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Sample records for laminin receptor activation

  1. Laminin receptors for neurite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, H.K.; Ogle, R.C.; Cannon, F.B.; Little, C.D.; Sweeney, T.M.; Luckenbill-Edds, L.

    1988-02-01

    Laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein promotes both cell attachment and neurite outgrowth. Separate domains on laminin elicit these responses, suggesting that distinct receptors occur on the surface of cells. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells rapidly extend long processes in the presence of laminin. The authors report here that /sup 125/I-labeled laminin specifically binds to these cells and to three membrane proteins of 67, 110, and 180 kDa. These proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on laminin-Sepharose. The 67-kDa protein reacted with antibody to the previously characterized receptor for cell attachment to laminin. Antibodies to the 110-kDa and 180-kDa bands demonstrated that the 110-kDa protein was found in a variety of epithelial cell lines and in brain, whereas the 180-kDa protein was neural specific. Antibodies prepared against the 110-kDa and 180-kDa proteins inhibited neurite outgrowth induced by the neurite-promoting domain of laminin, whereas antibodies to the 67-kDa laminin receptor had no effect on neurite outgrowth. They conclude that neuronal cells have multiple cell-surface laminin receptors and that the 110-kDa and 180-kDa proteins are involved in neurite formation.

  2. Presence of Laminin Receptors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J. D.; Dos Reis, M.; Brentani, R. R.

    1985-07-01

    A characteristic feature of infection by Staphylococcus aureus is bloodstream invasion and widespread metastatic abscess formation. The ability to extravasate, which entails crossing the vascular basement membrane, appears to be critical for the organism's pathogenicity. Extravasation by normal and neoplastic mammalian cells has been correlated with the presence of specific cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Similar laminin receptors were found in Staphylococcus aureus but not in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a noninvasive pathogen. There were about 100 binding sites per cell, with an apparent binding affinity of 2.9 nanomolar. The molecular weight of the receptor was 50,000 and pI was 4.2. Eukaryotic laminin receptors were visualized by means of the binding of S. aureus in the presence of laminin. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic invasive cells might utilize similar, if not identical, mechanisms for invasion.

  3. Schwann cell myelination requires integration of laminin activities.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Yang, Dong-Hua; Patel, Rajesh; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Takagi, Junichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2012-10-01

    Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. The BM composition, structural bonds and ligands needed to mediate this process, however, are not well understood. Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. To identify the basis for this, and to dissect participating laminin interactions, LAMC1 gene-inactivated dorsal root ganglia were treated with recombinant laminin-211 and -111 lacking different architecture-forming and receptor-binding activities, to induce myelination. Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. Laminins that were unable to polymerize through deletions that removed critical N-terminal (LN) domains, or that lacked cell-adhesive globular (LG) domains, caused reduced BMs and almost no myelination. Laminins engineered to bind weakly to α6β1 and/or α7β1 integrins through their LG domains, even though they could effectively assemble BMs, decreased myelination. Proliferation depended upon both integrin binding to LG domains and polymerization. Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination. PMID:22767514

  4. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of nonintegrin laminin receptor interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Venticinque, Lisa; Meruelo, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Human nonintegrin laminin receptor is a multifunctional protein acting as an integral component of the ribosome and a cell surface receptor for laminin-1. The laminin receptor is overexpressed in several human cancers and is also the cell surface receptor for several viruses and pathogenic prion proteins, making it a pathologically significant protein. This study focused on the proteomic characterization of laminin receptor interacting proteins from Mus musculus. The use of affinity chromatography with immobilized recombinant laminin receptor coupled with mass spectrometry analysis identified 45 proteins with high confidence. Following validation through coimmunoprecipitation, the proteins were classified based on predicted function into ribosomal, RNA processing, signal transduction/metabolism, protein processing, cytoskeleton/cell anchorage, DNA/chromatin, and unknown functions. A significant portion of the identified proteins is related to functions or localizations previously described for laminin receptor. This work represents a comprehensive proteomic approach to studying laminin receptor and provides an essential stepping stone to a better mechanistic understanding of this protein's diverse functions. PMID:22909348

  5. 67-kDa Laminin Receptor-dependent Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Activation Elicits Melanoma-specific Antitumor Activity Overcoming Drug Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shuya; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment. PMID:25294877

  6. 67-kDa laminin receptor-dependent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation elicits melanoma-specific antitumor activity overcoming drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shuya; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2014-11-21

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment. PMID:25294877

  7. Knock-Down of the 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor LRP/LR Impedes Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Otgaar, Tyrone C.; Bernert, Martin; Ferreira, Eloise; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.; Letsolo, Boitelo T.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a major problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence and mortality rates. Both the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) and telomerase are overexpressed in cancer cells. LRP/LR enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells thereby promoting metastasis, supporting angiogenesis and hampering apoptosis. An essential component of telomerase, hTERT is overexpressed in 85–90% of most cancers. hTERT expression and increased telomerase activity are associated with tumor progression. As LRP/LR and hTERT both play a role in cancer progression, we investigated a possible correlation between LRP/LR and telomerase. LRP/LR and hTERT co-localized in the perinuclear compartment of tumorigenic breast cancer (MDA_MB231) cells and non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. FLAG® Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed an interaction between LRP/LR and hTERT. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that both cell lines displayed high cell surface and intracellular LRP/LR and hTERT levels. Knock-down of LRP/LR by RNAi technology significantly reduced telomerase activity. These results suggest for the first time a novel function of LRP/LR in contributing to telomerase activity. siRNAs targeting LRP/LR may act as a potential alternative therapeutic tool for cancer treatment by (i) blocking metastasis (ii) promoting angiogenesis (iii) inducing apoptosis and (iv) impeding telomerase activity. PMID:26545108

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate up-regulates microRNA-let-7b expression by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor signaling in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shuhei; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Makio, Akiko; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Yamashita, Shuya; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in various biological processes by regulating their target genes. Green tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits melanoma tumor growth by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) signaling. To examine the effect of EGCG on miRNA expression in melanoma cells, we performed miRNA microarray analysis. We showed that EGCG up-regulated miRNA-let-7b expression through 67LR in melanoma cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of let-7b led to down-regulation of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), a target gene related to tumor progression. 67LR-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling pathway activation was involved in the up-regulation of let-7b expression induced by EGCG. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of miRNA regulation by EGCG. PMID:26754091

  9. The human integrin VLA-2 is a collagen receptor on some cells and a collagen/laminin receptor on others

    SciTech Connect

    Elices, M.J.; Hemler, M.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The integrin heterodimer VLA-2, previously known as a collagen receptor, is now shown also to be a laminin receptor. Adhesion of the human melanoma cell line LOX to laminin was inhibited by anti-VLA {alpha}{sup 2} antibodies. Because VLA-2-mediated LOX cell attachment to laminin was not inhibited by digestion with collagenase, collagen contamination of laminin was not a factor. In addition, VLA-2 from LOX cells bound to immobilized laminin, and binding was disrupted by EDTA but not by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. VLA-3 also bound to laminin-Sepharose, although less avidly than VLA-2. Thus, at least four separate members of the integrin {beta}{sub 1} subfamily serve as laminin receptors - i.e., VLA-2 and VLA-3 (this study) together with VLA-1 and VLA-6 (other reports). Whereas LOX and other cell lines used VLA-2 as both a laminin and collagen receptor, fibroblast VLA-2 mediated collagen but not laminin binding. Likewise, VLA-2 from platelets did not interact with laminin. Despite this functional discordancy, VLA-2 from laminin-binding and nonbinding sources was indistinguishable by all immunochemical and biochemical criteria examined. Thus, functional differences in VLA-2 may be due to cell type-specific modulation.

