.036 and P= 0.402 respectively). We conclude that ?-opioid receptor stimulation suppresses motor output from a central respiratory motoneuronal pool that activates genioglossus muscle, and this suppression does not involve muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition. This ?-opioid receptor-induced suppression of tongue muscle activity by effects at the hypoglossal motor pool may underlie the clinical concern regarding adverse upper airway function with ?-opioid analgesics. The inhibitory effects of ?- and ?-opioid receptors at the HMN also indicate an influence of endogenous enkephalins and endorphins in respiratory motor control. PMID:19403616

  19. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-03-15

    Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor activity regulates light adaptation in the zebrafish retina

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Taylor, Michael R.; Suzawa, Miyuki; Korenbrot, Juan I.; Baier, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids modulate diverse aspects of physiology and behavior, including energy homeostasis, stress response, and memory, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Light perception has profound effects on the production of glucocorticoids via functional connections of the retina to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We report here that glucocorticoids can also signal in the reverse direction, i. e., regulate visual function in zebrafish, Danio rerio. The zebrafish GR mutant, grs357, harbors a missense mutation that completely blocks the transcriptional activity of GR. In this mutant, visual behavior was abolished following a period of darkness and recovered sluggishly after return to the light. Electrophysiological measurements showed that the photoresponse of the dark-adapted retina was reduced in the mutant and re-adapted to light with a substantial delay. Several gene products, including some that are important for dopaminergic signaling, were misregulated in grs357 mutants. We suggest that GR controls a gene network required for visual adaptation in the zebrafish retina and potentially integrates neuroendocrine and sensory responses to environmental changes. PMID:24068988

  1. IP receptor-dependent activation of PPAR{gamma} by stable prostacyclin analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Falcetti, Emilia [BHF Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Rayne Building, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF (United Kingdom); Flavell, David M. [BHF Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Rayne Building, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF (United Kingdom); Staels, Bart [Institut Pasteur de Lille, Departement d'Atherosclerose, Lille F-59019 (France); Inserm, U545, Lille F-59019 (France); Universite de Lille 2, Faculte de Pharmacie et Faculte de Medecine, Lille F-59006 (France); Tinker, Andrew [BHF Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Rayne Building, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF (United Kingdom); Haworth, Sheila G. [Institute of Child Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Clapp, Lucie H. [BHF Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Rayne Building, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.clapp@ucl.ac.uk

    2007-09-07

    Stable prostacyclin analogues can signal through cell surface IP receptors or by ligand binding to nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). So far these agents have been reported to activate PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{delta} but not PPAR{gamma}. Given PPAR{gamma} agonists and prostacyclin analogues both inhibit cell proliferation, we postulated that the IP receptor might elicit PPAR{gamma} activation. Using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the IP receptor or empty vector, we found that prostacyclin analogues only activated PPAR{gamma} in the presence of the IP receptor. Moreover, the novel IP receptor antagonist, RO1138452, but not inhibitors of the cyclic AMP pathway, prevented activation. Likewise, the anti-proliferative effects of treprostinil observed in IP receptor expressing cells, were partially inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662. We conclude that PPAR{gamma} is activated through the IP receptor via a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism and contributes to the anti-growth effects of prostacyclin analogues.

  2. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  3. Receptor-Drug Interaction: Europium Employment for Studying the Biochemical Pathway of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Colabufo Nicola; Grazia, Perrone Maria; Marialessandra, Contino; Francesco, Berardi; Roberto, Perrone

    2007-01-01

    In medicinal chemistry field, the biochemical pathways, involved in 7-transmembrane domains G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activation, are commonly studied to establish the activity of ligands towards GPCRs. The most studied steps are the measurement of activated GTP-? subunit and stimulated intracellular cAMP. At the present, many researchers defined agonist or antagonist activity of potential GPCRs drugs employing [35S]GTP?S or [3H]cAMP as probes. Recently, the corresponding lanthanide labels Eu-GTP and Eu-cAMP as alternative to radiochemicals have been developed because they are highly sensitive, easy to automate, easily synthesized, they display a much longer shelf-life and they can be used in multilabel experiments. In the present review, the receptor-drug interaction by europium employment for studying the biochemical pathway of GPCR activation has been focused. Moreover, comparative studies between lanthanide label probes and the corresponding radiolabeled compounds have been carried out. PMID:18350113

  4. Acutely increasing ?GABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Whissell, Paul D.; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J.; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A.

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors that contain the ? subunit (?GABAA receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase ?GABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the ?GABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing ?GABAA receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and ?GABAA receptor null mutant (Gabrd?/?) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd?/? mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd?/? mice, an effect that was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing ?GABAA receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing ?GABAA receptor activity. PMID:24062648

  5. Epidermis-Type Lipoxygenase 3 Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activity? †

    PubMed Central

    Hallenborg, Philip; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K.; Feddersen, Søren; Araujo, Pedro; Markt, Patrick; Langer, Thierry; Furstenberger, Gerhard; Krieg, Peter; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is essential for adipogenesis. Although several fatty acids and their derivatives are known to bind and activate PPAR?, the nature of the endogenous ligand(s) promoting the early stages of adipocyte differentiation has remained enigmatic. Previously, we showed that lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is involved in activation of PPAR? during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Of the seven known murine LOXs, only the unconventional LOX epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (eLOX3) is expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Here, we show that forced expression of eLOX3 or addition of eLOX3 products stimulated adipogenesis under conditions that normally require an exogenous PPAR? ligand for differentiation. Hepoxilins, a group of oxidized arachidonic acid derivatives produced by eLOX3, bound to and activated PPAR?. Production of hepoxilins was increased transiently during the initial stages of adipogenesis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated or retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of eLOX3 expression abolished differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Finally, we demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and eLOX3 synergistically enhanced PPAR?-mediated transactivation. Collectively, our results indicate that hepoxilins produced by the concerted action of XOR and eLOX3 may function as PPAR? activators capable of promoting the early PPAR?-dependent steps in the conversion of preadipocytes into adipocytes. PMID:20530198

  6. Toll-like receptors activate programmed necrosis in macrophages through a receptor-interacting kinase-3–mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Sudan; Liang, Yuqiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    We report here that mouse macrophages undergo receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3)-dependent but TNF-?–independent necrosis when Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4 are activated by poly(I:C) and LPS, respectively. An adaptor protein, Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-? (TRIF/TICAM-1), which is dispensable for TNF-?–induced necrosis, forms a complex with RIP3 upon TLR3/TLR4 activation and is essential for TLR3/TLR4-induced necrosis. Mice without RIP3 or functional TRIF did not show macrophage loss and elevation of inflammatory cytokines when they were exposed to LPS. Necrosis in mouse macrophages induced by either TNFR or TLR3/TLR4 is executed by reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these data indicate that there are multiple upstream necrosis-initiating signaling pathways converging on the RIP3 during an innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections in mammals. PMID:22123964

  7. Angiotensin IV elevates oxytocin levels in the rat amygdala and produces anxiolytic-like activity through subsequent oxytocin receptor activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad E. Beyer; Jason M. Dwyer; Brian J. Platt; Sarah Neal; Bin Luo; Huai-Ping Ling; Qian Lin; Robert J. Mark; Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson; Lee E. Schechter

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The effects of angiotensin (Ang) IV result from binding to a constitutively active metallopeptidase known as the AT4 receptor (or oxytocinase\\/insulin-regulated membrane aminopeptidase). While in vitro evidence indicates that Ang IV inhibits\\u000a the peptidase activity of AT4 receptors, leading to increases in the concentrations of several peptides, including oxytocin, the consequence of inhibiting\\u000a AT4 peptidase activity in vivo remains unresolved.

  8. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Stimulates the Proliferation of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth L. Stephen; Mattias C. U. Gustafsson; Morag Jarvis; Roger Tatoud; Barry R. Marshall; Deborah Knight; Ewa Ehrenborg; Adrian L. Harris; C. Roland Wolf; Colin N. A. Palmer

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR\\/ (NR1C2)) has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis by various molecular genetic observations. These observations have recently been supported by studies of activation of PPAR by pharmacological agents. Here we present the first report of the stimulation of breast and prostate cancer cell growth using PPAR selective agonists. Activation of PPAR with compound F

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents ?-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nibaldo C.. Inestrosa; Juan A. Godoy; Rodrigo A. Quintanilla; Cecilia S. Koenig; Miguel Bronfman

    2005-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-?-peptide (A?), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPAR? is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPAR?

  10. Modulation of macrophage differentiation and activation by decoy receptor 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Chi Chang; Tsui-Ling Hsu; Hsi-Hsien Lin; Chung-Ching Chio; Allen W. Chiu; Nien-Jung Chen; Chi-Hung Lin; Shie-Liang Hsieh

    2004-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor su- perfamily and is readily detected in certain can- cer patients. Recently, we demonstrated that DcR3.Fc-treated dendritic cells skew T cell re- sponses to a T helper cell type 2 phenotype. In this study, we further asked its ability to modulate CD14 monocyte differentiation into macro-

  11. Activation of calcineurin underlies altered trafficking of ?2 subunit containing GABAA receptors during prolonged epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Ramona; Szulc, Blanka; Walker, Matthew C.; Kittler, Josef T.

    2015-01-01

    Fast inhibitory signalling in the mammalian brain is mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are targets for anti-epileptic therapy such as benzodiazepines. GABAARs undergo tightly regulated trafficking processes that are essential for maintenance and physiological modulation of inhibitory strength. The trafficking of GABAARs to and from the membrane is altered during prolonged seizures such as in Status Epilepticus (SE) and has been suggested to contribute to benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance in patients with SE. However, the intracellular signalling mechanisms that cause this modification in GABAAR trafficking remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the surface stability of GABAARs during SE utilising the low Mg2+ model in hippocampal rat neurons. Live-cell imaging of super ecliptic pHluorin (SEP)-tagged ?2 subunit containing GABAARs during low Mg2+ conditions reveals that the somatic surface receptor pool undergoes down-regulation dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity. Analysis of the intracellular Ca2+ signal during low Mg2+ using the Ca2+-indicator Fluo4 shows that this reduction of surface GABAARs correlates well with the timeline of intracellular Ca2+ changes. Furthermore, we show that the activation of the phosphatase calcineurin was required for the decrease in surface GABAARs in neurons undergoing epileptiform activity. These results indicate that somatic modulation of GABAAR trafficking during epileptiform activity in vitro is mediated by calcineurin activation which is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. These mechanisms could account for benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the maintenance of recurrent seizure activity, and reveal potential novel targets for the treatment of SE. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘GABAergic Signaling in Health and Disease’. PMID:25245802

  12. Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, S A; Forman, B M; Blumberg, B; Ong, E S; Borgmeyer, U; Mangelsdorf, D J; Umesono, K; Evans, R M

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in mammals, we have cloned and characterized two PPAR alpha-related cDNAs (designated PPAR gamma and -delta, respectively) from mouse. The three PPAR isoforms display widely divergent patterns of expression during embryogenesis and in the adult. Surprisingly, PPAR gamma and -delta are not activated by pirinixic acid (Wy 14,643), a potent peroxisome proliferator and activator of PPAR alpha. However, PPAR gamma and -delta are activated by the structurally distinct peroxisome proliferator LY-171883 and linoleic acid, respectively, indicating that each of the isoforms can act as a regulated activator of transcription. These data suggest that tissue-specific responsiveness to peroxisome proliferators, including certain fatty acids, is in part a consequence of differential expression of multiple, pharmacologically distinct PPAR isoforms. Images PMID:8041794

  13. Activation of ?7-containing nicotinic receptors on astrocytes triggers AMPA receptor recruitment to glutamateric synapses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xulong; Lippi, Giordano; Carlson, David M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes, an abundant form of glia, are known to promote and modulate synaptic signaling between neurons. They also express ?7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs), but the functional relevance of these receptors is unknown. We show here that stimulation of ?7-nAChRs on astrocytes releases components that induce hippocampal neurons to acquire more a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors post-synaptically at glutamatergic synapses. The increase is specific in that no change is seen in synaptic NMDA receptor clusters or other markers for glutamatergic synapses, or in markers for GABAergic synapses. Moreover, the increases in AMPA receptors on the neuron surface are accompanied by increases in the frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents mediated by the receptors and increases in the ratio of evoked synaptic currents mediated by AMPA versus NMDA receptors. This suggests that stimulating ?7-nAChRs on astrocytes can convert ‘silent’ glutamatergic synapses to functional status. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondin is necessary but not sufficient for the effect, while tumor necrosis factor-? is sufficient but not necessary. The results identify astrocyte ?7-nAChRs as a novel pathway through which nicotinic cholinergic signaling can promote the development of glutamatergic networks, recruiting AMPA receptors to post-synaptic sites and rendering the synapses more functional. PMID:24032433

  14. Terminal Differentiation of Human Liposarcoma Cells Induced by Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma and the Retinoid X Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tontonoz; Samuel Singer; Barry M. Forman; Pasha Sarraf; Jonathan A. Fletcher; Christopher D. M. Fletcher; Regina P. Brun; Elisabetta Mueller; Soner Altiok; Heather Oppenheim; Ronald M. Evans; Bruce M. Spiegelman

    1997-01-01

    Induction of terminal differentiation represents a promising therapeutic approach to certain human malignancies. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ) and the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha ) form a heterodimeric complex that functions as a central regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Natural and synthetic ligands for both receptors have been identified. We demonstrate here that PPARgamma is expressed at high

  15. Quantitative impedimetric NPY-receptor activation monitoring and signal pathway profiling in living cells.

    PubMed

    te Kamp, Verena; Lindner, Ricco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Kostelnik, Katja B; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2015-05-15

    Label-free and non-invasive monitoring of receptor activation and identification of the involved signal pathways in living cells is an ongoing analytic challenge and a great opportunity for biosensoric systems. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based system for the activation monitoring of NPY-receptors in living cells. Using an optimized interdigital electrode array for sensitive detection of cellular alterations, we were able for the first time to quantitatively detect the NPY-receptor activation directly without a secondary or enhancer reaction like cAMP-stimulation by forskolin. More strikingly, we could show that the impedimetric based NPY-receptor activation monitoring is not restricted to the Y1-receptor but also possible for the Y2- and Y5-receptor. Furthermore, we could monitor the NPY-receptor activation in different cell lines that natively express NPY-receptors and proof the specificity of the observed impedimetric effect by agonist/antagonist studies in recombinant NPY-receptor expressing cell lines. To clarify the nature of the observed impedimetric effect we performed an equivalent circuit analysis as well as analyzed the role of cell morphology and receptor internalization. Finally, an antagonist based extensive molecular signal pathway analysis revealed small alterations of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the inhibition of at least L-type calcium channels as major reasons for the observed NPY-induced impedance increase. Taken together, our novel impedance spectroscopy based NPY-receptor activation monitoring system offers the opportunity to identify signal pathways as well as for novel versatile agonist/antagonist screening systems for identification of novel therapeutics in the field of obesity and cancer. PMID:25239555

  16. Laminin and Type IV Collagen Isoform Substitutions Occur in Temporally and Spatially Distinct Patterns in Developing Kidney Glomerular Basement Membranes

    PubMed Central

    St. John, Patricia L.; Stroganova, Larysa; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Steenhard, Brooke M.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) undergo laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions during glomerular development, which are believed to be required for maturation of the filtration barrier. Specifically, GBMs of earliest glomeruli contain laminin ?1?1?1 and collagen ?1?2?1(IV), whereas mature glomeruli contain laminin ?5?2?1 and collagen ?3?4?5(IV). Here, we used confocal microscopy to simultaneously evaluate expression of different laminin and collagen IV isoforms in newborn mouse GBMs. Our results show loss of laminin ?1 from GBMs in early capillary loop stages and continuous linear deposition of laminin bearing the ?5 chain thereafter. In contrast, collagen ?1?2?1(IV) persisted in linear patterns into late capillary loop stages, when collagen ?3?4?5(IV) first appeared in discontinuous, non-linear patterns. This patchy pattern for collagen ?3?4?5(IV) continued into maturing glomeruli where there were lengths of linear, laminin ?5-positive GBM entirely lacking either isoform of collagen IV. Relative abundance of laminin and collagen IV mRNAs in newborn and 5-week-old mouse kidneys also differed, with those encoding laminin ?1, ?5, ?1, ?2, and ?1, and collagen ?1(IV) and ?2(IV) chains all significantly declining at 5 weeks, but ?3(IV) and ?4(IV) were significantly upregulated. We conclude that different biosynthetic mechanisms control laminin and type IV collagen expression in developing glomeruli. PMID:23896970

  17. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  18. Sialyloligosaccharide chains of laminin as an extracellular matrix target for S fimbriae of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Virkola, R; Parkkinen, J; Hacker, J; Korhonen, T K

    1993-01-01

    S fimbriae purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101(pANN801-13) bound strongly to extracellular matrices of cultured endothelial and epithelial cells; only poor binding was seen with the fimbriae purified from the sfaS mutant strain HB101(pANN801-1321). E. coli HB101(pANN801-13) adhered strongly to laminin immobilized on glass; no adhesion was seen to type I, III, IV, or V collagen. Strain HB101(pANN801-1321) failed to adhere to any of the target proteins. Adhesion to laminin of strain HB101(pANN801-13) was inhibited by sialyl-alpha-2,3-lactose as well as by periodate oxidation and neuraminidase treatment of laminin. In Western blotting, the purified S fimbriae recognized more strongly the A chain than the B chains of laminin. Images PMID:8104897

  19. Development/Plasticity/Repair Both Laminin and Schwann Cell Dystroglycan Are

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    -gated sodium chan- nels (Nav), which are essential for saltatory nerve conduction. Laterally, paranodes for the reduced nerve conduction velocity in this disorder. Key words: laminin; Schwann cell; node of Ranvier

  20. Structural Basis of Smad2 Recognition by the Smad Anchor for Receptor Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geng Wu; Ye-Guang Chen; Barish Ozdamar; Cassie A. Gyuricza; P. Andrew Chong; Jeffrey L. Wrana; Joan Massagué; Yigong Shi

    2000-01-01

    The Smad proteins mediate transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling from the transmembrane serine-threonine receptor kinases to the nucleus. The Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) recruits Smad2 to the TGFbeta receptors for phosphorylation. The crystal structure of a Smad2 MH2 domain in complex with the Smad-binding domain (SBD) of SARA has been determined at 2.2 angstrom resolution. SARA SBD, in

  1. Site-specific fluorescence reveals distinct structural changes with GABA receptor activation and antagonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchang Chang; David S. Weiss

    2002-01-01

    Neurotransmitter-operated ion channels, such as the GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) receptor, are important in fast synaptic transmission between neurons. Using site-specific fluorescent labeling and simultaneous electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing recombinant ?1 GABA receptors, we identified agonist-mediated molecular rearrangements at three positions within and near the agonist-binding pocket that were highly correlated with receptor activation. We also show that

  2. pH dependence of extracellular calcium sensing receptor activity determined by a novel technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOLANTA DOROSZEWICZ; PETRA WALDEGGER; NIKOLA JECK; HANNSJÖRG SEYBERTH; SIEGFRIED WALDEGGER

    2005-01-01

    pH dependence of extracellular calcium sensing receptor activity determined by a novel technique.BackgroundIncreasing evidence points to the role of the extracellular Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) as a multimodal receptor responding to diverse physiologic stimuli, such as extracellular divalent and polyvalent cations, amino acids, and ionic strength. Within the kidney, these stimuli converge on the CaSR to coordinate systemic calcium and

  3. The structural basis of androgen receptor activation: Intramolecular and intermolecular amino-carboxy interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Schaufele; Xavier Carbonell; Martin Guerbadot; Sabine Borngraeber; Mark S. Chapman; Aye Aye K. Ma; Jeffrey N. Miner; Marc I. Diamond

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors important in human physiology and disease. In certain NRs, including the androgen receptor (AR), ligand binding to the carboxy-terminal domain (LBD) regulates transcriptional activation functions in the LBD and amino-terminal domain (NTD). The basis for NTD-LBD communication is unknown but may involve NTD-LBD interactions either within a single receptor or between different members

  4. Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Fu; Silvana Gaetani; Fariba Oveisi; Jesse Lo Verme; Antonia Serrano; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Anja Rosengarth; Hartmut Luecke; Barbara Di Giacomo; Giorgio Tarzia; Daniele Piomelli

    2003-01-01

    Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets have not been defined. Here we show that OEA binds with high affinity to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism.