  10. Distinct distribution of laminin and its integrin receptors in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Naselli, Gaetano; Harrison, Leonard C

    2002-12-01

    Tissue function is regulated by the extracellular microenvironment including cell basement membranes, in which laminins are a major component. Previously, we found that laminin-1 promotes differentiation and survival of pancreatic islet cells. Here we characterize the expression pattern of laminins and their integrin receptors in adult pancreas. Although they are expressed in the basement membrane of acinar cells and duct epithelium, no laminin chains examined were detected extracellularly in the pancreatic islets. In contrast to laminin beta(1)- and gamma(1)-chains, the alpha(1)-chain, unique to laminin-1, was not detected. Laminin-10 (alpha(5)beta(1)gamma(1)) was expressed in acinar tissue, whereas laminins-2 (alpha(2)beta(1)gamma(1)) and -10 were expressed in the blood vessels. The laminin connector molecule, nidogen-1, had a distribution similar to that of laminin beta(1) and gamma(1), whereas fibulin-1 and -2, which compete with nidogen-1, were mostly confined to blood vessels. Integrin subunits alpha(6) and alpha(3) were detected in acinar cells and duct epithelial cells, but alpha(6) was absent in islet cells. Integrin alpha(6)beta(4) was detected only in duct cells, alpha(6)beta(1) in both acinar and ductal cells, and alpha(3)beta(1) in acinar, duct, and islet cells. These findings are a basis for further investigation of the role of extracellular matrix molecules and their receptors in pancreas function. PMID:12486084

  11. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Non-Integrin Laminin Receptor Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Venticinque, Lisa; Meruelo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Human non-integrin laminin receptor is a multifunctional protein acting as an integral component of the ribosome and a cell surface receptor for laminin-1. Laminin receptor is overexpressed in several human cancers and is also the cell surface receptor for several viruses and pathogenic prion protein, making it a pathologically significant protein. This study focused on the proteomic characterization of laminin receptor interacting proteins from mus musculus. The use of affinity chromatography with immobilized recombinant laminin receptor coupled with mass spectrometry analysis identified 45 proteins with high confidence. Following validation through co-immunoprecipitation, the proteins were classified based on predicted function into ribosomal, RNA processing, signal transduction/ metabolism, protein processing, cytoskeleton/ cell anchorage, DNA/ chromatin and unknown functions. A significant portion of the identified proteins is related to functions or localizations previously described for laminin receptor. This work represents a comprehensive proteomic approach to studying laminin receptor, and provides an essential stepping-stone to a better mechanistic understanding of this protein’s diverse functions. PMID:22909348

  12. Combination of agrin and laminin increase acetylcholine receptor clustering and enhance functional neuromuscular junction formation In vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bill G X; Quigley, Anita F; Bourke, Justin L; Nowell, Cameron J; Myers, Damian E; Choong, Peter F M; Kapsa, Robert M I

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the postsynaptic membrane is a crucial step in the development of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). During development and after denervation, aneural AChR clusters form on the sarcolemma. Recent studies suggest that these receptors are critical for guiding and initiating synaptogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of agrin and laminin-1; agents with known AChR clustering activity; on NMJ formation and muscle maturation. Primary myoblasts were differentiated in vitro on collagen, laminin or collagen and laminin-coated surfaces in the presence or absence of agrin and laminin. The pretreated cells were then subject to innervation by PC12 cells. The number of neuromuscular junctions was assessed by immunocytochemical co-localization of AChR clusters and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Functional neuromuscular junctions were quantitated by analysis of the level of spontaneous as well as neuromuscular blocker responsive contractile activity and muscle maturation was assessed by the degree of myotube striation. Agrin alone did not prime muscle for innervation while a combination of agrin and laminin pretreatment increased the number of neuromuscular junctions formed and enhanced acetylcholine based neurotransmission and myotube striation. This study has direct clinical relevance for treatment of denervation injuries and creating functional neuromuscular constructs for muscle tissue repair. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 551-565, 2016. PMID:26251299

  13. Two Domains of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Bind the Cellular Receptor, Laminin Receptor Precursor Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    McNichol, Beth A.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; Carvalho, Humberto M.; Meysick, Karen C.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2007-01-01

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) and CNF2 are highly homologous toxins that are produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. These 1,014-amino-acid toxins catalyze the deamidation of a specific glutamine residue in RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 and consist of a putative N-terminal binding domain, a transmembrane region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. To define the regions of CNF1 that are responsible for binding of the toxin to its cellular receptor, the laminin receptor precursor protein (LRP), a series of CNF1 truncated toxins were characterized and assessed for toxin binding. In particular, three truncated toxins, ΔN63, ΔN545, and ΔC469, retained conformational integrity and in vitro enzymatic activity and were immunologically reactive against a panel of anti-CNF1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Based on a comparison of these truncated toxins with wild-type CNF1 and CNF2 in LRP and HEp-2 cell binding assays and in MAb and LRP competitive binding inhibition assays and based on the results of confocal microscopy, we concluded that CNF1 contains two major binding regions: one located within the N terminus, which contained amino acids 135 to 164, and one which resided in the C terminus and included amino acids 683 to 730. The data further indicate that CNF1 can bind to an additional receptor(s) on HEp-2 cells and that LRP can also serve as a cellular receptor for CNF2. PMID:17709415

  14. Looking into laminin receptor: critical discussion regarding the non-integrin 37/67-kDa laminin receptor/RPSA protein.

    PubMed

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Meruelo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LAMR/RPSA) was originally identified as a 67-kDa binding protein for laminin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that provides cellular adhesion to the basement membrane. LAMR has evolutionary origins, however, as a 37-kDa RPS2 family ribosomal component. Expressed in all domains of life, RPS2 proteins have been shown to have remarkably diverse physiological roles that vary across species. Contributing to laminin binding, ribosome biogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear functions, this protein governs critical cellular processes including growth, survival, migration, protein synthesis, development, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly given its purview, LAMR has been associated with metastatic cancer, neurodegenerative disease and developmental abnormalities. Functioning in a receptor capacity, this protein also confers susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. LAMR is clearly a molecule of consequence in human disease, directly mediating pathological events that make it a prime target for therapeutic interventions. Despite decades of research, there are still a large number of open questions regarding the cellular biology of LAMR, the nature of its ability to bind laminin, the function of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal region and its conversion from 37 to 67 kDa. This review attempts to convey an in-depth description of the complexity surrounding this multifaceted protein across functional, structural and pathological aspects. PMID:25630983

  15. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane protein genes, we identified the laminin receptor (LamR) to be another attachment receptor. We demonstrate the involvement of LamR together with HS in virus attachment, and we elucidate the relationship between LamR and HS. LamR also serves as an attachment receptor for many viral pathogens, including dengue virus, a fatal human flavivirus. The study will help to enhance our understanding of the life cycle of flaviviruses and the development of antiviral strategies for flaviviruses. PMID:25694590

  16. Chemical inhibition of prometastatic lysyl-tRNA synthetaselaminin receptor interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Gyu; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Fang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Young, Nicolas L.; Guo, Min; Cho, Hye Young; Mushtaq, AmeeqUl; Jeon, Young Ho; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Jung Min; Kang, Ho Woong; Joo, Jae Eun; Hur, Youn; Kang, Wonyoung; Yang, Heekyoung; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Aree; Kim, Kibom; Kim, Doyeun; Kang, Eun Joo; Moon, Youngji; Rhee, Kyung Hee; Han, Byung Woo; Yang, Jee Sun; Han, Gyoonhee; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Wang, Ming-Wei; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS), a protein synthesis enzyme in the cytosol, relocates to the plasma membrane after a laminin signal and stabilizes a 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) that is implicated in cancer metastasis; however, its potential as an antimetastatic therapeutic target has not been explored. We found that the small compound BC-K-YH16899, which binds to KRS, impinged on interaction of KRS with 67LR and suppressed metastasis in 3 different mouse models. The compound inhibited KRS67LR interaction in two ways. First, it directly blocked the association between KRS and 67LR. Second, it suppressed the dynamic movement of the N-terminal extension of KRS and reduced membrane localization of KRS. However, it did not affect the catalytic activity of KRS. Our results suggest that specific modulation of a cancer-related KRS67LR interaction may offer a way to control metastasis while avoiding the toxicities associated with inhibition of the normal functions of KRS. PMID:24212136

  17. Green Tea Polyphenols Precondition against Cell Death Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation via Stimulation of Laminin Receptor, Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, and Activation of Protein Kinase Cϵ

    PubMed Central

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H.; Elhiani, Albert A.; Schiffman, Jason E.; Hinton, David R.; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2012-01-01

    As the development of synthetic drugs for the prevention of stroke has proven challenging, utilization of natural products capable of preconditioning neuronal cells against ischemia-induced cell death would be a highly useful complementary approach. In this study using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in PC12 cells, we show that 2-day pretreatment with green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects cells from subsequent OGD/R-induced cell death. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, with unfractionated GTPP more potently preconditioning cells than EGCG. GTPP-induced preconditioning required the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), to which EGCG binds with high affinity. 67LR also mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase. An exogenous ROS-generating system bypassed 67LR to induce preconditioning, suggesting that sublethal levels of ROS are indeed an important mediator in GTPP-induced preconditioning. This role for ROS was further supported by the fact that antioxidants blocked GTPP-induced preconditioning. Additionally, ROS induced an activation and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC), particularly PKCϵ from the cytosol to the membrane/mitochondria, which was also blocked by antioxidants. The crucial role of PKC in GTPP-induced preconditioning was supported by use of its specific inhibitors. Preconditioning was increased by conditional overexpression of PKCϵ and decreased by its knock-out with siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that GTPP stimulates 67LR and thereby induces NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS, which in turn induces activation of PKC, particularly prosurvival isoenzyme PKCϵ, resulting in preconditioning against cell death induced by OGD/R. PMID:22879598

  18. Articular chondrocytes interact with basement membrane Matrigel through laminin active binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bulić, K

    1996-01-01

    Laminin-like molecules are detected during the differentiation of embryonic mesenchyme into cartilage and in cartilage during amphibian limb regeneration and fracture repair. Since primary articular chondrocytes in culture recognize and respond to laminin from basement membrane, the author studied the effect of laminin-derived peptides, which are thought to be responsible for biological activities of laminin. The biologically active peptides from both the laminin B1 and A chains containing YIGSR, RGD and IKVAV sequences all promoted chondrocyte attachment, and blocked laminin mediated cell attachment, with the IKVAV-containing peptide being the most effective. Laminin promoted cell migration with a maximum activity at 20 micrograms/ml. YIGSR at 100 micrograms/ml was the most active peptide exhibiting about 48% of the chemotactic activity of laminin, whereas the IKVAV-and RGD-containing peptides were much less active. When added in solution to the primary chondrocytes grown on Matrigel, YIGSR-containing peptides prevented cell alignment, whereas in the presence of peptides containing IKVAV sequence the cells spread rapidly and proliferated for 24 h. RGD-containing peptides had no effect on cell behavior on Matrigel. PMID:8688602

  19. Production, safety and antitumor efficacy of recombinant Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Adel L; Liu, Bainan; Rohrer, James W; Coggin, Joseph H; Tucker, J Allan; Pannell, Lewis K; Schwarzenberger, Paul O

    2009-06-01

    We describe here for the first time an efficient high yield production method for clinical grade recombinant human Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein (OFA/iLRP). We also demonstrate significant antitumor activity for this protein when administered in liposomal delivery form in a murine model of syngeneic fibrosarcoma. OFA/iLRP is a therapeutically very promising universal tumor antigen that is expressed in all mammalian solid tumors tested so far. We have cloned the human OFA/iLRP cDNA in a bacterial expression plasmid which incorporates a 6x HIS-tag. Large scale cultures of the plasmid transformed Escherichia coli were performed and the crude HIS-tagged OFA/iLRP was isolated as inclusion bodies and solubilized in guanidine chloride. The protein was then purified by successive passage through three column chromatography steps of immobilized metal affinity, anion exchange, and gel filtration. The resulting protein was 94% pure and practically devoid of endotoxin and host cell protein. The purified OFA/iLRP was tested in mice for safety and efficacy in tumor rejection with satisfactory results. This protein will be used for loading onto autologous dendritic cells in an FDA approved phase I/II human cancer vaccine trial in OFA/iLRP-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:19268360

  20. Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu-Chen; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Tryggvason, Karl; Persson, Jenny; Ekblom, Peter; Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik; Ekblom, Marja

    2003-02-01

    Laminins are alphabetagamma heterotrimeric extracellular proteins that regulate cellular functions by adhesion to integrin and nonintegrin receptors. Laminins containing alpha4 and alpha5 chains are expressed in bone marrow, but their interactions with hematopoietic progenitors are unknown. We studied human bone marrow cell adhesion to laminin-10/11 (alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and fibronectin. About 35% to 40% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) stem and progenitor cells adhered to laminin-10/11, and 45% to 50% adhered to fibronectin, whereas they adhered less to laminin-8 and laminin-1. Adhesion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells to laminin-10/11 was maximal without integrin activation, whereas adhesion to other proteins was dependent on protein kinase C activation by 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis showed expression of integrin alpha6 chain on most CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. Integrin alpha6 and beta1 chains were involved in binding of both cell fractions to laminin-10/11 and laminin-8. Laminin-10/11 was highly adhesive to lineage-committed myelomonocytic and erythroid progenitor cells and most lymphoid and myeloid cell lines studied, whereas laminin-8 was less adhesive. In functional assays, both laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 facilitated stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-stimulated transmigration of CD34(+) cells, by an integrin alpha6 receptor-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, we demonstrate laminin isoform-specific adhesive interactions with human bone marrow stem, progenitor, and more differentiated cells. The cell-adhesive laminins affected migration of hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting a physiologic role for laminins during hematopoiesis. PMID:12393739

  1. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.