  5. Mesotrypsin, a brain trypsin, activates selectively proteinase-activated receptor-1, but not proteinase-activated receptor-2, in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfei; Luo, Weibo; Wartmann, Thomas; Halangk, Walter; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Reiser, Georg

    2006-11-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, which are activated by serine proteases, such as trypsin, play pivotal roles in the CNS. Mesotrypsin (trypsin IV) has been identified as a brain-specific trypsin isoform. However, its potential physiological role concerning PAR activation in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we show for the first time that mesotrypsin, encoded by the PRSS3 (proteinase, serine) gene, evokes a transient and pronounced Ca(2+) mobilization in both primary rat astrocytes and retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells, suggesting a physiological role of mesotrypsin in brain cells. Mesotrypsin mediates Ca(2+) responses in rat astrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) value of 25 nm. The maximal effect of mesotrypsin on Ca(2+) mobilization in rat astrocytes is much higher than that observed in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells, indicating that the activity of mesotrypsin is species-specific. The pre-treatment of cells with thrombin or the PAR-1-specific peptide TRag (Ala-pFluoro-Phe-Arg-Cha-HomoArg-Tyr-NH(2), synthetic thrombin receptor agonist peptide), but not the PAR-2-specific peptide, reduces significantly the mesotrypsin-induced Ca(2+) response. Treatment with the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 confirms that mesotrypsin selectively activates PAR-1 in rat astrocytes. Unlike mesotrypsin, the two other trypsin isoforms, cationic and anionic trypsin, activate multiple PARs in rat astrocytes. Therefore, our data suggest that brain-specific mesotrypsin, via the regulation of PAR-1, is likely to be involved in multiple physiological/pathological processes in the brain. PMID:16903872

  6. Dynamic conformational switching in the chemokine ligand is essential for G-protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Prem Raj B.; Sawant, Kirti V.; Isley, Angela; Pedroza, Mesias; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Richardson, Ricardo M.; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines mediate diverse functions from organogenesis to mobilizing leucocytes, and are unusual agonists for class-A GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) because of their large size and multi-domain structure. The current model for receptor activation, which involves interactions between chemokine N-loop and receptor N-terminal residues (Site-I) and between chemokine N-terminal and receptor extracellular loop/transmembrane residues (Site-II), fails to describe differences in ligand/receptor selectivity and the activation of multiple signalling pathways. In the present study, we show in neutrophil-activating chemokine CXCL8 that the highly conserved GP (glycine-proline) motif located distal to both N-terminal and N-loop residues couples Site-I and Site-II interactions. Mutations in the GP motif caused various differences from native-like function to complete loss of activity that could not be correlated with the specific mutation, receptor affinity or subtype, or a specific signalling pathway. NMR studies indicated that the GP motif does not influence Site-I interactions, but molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this motif dictates substates of the CXCL8 conformational ensemble. We conclude that the GP motif enables diverse receptor functions by controlling cross-talk between Site-I and Site-II, and further propose that the repertoire of chemokine functions is best described by a conformational ensemble model in which a network of long-range coupled indirect interactions mediate receptor activity. PMID:24032673

  7. Increased perinuclear Ca2+ activity evoked by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Phenna, S; Jane, S D; Chad, J E

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor activation on intracellular Ca2+ activity (alpha Cai) of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones in vitro was examined using ratiometric confocal laser scanning microscopy with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probe indo-1 AM. 2. Metabotropic receptors were selectively activated with 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD; 100 microM) in the presence of D-2-amino 5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and CdCl2. Most pyramidal neurones (77/84) responded with an elevation in Ca2+ activity, maximal after 3-5 min. Fluorescence ratio responses were concentration dependent (EC50 approximately 10 microM) and were blocked by prior application of the antagonist (RS)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (RS-CHPG, 300 microM). 3. Responses to 1S,3R-ACPD (100 microM) also caused acidification of the neurones, from estimated control pH 7.2 to pH 6.6 (measured with the pH-sensitive dye SNAFL-calcein). The correction factor for indo-1 determination of Ca2+ was estimated to be x 1.4. 4. Elevations in alpha Cai were greater within the perinuclear region (> 1000 nM), than in the cytoplasm (approximately 200 nM). This region was devoid of staining by the endoplasmic reticulum staining dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6(3)). 5. It is concluded that activation of metabotropic receptors in immature rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones leads to a large increase in perinuclear Ca2+ which would be well positioned to interact with the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7562631

  8. Chronic activation of sigma-1 receptor evokes nociceptive activation of trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Kihyun; Son, Ji Seon; Kwon, Young Bae

    2014-09-01

    Primary headache disorders, including migraine, are thought to be mediated by prolonged nociceptive activation of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC), but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Our past studies demonstrated that sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R) facilitate spinal nociceptive transmission in several pain models. Based on these findings, this study asked if chronic activation of Sig-1R by intracisternal administration of the selective Sig-1R agonist, PRE084, produced TNC neuronal activation as a migraine trigger in rats. A single infusion of PRE084 (10, 50, 100, 500 nmol) significantly increased the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IR) in TNC, which BD1047 (a Sig-1R antagonist) reversed. Chronic infusion of PRE084 (100 nmol for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) time-dependently elevated Fos-IR in TNC. The number of Fos-IR elevation from day 7 of infusion was comparable with a single capsaicin infusion as a headache model. Increase in face grooming/scratching behavior was evident from day 7, and peaked at day 14 of chronic PRE084 infusion, which was correlated with ?FosB elevation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in TNC. Following 14 days of PRE084 infusion, the number of Fos-IR increased until day 7 after final infusion. Moreover, by day 14, Fos-IR associated with PRE084 infusion was significantly reversed by NMDA receptor antagonist MK801, rather than BD1047. These findings indicated that chronic activation of Sig-1R could evoke prolonged neuronal activation in the trigeminovascular system. PMID:24992726

  9. Receptor activity-modifying protein-dependent effects of mutations in the calcitonin receptor-like receptor: implications for adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, H A; Walker, C S; Ly, K N; Bailey, R J; Barwell, J; Poyner, D R; Hay, D L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) define the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The interactions of the different RAMPs with this class B GPCR yield high-affinity calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (AM) receptors. However, the mechanism for this is unclear. Experimental Approach Guided by receptor models, we mutated residues in the N-terminal helix of CLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 hypothesized to be involved in peptide interactions. These were assayed for cAMP production with AM, AM2 and CGRP together with their cell surface expression. Binding studies were also conducted for selected mutants. Key Results An important domain for peptide interactions on CLR from I32 to I52 was defined. Although I41 was universally important for binding and receptor function, the role of other residues depended on both ligand and RAMP. Peptide binding to CLR/RAMP3 involved a more restricted range of residues than that to CLR/RAMP1 or CLR/RAMP2. E101 of RAMP2 had a major role in AM interactions, and F111/W84 of RAMP2/3 was important with each peptide. Conclusions and Implications RAMP-dependent effects of CLR mutations suggest that the different RAMPs control accessibility of peptides to binding residues situated on the CLR N-terminus. RAMP3 appears to alter the role of specific residues at the CLR-RAMP interface compared with RAMP1 and RAMP2. PMID:24199627

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of laminin, nidogen, and type IV collagen during the early development of human liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Quondamatteo; Christiane Scherf; Nicolai Miosge; Rainer Herken

    1999-01-01

    There is evidence that basement membrane components control differentiation of liver sinusoids and bile ducts. These processes\\u000a occur in humans in the 9th gestational week (GW). Distribution of laminin, nidogen, and type IV collagen was studied during\\u000a human liver development between the 6th and the 10th GW. Laminin and nidogen lined intrahepatic microvessels in the 6th and\\u000a 7th GW decreasing

  11. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins, normally associated with BM.

  12. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene polymorphisms with the development of asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Hee Oh; Se-Min Park; Yoo Hoon Lee; Ji Yeon Cha; Ji-Yeon Lee; Eun Kyong Shin; Jong-Sook Park; Byeong-Lae Park; Hyoung Doo Shin; Choon-Sik Park

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional factors. PPAR-gamma (PPARG) activation downregulates production of Th2 type cytokines and eosinophil function. Addition- ally, treatment with a synthetic PPARG ligand can reduce lung inflammation and IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2 production in experimental allergic asthma. In patients with asthma, PPARG gene expression is known

  13. Cyclin D1 Repression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor   Expression and Transactivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenguang Wang; Nagarajan Pattabiraman; Jian Nian Zhou; Maofu Fu; Toshiyuki Sakamaki; Chris Albanese; Zhiping Li; Kongming Wu; James Hulit; Peter Neumeister; Phyllis M. Novikoff; Michael Brownlee; Philipp E. Scherer; Joan G. Jones; Kathleen D. Whitney; Lawrence A. Donehower; Emily L. Harris; Thomas Rohan; David C. Johns; Richard G. Pestell

    2003-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is required for oncogene-induced tumor- igenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor selectively activated by ligands of the thiazolidinedione class. PPAR induces hepatic steatosis, and liganded PPAR promotes adipocyte differentiation. Herein, cyclin D1 inhibited ligand-induced PPAR function, transactivation, expres- sion, and promoter activity. PPAR transactivation induced by

  14. Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor during acute renal allograft rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris J. T. H. Roelofs; Ajda T. Rowshani; Jose G. Van Den Berg; Nike Claessen; Jan Aten; Ineke J. M. Ten Berge; Jan J. Weening; Sandrine Florquin

    2003-01-01

    Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor during acute renal allograft rejection.BackgroundIn inflammation, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play an important role in fibrinolysis and in activation and chemotaxis of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Moreover, the uPA\\/uPAR system is involved in processes that affect turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this study was to

  15. Encoding of pheromone intensity by dynamic activation of pheromone receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubomir Kostal; Petr Lánský; Jean-pierre Rospars

    2007-01-01

    The perireceptor and receptor events in a model of the single olfactory receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus are studied. This first stage of signal transduction imposes limiting conditions on the amount of information the olfactory neuron can process. By employing basic concepts of information theory we compare the effectiveness of the odorant concentration coding in dependence on

  16. Control of transcription activation by steroid hormone receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HINRICH GRONMEYER

    -: 2524 0892-6638\\/92\\/0006-2524\\/$01.50. © FASEB ABSTRACT Multiple regulatory mechanisms assure that signal transduction, involving the nuclear receptor interface, results in an accurate regulation of the respec- tive gene networks. These mechanisms involve selective expression of the cognate receptor and its binding to specific hormone response elements of target genes. However, superimposed onto this \\

  17. G Protein-coupled Receptors II. MECHANISM OF AGONIST ACTIVATION*

    E-print Network

    Kobilka, Brian

    by G protein- coupled receptors (GPCRs).1 Moreover, GPCRs are the principal signal transducers for the senses of sight and smell. GPCRs are characterized by seven membrane-spanning domains with an ex on certain key sequences, GPCRs can be divided into three major subfamilies, receptors related to rhodopsin

  18. Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Linda; Woehrle, Tobias; Corriden, Ross; Hirsh, Mark; Chen, Yu; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Ferrari, Vhe; Insel, Paul A.; Junger, Wolfgang G.

    2009-01-01

    T-cell activation requires the influx of extracellular calcium, although mechanistic details regarding such activation are not fully defined. Here, we show that P2X7 receptors play a key role in calcium influx and downstream signaling events associated with the activation of T cells. By real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we find that Jurkat T cells and human CD4+ T cells express abundant P2X7 receptors. We show, using a novel fluorescent microscopy technique, that T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation triggers the rapid release of ATP (<100 ?M). This release of ATP is required for TCR-mediated calcium influx, NFAT activation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. TCR activation up-regulates P2X7 receptor gene expression. Removal of extracellular ATP by apyrase or alkaline phosphatase treatment, inhibition of ATP release with the maxi-anion channel blocker gadolinium chloride, or siRNA silencing of P2X7 receptors blocks calcium entry and inhibits T-cell activation. Moreover, lymphocyte activation is impaired in C57BL/6 mice that express poorly functional P2X7 receptors, compared to control BALB/c mice, which express fully functional P2X7 receptors. We conclude that ATP release and autocrine, positive feedback through P2X7 receptors is required for the effective activation of T cells.—Yip, L., Woehrle, T., Corriden, R., Hirsh, M., Chen, Y., Inoue, Y., Ferrari, V., Insel, P. A., Junger, W. G. Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors. PMID:19211924

  19. Inhibition of androgen receptor and ?-catenin activity in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugine; Madar, Aviv; David, Gregory; Garabedian, Michael J.; DasGupta, Ramanuj; Logan, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is the major therapeutic target in aggressive prostate cancer. However, targeting AR alone can result in drug resistance and disease recurrence. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple pathways could in principle be an effective approach to treating prostate cancer. Here we provide proof-of-concept that a small-molecule inhibitor of nuclear ?-catenin activity (called C3) can inhibit both the AR and ?-catenin–signaling pathways that are often misregulated in prostate cancer. Treatment with C3 ablated prostate cancer cell growth by disruption of both ?-catenin/T-cell factor and ?-catenin/AR protein interaction, reflecting the fact that T-cell factor and AR have overlapping binding sites on ?-catenin. Given that AR interacts with, and is transcriptionally regulated by ?-catenin, C3 treatment also resulted in decreased occupancy of ?-catenin on the AR promoter and diminished AR and AR/?-catenin target gene expression. Interestingly, C3 treatment resulted in decreased AR binding to target genes accompanied by decreased recruitment of an AR and ?-catenin cofactor, coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), providing insight into the unrecognized function of ?-catenin in prostate cancer. Importantly, C3 inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model and blocked renewal of bicalutamide-resistant sphere-forming cells, indicating the therapeutic potential of this approach. PMID:24019458

  20. Activation of the Ah receptor by tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites.

    PubMed

    Heath-Pagliuso, S; Rogers, W J; Tullis, K; Seidel, S D; Cenijn, P H; Brouwer, A; Denison, M S

    1998-08-18

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of a variety of hydrophobic natural and synthetic chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin). A variety of indole-containing chemicals, such as indole-3-carbinol, indolo[3, 2-b]carbazole, and UV photoproducts of tryptophan (TRP), have previously been identified as ligands for AhR. Here we have examined the ability of endogenous metabolites of tryptophan (TRP) to bind to and activate AhR in vitro and in cells in culture. Although hydroxylated TRP metabolites were inactive, two metabolites, namely tryptamine (TA) and indole acetic acid (IAA), were shown to be AhR agonists. Not only do TA and IAA bind competitively to AhR, but they also can stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding and induce expression of an AhR-dependent reporter gene in cells. In addition to being an AhR ligand, TA is also a competitive substrate for cytochrome P4501A1, a well-characterized AhR- and TCDD-inducible gene product. Although these compounds are relatively weak ligands, compared to TCDD, they represent some of the first endogenous hydrophilic AhR agonists identified to date. PMID:9708986

  1. Genetic program of neuronal differentiation and growth induced by specific activation of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Cristina A; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Sforza, Daniel M; Malvar, Jemily S; Seksenyan, Akop; Cole, Ruth; Smith, Desmond J; Charles, Andrew; Ferchmin, Pedro A; de Vellis, Jean

    2007-02-01

    Glutamate and its receptors are expressed very early during development and may play important roles in neurogenesis, synapse formation and brain wiring. The levels of glutamate and activity of its receptors can be influenced by exogenous factors, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. To investigate the role of NMDA receptors on gene regulation in a neuronal model, we used primary neuronal cultures developed from embryonic rat cerebri in serum-free medium. Using Affymetrix Gene Arrays, we found that genes known to be involved in neuronal plasticity were differentially expressed 24 h after a brief activation of NMDA receptors. The upregulation of these genes was accompanied by a sustained induction of CREB phosphorylation, and an increase in synaptophysin immunoreactivity. We conclude that NMDA receptor activation elicits expression of genes whose downstream products are involved in the regulation of early phases of the process leading to synaptogenesis and its consolidation, at least in part through sustained CREB phosphorylation. PMID:17191130