    PubMed

    Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2011-07-01

    Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

  2. Human colon carcinoma cells use multiple receptors to adhere to laminin: involvement of alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, M M; Korzelius, C A; Mercurio, A M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we used clone A, a human colon carcinoma cell line, to characterize those integrins that mediate colon carcinoma adhesion to laminin. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the human beta 1 subunit inhibited clone A adhesion to laminin. They also precipitated a complex of surface proteins that exhibited an electrophoretic behavior characteristic of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1. A monoclonal antibody specific for alpha 2 (PIH5) blocked clone A adhesion to laminin, as well as to collagen I. An alpha 3-specific antibody (P1B5) had no effect on clone A adhesion to laminin, even though it can block the adhesion of other cell types to laminin. Thus, the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin can function as both a laminin and collagen I receptor on clone A cells. Although these cells express alpha 3 beta 1, an established laminin receptor, they do not appear to use it to mediate laminin adhesion. In addition, the monoclonal antibody GoH3, which recognizes the alpha 6 integrin subunit, also inhibited carcinoma adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen I. This antibody precipitated the alpha 6 subunit in association with the beta 4 subunit. There was no evidence of alpha 6 beta 1 association on these cells. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that multiple integrin alpha subunits, in association with two distinct beta subunits, are involved in colon carcinoma adhesion to laminin. Based on the behavior of alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, the results also suggest that cells can regulate the ability of a specific integrin to mediate adhesion. Images PMID:2100200

  3. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis. PMID:25720979

  4. Laminin-111-derived peptides and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Laminin-111 is a large trimeric basement membrane glycoprotein with many active sites. In particular, four peptides active in tumor malignancy studies have been identified in laminin-111 using a systematic peptide screening method followed by various assays. Two of the peptides (IKVAV and AG73) are found on the α1 chain, one (YIGSR) of the β1 chain and one (C16) on the γ1 chain. The four peptides have distinct activities and receptors. Since three of the peptides (IKVAV, AG73 and C16) strongly promote tumor growth, this may explain the potent effects laminin-111 has on malignant cells. The peptide, YIGSR, decreases tumor growth and experimental metastasis via a 32/67 kD receptor while IKVAV increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and protease activity via integrin receptors. AG73 increases tumor growth and metastases via syndecan receptors. C16 increases tumor growth and angiogenesis via integrins. Identification of such sites on laminin-111 will have use in defining strategies to develop therapeutics for cancer. PMID:23263633

  5. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  6. Deciphering the complex three-way interaction between the non-integrin laminin receptor, galectin-3 and Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Fulwah; Mahdavi, Jafar; Wheldon, Lee M.; Vassey, Matthew; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Qarani, Suzan M.; Morroll, Shaun; Stoof, Jeroen; Holliday, Nicholas D.; Teo, Siew Y.; Oldfield, Neil J.; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The non-integrin laminin receptor (LAMR1/RPSA) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are multi-functional host molecules with roles in diverse pathological processes, particularly of infectious or oncogenic origins. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and confocal imaging, we demonstrate that the two proteins homo- and heterodimerize, and that each isotype forms a distinct cell surface population. We present evidence that the 37 kDa form of LAMR1 (37LRP) is the precursor of the previously described 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR), whereas the heterodimer represents an entity that is distinct from this molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the single cysteine (C173) of Gal-3 or lysine (K166) of LAMR1 are critical for heterodimerization. Recombinant Gal-3, expressed in normally Gal-3-deficient N2a cells, dimerized with endogenous LAMR1 and led to a significantly increased number of internalized bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis), confirming the role of Gal-3 in bacterial invasion. Contact-dependent cross-linking determined that, in common with LAMR1, Gal-3 binds the meningococcal secretin PilQ, in addition to the major pilin PilE. This study adds significant new mechanistic insights into the bacterial–host cell interaction by clarifying the nature, role and bacterial ligands of LAMR1 and Gal-3 isotypes during colonization. PMID:25274119

  7. PRESYNAPTIC CALCIUM CHANNELS AND ?3-INTEGRINS ARE COMPLEXED WITH SYNAPTIC CLEFT LAMININS, CYTOSKELETAL ELEMENTS AND ACTIVE ZONE COMPONENTS

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Steven S.; Valdez, Gregorio; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    At chemical synapses, synaptic cleft components interact with elements of the nerve terminal membrane to promote differentiation and regulate function. Laminins containing the ?2 subunit are key cleft components, and they act in part by binding the pore-forming subunit of a presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav?) (Nishimune, et al., 2004). Here, we identify Cav?-associated intracellular proteins that may couple channel-anchoring to assembly or stabilization of neurotransmitter release sites called active zones. Using Cav?antibodies, we isolated a protein complex from Torpedo electric organ synapses, which resemble neuromuscular junctions but are easier to isolate in bulk. We identified 10 components of the complex: six cytoskeletal proteins (?2/?2 spectrins, plectin 1, AHNAK/desmoyokin, dystrophin, and myosin 1), two active zone components (bassoon and piccolo), synaptic laminin, and a calcium channel ? subunit. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these proteins in electric organ synapses, and PCR analysis revealed their expression by developing mammalian motor neurons. Finally, we show that synaptic laminins also interact with presynaptic integrins containing the ?3 subunit. Together with our previous finding that a distinct synaptic laminin interacts with SV2 on nerve terminals (Son, et al., 2000), our results identify three paths by which synaptic cleft laminins can send developmentally important signals to nerve terminals. PMID:20731762

  8. Contribution of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor in the anti-metastatic PSP94-derived peptide PCK3145 cell surface binding

    SciTech Connect

    Annabi, Borhane; Currie, Jean-Christophe; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Dulude, Helene; Daigneault, Luc; Garde, Seema; Rabbani, Shafaat A.; Panchal, Chandra; Wu, Jinzi J.; Beliveau, Richard . E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2006-07-21

    Purpose: PCK3145 is an anti-metastatic synthetic peptide with promising therapeutic efficacy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The characterization of the PCK3145 peptide cell surface binding/internalization mechanisms and of the receptors involved remained to be explored. Results: [{sup 14}C]PCK3145 cell surface binding assays showed rapid and transient kinetic profile, that was inhibited by RGD peptides, laminin, hyaluronan, and type-I collagen. RGD peptides were however unable to inhibit PCK3145 intracellular uptake. Far-Western ligand binding studies enabled the identification of the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) as a potential ligand for PCK3145. Overexpression of the recombinant 37LRP indeed led to an increase in PCK3145 binding but unexpectedly not to its uptake. Conclusions: Our data support the implication of laminin receptors in cell surface binding and in transducing PCK3145 anti-metastatic effects, and provide a rational for targeting cancers that express high levels of such laminin receptors.

  9. A cell adhesion receptor antiserum abolishes, whereas laminin and fibronectin glycoprotein components of extracellular matrix promote, luteinization of cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Aten, R F; Kolodecik, T R; Behrman, H R

    1995-04-01

    We recently showed that structural regression is marked by an endocrine-induced increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity specific for basement membrane, which suggests that extracellular matrix (ECM) may play an important role in sustaining luteal cell function. Such a role for ECM has been demonstrated for cultured mammary epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis, granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles that were induced to luteinize by gonadotropin stimulation in vivo were examined. Initial studies established that cells cultured on plastic in medium supplemented with 1% fetal bovine serum, LH (100 pg/ml), PRL (1 microgram/ml), and insulin-like growth factor-I (5 ng/ml) showed a time-dependent increase in the secretion of progesterone (P4) and total progestin (P4 plus 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone) for at least 10 days and that replacement of fetal bovine serum with 0.1% BSA stimulated P4 secretion and reduced the 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone to P4 ratio from 10:1 to as low as 3:1. The inclusion of an anticell adhesion receptor subunit sera (Lenny IV, against the integrin beta 1-subunit) in the culture medium for the first 2 days resulted in an irreversible loss of progestin secretion by the cultured granulosa cells, but the inclusion of a bacterial collagenase (form III) had no effect. Granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles cultured on ECM (Matrigel matrix) formed cell aggregates and projected cellular sprouts, but secreted less P4 than those cultured on plastic. The inclusion of laminin in the culture medium or laminin coating the culture wells stimulated P4 secretion by granulosa cells and promoted the enlargement of steroidogenic cells (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Fibronectin-coated, but not collagen-I-coated, wells similarly promoted P4 secretion. These results suggest that a cell adhesion receptor (an integrin), and laminin and fibronectin, major glycoprotein components of ECM, play important roles in the differentiation of granulosa cells to luteal cells. PMID:7895687

  10. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:22960171

  11. α-Dystroglycan Is a Laminin Receptor Involved in Extracellular Matrix Assembly on Myotubes and Muscle Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Federica; Lindenbaum, Michael; Carbonetto, Salvatore

    1999-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) is a laminin-binding protein and member of a glycoprotein complex associated with dystrophin that has been implicated in the etiology of several muscular dystrophies. To study the function of DG, C2 myoblasts were transfected stably with an antisense DG expression construct. Myotubes from two resulting clones (11F and 11E) had at least a 40–50% and 80–90% reduction, respectively, in α-DG but normal or near normal levels of α-sarcoglycan, integrin β1 subunit, acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) when compared with parental C2 cells or three clones (11A, 9B, and 10C) which went through the same transfection and selection procedures but expressed normal levels of α-DG. Antisense DG-expressing myoblasts proliferate at the same rate as parental C2 cells and differentiate into myotubes, however, a gradual loss of cells was observed in these cultures. This loss correlates with increased apoptosis as indicated by greater numbers of nuclei with condensed chromatin and more nuclei labeled by the TUNEL method. Moreover, there was no sign of increased membrane permeability to Trypan blue as would be expected with necrosis. Unlike parental C2 myotubes, 11F and 11E myotubes had very little laminin (LN) on their surfaces; LN instead tended to accumulate on the substratum between myotubes. Exogenous LN bound to C2 myotubes and was redistributed into plaques along with α-DG on their surfaces but far fewer LN/α-DG plaques were seen after LN addition to 11F or 11E myotubes. These results suggest that α-DG is a functional LN receptor in situ which is required for deposition of LN on the cell and, further, implicate α-DG in the maintenance of myotube viability. PMID:10366602

  12. Diverse patterns of expression of the 67-kD laminin receptor in human small intestinal mucosa: potential binding sites for prion proteins?

    PubMed

    Shmakov, A N; Bode, J; Kilshaw, P J; Ghosh, S

    2000-07-01

    It has been shown that the 67-kD laminin receptor (LR) may function as a receptor for Sindbis and tick-born encephalitis viruses. Recent data indicate that the 37-kD precursor (LRP) for this molecule acts as a receptor for prion proteins (PrP), self-proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). Laminin and PrP share the same binding site on LRP, which is incorporated into the mature LR as a functional binding domain. To localize PrP binding sites potentially relevant to oral infection, the expression of the LR in human small intestinal mucosa was studied. Expression of the LR was determined by immunohistochemistry in duodenal and jejunal biopsies using a monoclonal antibody (MLuC5) which specifically recognizes the 67-kD LR. Biopsy material was obtained from 39 control patients, 15 patients with ulcerative colitis, 15 patients with Crohn's disease and uninvolved small bowel, and 28 patients with active coeliac disease. Two distinctive patterns of LR expression were found within each group of patients. One pattern was characterized by LR expression in the brush border and Golgi apparatus region of villus and crypt enterocytes. Paneth cell secretory granules were positive for LR in these samples. Brush border expression of LR was found in approximately 40% of samples, with the exception of Crohn's disease (6.7% of samples were positive). Another pattern of LR expression was characterized by positively stained endothelium, while the epithelium was generally negative (45 of 97). The use of two polyclonal antibodies which recognize both the LRP and the LR confirmed brush border and paranuclear expression of the LR, but also showed varying cytoplasmic and apical surface immunoreactivity in MLuC5-negative epithelium, reflecting the distribution of LRP as opposed to the mature receptor. In conclusion, expression of the LR in the brush border and in Paneth cell secretory granules suggests that this molecule might be involved in both secretory and endocytotic functions. The major implication of intestinal epithelial/brush border expression of the LR may be an increased susceptibility to oral infection with prion proteins. PMID:10878555

  13. The 67-kd laminin receptor is preferentially expressed by proliferating retinal vessels in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, A. W.; McKenna, D.; Simpson, D. A.; Gardiner, T. A.; Harriott, P.; Archer, D. B.; Nelson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Endothelial cell association with vascular basement membranes is complex and plays a critical role in regulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. The interaction between the membrane-associated 67-kd receptor (67LR) and the basement membrane protein laminin has been studied in several cell systems where it was shown to be crucial for adhesion and attachment during angiogenesis. As angiogenesis in the pathological setting of proliferative retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the Western world we examined the expression of 67LR in a murine model of hyperoxia-induced retinopathy that exhibits retinal neovascularization. Mice exposed to hyperoxia for 5 days starting at postnatal day 7 (P7) and returned to room air (at P12) showed closure of the central retinal vasculature. In response to the ensuing retinal ischemia, there was consistent preretinal neovascularization starting around P17, which persisted until P21, after which the new vessels regressed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on these retinas using an antibody specific for 67LR. At P12, immunoreactivity for 67LR was absent in the retina, but by P17 it was observed in preretinal proliferating vessels and also within the adjacent intraretinal vasculature. Intraretinal 67LR immunoreactivity diminished beyond P17 until by P21 immunoreactivity was almost completely absent, although it persisted in the preretinal vasculature. Control P17 mice (not exposed to hyperoxia) failed to demonstrate any 67LR immunoreactivity in their retinas. Parallel in situ hybridization studies demonstrated 67LR gene expression in the retinal ganglion cells of control and hyperoxia-exposed mice. In addition, the neovascular intra- and preretinal vessels of hyperoxia-treated P17 and P21 mice labeled strongly for 67LR mRNA. This study has characterized 67LR immunolocalization and gene expression in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. Results suggest that, although the 67LR gene is expressed at high levels in the retinal ganglion cells, the mature receptor protein is preferentially localized to the proliferating retinal vasculature and is almost completely absent from quiescent vessels. The differential expression of 67LR between proliferating and quiescent retinal vessels suggests that this laminin receptor is an important and novel target for future chemotherapeutic intervention during proliferative vasculopathies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9588904

  14. The 67-kd laminin receptor is preferentially expressed by proliferating retinal vessels in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Stitt, A W; McKenna, D; Simpson, D A; Gardiner, T A; Harriott, P; Archer, D B; Nelson, J