  2. Xenobiotic-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation Associated with Constitutive Active/Androstane Receptor (CAR) or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) Is Enhanced by Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) Activation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Numakura, Yuki; Kodama, Susumu; Miyata, Masaaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) play pivotal roles in the metabolic functions of the liver such as xenobiotics detoxification and energy metabolism. While CAR or PPAR? activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent models, it remains unclear whether PXR activation also shows such effects. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PXR in the xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation with or without CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital, or PPAR? activation by Wy-14643 in mice. Treatment with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital increased the percentage of Ki-67-positive nuclei as well as mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related genes in livers as expected. On the other hand, treatment with the PXR activator pregnenolone 16?-carbonitrile (PCN) alone showed no such effects. Surprisingly, PCN co-treatment significantly augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by CAR activation with TCPOBOP or phenobarbital in wild-type mice but not in PXR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, PXR activation also augmented the hepatocyte proliferation induced by Wy-14643 treatment. Moreover, PCN treatment increased the RNA content of hepatocytes, suggesting the induction of G0/G1 transition, and reduced mRNA levels of Cdkn1b and Rbl2, encoding suppressors of cell cycle initiation. Our present findings indicate that xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation mediated by CAR or PPAR? is enhanced by PXR co-activation despite that PXR activation alone does not cause the cell proliferation in mouse livers. Thus PXR may play a novel and unique role in the hepatocyte/liver hyperplasia upon exposure to xenobiotics. PMID:23626729

  3. Mechanism of activation of protein kinase JAK2 by the growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Andrew J; Dai, Wei; O'Mara, Megan L; Abankwa, Daniel; Chhabra, Yash; Pelekanos, Rebecca A; Gardon, Olivier; Tunny, Kathryn A; Blucher, Kristopher M; Morton, Craig J; Parker, Michael W; Sierecki, Emma; Gambin, Yann; Gomez, Guillermo A; Alexandrov, Kirill; Wilson, Ian A; Doxastakis, Manolis; Mark, Alan E; Waters, Michael J

    2014-05-16

    Signaling from JAK (Janus kinase) protein kinases to STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) transcription factors is key to many aspects of biology and medicine, yet the mechanism by which cytokine receptors initiate signaling is enigmatic. We present a complete mechanistic model for activation of receptor-bound JAK2, based on an archetypal cytokine receptor, the growth hormone receptor. For this, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to monitor positioning of the JAK2 binding motif in the receptor dimer, substitution of the receptor extracellular domains with Jun zippers to control the position of its transmembrane (TM) helices, atomistic modeling of TM helix movements, and docking of the crystal structures of the JAK2 kinase and its inhibitory pseudokinase domain with an opposing kinase-pseudokinase domain pair. Activation of the receptor dimer induced a separation of its JAK2 binding motifs, driven by a ligand-induced transition from a parallel TM helix pair to a left-handed crossover arrangement. This separation leads to removal of the pseudokinase domain from the kinase domain of the partner JAK2 and pairing of the two kinase domains, facilitating trans-activation. This model may well generalize to other class I cytokine receptors. PMID:24833397

  4. Activation of retinoic acid receptor-dependent transcription by organochlorine pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Géraldine Lemaire; Patrick Balaguer; Serge Michel; Roger Rahmani

    2005-01-01

    Five organochlorine pesticides, namely, chlordane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and endosulfan, activate human retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated gene transcription via a retinoic acid response element (RARE). Transactivation studies were performed with stable RAR?, ?, or ? reporter cell lines in which the RAR DNA-binding domain (DBD) was replaced by that of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)?. Five of the organochlorine pesticides tested

  5. Activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Verma; Michelle M Tabb; Bruce Blumberg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates metabolism of diverse dietary, endobiotic, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine, and at lower levels in breast and other tissues where its function was unknown. Since many breast cancer preventive and therapeutic compounds are SXR activators, we hypothesized

  6. Molecular mechanism identified for activation and desensitization of prominent neurotransmitter receptor in the brain

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spinal cord that have also been implicated in some cancers.

  7. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwon Lee; Yin Liu; Jun Qin Mo; Jinsong Zhang; Zhongyun Dong; Shan Lu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ER?)-mediated signaling axis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor and Membrane Trafficking: EGF Receptor Activation of Endocytosis Requires Rab5a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alejandro Barbieri; Richard L. Roberts; Aysel Gumusboga; Hilary Highfield; Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez; Alan Wells; Philip D. Stahl

    2000-01-01

    Activated epidermal growth factor receptors recruit various intracellular proteins leading to signal generation and endocytic trafficking. Although acti- vated receptors are rapidly internalized into the en- docytic compartment and subsequently degraded in ly- sosomes, the linkage between signaling and endocytosis is not well understood. Here we show that EGF stim- ulation of NR6 cells induces a specific, rapid and transient

  9. Contractile mechanisms coupled to TRPA1 receptor activation in rat urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edinéia Lemos Andrade; Juliano Ferreira; Eunice André; João B. Calixto

    2006-01-01

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family present in sensory neurons. Here we show that vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) stimulation with capsaicin and activation of TRPA1 with allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde cause a graded contraction of the rat urinary bladder in vitro. Repeated applications of maximal concentrations of the agonists produce desensitization to their contractile effects.

  10. Lipids as regulators of the activity of transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano De Petrocellis; Vincenzo Di Marzo

    2005-01-01

    After 7 years from its cloning, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel remains the sole membrane receptor mediating the pharmacological effects of the hot chilli pepper pungent component, capsaicin, and of the Euphorbia toxin, resiniferatoxin. Yet, this ion channel represents one of the most complex examples of how the activity of a protein can be regulated. Among the

  11. Glycogen Content Regulates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-? (PPAR-?) Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Andrew; MacKenzie, Matthew G.; Belew, Micah Y.; Towler, Mhairi C.; Corstorphine, Alan; Papalamprou, Angela; Hardie, D. Grahame; Baar, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Performing exercise in a glycogen depleted state increases skeletal muscle lipid utilization and the transcription of genes regulating mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Potential candidates for glycogen-mediated metabolic adaptation are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and the transcription factor/nuclear receptor PPAR-?. It was therefore the aim of the present study to examine whether acute exercise with or without glycogen manipulation affects PGC-1? and PPAR-? function in rodent skeletal muscle. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (n?=?4): control [CON]; normal glycogen control [NG-C]; normal glycogen exercise [NG-E]; low glycogen control [LG-C]; and low glycogen exercise [LG-E]). Gastrocnemius (GTN) muscles were collected immediately following exercise and analyzed for glycogen content, PPAR-? activity via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, AMPK ?1/?2 kinase activity, and the localization of AMPK and PGC-1?. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen by 47 and 75% relative to CON in the NG-E and LG-E groups, respectively. Exercise that started with low glycogen (LG-E) finished with higher AMPK-?2 activity (147%, p<0.05), nuclear AMPK-?2 and PGC-1?, but no difference in AMPK-?1 activity compared to CON. In addition, PPAR-? binding to the CPT1 promoter was significantly increased only in the LG-E group. Finally, cell reporter studies in contracting C2C12 myotubes indicated that PPAR-? activity following contraction is sensitive to glucose availability, providing mechanistic insight into the association between PPAR-? and glycogen content/substrate availability. The present study is the first to examine PPAR-? activity in skeletal muscle in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Our data would suggest that a factor associated with muscle contraction and/or glycogen depletion activates PPAR-? and initiates AMPK translocation in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. PMID:24146969

  12. Activation of TrkB receptors by NGF? mimetic peptide conjugated polymersome nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soumen, Roy; Johnston, A H; Moin, Syed Tarique; Dudas, Jozsef; Newman, T A; Hausott, Barbara; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese; Glueckert, Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    Activation of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), a neurotrophin receptor, has been shown to increase neuronal cell survival and promote regeneration. Stimulation of the TrkB receptor by neurotrophic growth factors has been identified as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. However, growth factor delivery is problematic because of a short half-life in vivo. We have conjugated hNgf-EE, a short peptide mimetic of NGF? to the surface of polymersome nanoparticles and shown that they are capable of activating the TrkB receptor in vitro in the SHSY-G7 cell line. We propose that polymersomes could act as a scaffold for the delivery of TrkB activating moieties and that the polymersome size and polyethylene glycol surface have been shown to increase in vivo retention time. These multifunctional nanoparticles have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders by TrkB activation. From the ClinicaL Editor: Tyrosine kinase receptor B activation has been shown to promote regeneration and survival of neurons. However, growth factor delivery to stimulate these receptors remains problematic. The authors demonstrate that a peptide mimetic of NGF? conjugated to the surface of polymersome nanoparticles is capable of activating the TrkB receptors. These nanoparticles may offer a novel treatment strategy for a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22206946

  13. P2X4 receptors control the fate and survival of activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Domercq, María; Martín, Abraham; Llop, Jordi; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Matute, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, responds to brain disarrangements by becoming activated to contend with brain damage. Here we show that the expression of P2X4 receptors is upregulated in inflammatory foci and in activated microglia in the spinal cord of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as well as in the optic nerve of multiple sclerosis patients. To study the role of P2X4 receptors in microgliosis, we activated microglia with LPS in vitro and in vivo. We observed that P2X4 receptor activity in vitro was increased in LPS-activated microglia as assessed by patch-clamp recordings. In addition, P2X4 receptor blockade significantly reduced microglial membrane ruffling, TNF? secretion and morphological changes, as well as LPS-induced microglial cell death. Accordingly, neuroinflammation provoked by LPS injection in vivo induced a rapid microglial loss in the spinal cord that was totally prevented or potentiated by P2X4 receptor blockade or facilitation, respectively. Within the brain, microglia in the hippocampal dentate gyrus showed particular vulnerability to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Thus, microglia processes in this region retracted as early as 2 h after injection of LPS and died around 24 h later, two features which were prevented by blocking P2X4 receptors. Together, these data suggest that P2X4 receptors contribute to controlling the fate of activated microglia and its survival. PMID:24254916

  14. Tetraspanin CD151 stimulates adhesion-dependent activation of Ras, Rac, and Cdc42 by facilitating molecular association between ?1 integrins and small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Kee; Jeoung, Doo-Il; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Hansoo

    2012-09-14

    Tetraspanin CD151 associates with laminin-binding ?(3)?(1)/?(6)?(1) integrins in epithelial cells and regulates adhesion-dependent signaling events. We found here that CD151 plays a role in recruiting Ras, Rac1, and Cdc42, but not Rho, to the cell membrane region, leading to the formation of ?(3)?(1)/?(6)?(1) integrin-CD151-GTPases complexes. Furthermore, cell adhesion to laminin enhanced CD151 association with ?(1) integrin and, thereby, increased complex formation between the ?(1) family of integrins and small GTPases, Ras, Rac1, and Cdc42. Adhesion receptor complex-associated small GTPases were activated by CD151-?(1) integrin complex-stimulating adhesion events, such as ?(3)?(1)/?(6)?(1) integrin-activating cell-to-laminin adhesion and homophilic CD151 interaction-generating cell-to-cell adhesion. Additionally, FAK and Src appeared to participate in this adhesion-dependent activation of small GTPases. However, engagement of laminin-binding integrins in CD151-deficient cells or CD151-specific siRNA-transfected cells did not activate these GTPases to the level of cells expressing CD151. Small GTPases activated by engagement of CD151-?(1) integrin complexes contributed to CD151-induced cell motility and MMP-9 expression in human melanoma cells. Importantly, among the four tetraspanin proteins that associate with ?(1) integrin, only CD151 exhibited the ability to facilitate complex formation between the ?(1) family of integrins and small GTPases and stimulate ?(1) integrin-dependent activation of small GTPases. These results suggest that CD151 links ?(3)?(1)/?(6)?(1) integrins to Ras, Rac1, and Cdc42 by promoting the formation of multimolecular complexes in the membrane, which leads to the up-regulation of adhesion-dependent small GTPase activation. PMID:22843693

  15. Activity of protease-activated receptors in primary cultured human myenteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Eva M; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Demir, Ihsan E; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Zeller, Florian; Schemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the four known protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been well studied in rodent enteric nervous system and results in animal models established an important role for neuronal PAR2. We recently demonstrated that, unlike in rodents, PAR1 is the dominant neuronal protease receptor in the human submucous plexus. With this study we investigated whether this also applies to the human myenteric plexus. We used voltage sensitive dye recordings to detect action potential discharge in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons in response to PAR activating peptides (APs). Application of the PAR1-AP (TFLLR) or PAR4-AP (GYPGQV) evoked spike discharge in 79 or 23% of myenteric neurons, respectively. The PAR1-AP response was mimicked by the endogenous PAR1 activator thrombin and blocked by the PAR1 antagonists SCH79797. Human myenteric neurons did not respond to PAR2-AP. This was not due to culture conditions because all three PAR-APs evoked action potentials in cultured guinea pig myenteric neurons. Consecutive application of PAR-APs revealed coexpression (relative to the population responding to PAR-APs) of PAR1/PAR2 in 51%, PAR1/PAR4 in 43%, and of PAR2/PAR4 in 29% of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Our study provided further evidence for the prominent role of neuronal PAR1 in the human enteric nervous system. PMID:22988431

  16. Activity of Protease-Activated Receptors in Primary Cultured Human Myenteric Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Eva M.; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Zeller, Florian; Schemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the four known protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been well studied in rodent enteric nervous system and results in animal models established an important role for neuronal PAR2. We recently demonstrated that, unlike in rodents, PAR1 is the dominant neuronal protease receptor in the human submucous plexus. With this study we investigated whether this also applies to the human myenteric plexus. We used voltage sensitive dye recordings to detect action potential discharge in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons in response to PAR activating peptides (APs). Application of the PAR1-AP (TFLLR) or PAR4-AP (GYPGQV) evoked spike discharge in 79 or 23% of myenteric neurons, respectively. The PAR1-AP response was mimicked by the endogenous PAR1 activator thrombin and blocked by the PAR1 antagonists SCH79797. Human myenteric neurons did not respond to PAR2-AP. This was not due to culture conditions because all three PAR-APs evoked action potentials in cultured guinea pig myenteric neurons. Consecutive application of PAR-APs revealed coexpression (relative to the population responding to PAR-APs) of PAR1/PAR2 in 51%, PAR1/PAR4 in 43%, and of PAR2/PAR4 in 29% of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Our study provided further evidence for the prominent role of neuronal PAR1 in the human enteric nervous system. PMID:22988431

  17. Differential effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on regional brain activity using pharmacological MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chin, C-L; Tovcimak, A E; Hradil, V P; Seifert, T R; Hollingsworth, P R; Chandran, P; Zhu, C Z; Gauvin, D; Pai, M; Wetter, J; Hsieh, G C; Honore, P; Frost, J M; Dart, M J; Meyer, M D; Yao, B B; Cox, B F; Fox, G B

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and/or CB2 receptors mediates analgesic effects across a broad spectrum of preclinical pain models. Selective activation of CB2 receptors may produce analgesia without the undesirable psychotropic side effects associated with modulation of CB1 receptors. To address selectivity in vivo, we describe non-invasive, non-ionizing, functional data that distinguish CB1 from CB2 receptor neural activity using pharmacological MRI (phMRI) in awake rats. Experimental approach: Using a high field (7?T) MRI scanner, we examined and quantified the effects of non-selective CB1/CB2 (A-834735) and selective CB2 (AM1241) agonists on neural activity in awake rats. Pharmacological specificity was determined using selective CB1 (rimonabant) or CB2 (AM630) antagonists. Behavioural studies, plasma and brain exposures were used as benchmarks for activity in vivo. Key results: The non-selective CB1/CB2 agonist produced a dose-related, region-specific activation of brain structures that agrees well with published autoradiographic CB1 receptor density binding maps. Pretreatment with a CB1 antagonist but not with a CB2 antagonist, abolished these activation patterns, suggesting an effect mediated by CB1 receptors alone. In contrast, no significant changes in brain activity were found with relevant doses of the CB2 selective agonist. Conclusion and implications: These results provide the first clear evidence for quantifying in vivo functional selectivity between CB1 and CB2 receptors using phMRI. Further, as the presence of CB2 receptors in the brain remains controversial, our data suggest that if CB2 receptors are expressed, they are not functional under normal physiological conditions. PMID:17965748

  18. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression

    PubMed Central

    Pangburn, Heather A; Kraus, Hanna; Ahnen, Dennis J; Rice, Pamela L

    2005-01-01

    Background Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). Methods HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068), total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and ?-tubulin. Results EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. Conclusion These results suggest that downregulation of EGFR signaling by sulindac metabolites may occur, at least in part, by inhibiting activation and expression of EGFR. Inhibition of EGFR signaling may account for part of the growth inhibitory and chemopreventive effects of these compounds. PMID:16138927

  19. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. PMID:22414897

  20. PNA-Based Multivalent Scaffolds Activate the Dopamine D2 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Dix, Andrew V; Conroy, Jennie L; George Rosenker, Kara M; Sibley, David R; Appella, Daniel H

    2015-04-01

    Peptide nucleic acid scaffolds represent a promising tool to interrogate the multivalent effects of ligand binding to a membrane receptor. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are a class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the formation of higher-ordered structures of these receptors has been associated with the progression of several neurological diseases. In this Letter, we describe the synthesis of a library of ligand-modified PNAs bearing a known D2R agonist, (±)-PPHT. The D2R activity for each construct was assessed, and the multivalent effects were evaluated. PMID:25893044

  1. Age-dependent remodeling of connective tissue: role of fibronectin and laminin.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J

    2003-12-01

    Connective tissues differ from other tissues in their more abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). This matrix is composed of a relatively large number of macromolecules interacting with each other as well as with the cells they are surrounding. Such cells, fibroblasts, chondrocytes and others, secrete the macromolecules of ECM according to a genetically and environmentally regulated "program". It appeared recently that one type of macromolecular interactions is characterized by the selective cleavage of some of the ECM components. Some of these proteolytic cleavage products were shown to possess remarkable biological activities absent from the parent molecules. Such mechanisms were shown to play an important role in aging processes. Also called matricryptins such peptides and their activities are produced from several matrix components. Of special interest are these matricryptins which are derived from fibronectin, laminin and elastin. Their production by proteolytic attack of the original ECM components, followed by their novel biological activities, form in some instances autoamplifying vicious circles. Such "epigenetic", post-translational mechanisms are not coded in the genome, they are neither "accidental", nor "chaotic" but remarkably predictable, the result of the presence in several ECM components of "matricryptic" sites and coregulated synthesis of matrix components carrying such sites and of proteolytic enzymes producing the matricryptins. Some examples will be discussed, derived from the experiments carried out in our laboratory and others over the years, involved in aging and in some of the age-dependent pathologies. PMID:14622946

  2. Expression of Protease-Activated Receptor 1 and 2 and Anti-Tubulogenic Activity of Protease-Activated Receptor 1 in Human Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Tiago M.; Vara, Dina S.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.; Pula, Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are obtained from the culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (hPBMNC) fractions and are characterised by high proliferative and pro-vasculogenic potential, which makes them of great interest for cell therapy. Here, we describe the detection of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 amongst the surface proteins expressed in ECFCs. Both receptors are functionally coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, which become activated and phosphorylated in response to selective PAR1- or PAR2-activating peptides. Specific stimulation of PAR1, but not PAR2, significantly inhibits capillary-like tube formation by ECFCs in vitro, suggesting that tubulogenesis is negatively regulated by proteases able to stimulate PAR1 (e.g. thrombin). The activation of ERKs is not involved in the regulation of tubulogenesis in vitro, as suggested by use of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and by the fact that PAR2 stimulation activates ERKs without affecting capillary tube formation. Both qPCR and immunoblotting showed a significant downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) in response to PAR1 stimulation. Moreover, the addition of VEGF (50–100 ng/ml) but not basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) (25–100 ng/ml) rescued tube formation by ECFCs treated with PAR1-activating peptide. Therefore, we propose that reduction of VEGF responsiveness resulting from down-regulation of VEGFR2 is underlying the anti-tubulogenic effect of PAR1 activation. Although the role of PAR2 remains elusive, this study sheds new light on the regulation of the vasculogenic activity of ECFCs and suggests a potential link between adult vasculogenesis and the coagulation cascade. PMID:25289673

  3. Constitutive activity and ligand-dependent activation of the nuclear receptor CAR-insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Windshügel, Björn; Poso, Antti

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) possesses, unlike most other nuclear receptors, a pronounced basal activity in vitro whose structural basis is still not fully understood. Using comparative molecular dynamics simulations of CAR X-ray crystal structures, we evaluated the molecular basis for constitutive activity and ligand-dependent receptor activation. Our results suggest that a combination of van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds is required to maintain the activation helix in the active conformation also in absence of a ligand. Furthermore, we identified conformational rearrangements within the ligand-binding pocket upon agonist binding and an influence of CAR inducers pregnanedione and CITCO on the helical conformation of the activation helix. Based on the results a model for ligand-dependent CAR activation is suggested. PMID:21812062

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation potentiates nitric oxide release by activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Saura, Josep; Angulo, Ester; Ejarque, Aroa; Casadó, Vicent; Tusell, Josep M; Moratalla, Rosario; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Lluis, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Serratosa, Joan

    2005-11-01

    The absence of adenosine A2A receptors, or its pharmacological inhibition, has neuroprotective effects. Experimental data suggest that glial A2A receptors participate in neurodegeneration induced by A2A receptor stimulation. In this study we have investigated the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on control and activated glial cells. Mouse cortical mixed glial cultures (75% astrocytes, 25% microglia) were treated with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CGS21680 potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and NO synthase-II expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CGS21680 potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release was suppressed by the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385 and did not occur on mixed glial cultures from A2A receptor-deficient mice. In mixed glial cultures treated with LPS + CGS21680, the NO synthase-II inhibitor 1400W abolished NO production, and NO synthase-II immunoreactivity was observed only in microglia. Binding experiments demonstrated the presence of A2A receptors on microglial but not on astroglial cultures. However, the presence of astrocytes was necessary for CGS21680 potentiating effect. In light of the reported neurotoxicity of microglial NO synthase-II and the neuroprotection of A2A receptor inhibition, these data suggest that attenuation of microglial NO production could contribute to the neuroprotection afforded by A2A receptor antagonists. PMID:16092928

  5. Characterization of a tight molecular complex between integrin alpha 6 beta 4 and laminin-5 extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Falk-Marzillier, J; Domanico, S Z; Pelletier, A; Mullen, L; Quaranta, V

    1998-10-01

    In many adult epithelia, e.g., epidermis or intestine, adhesion of epithelial cells to basement membrane requires the integrin alpha6 beta4 and laminin-5 (Ln-5). In the absence of one or the other, extensive blistering and exfoliation occur. While alpha6 beta4 was reported to be a receptor for Ln-5, this interaction is poorly understood. We characterize complexes between alpha6 beta4 and Ln-5 in cell-free preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from the epithelial cell line, 804G. By microsequencing, Ln-5 and alpha6 beta4 were the major proteins in this ECM and were likely engaged in receptor/ligand complexes because, by immunofluorescence, alpha6 beta4 was colocalized with Ln-5 both in cell monolayers and in cell-free ECM preparations, but they disappeared after preincubation of the monolayers with alpha6 beta4 or Ln-5 function-blocking antibodies. The alpha6 beta4/Ln-5 complexes were resistant to dissociation by extreme pH, urea, chaotropes, eDTA, non-ionic detergents, and b-mercaptoethanol. They were only dissociated by strong anionic detergents, e.g., 1% SDS, suggesting receptor/ligand interactions based on high affinity or avidity. We propose that these alpha6 beta4/Ln-5 complexes may provide links between plasma membrane and basement membrane that resist mechanical stress and support epithelial integrity. PMID:9790905

  6. Tumor-suppressive activity of Lunatic Fringe in prostate through differential modulation of Notch receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shubing; Chung, Wen-cheng; Wu, Guanming; Egan, Sean E; Xu, Keli

    2014-02-01

    Elevated Notch ligand and receptor expression has been associated with aggressive forms of prostate cancer, suggesting a role for Notch signaling in regulation of prostate tumor initiation and progression. Here, we report a critical role for Lunatic Fringe (Lfng), which encodes an O-fucosylpeptide 3-ß-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase known to modify epidermal growth factor repeats of Notch receptor proteins, in regulation of prostate epithelial differentiation and proliferation, as well as in prostate tumor suppression. Deletion of Lfng in mice caused altered Notch activation in the prostate, associated with elevated accumulation of Notch1, Notch2, and Notch4 intracellular domains, decreased levels of the putative Notch3 intracellular fragment, as well as increased expression of Hes1, Hes5, and Hey2. Loss of Lfng resulted in expansion of the basal layer, increased proliferation of both luminal and basal cells, and ultimately, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The Lfng-null prostate showed down-regulation of prostatic tumor suppressor gene NKX3.1 and increased androgen receptor expression. Interestingly, expression of LFNG and NKX3.1 were positively correlated in publically available human prostate cancer data sets. Knockdown of LFNG in DU-145 prostate cancer cells led to expansion of CD44(+)CD24(-) and CD49f(+)CD24(-) stem/progenitor-like cell population associated with enhanced prostatosphere-forming capacity. Taken together, these data revealed a tumor-suppressive role for Lfng in the prostate through differential regulation of Notch signaling. PMID:24709423

  7. Danshen mediates through estrogen receptors to activate Akt and inhibit apoptosis effect of Leu27IGF-II-induced IGF-II receptor signaling activation in cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tzang, Bor-Show; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Lin, James A; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-06-01

    Post-menopausal women show dramatically increased cardiovascular disease morbidity (CVD). Danshen is used widely in China for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary heart disease. Danshen possesses lipid-soluble biologically active components with a structure similar to 17?-estrodiol (E2). This study assesses whether the cardio-protection exerted by Danshen is mediated through the ERs within H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. Cardiomyoblast cells pretreated with Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780), an estrogen receptor antagonist was applied to investigate the estrogenic activity of Danshen. The Danshen extract preventive effects on Leu27IGF-II-induced IGF-IIR signaling activator and H9c2 cell apoptosis were identified using TUNEL assay, JC-1 staining and Western blot assay. We found that Danshen extract treatments significantly enhanced phosphorylated Akt through estrogen receptor activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin activation and block H9c2 cell apoptosis. Danshen extracts suppressed the IGF-IIR signaling proteins, pro-apoptotic proteins and reversed the mitochondrial membrane instability induced by Leu27IGF-II. However, the cardioprotective properties of Danshen to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell apoptosis and promote cell survival were attenuated by applying ICI, which suggests that the Danshen cardioprotective effect is mediated through estrogen receptors. All our data indicated that Danshen exerts strong estrogenic activity which can be considered a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) against IGF2R signaling that blocks cardiac apoptosis. PMID:23419388

  8. A cleavage-resistant urokinase plasminogen activator receptor exhibits dysregulated cell-surface clearance.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Evelyn C; Manchanda, Naveen

    2010-04-23

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) binds urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and participates in plasminogen activation in addition to modulating several cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and migration. u-PAR is susceptible to proteolysis by its cognate ligand and several other proteases. To elucidate the biological significance of receptor cleavage by u-PA, we engineered and expressed a two-chain urokinase plasminogen activator (tcu-PA) cleavage-resistant u-PAR (cr-u-PAR). This mutated receptor was similar to wild-type u-PAR in binding u-PA and initiating plasminogen activation. However, cr-u-PAR exhibited accelerated internalization and resurfacing due to direct association with the endocytic receptor alpha(2)-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in the absence of the enzyme x inhibitor complex of tcu-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (tcu-PA.PAI-1). cr-u-PAR-expressing cells had enhanced migration compared with wild-type u-PAR-expressing cells, and cr-u-PAR was less sensitive to chymotrypsin cleavage as compared with wt u-PAR. Our studies suggest that these mutations in the linker region result in a rearrangement within the cr-u-PAR structure that makes it resemble its ligand-bound form. This constitutively active variant may mimic highly glycosylated cleavage-resistant u-PAR expressed in certain highly malignant cancer-cells. PMID:20177061

  9. Termination of signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 is linked to lysosomal sorting

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, JoAnn; Hammes, Stephen R.; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    1998-01-01

    The irreversible proteolytic mechanism by which protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is activated raises the question of how it is shut off. Like classic GPCRs, activated PAR1 is rapidly phosphorylated and internalized, but unlike classic GPCRs, which recycle, internalized PAR1 is sorted to lysosomes. A chimeric PAR1 bearing the substance P receptor’s cytoplasmic carboxyl tail sequestered and recycled like wild-type substance P receptor. In cells expressing this chimera, signaling in response to the PAR1-activating peptide SFLLRN ceased as expected upon removal of this agonist. Strikingly, however, when the chimera was activated proteolytically by thrombin, signaling persisted even after thrombin was removed. This persistent signaling was apparently due to “resignaling” by previously activated receptors that had internalized and recycled back to the cell surface. Thus the cytoplasmic carboxyl tail of PAR1 specifies an intracellular sorting pattern that is linked to its signaling properties. In striking contrast to most GPCRs, sorting of activated PAR1 to lysosomes rather than recycling is critical for terminating PAR1 signaling—a trafficking solution to a signaling problem. PMID:9811863

  10. Structural basis for chemokine recognition and activation of a viral G protein–coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Burg, John S.; Ingram, Jessica R.; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Jude, Kevin M.; Dukkipati, Abhiram; Feinberg, Evan N.; Angelini, Alessandro; Waghray, Deepa; Dror, Ron O.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are small proteins that function as immune modulators through activation of chemokine G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several viruses also encode chemokines and chemokine receptors to subvert the host immune response. How protein ligands activate GPCRs remains unknown. We report the crystal structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution of the human cytomegalovirus GPCR US28 in complex with the chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The globular body of CX3CL1 is perched on top of the US28 extracellular vestibule, whereas its amino terminus projects into the central core of US28. The transmembrane helices of US28 adopt an active-state–like conformation. Atomic-level simulations suggest that the agonist-independent activity of US28 may be due to an amino acid network evolved in the viral GPCR to destabilize the receptor’s inactive state. PMID:25745166

  11. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity Glufosinate (GLF) at high levels in mammals causes convulsions through a mechanism that is not completely understood. The structural similarity of GLF to glutamate (GLU) implicates the glutamate...

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION NMDA Receptor-Mediated Oscillatory Activity in the Neonatal Rat

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    rhythmogenesis in the mam- rhythmic network activity and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) malian spinal cord rhythmogenesis and/or modu- interplay between 5-HT and NMDA receptor actions may be criti- lation of NMDA

  13. Constitutively active Notch4 receptor elicits brain arteriovenous malformations through enlargement of

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Chris B.

    Constitutively active Notch4 receptor elicits brain arteriovenous malformations through enlargement the arteriovenous (AV) interface are critical for tissue function. AV malformation (AVM) is a pathological, MA, and approved November 11, 2014 (received for review August 13, 2014) Arteriovenous (AV

  14. Endomorphin analogues with mixed ?-opioid (MOP) receptor agonism/?-opioid (DOP) receptor antagonism and lacking ?-arrestin2 recruitment activity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jun; Song, Bowen; Cai, Yunxin; Ma, Yu; Lam, Ai-Leen; Magiera, Julia; Sekar, Sunder; Wyse, Bruce D; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Smith, Maree T; Li, Tingyou

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of endomorphin (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 4 or at positions 4 and 3, and tripeptides (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 3, with various phenylalanine analogues (Xaa=Trp, 1-Nal, 2-Nal, Tmp, Dmp, Dmt) were synthesized and their effects on in vitro opioid activity were investigated. Most of the peptides exhibited high ?-opioid (MOP) receptor binding affinity (KiMOP=0.13-0.81nM), modest MOP-selectivity (Ki?-opioid (DOP)/KiMOP=3.5-316), and potent functional MOP agonism (GPI, IC50=0.274-249nM) without DOP and ?-opioid (KOP) receptor agonism. Among them, compounds 7 (Dmt-Pro-Tmp-Tmp-NH2) and 9 (Dmt-Pro-1-Nal-NH2) were opioids with potent mixed MOP receptor agonism/DOP receptor antagonism and devoid of ?-arrestin2 recruitment activity. They may offer a unique template for the discovery of potent analgesics that produce less respiratory depression, less gastrointestinal dysfunction and that have a lower propensity to induce tolerance and dependence compared with morphine. PMID:24613457

  15. A Binding Site Model and Structure-Activity Relationships for the Rat A3 Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    VAN GALEN, PHILIP J. M.; VAN BERGEN, ANDREW H.; GALLO-RODRIGUEZ, CAROLA; MELMAN, NELI; OLAH, MARK E.; IJZERMAN, AD P.; STILES, GARY L.; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel adenosine receptor, the A3 receptor, has recently been cloned. We have systematically investigated the hitherto largely unexplored structure-activity relationships (SARs) for binding at A3 receptors, using 125I-N6-2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine as a radioligand and membranes from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the rat A3-cDNA. As is the case for A1 and A2a, receptors, substitutions at the N6 and 5? positions of adenosine, the prototypic agonist ligand, may yield fairly potent compounds. However, the highest affinity and A3 selectivity is found for N6,5?-disubstituted compounds, in contrast to A1 and A2a receptors. Thus, N6-benzyladenosine-5?-N-ethylcarboxamide is highly potent (Ki, 6.8 nM) and moderately selective (13- and 14-fold versus A1 and A2a). The N6 region of the A3 receptor also appears to tolerate hydrophilic substitutions, in sharp contrast to the other subtypes. Potencies of N6,5?-disubstituted compounds in inhibition of adenylate cyclase via A3 receptors parallel their high affinity in the binding assay. None of the typical xanthine or nonxanthine (A1/A2) antagonists tested show any appreciable affinity for rat A3 receptors. 1,3-Dialkylxanthines did not antagonize the A3 agonist-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase. A His residue in helix 6 that is absent in A3 receptors but present in A1/A2 receptors may be causal in this respect. In a molecular model for the rat A3 receptor, this mutation, together with an increased bulkiness of residues surrounding the ligand, make antagonist binding unfavorable when compared with a previously developed A1 receptor model. Second, this A3 receptor model predicted similarities with A1 and A2 receptors in the binding requirements for the ribose moiety and that xanthine-7-ribosides would bind to rat A3 receptors. This hypothesis was supported experimentally by the moderate affinity (Ki 6 ?M) of 7-riboside of 1,3-dibutylxanthine, which appears to be a partial agonist at rat A3 receptors. The model presented here, which is consistent with the detailed SAR found in this study, may serve to suggest future chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and SAR studies to further define essential characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction and to develop even more potent and selective A3 receptor ligands. PMID:8022403

  16. Autoantibody-mediated complement C3a receptor activation contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Yujin; Ramin, Susan M; Blackwell, Sean C; Tao, Lijian; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2012-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a prevalent life-threatening hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with increased complement activation. However, the causative factors and pathogenic role of increased complement activation in PE are largely unidentified. Here we report that a circulating maternal autoantibody, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, stimulates deposition of complement C3 in placentas and kidneys of pregnant mice via angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation. Next, we provide in vivo evidence that selectively interfering with C3a signaling by a complement C3a receptor-specific antagonist significantly reduces hypertension from 167±7 to 143±5 mm Hg and proteinuria from 223.5±7.5 to 78.8±14.0 ?g of albumin per milligram creatinine (both P<0.05) in angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibody-injected pregnant mice. In addition, we demonstrated that complement C3a receptor antagonist significantly inhibited autoantibody-induced circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, a known antiangiogenic protein associated with PE, and reduced small placental size with impaired angiogenesis and intrauterine growth restriction. Similarly, in humans, we demonstrate that C3 deposition is significantly elevated in the placentas of preeclamptic patients compared with normotensive controls. Lastly, we show that complement C3a receptor activation is a key mechanism underlying autoantibody-induced soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 secretion and decreased angiogenesis in cultured human villous explants. Overall, we provide mouse and human evidence that angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibody-mediated activation contributes to elevated C3 and that complement C3a receptor signaling is a key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the disease. These studies are the first to link angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibody with complement activation and to provide important new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in PE. PMID:22868393

  17. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Rosen, Mitch; Abbott, Barbara; Lau, Christopher; Guo, Grace; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Klaassen, Curtis; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPAR? in rodents increases liver cancer incidence, whereas suppression of PPAR? activity leads to hepatocellular steatosis. Analytical approaches were developed to identify biosets (i.e., gene expression differences between two conditions) in a genomic database in which PPAR? activity was altered. A gene expression signature of 131 PPAR?-dependent genes was built using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and PPAR?-null mice after exposure to three structurally diverse PPAR? activators (WY-14,643, fenofibrate and perfluorohexane sulfonate). A fold-change rank-based test (Running Fisher’s test (p-value ? 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the PPAR? signature and a test set of 48 and 31 biosets positive or negative, respectively for PPAR? activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 98%. The signature was then used to identify factors that activate or suppress PPAR? in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression compendium of ~1850 biosets. In addition to the expected activation of PPAR? by fibrate drugs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorinated compounds, PPAR? was activated by benzofuran, galactosamine, and TCDD and suppressed by hepatotoxins acetaminophen, lipopolysaccharide, silicon dioxide nanoparticles, and trovafloxacin. Additional factors that activate (fasting, caloric restriction) or suppress (infections) PPAR? were also identified. This study 1) developed methods useful for future screening of environmental chemicals, 2) identified chemicals that activate or suppress PPAR?, and 3) identified factors including diets and infections that modulate PPAR? activity and would be hypothesized to affect chemical-induced PPAR? activity. PMID:25689681

  18. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam N.. Jacobs; Gail T. Nolan; Steven R. Hood

    2005-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR).