    1998-05-01

    Endothelial cell association with vascular basement membranes is complex and plays a critical role in regulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. The interaction between the membrane-associated 67-kd receptor (67LR) and the basement membrane protein laminin has been studied in several cell systems where it was shown to be crucial for adhesion and attachment during angiogenesis. As angiogenesis in the pathological setting of proliferative retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the Western world we examined the expression of 67LR in a murine model of hyperoxia-induced retinopathy that exhibits retinal neovascularization. Mice exposed to hyperoxia for 5 days starting at postnatal day 7 (P7) and returned to room air (at P12) showed closure of the central retinal vasculature. In response to the ensuing retinal ischemia, there was consistent preretinal neovascularization starting around P17, which persisted until P21, after which the new vessels regressed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on these retinas using an antibody specific for 67LR. At P12, immunoreactivity for 67LR was absent in the retina, but by P17 it was observed in preretinal proliferating vessels and also within the adjacent intraretinal vasculature. Intraretinal 67LR immunoreactivity diminished beyond P17 until by P21 immunoreactivity was almost completely absent, although it persisted in the preretinal vasculature. Control P17 mice (not exposed to hyperoxia) failed to demonstrate any 67LR immunoreactivity in their retinas. Parallel in situ hybridization studies demonstrated 67LR gene expression in the retinal ganglion cells of control and hyperoxia-exposed mice. In addition, the neovascular intra- and preretinal vessels of hyperoxia-treated P17 and P21 mice labeled strongly for 67LR mRNA. This study has characterized 67LR immunolocalization and gene expression in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. Results suggest that, although the 67LR gene is expressed at high levels in the retinal ganglion cells, the mature receptor protein is preferentially localized to the proliferating retinal vasculature and is almost completely absent from quiescent vessels. The differential expression of 67LR between proliferating and quiescent retinal vessels suggests that this laminin receptor is an important and novel target for future chemotherapeutic intervention during proliferative vasculopathies. PMID:9588904

  15. Polyphenols from green tea prevent antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A via 67-kDa laminin receptor and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Barseghian, Barsegh A; Tzeng, William S; Rayudu, David V; Cadenas, Enrique; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2015-01-01

    Axonal regeneration after injury to the CNS is hampered by myelin-derived inhibitors, such as Nogo-A. Natural products, such as green tea, which are neuroprotective and safe for long-term therapy, would complement ongoing various pharmacological approaches. In this study, using nerve growth factor-differentiated neuronal-like Neuroscreen-1 cells, we show that extremely low concentrations of unfractionated green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP) and its active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), prevent both the neurite outgrowth-inhibiting activity and growth cone-collapsing activity of Nogo-66 (C-terminal domain of Nogo-A). Furthermore, a synergistic interaction was observed among GTPP constituents. This preventive effect was dependent on 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) to which EGCG binds with high affinity. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and cell-permeable catalase abolished this preventive effect of GTPP and EGCG, suggesting the involvement of sublethal levels of H2 O2 in this process. Accordingly, exogenous sublethal concentrations of H2 O2 , added as a bolus dose (5 μM) or more effectively through a steady-state generation (1-2 μM), mimicked GTPP in counteracting the action of Nogo-66. Exogenous H2 O2 mediated this action by bypassing the requirement of 67LR. Taken together, these results show for the first time that GTPP and EGCG, acting through 67LR and elevating intracellular sublethal levels of H2 O2 , inhibit the antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A. Currently, several agents are being evaluated for overcoming axonal growth inhibitors to promote functional recovery after stroke and spinal cord injury. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), present in green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP), prevents antineuritogenic activity of Nogo-A, a myelin-derived axonal growth inhibitor. The preventive action of EGCG involves the cell-surface-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor and H2 O2 . GTPP may complement ongoing efforts to treat neuronal injuries.> PMID:25314656

  16. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  17. INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is reduced by the downregulation of the 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Dubiel, Evan A; Kuehn, Carina; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Vermette, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Understanding β cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions can advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and improve culture methods used in islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes. Laminin is the main constituent of the basement membrane and is involved in pancreatic β cell survival and function, even enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Most of the studies on cell responses towards laminin have focused on integrin-mediated interactions, while much less attention has been paid on non-integrin receptors, such as the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). The specificity of the receptor-ligand interaction through the adhesion of INS-1 cells (a rat insulinoma cell line) to CDPGYIGSR-, GRGDSPC- or CDPGYIGSR + GRGDSPC-covered surfaces was evaluated. Also, the effects of the 67LR knocking down over glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were investigated. Culture of the INS-1 cells on the bioactive surfaces was improved compared to the low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces, while downregulation of the 67LR resulted in reduced cell adhesion to surfaces bearing the CDPGYIGSR peptide. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was hindered by downregulation of the 67LR, regardless of the biological motif available on the biomimetic surfaces on which the cells were cultured. This finding illustrates the importance of the 67LR in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and points to a possible role of the 67LR in the mechanisms of insulin secretion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23362185

  18. Synthetic peptides interacting with the 67-kd laminin receptor can reduce retinal ischemia and inhibit hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Gebarowska, Dorota; Stitt, Alan W; Gardiner, Thomas A; Harriott, Patrick; Greer, Brett; Nelson, John

    2002-01-01

    The high-affinity 67-kd laminin receptor (67LR) is expressed by proliferating endothelial cells during retinal neovascularization. The role of 67LR has been further examined experimentally by administration of selective 67LR agonists and antagonists in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. These synthetic 67LR ligands have been previously shown to stimulate or inhibit endothelial cell motility in vitro without any direct effect on proliferation. In the present study, a fluorescently labeled 67LR antagonist (EGF(33-42)) was injected intraperitoneally into mice and its distribution in the retina was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Within 2 hours this peptide was localized to the retinal vasculature, including preretinal neovascular complexes, and a significant amount had crossed the blood retinal barrier. For up to 24 hours postinjection, the peptide was still present in the retinal vascular walls and, to a lesser extent, in the neural retina. Non-labeled EGF(33-42) significantly inhibited pre-retinal neovascularization in comparison to controls treated with phosphate-buffered saline or scrambled peptide (P < 0.0001). The agonist peptide (Lam beta 1(925-933)) also significantly inhibited proliferative retinopathy; however, it caused a concomitant reduction in retinal ischemia in this model by promoting significant revascularization of the central retina (P < 0.001). Thus, 67LR appears to be an important target receptor for the modulation of retinal neovascularization. Agonism of this receptor may be valuable in reducing the hypoxia-stimulated release of angiogenic growth factors which drives retinal angiogenesis. PMID:11786424

  19. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Maxwell, Adam; Fay, William P; Katti, Kattesh V

    2016-01-01

    In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs) as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26938531

  20. Laminin receptor is an interacting partner for viral outer capsid protein VP5 in grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Fei; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is responsible for viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus. Through yeast two-hybrid screen, laminin receptor (LamR) was identified as a potential interacting partner for the outer capsid protein VP5 of GCRV. We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding grass carp LamR. Viral attachment assay demonstrated the involvement of membrane-associated LamR in GCRV infection. Solid-phase overlay assays demonstrated that GCRV interacted with GST-tagged LamR in vitro. In contrast to VP7, GST-tagged VP5 was shown to associate with LamR in both pull-down and solid-phase blot overlay assays. With the reduction of LamR expression in CIK cells achieved by RNAi, remarkably reduced infection efficiency of GCRV was observed. CIK cells pretreated with polyclonal antibody against LamR resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of GCRV infection. These results collectively indicated that grass carp LamR was involved in GCRV infection by interacting with viral outer capsid protein VP5. PMID:26848829

  1. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Maxwell, Adam; Fay, William P.; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2016-01-01

    In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs) as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26938531

  2. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Chanda, N.; Zambre, A.; Upendran, A.; Katti, K.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Nune, S. K.; Casteel, S. W.; Smith, C. J.; Vimal, J.; Boote, E.; Robertson, J. D.; Kan, P.; Engelbrecht, H.; Watkinson, L. D.; Carmack, T. L.; Lever, J. R.; Cutler, C. S.; Caldwell, C.; Kannan, R.; Katti, K. V.

    2012-07-16

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechingallate( EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), will circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein provide unequivocal validation of our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from Au-198 isotope; the range of 198Au β-particle ( ~ 11 mm in tissue or ~1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed ~72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 days demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative “green nanotechnological“approach serves as a basis for designing target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors.

  3. Biologically-active laminin-111 fragment that modulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Horejs, Christine-Maria; Serio, Andrea; Purvis, Alan; Gormley, Adam J.; Bertazzo, Sergio; Poliniewicz, Anna; Wang, Alex J.; DiMaggio, Peter; Hohenester, Erhard; Stevens, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between the extracellular matrix and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) constitutes one of the key steps in understanding stem cell differentiation in vitro. Here we report a biologically-active laminin-111 fragment generated by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) processing, which is highly up-regulated during differentiation. We show that the ?1-chainderived fragment interacts via ?3?1-integrins, thereby triggering the down-regulation of MMP2 in mouse and human ESCs. Additionally, the expression of MMP9 and E-cadherin is up-regulated in mouse ESCskey players in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also demonstrate that the fragment acts through the ?3?1-integrin/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer complex. This study reveals a previously unidentified role of laminin-111 in early stem cell differentiation that goes far beyond basement membrane assembly and a mechanism by which an MMP2-cleaved laminin fragment regulates the expression of E-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9. PMID:24706882

  4. Axolotl pronephric duct migration requires an epidermally derived, laminin 1-containing extracellular matrix and the integrin receptor alpha6beta1.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrea R; Drawbridge, Julie; Steinberg, Malcolm S

    2003-12-01

    The epidermis overlying the migrating axolotl pronephric duct is known to participate in duct guidance. This epidermis deposits an extracellular matrix onto the migrating duct and its pathway that is a potential source of directional guidance cues. The role of this matrix in pronephric duct guidance was assayed by presenting matrix deposited on microcarriers directly to migrating pronephric ducts in situ. We found that reorientation of extracellular-matrix-bearing carriers prior to their presentation to migrating ducts caused a corresponding reorientation of pronephric duct migration. Subepidermal microinjection of function-blocking antibodies against alpha6 integrin, beta1 integrin or the laminin-1/E8 domain recognized by alpha6beta1 integrin, all of which were detected and localized here, inhibited pronephric duct migration. Moreover, pre-exposure to anti-laminin-1/E8 function-blocking antibody prevented reoriented carriers of epidermally deposited matrix from reorienting pronephric duct migration. These results are incorporated into an integrated model of pronephric duct guidance consistent with all present evidence, proposing roles for the previously implicated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor as well as for laminin 1 and alpha6beta1 integrin. PMID:14522870

  5. Distinct and overlapping ligand specificities of the alpha 3A beta 1 and alpha 6A beta 1 integrins: recognition of laminin isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Delwel, G O; de Melker, A A; Hogervorst, F; Jaspars, L H; Fles, D L; Kuikman, I; Lindblom, A; Paulsson, M; Timpl, R; Sonnenberg, A

    1994-01-01

    The ligand specificity of the alpha 3A beta 1 integrin was analyzed using K562 cells transfected with full-length alpha 3A cDNA and was compared with that of alpha 6A beta 1 in similarly transfected K562 cells. Clones were obtained that showed comparable surface expression of either alpha 3A beta 1 or alpha 6A beta 1 integrins. Those expressing alpha 3A beta 1 attached to and spread on immunopurified human kalinin and cellular matrices containing human kalinin, which is a particular isoform of laminin. In addition, alpha 3A transfectants adhered to bovine kidney laminins possessing a novel A chain variant. Binding to kalinin was blocked by a monoclonal antibody against the A chain constituent of kalinin and adhesion to both kalinin and kidney laminins by anti-alpha 3 and beta 1 monoclonal antibodies. The alpha 3A transfected cells bound more strongly to kalinin and bovine kidney laminins after treatment with the beta 1 stimulatory antibody TS2/16. A distinctly weaker and activation-dependent adhesion of alpha 3A transfectants was observed on human placental laminins possessing the Am chain variant (merosin), and no adhesion occurred on bovine heart laminins and murine EHS tumor laminin. Further inactive substrates were fibronectin, nidogen, and collagen types IV and VI, indicating that the alpha 3A beta 1 integrin is a much less promiscuous receptor than thought before. By contrast, alpha 6A transfected cells adhered to all laminin isoforms when stimulated with TS2/16. Adhesion also occurred only on bovine kidney laminins in the absence of TS2/16. These results demonstrate that both alpha 3A beta 1 and alpha 6A beta 1 integrins are typical laminin receptors but that their affinity and activation dependence for binding to various laminin isoforms differ considerably. Images PMID:8019006

  6. Impeded interaction between Schwann cells and axons in the absence of laminin alpha4.

    PubMed

    Wallquist, Wilhelm; Plantman, Stefan; Thams, Sebastian; Thyboll, Jill; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Lännergren, Jan; Domogatskaya, Anna; Ogren, Sven Ove; Risling, Mårten; Hammarberg, Henrik; Tryggvason, Karl; Cullheim, Staffan

    2005-04-01

    The Schwann cell basal lamina (BL) is required for normal myelination. Loss or mutations of BL constituents, such as laminin-2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), lead to severe neuropathic diseases affecting peripheral nerves. The function of the second known laminin present in Schwann cell BL, laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), is so far unknown. Here we show that absence of the laminin alpha4 chain, which distinguishes laminin-8 from laminin-2, leads to a disturbance in radial sorting, impaired myelination, and signs of ataxia and proprioceptive disturbances, whereas the axonal regenerative capacity is not influenced. In vitro studies show poor axon growth of spinal motoneurons on laminin-8, whereas it is extensive on laminin-2. Schwann cells, however, extend longer processes on laminin-8 than on laminin-2, and, in contrast to the interaction with laminin-2, solely use the integrin receptor alpha6beta1 in their interaction with laminin-8. Thus, laminin-2 and laminin-8 have different critical functions in peripheral nerves, mediated by different integrin receptors. PMID:15814800

  7. Impairment of the metastatic activity of melanoma cells by transglutaminase-catalyzed incorporation of polyamines into laminin and Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Lentini, A; Provenzano, B; Caraglia, M; Shevchenko, A; Abbruzzese, A; Beninati, S

    2008-02-01

    Previously published evidences highlighted the effect of transglutaminase (TG, EC 2.3.2.13) activation on the reduction of the in vitro adhesive and invasive behaviour of murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, as well as in vivo. Here, we investigated the influence of spermidine (SPD) incorporation by TG into basement membrane components i.e. laminin (LN) or Matrigel (MG), on the adhesion and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by these TG/SPD-modified substrates. The adhesion assays showed that cell binding to the TG/SPD-modified LN was reduced by 30%, when compared to untreated LN, whereas the reduction obtained using TG/SPD-modified MG was 35%. Similarly, tumor cell invasion by the Boyden chamber system through TG/SPD modified LN or MG was respectively reduced by 45%, and by 69%. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase (gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9) activities by gel-zymography showed that MMP-2 activity was unaffected, while MMP-9 activity was reduced by about 32% using TG/SPD-modified substrate. These results strongly suggest that the observed antiinvasive effect of TG activation in the host may be ascribed to the covalent incorporation of polyamines, which led to the post-translational modification of some components of the cell basement membrane. This modification may interfere with the metastatic property of melanoma cells, affecting the proteolytic activity necessary for their migration and invasion activities. PMID:17356804

  8. Synthesis and activity of partial retro-inverso analogs of the antimetastatic laminin-derived peptide, YIGSR-NH2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Kleinman, H K; Mokotoff, M

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of six partial retro-inverso peptidomimetic analogs of YIGSR-NH2, a synthetic peptide from the beta 1 chain of laminin, which has antimetastatic activity. The intent was to improve the antimetastatic potency of YIGSR-NH2 by limiting the in vivo enzymatic degradation through the incorporation of fraudulent peptide bonds. We have prepared the following retro-inverso peptides, Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-gArg-CHO (1), Tyr-gIle-mGly-Ser-Arg-NH2 (2), Tyr-gIle-mGly-Ser-gArg-CHO (3), gTyr-D-rIle-mGly-Ser-Arg-NH2 (4), Tyr-Ile-Gly-gSer-D-rArg-CHO (5) and Tyr-gIle-rGly-D-rSer-D-rArg-CHO (6). In vitro assays for B16F10 melanoma cell adhesion showed no significant activity for these six peptides. Peptides 1-3, 5 and 6 were further tested, in vivo, for their ability to inhibit tumor metastases to the lung in mice injected in the tail vein with B16F10 melanoma cells. All five of the retro-inverso peptides tested showed statistically significant inhibition of metastasis, but the most active peptides were 5 and 6, which showed 57 and 69% inhibition of metastasis, respectively. PMID:9151257

  9. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  10. Expression and identification of a laminin-binding protein in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    PubMed Central

    Tronchin, G; Esnault, K; Renier, G; Filmon, R; Chabasse, D; Bouchara, J P

    1997-01-01

    Adhesion of Aspergillus fumigatus, the causative agent of human aspergillosis, to the extracellular matrix protein laminin has been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the expression of laminin receptors during swelling of conidia, a step leading to germination and subsequent colonization of tissues. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the laminin binding sites were distributed over the external rodlet layer of resting conidia. During swelling, the characteristic rodlet layer progressively disintegrated and conidia surrounded by a smooth cell wall layer appeared. Flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated laminin demonstrated that expression of laminin receptors at the surface of conidia was swelling dependent. Resting conidia expressed high levels of laminin receptors on their surface. A gradual decrease of laminin binding was then observed as swelling occurred, reaching a minimum for 4-h-swollen conidia. This correlated with a loss of adherence of swollen conidia to laminin immobilized on microtiter plates. Trypsin pretreatment of conidia reduced laminin binding. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ligand blotting with laminin identified in a cell wall extract a major 72-kDa cell wall glycoprotein which binds laminin. Thus, one of the initial events in the host colonization may be the recognition of basement membrane laminin by this 72-kDa cell wall surface component. PMID:8975886

  11. Laminin and vascular proliferation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D L; Salmon, M; Morris, C J; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W

    1984-01-01

    Laminin is a high molecular weight basement membrane structural glycoprotein. In rheumatoid arthritis and other arthropathies immunoreactive laminin was prominent in synovial blood vessel basement membranes and acted as a marker for them. It codistributed with collagen type IV. Immunohistological reactivity to laminin showed extensive vascular proliferation in rheumatoid arthritis together with basement membrane reduplication, which was confirmed ultrastructurally. Parallel histological studies showed vascular proliferation was predominantly in the subintimal rheumatoid synovium, where it was related to connective tissue proliferation but not to the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Vascular proliferation was also seen in relation to connective tissue changes in biopsies from cases of haemophilic arthritis, osteoarthritis, and meniscal tears. We suggest connective tissue activation is non-specific reaction associated with vascular proliferation. This involves laminin and other structural proteins. It occurs in rheumatoid arthritis and other arthropathies but is distinct from inflammatory cell infiltration. Images PMID:6383233

  12. Melanoma Spheroid Formation Involves Laminin-Associated Vasculogenic Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Allison R.; Lee, Chung-Wei; Lezcano, Cecilia; Zhan, Qian; Huang, John; Fischer, Andrew H.; Murphy, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a tumor where virulence is conferred on transition from flat (radial) to three-dimensional (tumorigenic) growth. Virulence of tumorigenic growth is governed by numerous attributes, including presence of self-renewing stem-like cells and related formation of patterned networks associated with the melanoma mitogen, laminin, a phenomenon known as vasculogenic mimicry. Vasculogenic mimicry is posited to contribute to melanoma perfusion and nutrition in vivo; we hypothesized that it may also play a role in stem cell–driven spheroid formation in vitro. Using a model of melanoma in vitro tumorigenesis, laminin-associated networks developed in association with three-dimensional melanoma spheroids. Real-time PCR analysis of laminin subunits showed that spheroids formed from anchorage-independent melanoma cells expressed increased α4 and β1 laminin chains and α4 laminin expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Association of laminin networks with melanoma stem cell–associated nestin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 also was documented. Moreover, knockdown of nestin gene expression impaired laminin expression and network formation within spheroids. Laminin networks were remarkably similar to those observed in melanoma xenografts in mice and to those seen in patient melanomas. These data indicate that vasculogenic mimicry–like laminin networks, in addition to their genesis in vivo, are integral to the extracellular architecture of melanoma spheroids in vitro, where they may serve as stimulatory scaffolds to support three-dimensional growth. PMID:24332013

  13. Laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic arteries from mice and man.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Uwe; Saxena, Amit; Lorkowski, Stefan; Rauterberg, Jürgen; Björkbacka, Harry; Durbeej, Madeleine; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2011-06-01

    The properties of the arterial vasculature depend to a large extent on the activities of smooth muscle cells, which, in turn, are determined by their extracellular environment. During pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, this interaction is altered. In close proximity to medial smooth muscle cells are basement membrane components, such as different isoforms of laminin. These proteins can have great impact on cellular function via interaction with cell surface integrins. However, knowledge of laminins in smooth muscle cell basement membranes during normal and pathological conditions is scarce. Therefore, we have analyzed the presence of laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. Our study revealed that the laminin chain isotype composition within atherosclerotic plaque tissue was different from the chain composition in the media. In addition, obvious differences in laminin chain composition could be observed in areas of the media, which were or were not associated with plaque tissue. Our major findings demonstrate that laminin gamma3 was exclusively present in media associated with plaque tissue. Laminin alpha2 was also enriched in these medial areas. Plaque tissue was predominantly enriched in laminin alpha5 chains. This general distribution applied to lesions both with and without a fibrous cap-like structure. The differential distribution of laminin chains were partially accompanied by changes in the presence of the integrin alpha subunits 7 and V. The distribution of laminin chains in human atherosclerotic arteries, with different size and morphology, grossly resembled their distribution in mouse arteries. PMID:21472686

  14. Dystroglycan loss disrupts polarity and beta-casein induction inmammary epithelial cells by perturbing laminin anchoring

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, M. Lynn; Oppizzi, Maria Luisa; Henry, Michael D.; Onishi,Akiko; Campbell, Kevin P.; Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2006-02-17

    Precise contact between epithelial cells and their underlying basement membrane is critical to the maintenance of tissue architecture and function. To understand the role that the laminin receptor dystroglycan (DG) plays in these processes, we assayed cell responses to laminin-111 following conditional ablation of DG expression in cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Strikingly, DG loss disrupted laminin-111-induced polarity and {beta}-casein production, and abolished laminin assembly at the step of laminin binding to the cell surface. DG re-expression restored these deficiencies. Investigations of mechanism revealed that DG cytoplasmic sequences were not necessary for laminin assembly and signaling, and only when the entire mucin domain of extracellular DG was deleted did laminin assembly not occur. These results demonstrate that