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists as Therapy for Autoimmune Disease1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Lovett-Racke; Rehana Z. Hussain; Sara Northrop; Judy Choy; Anne Rocchini; Lela Matthes; Janet A. Chavis; Asim Diab; Paul D. Drew; Michael K. Racke

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPAR ligands, which include the naturally occurring PG metabolite 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), as well as thiazolidinediones, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity. The PPAR agonists, gemfibrozil, ciprofibrate, and fenofibrate, have an excellent track history as oral agents used to treat hypertriglyceridemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that

  20. Analysis of the heat shock response in mouse liver reveals transcriptional dependence on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beena Vallanat; Steven P Anderson; Holly M Brown-Borg; Hongzu Ren; Sander Kersten; Sudhakar Jonnalagadda; Rajagopalan Srinivasan; J Christopher Corton

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by heat shock (HS) through activation by HS factor-1 (HSF1). We hypothesized that there are interactions on a genetic level between PPAR? and the HS

  1. From The Cover: Protein kinase C phosphorylation sensitizes but does not activate the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Bhave; Hui-Juan Hu; Kathi S. Glauner; Weiguo Zhu; Haibin Wang; D. J. Brasier; Gerry S. Oxford; Robert W. Gereau IV

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the function of the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). This modulation manifests as increased current when the channel is activated by capsaicin. In addition, studies have suggested that phosphorylation by PKC might directly gate the channel, because PKC-activating phorbol esters induce TRPV1 currents in the absence of applied ligands. To test whether

  2. Activation of Toll-Like Receptors and Inflammasome Complexes in the Diabetic Cardiomyopathy-Associated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Antrás, J.; Ioan, A. M.; Tuñón, J.; Egido, J.; Lorenzo, Ó.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as a ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance are major inducers of the chronic low-grade inflammatory state that characterizes the diabetic heart. Cardiac Toll-like receptors and inflammasome complexes may be key inducers for inflammation probably through NF-?B activation and ROS overproduction. However, metabolic dysregulated factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and sirtuins may serve as therapeutic targets to control this response by mitigating both Toll-like receptors and inflammasome signaling. PMID:24744784

  3. Type I IL-4 Receptors Selectively Activate IRS-2 to Induce Target Gene Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Nicola M.; Qi, Xiulan; Junttila, Ilkka S.; Shirey, Kari Ann; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Paul, William E.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2009-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 participate in allergic inflammation and share a receptor subunit (IL-4R?), differential functions for these cytokines have been reported. Therefore, we compared cells expressing type I and II IL-4 receptors with cells expressing only type II receptors for their responsiveness to these cytokines. IL-4 induced highly efficient, ?C-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), whereas IL-13 was less effective, even when phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) was maximal. Only type I receptor-?C+ signaling induced efficient association of IRS-2 with p85 or GRB2. IL-4 signaling through type I receptor complexes induced more robust expression of a subset of genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages than did IL-13, despite equivalent activation of STAT6. Thus, IL-4 activates signaling pathways through the type I receptor complex, qualitatively differently from IL-13, which cooperate to induce optimal gene expression. PMID:19109239

  4. Shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptors by activated human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The capacity of human neutrophils (PMN) to bind tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was rapidly lost when the cells were incubated in suspension with agents that can stimulate their migratory and secretory responses. Both physiological (poly)peptides (FMLP, C5a, CSF-GM) and pharmacologic agonists (PMN, calcium ionophore A23187) induced the loss of TNF receptors (TNF-R) from the cell surface. Half-maximal loss in TNF-R ensued after only approximately 2 min with 10(-7) M FMLP at 37 degrees C, and required only 10(-9) M FMLP during a 30-min exposure. However, there were no such changes even with prolonged exposure of PMN to FMLP at 4 degrees or 16 degrees C. Scatchard analysis revealed loss of TNF- binding sites without change in their affinity (Kd approximately 0.4 nM) as measured at incompletely modulating concentrations of FMLP, C5a, PMA, or A23187. The binding of anti-TNF-R mAbs to PMN decreased in parallel, providing independent evidence for the loss of TNF-R from the cell surface. At the same time, soluble TNF-R appeared in the medium of stimulated PMN. This inference was based on the PMN- and FMLP-dependent generation of a nonsedimentable activity that could inhibit the binding of TNF to fresh human PMN or to mouse macrophages, and the ability of mAbs specific for human TNF-R to abolish inhibition by PMN-conditioned medium of binding of TNF to mouse macrophages. Soluble TNF-R activity was associated with a protein of Mr approximately 28,000 by ligand blot analysis of cell-free supernatants of FMLP-treated PMN. Thus, some portion of the FMLP-induced loss of TNF-R from human PMN is due to shedding of TNF-R. Shedding was unaffected by inhibitors of serine and thiol proteases and could not be induced with phosphatidylinositol- specific phospholipase C. Loss of TNF-R from PMN first stimulated by other agents may decrease their responsiveness to TNF. TNF-R shed by PMN may be one source of the TNF-binding proteins found in body fluids, and may blunt the actions of the cytokine on other cells. PMID:2165128

  5. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase activity is increased in hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, R.; Benovic, J. L.; Tan, C. M.; Feldman, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    Impaired vascular beta-adrenergic responsiveness may play an important role in the development and/or maintenance of hypertension. This defect has been associated with an alteration in receptor/guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) interactions. However, the locus of this defect remains unclear. G-Protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate serine/threonine residues on G-protein-linked receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. GRK activation mediates reduced receptor responsiveness and impaired receptor/G-protein coupling. To determine whether the impairment in beta-adrenergic response in human hypertension might be associated with altered GRK activity, we studied lymphocytes from younger hypertensive subjects as compared with older and younger normotensive subjects. We assessed GRK activity by rhodopsin phosphorylation and GRK expression by immunoblot. GRK activity was significantly increased in lymphocytes from younger hypertensive subjects and paralleled an increase in GRK-2 (beta ARK-1) protein expression. In contrast, no alterations in cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) activity or GRK-5/6 expression were noted. GRK activity was not increased in lymphocytes from older normotensive subjects who demonstrated a similar impairment in beta-adrenergic-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation. These studies indicate that GRK activity is selectively increased in lymphocytes from hypertensive subjects. The increase in GRK activity may underlie the reduction in beta-adrenergic responsiveness characteristic of the hypertensive state. PMID:9151780

  6. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity through a mechanism involving P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Perez-Hernandez, Mercedes; Urrutia, Andrés; Porcu, Francesca; Borcel, Erika; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') produces a neuro-inflammatory response in rats characterized by an increase in microglial activation and IL-1? levels. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in preserving the homeostasis of the brain and has been shown to be affected by neuro-inflammatory processes. We aimed to study the effect of a single dose of MDMA on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs), expression of extracellular matrix proteins, BBB leakage and the role of the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) in the changes induced by the drug. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were treated with MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed at several time-points in order to evaluate MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity in the hippocampus and laminin and collagen-IV expression and IgG extravasation in the dentate gyrus. Microglial activation, P2X7R expression and localization were also determined in the dentate gyrus. Separate groups were treated with MDMA and the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) or A-438079 (30 mg/kg, i.p.). MDMA increased MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity, reduced laminin and collagen-IV expression and increased IgG immunoreactivity. In addition, MDMA increased microglial activation and P2X7R immunoreactivity in these cells. BBG suppressed the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity, prevented basal lamina degradation and IgG extravasation into the brain parenchyma. A-438079 also prevented the MDMA-induced reduction in laminin and collagen-IV immunoreactivity. These results indicate that MDMA alters BBB permeability through an early P2X7R-mediated event, which in turn leads to enhancement of MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity and degradation of extracellular matrix. PMID:24626059

  7. Laminin Peptide-Immobilized Hydrogels Modulate Valve Endothelial Cell Hemostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Balaoing, Liezl Rae; Post, Allison Davis; Lin, Adam Yuh; Tseng, Hubert; Moake, Joel L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Valve endothelial cells (VEC) have unique phenotypic responses relative to other types of vascular endothelial cells and have highly sensitive hemostatic functions affected by changes in valve tissues. Furthermore, effects of environmental factors on VEC hemostatic function has not been characterized. This work used a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel platform to evaluate the effects of substrate stiffness and cell adhesive ligands on VEC phenotype and expression of hemostatic genes. Hydrogels of molecular weights (MWs) 3.4, 8, and 20 kDa were polymerized into platforms of different rigidities and thiol-modified cell adhesive peptides were covalently bound to acrylate groups on the hydrogel surfaces. The peptide RKRLQVQLSIRT (RKR) is a syndecan-1 binding ligand derived from laminin, a trimeric protein and a basement membrane matrix component. Conversely, RGDS is an integrin binding peptide found in many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor (VWF). VECs adhered to and formed a stable monolayer on all RKR-coated hydrogel-MW combinations. RGDS-coated platforms supported VEC adhesion and growth on RGDS-3.4 kDa and RGDS-8 kDa hydrogels. VECs cultured on the softer RKR-8 kDa and RKR-20 kDa hydrogel platforms had significantly higher gene expression for all anti-thrombotic (ADAMTS-13, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator) and thrombotic (VWF, tissue factor, and P-selectin) proteins than VECs cultured on RGDS-coated hydrogels and tissue culture polystyrene controls. Stimulated VECs promoted greater platelet adhesion than non-stimulated VECs on their respective culture condition; yet stimulated VECs on RGDS-3.4 kDa gels were not as responsive to stimulation relative to the RKR-gel groups. Thus, the syndecan binding, laminin-derived peptide promoted stable VEC adhesion on the softer hydrogels and maintained VEC phenotype and natural hemostatic function. In conclusion, utilization of non-integrin adhesive peptide sequences derived from basement membrane ECM may recapitulate balanced VEC function and may benefit endothelialization of valve implants. PMID:26090873

  8. Tachykinin NK3 and NK1 receptor activation elicits secretion from porcine airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Hey, John A; Corboz, Michel R

    2003-01-01

    We presently characterized the tachykinin receptor subtypes, using tachykinin receptor agonists and selective antagonists, that induce submucosal gland fluid flux (JG) from porcine tracheal explants with the hillocks technique. We also investigated the effects of the tachykinin receptor agonists on the electrophysiologic parameters of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers. The NK1 tachykinin receptor agonist substance P (SP, 1 ?M) and the NK3 tachykinin receptor agonist [MePhe7]neurokinin B ([MePhe7]NKB, 1 ?M) induced gland fluid fluxes of 0.29±0.03 ?l min?1 cm?2 (n=26) and 0.36±0.05 ?l min?1 cm?2 (n=24), respectively; while the NK2 tachykinin receptor agonist [?Ala8]neurokinin A (4-10) ([?Ala8]NKA (4-10), 1 ?M) had no effect on JG (n=10). The NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994 (1 ?M, n=9) blocked 93% of the SP-induced JG, whereas the NK3 receptor antagonist SB223412 (1 ?M, n=12) had no effect on the SP-induced JG. However, SB223412 (1 ?M, n=9) blocked 89% of the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG while CP99994 (1 ?M, n=10) did not affect the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG. The NK2 receptor antagonist SR48968 (1 ?M) did not block the JG induced by either the NK1 (n=4) or NK3 (n=13) receptor agonists. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antagonist hexamethonium (1 ?M) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine (1 ?M) also decreased the NK3 receptor agonist-induced JG by 67% (n=10) and 71% (n=12), respectively. The potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (ISC), and membrane resistance (RM) of the porcine tracheal epithelial membranes were not significantly affected by any of the neurokinin agonists or antagonists (1 ?M, basolateral) used in this study, although SP and [?Ala8]NKA (4-10) induced a slight transient epithelial hyperpolarization. These data suggest that NK1 and NK3 receptors induce porcine airway gland secretion by different mechanisms and that the NK3 receptor agonists induced secretion is likely due to activation of prejunctional NK3 receptors on parasympathetic nerves, resulting in acetylcholine-release. We conclude that tachykinin receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in diseases with pathophysiological mucus hypersecretion such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. PMID:12522097

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-dependent and -independent growth inhibition of gastrointestinal tumour cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Azharul Karim Rumi; Shunji Ishihara; Yasunori Kadowaki; C. F. Ortega-Cava; Hideaki Kazumori; Kousaku Kawashima; Nagisa Yoshino; Takafumi Yuki; Norihisa Ishimura; Yoshikazu Kinoshita

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ? ? ? (PPAR? ? ? ? ) acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor. Although ligand-induced cellular differentiation and growth inhibition have been mostly studied on human cancers expressing PPAR? ? ? ? , it is unclear if the transcriptional activation of PPAR? ? ? ? is the main mechanism of growth inhibition. In this study,

  10. Native TRPC7 Channel Activation by an Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor-dependent Mechanism*

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Native TRPC7 Channel Activation by an Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor-dependent Mechanism* Received as multifunctional calcium-permeable cation channels that can be activated through the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway is initiated by depletion of Ca2 stores) and/or non-store-operated Ca2 channels following PLC activation

  11. Separation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist activity evaluation of synthetic racemic bavachinin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Du, Guoxin; Feng, Li; Yang, Zhuo; Shi, Jiye; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Bo; Zhu, Weiliang; Li, Yiming

    2015-06-15

    Bavachinin, isolated from Psoralea corylifolia seeds, has been reported to demonstrate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist activity. However, isolated bavachinin is actually a mixture of S and R configurations, with an enantiomeric excess value of approximately 24.3%. For further study on the structure-activity relationships of bavachinin, investigating the PPAR-? agonist activity of the two enantiomers is crucial. Considering the limited availability, racemic bavachinin was prepared in this study using chemical synthesis. The enantiomers of racemic bavachinin were then separated using supercritical fluid chromatography. This concise strategy yielded (S)- and (R)-bavachinin in optical purity as high as ?97.5%. The PPAR-? agonist activity of the two enantiomers was evaluated using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based competitive binding assay method; IC50 values of (S)- and (R)-bavachinin were 616.7 and 471.2nM, respectively. The interaction between the compounds and PPAR-? was further explored using a molecular docking method. This study suggests that (S)- and (R)-bavachinin demonstrate similar PPAR-? agonist activities. PMID:25978962

  12. Structure-activity relationships for the antifungal activity of selective estrogen receptor antagonists related to tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Butts, Arielle; Martin, Jennifer A; DiDone, Louis; Bradley, Erin K; Mutz, Mitchell; Krysan, Damian J

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is one of the most important invasive fungal infections and is a significant contributor to the mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. As part of our program to repurpose molecules related to the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen as anti-cryptococcal agents, we have explored the structure-activity relationships of a set of structurally diverse SERMs and tamoxifen derivatives. Our data provide the first insights into the structural requirements for the antifungal activity of this scaffold. Three key molecular characteristics affecting anti-cryptococcal activity emerged from our studies: 1) the presence of an alkylamino group tethered to one of the aromatic rings of the triphenylethylene core; 2) an appropriately sized aliphatic substituent at the 2 position of the ethylene moiety; and 3) electronegative substituents on the aromatic rings modestly improved activity. Using a cell-based assay of calmodulin antagonism, we found that the anti-cryptococcal activity of the scaffold correlates with calmodulin inhibition. Finally, we developed a homology model of C. neoformans calmodulin and used it to rationalize the structural basis for the activity of these molecules. Taken together, these data and models provide a basis for the further optimization of this promising anti-cryptococcal scaffold. PMID:26016941

  13. Structure-Activity Relationships for the Antifungal Activity of Selective Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Related to Tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Arielle; Martin, Jennifer A.; DiDone, Louis; Bradley, Erin K.; Mutz, Mitchell; Krysan, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is one of the most important invasive fungal infections and is a significant contributor to the mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. As part of our program to repurpose molecules related to the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen as anti-cryptococcal agents, we have explored the structure-activity relationships of a set of structurally diverse SERMs and tamoxifen derivatives. Our data provide the first insights into the structural requirements for the antifungal activity of this scaffold. Three key molecular characteristics affecting anti-cryptococcal activity emerged from our studies: 1) the presence of an alkylamino group tethered to one of the aromatic rings of the triphenylethylene core; 2) an appropriately sized aliphatic substituent at the 2 position of the ethylene moiety; and 3) electronegative substituents on the aromatic rings modestly improved activity. Using a cell-based assay of calmodulin antagonism, we found that the anti-cryptococcal activity of the scaffold correlates with calmodulin inhibition. Finally, we developed a homology model of C. neoformans calmodulin and used it to rationalize the structural basis for the activity of these molecules. Taken together, these data and models provide a basis for the further optimization of this promising anti-cryptococcal scaffold. PMID:26016941

  14. Impact of Common Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and HER2 Variants on Receptor Activity and Inhibition by Lapatinib

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tona M. Gilmer; Louann Cable; Krystal Alligood; David Rusnak; Glenn Spehar; Kathleen T. Gallagher; Ermias Woldu; H. Luke Carter; Anne T. Truesdale; Lisa Shewchuk

    The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of non- small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-associated mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/ErbB1) and HER2 (ErbB2) on interactions with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib.Biochemical studies show that commonly observed variants of EGFR (G719C, G719S, L858R, L861Q, and #746- 750 (del15)) are enzyme activating, increasing the tyrosine kinase Vmax

  15. Somatic Mutations in CCK2R Alter Receptor Activity that Promote Oncogenic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Melinda D.; Lajiness, Mary E.; Wulur, Isabella H.; Feng, Bo; Swearingen, Michelle L.; Uhlik, Mark T.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Velculescu, Victor E.; Sjöblom, Tobias; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Powell, Steven M.; Vogelstein, Bert; Barber, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The roles of cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R) in numerous physiologic processes in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system are ‘well documented. There has been some evidence that CCK2R alterations play a role in cancers, but the functional significance of these alterations for tumorigenesis is unknown. We have identified six mutations in CCK2R among a panel of 140 colorectal cancers and 44 gastric cancers. We show that these mutations increase receptor activity, activate multiple downstream signaling pathways, increase cell migration, and promote angiogenesis. Our findings suggest that somatic mutations in CCK2R may promote tumorigenesis through deregulated receptor activity and highlight the importance of evaluating CCK2R inhibitors to block both the normal and mutant forms of the receptor. PMID:22516348

  16. Two Interconvertible Folds Modulate the Activity of a DNA Aptamer Against Transferrin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Porciani, David; Signore, Giovanni; Marchetti, Laura; Mereghetti, Paolo; Nifosì, Riccardo; Beltram, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to their ability to recognize biomolecular targets with high affinity and specificity, nucleic acid aptamers are increasingly investigated as diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly when their targets are cell-surface receptors. Here, we investigate the relationship between the folding of an anti-mouse transferrin receptor DNA aptamer and its interaction with the transferrin receptor both in vitro and in living cells. We identified and purified two aptamer conformers by means of chromatographic techniques. Fluorescence-anisotropy measurements showed that only one fold is able to bind mouse transferrin receptor. Besides displaying enhanced endocytosis in living mouse fibroblasts, the purified active fold is internalized also in human pancreatic cancer cells. Starting from these observations, we rationally designed variations of the parent sequence aimed at stabilizing the active fold, and consequently increase aptamer activity. A truncated version and full-length mutants with higher affinity than the parent sequence are shown. PMID:24472870

  17. The Laminin ? Chains: Expression, Developmental Transitions, and Chromosomal Locations of ?1-5, Identification of Heterotrimeric Laminins 8–11, and Cloning of a Novel ?3 Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jeffrey H.; Patton, Bruce L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Gilbert, Debra J.; Snider, William D.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Sanes, Joshua R.

    1997-01-01

    Laminin trimers composed of ?, ?, and ? chains are major components of basal laminae (BLs) throughout the body. To date, three ? chains (?1–3) have been shown to assemble into at least seven heterotrimers (called laminins 1–7). Genes encoding two additional ? chains (?4 and ?5) have been cloned, but little is known about their expression, and their protein products have not been identified. Here we generated antisera to recombinant ?4 and ?5 and used them to identify authentic proteins in tissue extracts. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting showed that ?4 and ?5 assemble into four novel laminin heterotrimers (laminins 8–11: ?4?1?1, ?4?2?1, ?5?1?1, and ?5?2?1, respectively). Using a panel of nucleotide and antibody probes, we surveyed the expression of ?1-5 in murine tissues. All five chains were expressed in both embryos and adults, but each was distributed in a distinct pattern at both RNA and protein levels. Overall, ?4 and ?5 exhibited the broadest patterns of expression, while expression of ?1 was the most restricted. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney, lung, and heart showed that the ? chains were confined to extracellular matrix and, with few exceptions, to BLs. All developing and adult BLs examined contained at least one ? chain, all ? chains were present in multiple BLs, and some BLs contained two or three ? chains. Detailed analysis of developing kidney revealed that some individual BLs, including those of the tubule and glomerulus, changed in laminin chain composition as they matured, expressing up to three different ? chains and two different ? chains in an elaborate and dynamic progression. Interspecific backcross mapping of the five ? chain genes revealed that they are distributed on four mouse chromosomes. Finally, we identified a novel full-length ?3 isoform encoded by the Lama3 gene, which was previously believed to encode only truncated chains. Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development. PMID:9151674

  18. Agonist-induced desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is temporally and biochemically separated from D1 receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, G Y; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J; Bouvier, M; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor was investigated by using c-myc epitope-tagged D1 receptors expressed in Sf9 (fall armyworm ovary) cells. Treatment of D1 receptors with 10 microM dopamine for 15 min led to a loss of the dopamine-detected high-affinity state of the receptor accompanying a 40% reduction in the ability of the receptor to mediate maximal dopamine stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. After 60 min of agonist exposure, 45 min after the occurrence of desensitization, 28% of the cell surface receptors were internalized into an intracellular light vesicular membrane fraction as determined by radioligand binding and supported by photoaffinity labeling, immunocytochemical staining, and immunoblot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with concanavalin A or sucrose completely blocked agonist-induced D1 receptor internalization without preventing agonist-induced desensitization, indicating a biochemical separation of these processes. Collectively, these findings indicate that the desensitization of D1 receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase activity and D1 receptor internalization are temporarily and biochemically distinct mechanisms regulating D1 receptor function following agonist activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479745

  19. Membrane estrogen receptors activate metabotropic glutamate receptors to influence nervous system physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marissa I. Boulware; Paul G. Mermelstein

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the idea that estradiol could affect cellular processes independent of nuclear estrogen receptors was often dismissed as artifact. This in spite of a large number of carefully controlled studies performed both within and outside the nervous system demonstrating estrogens regulate various intracellular signaling pathways by acting at the membrane surface of cells and\\/or at biological rates incompatible with

  20. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. Activation of BAD by therapeutic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and transactivation by insulin-like growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Andrew P; Valentijn, Anthony J; Wang, Pengbo; Ranger, Ann M; Bundred, Nigel; O'Hare, Michael J; Wakeling, Alan; Korsmeyer, Stanley J; Streuli, Charles H

    2002-08-01

    Novel cancer chemotherapeutics are required to induce apoptosis by activating pro-apoptotic proteins. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) provide potent survival stimuli in many epithelia, and activation of their receptors is commonly observed in solid human tumors. Here we demonstrate that blockade of the EGF receptor by a new drug in phase III clinical trails for cancer, ZD1839, potently induces apoptosis in mammary epithelial cell lines and primary cultures, as well as in a primary pleural effusion from a breast cancer patient. We identified the mechanism of apoptosis induction by ZD1839. We showed that it prevents cell survival by activating the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Moreover, we demonstrate that IGF transactivates the EGF receptor and that ZD1839 blocks IGF-mediated phosphorylation of MAPK and BAD. Many cancer therapies kill tumor cells by inducing apoptosis as a consequence of targeting DNA; however, the threshold at which apoptosis can be triggered through DNA damage is often different from that in normal cells. Our results indicate that by targeting a growth factor-mediated survival signaling pathway, BAD phosphorylation can be manipulated therapeutically to induce apoptosis. PMID:12011069

  2. Activity of an interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in rabbit models of uveitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, J T; Boney, R S

    1992-04-01

    Interleukin 1 has been implicated in intraocular inflammation. The availability of a cloned, recombinant interleukin 1 receptor antagonist has enabled us to test the role of interleukin 1 in specific models of uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. Seventy-five micrograms of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist injected intravitreally resulted in a 97% reduction in aqueous humor cells present 6 hours after intravitreal injection of 10 ng of human interleukin 1 alpha. Disruption of the blood aqueous barrier was prevented by the receptor antagonist (mean +/- SD aqueous humor protein of 0.6 +/- 0.1 g/L in rabbits treated with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist vs 32.2 +/- 9.9 g/L in controls). Lower doses of interleukin 1 produced more modest but significant inhibition. Despite the activity of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in inhibiting interleukin 1-induced inflammation, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist did not produce significant reduction in inflammation subsequent to an active Arthus reaction or subsequent to the intravitreal injection of 125 ng of endotoxin. A potential explanation of these observations is that cytokines in addition to interleukin 1 may be present in sufficient quantities to produce intraocular inflammation or that the effects of interleukin 1 may be primarily intracellular (intracrine) and therefore resistant to the activity of exogenously administered receptor antagonist. PMID:1532889

  3. Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Contributes to Antileishmanial Function of Miltefosine.

    PubMed

    Gangalum, Pallavi R; de Castro, Waldionê; Vieira, Leda Q; Dey, Ranadhir; Rivas, Luis; Singh, Shailza; Majumdar, Subrata; Saha, Bhaskar

    2015-06-15

    Miltefosine [hexadecylphosphocholine (HPC)] is the only orally bioavailable drug for the disease visceral leishmaniasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Although miltefosine has direct leishmanicidal effects, evidence is mounting for its immune system-dependent effects. The mechanism of such indirect antileishmanial effects of miltefosine remains to be discovered. As platelet-activating factor and HPC share structural semblances and both induce killing of intracellular Leishmania, we surmised that platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor had a significant role in the antileishmanial function of miltefosine. The proposition was supported by molecular dynamic simulation of HPC docking into PAF receptor and by comparison of its leishmanicidal function on PAF receptor-deficient macrophages and mice under HPC treatment. We observed that compared with wild-type macrophages, the PAF receptor-deficient macrophages showed 1) reduced binding of a fluorescent analog of HPC, 2) decreased TNF-? production, and 3) lower miltefosine-induced killing of L. donovani. Miltefosine exhibited significantly compromised leishmanicidal function in PAF receptor-deficient mice. An anti-PAF receptor Ab led to a significant decrease in miltefosine-induced intracellular Leishmania killing and IFN-? production in a macrophage-T cell coculture system. These results indicate significant roles for PAF receptor in the leishmanicidal activity of HPC. The findings open new avenues for a more rational understanding of the mechanism of action of this drug as well as for improved therapeutic strategies. PMID:25980013

  4. Aldosterone increases cardiac vagal tone via G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Benamar, Khalid; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Gao, Erhe; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to acting on mineralocorticoid receptors, aldosterone has been recently shown to activate the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER) in vascular cells. In light of the newly identified role for GPER in vagal cardiac control, we examined whether or not aldosterone activates GPER in rat nucleus ambiguus. Aldosterone produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in retrogradely labelled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus; the response was abolished by pretreatment with the GPER antagonist G-36, but was not affected by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone. In Ca2+-free saline, the response to aldosterone was insensitive to blockade of the Ca2+ release from lysosomes, while it was reduced by blocking the Ca2+ release via ryanodine receptors and abolished by blocking the IP3 receptors. Aldosterone induced Ca2+ influx via P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, but not via L-type and N-type Ca2+ channels. Aldosterone induced depolarization of cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus that was sensitive to antagonism of GPER but not of mineralocorticoid receptor. in vivo studies, using telemetric measurement of heart rate, indicate that microinjection of aldosterone into the nucleus ambiguus produced a dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious, freely moving rats. Aldosterone-induced bradycardia was blocked by the GPER antagonist, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. In summary, we report for the first time that aldosterone decreases heart rate by activating GPER in cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. PMID:23878371

  5. Proteolytic generation of constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hsuan, J J; Downward, J; Clark, S; Waterfield, M D

    1989-01-01

    Structural modification induced by partial digestion with trypsin has been shown to stimulate the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor both in solution and in intact cells [Tamura, Fujita-Yamaguchi & Larner (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 14749-14752; Goren, White & Kahn (1987) Biochemistry 26, 2374-2382; Leef & Larner (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14837-14842]. Furthermore, experiments involving deletion of sequences encoding the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor suggest that it may function as a protooncogene in fibroblasts [Wang et al., (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 5725-5729]. To further understand the structural requirements that generate this activity, the major activated fragments generated in solution following trypsin digestion have been characterized here, one of which is shown to have a similar amino acid sequence to a transforming protein. Furthermore, treatment with trypsin of intact Chinese hamster ovary cells that overexpress the human insulin receptor stimulates both autophosphorylation of the receptor and 2-deoxyglucose uptake into the cells, but does not enhance receptor internalization. Unlike digestion in solution, no proteolysis or loss of activity of the activated insulin receptor beta-subunit could be detected using intact cells, even at high trypsin concentrations, despite the existence of extracellular sites that are readily cleaved by trypsin in the solubilized receptor. These studies provide further detail of a mechanism used during trypsinization of cells in culture which mimics activation of the insulin receptor and contributes to stimulation of growth. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2719663

  6. Attenuation of Eph Receptor Kinase Activation in Cancer Cells by Coexpressed Ephrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Falivelli, Giulia; Lisabeth, Erika Mathes; de la Torre, Elena Rubio; Perez-Tenorio, Gizeh; Tosato, Giovanna; Salvucci, Ombretta; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases mediate juxtacrine signals by interacting “in trans” with ligands anchored to the surface of neighboring cells via a GPI-anchor (ephrin-As) or a transmembrane segment (ephrin-Bs), which leads to receptor clustering and increased kinase activity. Additionally, soluble forms of the ephrin-A ligands released from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases can also activate EphA receptor signaling. Besides these trans interactions, recent studies have revealed that Eph receptors and ephrins coexpressed in neurons can also engage in lateral “cis” associations that attenuate receptor activation by ephrins in trans with critical functional consequences. Despite the importance of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Eph receptor-ephrin cis interactions have not been previously investigated in cancer cells. Here we show that in cancer cells, coexpressed ephrin-A3 can inhibit the ability of EphA2 and EphA3 to bind ephrins in trans and become activated, while ephrin-B2 can inhibit not only EphB4 but also EphA3. The cis inhibition of EphA3 by ephrin-B2 implies that in some cases ephrins that cannot activate a particular Eph receptor in trans can nevertheless inhibit its signaling ability through cis association. We also found that an EphA3 mutation identified in lung cancer enhances cis interaction with ephrin-A3. These results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to cancer pathogenesis by attenuating the tumor suppressing effects of Eph receptor signaling pathways activated by ephrins in trans. PMID:24348920

  7. Neurokinin B activates arcuate kisspeptin neurons through multiple tachykinin receptors in the male mouse.

    PubMed

    de Croft, Simon; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E

    2013-08-01

    Kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) coexpress dynorphin and neurokinin B (NKB) and may interact to influence gonadotropin secretion. Using a kisspeptin-green fluorescent protein mouse model, the present study examined whether the neuropeptides kisspeptin, dynorphin, and NKB modulate the electrical activity of ARN kisspeptin neurons in the adult male mouse. Cell-attached recordings showed that kisspeptin itself had no effect on kisspeptin neuron firing. Dynorphin and the ?-opioid receptor agonist U50-488 evoked a potent suppression of all ARN kisspeptin neuron firing that was blocked completely by the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine. Both NKB and Senktide, a neurokinin 3 receptor agonist, exerted a potent stimulatory action on ?95% of ARN kisspeptin neurons. Although the selective neurokinin 3 receptor antagonists SB222200 and SR142801 blocked the effects of Senktide on kisspeptin neurons, they surprisingly had no effect on NKB activation of firing. Studies with selective neurokinin 1 receptor (SDZ-NKT343) and neurokinin 2 receptor (GR94800) antagonists revealed that the activation of kisspeptin neurons by NKB was only blocked completely by a cocktail of antagonists against all 3 tachykinin receptors. Whole-cell recordings revealed that individual kisspeptin neurons were activated directly by all 3 tachykinins substance, P, neurokinin A, and NKB. These experiments show that dynorphin and NKB have opposing actions on the electrical activity of kisspeptin neurons supporting the existence of an interconnected network of kisspeptin neurons in the ARN. However, the effects of NKB result from an unexpected activation of multiple tachykinin receptors. PMID:23744641

  8. Cell-based systems to assess nuclear receptor activation and their use in drug development.

    PubMed

    Raucy, Judy L; Lasker, Jerome M

    2013-02-01

    The evolution of scientific information relating to the regulation of xenobiotic disposition has extended to the discovery of an intricate group of receptor systems now recognized as master regulators. These ligand-activated transcription factors are commonly designated as "nuclear receptors", and include CAR (NR1I3), PXR (NR1I2), PPAR (NR1C1, NR1C2, and NR1C3) and AhR (HLHE76). As regulators of gene expression, activation of these receptors can elicit a plethora of drug-drug interactions. The aforementioned nuclear receptors bind a wide range of structurally-unrelated ligands, such as steroid hormones, bile acids, and small drug-type molecules. A pivotal nuclear receptor with regards to regulation of drug-drug interactions is the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Gene expression profiling has demonstrated that PXR regulates over 60 human genes that are involved not only in physiological functions but also in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Moreover, chemical library screening suggests that about 10% of the compounds comprising the U. S. Food and Drug Administration 1 and 2, Sigma-Aldrich LOPAC collection, Biomol, and Tocris/TimTec bioactive collection libraries exhibit some form of PXR binding. For these reasons, efficient, rapid and economical systems have been developed to identify nuclear receptor ligands. Cell-based assays encompassing transiently and stably-transfected cells and mammalian two-hybrid systems are currently being employed by the pharmaceutical industry to screen compounds for binding to and/or activation of nuclear receptors. Overall, these systems have the ability to predict in vivo responses to receptor activation that culminate in drug-drug interactions and adverse drug effects. PMID:23330544

  9. Structural Basis for Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-Dependent Selective Peptide Recognition by a G Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Booe, Jason M; Walker, Christopher S; Barwell, James; Kuteyi, Gabriel; Simms, John; Jamaluddin, Muhammad A; Warner, Margaret L; Bill, Roslyn M; Harris, Paul W; Brimble, Margaret A; Poyner, David R; Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2015-06-18

    Association of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) enables selective recognition of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) that have diverse functions in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. How peptides selectively bind GPCR:RAMP complexes is unknown. We report crystal structures of CGRP analog-bound CLR:RAMP1 and AM-bound CLR:RAMP2 extracellular domain heterodimers at 2.5 and 1.8 Å resolutions, respectively. The peptides similarly occupy a shared binding site on CLR with conformations characterized by a ?-turn structure near their C termini rather than the ?-helical structure common to peptides that bind related GPCRs. The RAMPs augment the binding site with distinct contacts to the variable C-terminal peptide residues and elicit subtly different CLR conformations. The structures and accompanying pharmacology data reveal how a class of accessory membrane proteins modulate ligand binding of a GPCR and may inform drug development targeting CLR:RAMP complexes. PMID:25982113

  10. Structural Basis for Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-Dependent Selective Peptide Recognition by a G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Booe, Jason M.; Walker, Christopher S.; Barwell, James; Kuteyi, Gabriel; Simms, John; Jamaluddin, Muhammad A.; Warner, Margaret L.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Harris, Paul W.; Brimble, Margaret A.; Poyner, David R.; Hay, Debbie L.; Pioszak, Augen A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Association of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) enables selective recognition of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) that have diverse functions in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. How peptides selectively bind GPCR:RAMP complexes is unknown. We report crystal structures of CGRP analog-bound CLR:RAMP1 and AM-bound CLR:RAMP2 extracellular domain heterodimers at 2.5 and 1.8 Å resolutions, respectively. The peptides similarly occupy a shared binding site on CLR with conformations characterized by a ?-turn structure near their C termini rather than the ?-helical structure common to peptides that bind related GPCRs. The RAMPs augment the binding site with distinct contacts to the variable C-terminal peptide residues and elicit subtly different CLR conformations. The structures and accompanying pharmacology data reveal how a class of accessory membrane proteins modulate ligand binding of a GPCR and may inform drug development targeting CLR:RAMP complexes. PMID:25982113

  11. Activation Biosensor for G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A FRET-Based m1 Muscarinic Activation Sensor That Regulates Gq

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seungwoo; Ross, Elliott M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and validation of a fluorescence sensor to measure activation by agonist of the m1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor, a prototypical class I Gq-coupled receptor. The sensor uses an established general design in which Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a circularly permuted CFP mutant to FlAsH, a selectively reactive fluorescein, is decreased 15–20% upon binding of a full agonist. Notably, the sensor displays essentially wild-type capacity to catalyze activation of G?q, and the purified and reconstituted sensor displays appropriate regulation of affinity for agonists by Gq. We describe the strategies used to increase the agonist-driven change in FRET while simultaneously maintaining regulatory interactions with G?q, in the context of the known structures of Class I G protein-coupled receptors. The approach should be generally applicable to other Class I receptors which include numerous important drug targets. PMID:23029161

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoic acid receptors differentially control the interactions of retinoid X receptor heterodimers with ligands, coactivators, and corepressors.

    PubMed Central

    DiRenzo, J; Söderstrom, M; Kurokawa, R; Ogliastro, M H; Ricote, M; Ingrey, S; Hörlein, A; Rosenfeld, M G; Glass, C K

    1997-01-01

    As the obligate member of most nuclear receptor heterodimers, retinoid X receptors (RXRs) can potentially perform two functions: cooperative binding to hormone response elements and coordinate regulation of target genes by RXR ligands. In this paper we describe allosteric interactions between RXR and two heterodimeric partners, retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs); RARs and PPARs prevent and permit activation by RXR-specific ligands, respectively. By competing for dimerization with RXR on response elements consisting of direct-repeat half-sites spaced by 1 bp (DR1 elements), the relative abundance of RAR and PPAR determines whether the RXR signaling pathway will be functional. In contrast to RAR, which prevents the binding of RXR ligands and recruits the nuclear receptor corepressor N-CoR, PPAR permits the binding of SRC-1 in response to both RXR and PPAR ligands. Overexpression of SRC-1 markedly potentiates ligand-dependent transcription by PPARgamma, suggesting that SRC-1 serves as a coactivator in vivo. Remarkably, the ability of RAR to both block the binding of ligands to RXR and interact with corepressors requires the CoR box, a structural motif residing in the N-terminal region of the RAR ligand binding domain. Mutations in the CoR box convert RAR from a nonpermissive to a permissive partner of RXR signaling on DR1 elements. We suggest that the differential recruitment of coactivators and corepressors by RAR-RXR and PPAR-RXR heterodimers provides the basis for a transcriptional switch that may be important in controlling complex programs of gene expression, such as adipocyte differentiation. PMID:9121466

  13. Enhanced spontaneous activity of the mu opioid receptor by cysteine mutations: characterization of a tool for inverse agonist screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Brillet; Brigitte L Kieffer; Dominique Massotte

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of spontaneous- or constitutive-activity has become widely accepted and verified for numerous G protein-coupled receptors and this ligand-independent activity is also acknowledged to play a role in some pathologies. Constitutive activity has been reported for the mu opioid receptor. In some cases the increase in receptor basal activity was induced by chronic morphine administration suggesting that constitutive

  14. Augmentation of receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity by Gi-coupled prostaglandin receptor subtype EP3 in a Gbetagamma subunit-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Noriyuki; Yamaoka, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Negishi, Manabu; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2002-01-11

    We previously demonstrated that the mouse EP3beta receptor and its C-terminal tail-truncated receptor (abbreviated T-335) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed agonist-dependent and fully constitutive Gi activity in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, respectively. Here we examined the effect of the EP3beta receptor or T-335 receptor on adenylyl cyclase activity stimulated by the Gs-coupled EP2 subtype receptor in COS-7 cells. As a result, sulprostone, a selective EP3 agonist, dose dependently augmented butaprost-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in EP3beta receptor- or T-335 receptor-expressing COS-7 cells. However, such adenylyl cyclase augmentation was not attenuated by either pertussis toxin treatment or expression of the PH domain of rat betaARK1, which serves as a scavenger of Gbetagamma subunits, but was partially attenuated by treatment with either 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, or W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor. These findings suggest that the C-terminal tail of the EP3beta receptor is not essentially involved in activation of EP2 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent but Gbetagamma subunit-independent manner. PMID:11779148

  15. Laminin and fibronectin promote the haptotactic migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The migration of tumor cells through basement membranes and extracellular matrices is an integral component of tumor invasion and metastasis. Laminin and fibronectin are two basement membrane- and extracellular matrix-associated noncollagenous glycoproteins that have been shown to promote both cell adhesion and motility. Purified preparations of laminin and fibronectin stimulated the directed migration of B16 murine metastatic melanoma cells in vitro as assessed in modified Boyden chambers. The stimulation of migration occurred over a concentration range of 1-100 micrograms/ml of laminin or fibronectin, with a peak response occurring between 12.5 and 25 micrograms/ml. The maximal response of these cells was 80-120-fold higher than control migration. Affinity-purified antibody preparations specifically abrogated the migration of these cells in response to the respective proteins. Tumor cells in suspension were preincubated in physiologic levels of plasma fibronectin prior to assay to partially mimic what occurs when a metastasizing cell is in the blood stream. This preincubation with plasma fibronectin had no effect on the subsequent migration of cells in response to either laminin or fibronectin. Furthermore, experiments using filters precoated with fibronectin or laminin indicated that these cells could migrate by haptotaxis to these two proteins. We conclude that tumor cell migration in response to such noncollagenous adhesive glycoproteins could be an important aspect in the invasion and metastasis of certain malignant cell types. PMID:6715409

  16. Role of laminin in maintenance of type II pneumocyte morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, S.R.; Yarnell, J.A.; Fisher, C.S.; Fabisiak, J.P.; Rannels, D.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA))

    1987-12-01

    Loss of differentiated function by type II pneumocytes plated on plastic surfaces was demonstrated by decreased lamellar body content, increased cellular protein, and rapid cellular flattening, changes that were retarded modestly by plating cells on laminin-coated surfaces. Laminin surfaces also inhibited ({sup 3}H)thymidine (THM) incorporation into cellular DNA by 40% compared with plastic at 40 h, but did not alter an additional mitogenic effect of rat serum over fetal calf serum. In contrast, cells plated on the laminin-rich basement membrane-like gel formed from an extract of EHS mouse sarcoma, matrix gel (MG), maintained a high content of intracellular lipids in lamellar inclusions and retained a rounded morphology for at least 3 days. MG markedly inhibited THM incorporation and morphological changes when cells were cultured on this surface of when MG was formed over cells initially plated on plastic for various intervals. The importance of the laminin component of MG was demonstrated when these surfaces were pretreated with a highly specific antilaminin serum. Type II cells commenced flattening on the treated MG surface, and THM incorporation increased with the same time course as did control cells on plastic. The data suggest that short-term culture and study of differentiated type II pneumocytes may require a laminin-rich substratum. THM incorporation into type II cell DNA provides an important early and sensitive index of cell-basement membrane interaction and subsequent maintenance of function.

  17. Differential response of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activity to several plant and mammalian lectins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Yue Zeng; Alberto Benguría; Sabine Kafert; Sabine André; Hans-J. Gabius; Antonio Villalobo

    1995-01-01

    Biosignalling via lectins may involve modulation of protein kinase activities. This aspect of the biological action of mammalian and plant lectins has been investigated for their effect on the activity of the isolated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor from rat liver, isolated by calmodulin-affinity chromatography, was activated by concanavalin

  18. Activation of a tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) xenobiotic receptor orthologue by both natural toxins and synthetic toxicants.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Andrew E; Holland, Patrick T; Reschly, Erica J; Ekins, Sean; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2012-02-01

    Vertebrate xenobiotic receptors are ligand-activated nuclear receptors (NRs) that bind exogenous biologically active chemicals before activating the transcription of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and excretion. Typically, xenobiotic receptors have ligand binding domains (LBDs) that can accommodate a structurally diverse array of molecules and in addition display high levels of inter-taxa sequence diversity suggestive of positive selection. Pursuing the idea that xenobiotic receptors may adaptively evolve to bind toxic chemicals commonly present in an organism's environment/diet, we examined ligand binding by a xenobiotic receptor orthologue of a marine filter-feeding organism. The solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Phylum Chordata) genome encodes an orthologue of the vertebrate pregnane X receptor (PXR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), here denoted CiVDR/PXR?. In a luciferase reporter assay the CiVDR/PXR? was activated, at nanomolar concentrations, by two of four natural marine microalgal biotoxins tested (okadaic acid, EC50 = 18.2 ± 0.9 nM and pectenotoxin-2, EC50 = 37.0 ± 3.5 nM) along with 1 of 11 synthetic toxicants (esfenvalerate: EC50 = 0.59 ± 0.7 ?M). Two related C. intestinalis NRs, orthologous to vertebrate farnesoid X receptor and liver X receptors, respectively, along with the PXR of a freshwater fish (zebrafish, Danio rerio), were not activated by any of the 15 chemicals tested. In contrast, human PXR was activated by okadaic acid at similar concentrations to CiVDR/PXR? (EC50 = 7.2 ± 1.1 nM) but not by pectenotoxin-2. A common features pharmacophore developed for the CiVDR/PXR? ligand consisted of an off-center hydrogen bond acceptor flanked by two hydrophobic regions. The results of this study are consistent with the original hypothesis that natural toxins, present in the diet of filter-feeding marine invertebrates, may have acted as selective agents in the molecular evolution of tunicate xenobiotic receptors. Bioassays based on tunicate xenobiotic receptor activation may find application in marine environmental monitoring and bioprospecting. PMID:22206814

  19. Pancreatic Glucagon-Like Peptide1 Receptor Couples to Multiple G Proteins and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHAHRZAD MONTROSE-RAFIZADEH; PAVEL AVDONIN; MICHAEL J. GARANT; BUEL D. RODGERS; SUTAPA KOLE; HUAN YANG; MICHAEL A. LEVINE; WILLIAM SCHWINDINGER; MICHEL BERNIER

    1999-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the human insulin receptor and the rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (CHO\\/GLPR) were used to study the functional coupling of the GLP-1 receptor with G proteins and to examine the regulation of the mito- gen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway by GLP-1. We showed that ligand activation of GLP-1 receptor led to increased

  20. Long-term NMDA receptor inhibition affects NMDA receptor expression and alters glutamatergic activity in developing rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sinner, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Lindner, Regina; Bundscherer, Anika; Graf, Bernhard M

    2015-07-01

    Ketamine and its stereoisomer S(+)-ketamine are widely used for sedation in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental studies indicate that ketamine is potentially toxic to the developing brain. Here, we examined the long-term effects of NMDA receptor blockade on NMDA receptor subunit expression, alterations in neuronal Ca(2+)-oscillations and apoptosis. Hippocampal neurons, 15 days in culture, were exposed to either S(+)-ketamine or the NMDA receptor blocker MK801 for 24h. Cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration was determined by fluorescence microscopy and the expression of the NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and 2B was assessed by qRT-PCR, whereas Western blots and activated Caspase-3 served to measure the extent of apoptosis. Long-term incubation with MK801 or higher doses of S(+)-ketamine resulted in a dose-dependent decreased ability of MK801 to reduce amplitude and frequency of the Ca(2+)-oscillations 15min following washout of the drug. This was accompanied by an increase in NR1 mRNA but not the NR2A and B subunit expression at the same time point. 24h following washout of the specific drug, a significant elevation of the pro-apoptotic marker BAX, as well as activated Caspase-3 positive neurons, could be detected in cultures exposed to 100?M MK801 and 25?M S(+)-ketamine. Here, we show that long-term blockade of the NMDA receptor in developing rat hippocampal neurons significantly increased NR1 subunit expression, and that this was associated with an alteration in neuronal activity. Apoptosis was only induced 24h after withdrawal of long-term blockade for high doses of S(+)-ketamine. PMID:25937004

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor activation protects CD4+ T lymphocytes against activation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Himer, Leonóra; Csóka, Balázs; Selmeczy, Zsolt; Koscsó, Balázs; Pócza, Tímea; Pacher, Pál; Németh, Zoltán H; Deitch, Edwin A; Vizi, E Sylvester; Cronstein, Bruce N; Haskó, György

    2010-08-01

    Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is initiated by T-cell receptor (TCR) restimulation of already activated and expanded peripheral T cells and is mediated through Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interactions. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside signaling molecule, and its immunomodulatory effects are mediated by 4 G-protein-coupled receptors: A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). In this study, we investigated the role of A(2A) receptors in regulating CD4(+) T lymphocyte AICD. Our results showed that the selective A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 (EC(50)=15.2-32.6 nM) rescued mouse CD4(+) hybridomas and human Jurkat cells from AICD and that this effect was reversed by the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM241385 (EC(50)=2.3 nM). CGS21680 decreased phosphatidylserine exposure on the membrane, as well as the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-8 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase indicating that A(2A) receptor stimulation blocks the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, CGS21680 attenuated both Fas and FasL mRNA expression. This decrease in FasL expression was associated with decreased activation of the transcription factor systems NF-kappaB, NF-ATp, early growth response (Egr)-1, and Egr-3. The antiapoptotic effect of A(2A) receptor stimulation was mediated by protein kinase A. Together, these results demonstrate that A(2A) receptor activation suppresses the AICD of peripheral T cells. PMID:20371613

  2. The tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist senktide induces locomotor activity in male Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; Durkin, Sean; Jacquet, Aurélie; Spooren, Will

    2008-12-14

    The tachykinin family of receptors has been of strong interest recently due to the potential of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism in treatment of schizophrenia. However, critical differences in the tachykinin NK(3) receptor between rats, mice and humans make rats and mice less acceptable species for testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism. This has led to testing of tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity in gerbils and guinea pigs. As these species are much less common laboratory animals than rats and mice, there is a relative paucity of in vivo testing models for tachykinin NK(3) receptor activation. In the present study, locomotor activity induced by the tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonist senktide was characterized. Injection of senktide i.c.v. was found to dose-dependently induce hyperlocomotion from a dose of 0.06 nmol to the maximal dose tested, 0.6 nmol. Locomotion induced by 0.1 nmol of senktide could be blocked by injection of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonists SB222200 (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) and talnetant (SB223412; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.), as well as by osanetant (SR142801; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) when administered in a vehicle containing vitamin E and glycofurol. Senktide-induced activity was also reversed by the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.) and risperidone (1 mg/kg p.o.), but not by the serotonin 5HT(2a/c) receptor antagonist MDL100907 (tested at 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.). Hyperlocomotion induced by 0.03 nmol of senktide was potentiated by antagonism of the tachykinin NK(1) receptor with aprepitant (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, hyperlocomotion induced by senktide in gerbils is a tachykinin NK(3) receptor-mediated behavior that is appropriate for use in testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity of novel compounds. PMID:18930726

  3. Neurobiology of Disease Activation of Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    , New York 14214 Systemic administration of rotenone, a widely used pesticide, causes selective degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in animal models. Our rotenone-induced parkinsonism. Key words: rotenone; metabotropic glutamate receptor; microtubules; MAP

  4. Developing Chemical Genetic Approaches to Explore G Protein-Coupled Receptor Function: Validation of the Use of a Receptor Activated Solely by Synthetic Ligand (RASSL)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Prihandoko, Rudi; Tautermann, Christofer S.; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Pediani, John D.; Lohse, Martin J.; Hoffmann, Carsten; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular evolution and chemical genetics have been applied to generate functional pairings of mutated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nonendogenous ligands. These mutant receptors, referred to as receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) or designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs), have huge potential to define physiological roles of GPCRs and to validate receptors in animal models as therapeutic targets to treat human disease. However, appreciation of ligand bias and functional selectivity of different ligands at the same receptor suggests that RASSLs may signal differently than wild-type receptors activated by endogenous agonists. We assessed this by generating forms of wild-type human M3 muscarinic receptor and a RASSL variant that responds selectively to clozapine N-oxide. Although the RASSL receptor had reduced affinity for muscarinic antagonists, including atropine, stimulation with clozapine N-oxide produced effects very similar to those generated by acetylcholine at the wild-type M3-receptor. Such effects included the relative movement of the third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors and the ability of the wild type and evolved mutant to regulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. Each form interacted similarly with ?-arrestin 2 and was internalized from the cell surface in response to the appropriate ligand. Furthermore, the pattern of phosphorylation of specific serine residues within the evolved receptor in response to clozapine N-oxide was very similar to that produced by acetylcholine at the wild type. Such results provide confidence that, at least for the M3 muscarinic receptor, results obtained after transgenic expression of this RASSL are likely to mirror the actions of acetylcholine at the wild type receptor. PMID:21880827

  5. Acquisition of activation receptor ligand by trogocytosis renders NK cells hyporesponsive.

    PubMed

    Miner, Cathrine A; Giri, Tusar K; Meyer, Claire E; Shabsovich, Mark; Tripathy, Sandeep K

    2015-02-15

    Because NK cells secrete cytotoxic granules and cytokines that can destroy surrounding cells and help shape the subsequent immune response, they must be kept under tight control. Several mechanisms, at different levels, are in place to control NK cell function. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism regulating NK cell function in which NK cells acquire ligands for activating receptors from target cells by trogocytosis, rendering the NK cells hyporesponsive. In this model, murine NK cells acquire m157, the murine CMV-encoded ligand for the Ly49H-activating receptor, from target cells both in vitro and in vivo. Although acquisition of m157 requires cell-to-cell contact, it does not require the expression of the Ly49H receptor by the NK cell. Acquired m157 protein is expressed on the NK cell surface with a glycosylphosphatidylinisotol linkage and interacts with the Ly49H receptor expressed on the NK cell. This interaction results in blocking the Ly49H receptor that prevents the NK cells from recognizing m157-expressing targets and continuous engagement of the Ly49H-activating receptor, which results in the hyporesponsiveness of the Ly49H(+) NK cell to stimulation through other activating receptors. Thus, NK cell acquisition of a ligand for an activation receptor by trogocytosis renders them hyporesponsive. This mechanism, by which mature NK cell function can be altered, has important implications in regard to how NK cells respond to tumors in specific microenvironments as well as the use of expanded NK cells in treating various malignancies. PMID:25582853

  6. An in vivo biosensor for neurotransmitter release and in situ receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Marco; Muller, Arnaud; Taylor, Palmer; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kleinfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    Tools from molecular biology, in combination with in vivo optical imaging techniques, provide new mechanisms to noninvasively observe brain processing. Current approaches primarily probe cell-based variables, such as cytosolic calcium or membrane potential, but not cell-to-cell signaling. Here we introduce CNiFERs, cell-based neurotransmitter fluorescent engineered reporters, to address this challenge and monitor in situ neurotransmitter receptor activation. CNiFERs are cultured cells that are engineered to express a chosen metabotropic receptor, make use of the Gq protein-coupled receptor cascade to transform receptor activity into a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], and report [Ca2+] with a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ sensor. The initial realization of CNiFERs detects acetylcholine release via activation of M1 muscarinic receptors. Chronic implantation of M1-CNiFERs in frontal cortex of the adult rat is used to elucidate the muscarinic action of the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and olanzapine. We show that these drugs potently inhibit in situ muscarinic receptor activity. PMID:20010818

  7. Increase in locomotor activity after acute administration of the nicotinic receptor agonist 3-bromocytisine in rats.

    PubMed

    Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Urbanavicius, Jessika; Scorza, Cecilia; Rebolledo-Fuentes, Marcos; Wonnacott, Susan; Cassels, Bruce K; Dajas, Federico

    2010-05-25

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence striatal dopaminergic activity and its outcome on motor behavior. For these reasons, nicotinic receptors have been considered as therapeutically relevant targets for Parkinson's disease, in which a dramatic loss of dopamine affects motor functions. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects on locomotor activity induced by the nicotinic agonist cytisine and two brominated derivatives, 5- and 3-bromocytisine (5-BrCy and 3-BrCy) using nicotine for comparison. After acute systemic administration of the agonists only 3-BrCy induced an increase in locomotor activity. To study the mechanism of action involved in this increase we co-administered 3-BrCy with the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine and also examined 3-BrCy's effects in rats pre-treated with the long acting nicotinic antagonist chlorisondamine, administered directly in the dorsal and ventral striatum. We studied the role of the dopaminergic system by co-administration of the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. The results indicate that the increase in motor activity elicited by 3-BrCy was mediated by nicotinic receptors in the dorsal and ventral striatum and depends on the interaction of nicotinic receptors with the dopaminergic system. We conclude that 3-BrCy might be a new tool to study the modulation of the dopaminergic system by nicotinic receptors and their behavioral implications. PMID:20184877

  8. Thrombin receptor activation. Confirmation of the intramolecular tethered liganding hypothesis and discovery of an alternative intermolecular liganding mode.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Ishii, M; Wang, L; Ishii, K; Coughlin, S R

    1994-06-10

    Cleavage of the thrombin receptor's amino-terminal exodomain at the Arg41/Ser42 peptide bond within the sequence ... LDPR41/S42FLLRN ... is necessary and sufficient for receptor activation by proteases. The synthetic peptide SFLLRN activates the receptor independent of proteolysis. We proposed that the SFLLRN sequence is a tethered peptide ligand; receptor cleavage unmasks this agonist which then binds intramolecularly to effect receptor activation. The alternative hypothesis that receptor cleavage or exogenous SFLLRN effect receptor activation by disrupting tonic inhibitory interactions exerted by the receptor's amino-terminal exodomain has not been excluded. We report that delta AMINO, a mutant thrombin receptor lacking the amino-terminal exodomain, was not constitutively active and responded to SFLLRN but not thrombin when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cells. Thrombin signaling was restored when delta AMINO was co-expressed with ATE-CD8 which encoded the receptor's amino-terminal exodomain fused to the transmembrane domain of CD8. Co-expression of a thrombin receptor lacking a functional tethered ligand domain ("F43A") with a non-signaling receptor mutant bearing an intact tethered ligand domain ("YYY") also reconstituted thrombin signaling. However, the EC50 for thrombin activation of cells co-expressing F43A and YYY was > 1000-fold that for cells expressing comparable levels of wild type receptor, while EC50s for activation by SFLLRN were similar. These and other data refute the release from inhibition hypothesis and suggest that while intermolecular liganding between two thrombin receptor molecules can occur, the intramolecular tethered liganding mechanism is the predominant mode of thrombin receptor activation. PMID:8206902

  9. Migration of breast epithelial cells on Laminin-5: differential role of integrins in normal and transformed cell types.

    PubMed

    Plopper, G E; Domanico, S Z; Cirulli, V; Kiosses, W B; Quaranta, V

    1998-09-01

    We examined the role of Laminin-5 (Ln-5) an extracellular matrix component of breast gland basement membrane, in supporting migration of normal (HUMEC), immortalized (MCF-10A), and malignant breast epithelial cells that exhibit different degrees of metastatic potential (MDA-MB-435>MDA-MB-231>MCF-7). HUMEC, MCF-10A, and MCF-7 cells all adhered to purified Ln-5 through the alpha3beta1 integrin receptor in adhesion assays. However, HUMEC and MCF-10A cells remained statically adherent, while MCF-7 cells migrated on Ln-5 in Transwell and colloidal gold displacement assays. Anti-alpha3 integrin antibodies blocked migration of MCF-7 cells on Ln-5. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells bound and migrated on Ln-5 through a beta1 integrin receptor that is insensitive to antibodies that block the function of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, and alphaV integrin subunits. Migration of all cell types tested was blocked by CM6, a monoclonal antibody directed to a cell adhesion site on the alpha3 chain of Ln-5. Thus, Ln-5 may play an important role in regulating adhesion and migration in normal and transformed breast epithelium. Our results indicate that the type of integrin utilized by breast cells to interact with Ln-5, as well as its functional state, may determine whether cells will be statically adherent or migratory on Ln-5. PMID:9877029

  10. Dosage-dependent effect of dopamine D2 receptor activation on motor cortex plasticity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fresnoza, Shane; Stiksrud, Elisabeth; Klinker, Florian; Liebetanz, David; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. The effects depend on receptor subtypes, affinity, concentration level, and the kind of neuroplasticity induced. In animal experiments, dopamine D2-like receptor stimulation revealed partially antagonistic effects on plasticity, which might be explained by dosage dependency. In humans, D2 receptor block abolishes plasticity, and the D2/D3, but predominantly D3, receptor agonist ropinirol has a dosage-dependent nonlinear affect on plasticity. Here we aimed to determine the specific affect of D2 receptor activation on neuroplasticity in humans, because physiological effects of D2 and D3 receptors might differ. Therefore, we combined application of the selective D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine (2.5, 10, and 20 mg or placebo medication) with anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which induces nonfocal plasticity, and with paired associative stimulation (PAS) generating a more focal kind of plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy humans. Plasticity was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes. For facilitatory tDCS, bromocriptine prevented plasticity induction independent from drug dosage. However, its application resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on inhibitory tDCS, excitability-diminishing PAS, and to a minor degree on excitability-enhancing PAS. These data support the assumption that modulation of D2-like receptor activity exerts a nonlinear dose-dependent effect on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex that differs from predominantly D3 receptor activation and that the kind of plasticity-induction procedure is relevant for its specific impact. PMID:25100602

  11. Dosage-Dependent Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor Activation on Motor Cortex Plasticity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fresnoza, Shane; Stiksrud, Elisabeth; Klinker, Florian; Liebetanz, David; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang

    2014-01-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. The effects depend on receptor subtypes, affinity, concentration level, and the kind of neuroplasticity induced. In animal experiments, dopamine D2-like receptor stimulation revealed partially antagonistic effects on plasticity, which might be explained by dosage dependency. In humans, D2 receptor block abolishes plasticity, and the D2/D3, but predominantly D3, receptor agonist ropinirol has a dosage-dependent nonlinear affect on plasticity. Here we aimed to determine the specific affect of D2 receptor activation on neuroplasticity in humans, because physiological effects of D2 and D3 receptors might differ. Therefore, we combined application of the selective D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine (2.5, 10, and 20 mg or placebo medication) with anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which induces nonfocal plasticity, and with paired associative stimulation (PAS) generating a more focal kind of plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy humans. Plasticity was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes. For facilitatory tDCS, bromocriptine prevented plasticity induction independent from drug dosage. However, its application resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve on inhibitory tDCS, excitability-diminishing PAS, and to a minor degree on excitability-enhancing PAS. These data support the assumption that modulation of D2-like receptor activity exerts a nonlinear dose-dependent effect on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex that differs from predominantly D3 receptor activation and that the kind of plasticity-induction procedure is relevant for its specific impact. PMID:25100602

  12. Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Joshua G; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Peterson, Eric C; Chen, Tao; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant. PMID:21227907

  13. Internalization of inactive EGF receptor into endosomes and the subsequent activation of endosome-associated EGF receptors. Epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-12-01

    Despite intensive efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways or that endosomal signaling can produce biological responses. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the inability to generate endosomal signals in isolation from plasma membrane signals. In this Protocol, we describe a system in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is specifically activated when it is endocytosed into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complex into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG1478 and monensin. During this procedure, we did not observe any detectable surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. Specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR provides a unique tool to study endosomal signaling of EGFR. This method may also be applied to other receptor tyrosine kinases to study whether they, too, can signal from endosomes. PMID:12464704

  14. Ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and the retinoid X receptor exert additive anti-inflammatory effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asim Diab; Rehana Z. Hussain; Amy E. Lovett-Racke; Janet A. Chavis; Paul D. Drew; Michael K. Racke

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?) is a member of the nuclear-receptor superfamily that binds to DNA with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) as PPAR–RXR heterodimers. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the gene expression of PPAR-? was demonstrated in spinal cord during the course of EAE. Administration of 15-deoxy-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) or 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) alone at the onset of clinical signs of

  15. Factor VIIa stimulates endothelin-1 synthesis in TNF-primed endothelial cells by activation of protease-activated receptor 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger CORDER

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms linking prothrombotic changes to endothelial dysfunction and accelerated ather- oma formation have yet to be fully defined. Expression of TF (tissue factor) on the endothelium is potentially an initiating event as binding and activation of FVII (factor VII) can result in thrombosis. Although PAR2 (protease-activated receptor-2) is expressed on vascular endothelium, its precise physiological significance and mechanism of

  16. Activation of the chicken gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor reduces gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamiko Shimizu; Grégoy Y. Bédécarrats

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic peptide from the RFamide peptide family that has been identified in multiple avian species. Although GnIH has clearly been shown to reduce LH release from the anterior pituitary gland, its mechanism of action remains to be determined. The overall objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R) signaling pathway, (2)

  17. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan) [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan)] [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? stimulates ADAM10-mediated proteolysis of APP.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-07-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derivative ?-amyloid (A?) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequential proteolysis of APP by ?-secretase and ?-secretase generates A?. Conversely, the ?-secretase "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase" 10 (ADAM10) cleaves APP within the eventual A? sequence and precludes A? generation. Therefore, up-regulation of ADAM10 represents a plausible therapeutic strategy to combat overproduction of neurotoxic A?. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Here, we determined that the Adam10 promoter harbors PPAR response elements; that knockdown of PPAR?, but not PPAR? or PPAR?, decreases the expression of Adam10; and that lentiviral overexpression of PPAR? restored ADAM10 expression in Ppara(-/-) neurons. Gemfibrozil, an agonist of PPAR?, induced the recruitment of PPAR?:retinoid x receptor ?, but not PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC1?), to the Adam10 promoter in wild-type mouse hippocampal neurons and shifted APP processing toward the ?-secretase, as determined by augmented soluble APP? and decreased A? production. Accordingly, Ppara(-/-) mice displayed elevated SDS-stable, endogenous A? and A?1-42 relative to wild-type littermates, whereas 5XFAD mice null for PPAR? (5X/?(-/-)) exhibited greater cerebral A? load relative to 5XFAD littermates. These results identify PPAR? as an important factor regulating neuronal ADAM10 expression and, thus, ?-secretase proteolysis of APP. PMID:26080426

  19. Common and distinct mechanisms of activation of rhodopsin and other G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Sumire; Itabashi, Takeshi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Okada, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Detailed and systematic examination of high-resolution structural data is a rational strategy for understanding the function of biological macromolecules. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an exceptionally valuable superfamily of proteins for such analysis. The most intriguing question is how a variety of extracellular stimuli evoke structural changes in the intracellular surface of the receptors. The recent active-like crystal structures of GPCRs provide information for uncovering common and distinct mechanisms of light-induced and ligand-induced activation. Based on systematic structural alignment, we have analyzed 3 receptors (rhodopsin, ?2 adrenergic receptor, adenosine A2A receptor) and demonstrate that the extracellular movement of helix VI is significantly different between rhodopsin and the other 2 receptors, and that the extracellular side of helix III exhibits distinct features in the 3 receptors. These findings not only emphasize the specialization of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor but also provide insights into the mechanism leading to rearrangement of helix VI. PMID:23677071

  20. Distinct sequence elements control the specificity of G protein activation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Lechleiter, J; Hellmiss, R; Duerson, K; Ennulat, D; David, N; Clapham, D; Peralta, E

    1990-01-01

    Relatively little is understood concerning the mechanisms by which subtypes of receptors, G proteins and effector enzymes interact to transduce specific signals. Through expression of normal, hybrid and deletion mutant receptors in Xenopus oocytes, we determined the G protein coupling characteristics of the functionally distinct m2 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes and identified the critical receptor sequences responsible for G protein specificity. Activation of a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein pathway, leading to a rapid and transient release of intracellular Ca2+ characteristic of the m3 receptor, could be specified by the transfer of as few as nine amino acids from the m3 to the m2 receptor. In a reciprocal manner, transfer of no more than 21 residues from the m2 to the m3 receptor was sufficient to specify activation of a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein coupled to a slow and oscillatory Ca2+ release pathway typical of the m2 subtype. Notably, these critical residues occur within the same region of the third cytoplasmic domain of functionally distinct mAChR subtypes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2124972

  1. Activation of MT(2) melatonin receptors in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus phase advances the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A E; Al-Ghoul, W M; Gillette, M U; Dubocovich, M L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the melatonin receptor type(s) (MT(1) or MT(2)) mediating circadian clock resetting by melatonin in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Quantitative receptor autoradiography with 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin and in situ hybridization histochemistry, with either (33)P- or digoxigenin-labeled antisense MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptor mRNA oligonucleotide probes, revealed specific expression of both melatonin receptor types in the SCN of inbred Long-Evans rats. The melatonin receptor type mediating phase advances of the circadian rhythm of neuronal firing rate in the SCN slice was assessed using competitive melatonin receptor antagonists, the MT(1)/MT(2) nonselective luzindole and the MT(2)-selective 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline (4P-PDOT). Luzindole and 4P-PDOT (1 nM-1 microM) did not affect circadian phase on their own; however, they blocked both the phase advances (approximately 4 h) in the neuronal firing rate induced by melatonin (3 pM) at temporally distinct times of day [i.e., subjective dusk, circadian time (CT) 10; and dawn, CT 23], as well as the associated increases in protein kinase C activity. We conclude that melatonin mediates phase advances of the SCN circadian clock at both dusk and dawn via activation of MT(2) melatonin receptor signaling. PMID:11121382

  2. Activation of G Protein–Coupled Receptors: Beyond Two-State Models and Tertiary Conformational Changes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul S.-H.; Lodowski, David T.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Transformation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) from a quiescent to an active state initiates signal transduction. All GPCRs share a common architecture comprising seven transmembrane-spanning ?-helices, which accommodates signal propagation from a diverse repertoire of external stimuli across biological membranes to a heterotrimeric G protein. Signal propagation through the trans-membrane helices likely involves mechanistic features common to all GPCRs. The structure of the light receptor rhodopsin may serve as a prototype for the transmembrane architecture of GPCRs. Early biochemical, biophysical, and pharmacological studies led to the conceptualization of receptor activation based on the context of two-state equilibrium models and conformational changes in protein structure. More recent studies indicate a need to move beyond these classical paradigms and to consider additional aspects of the molecular character of GPCRs, such as the oligomerization and dynamics of the receptor. PMID:17848137

  3. Differential peroxisome proliferator activated receptors activity in a rodent model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yan; Yin, Xiang; Wang, Shuyu; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hongquan; Wang, Xudong; Ren, Ming; Feng, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the irreversible loss of corticospinal neurons and motor neurons. Recent studies has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated</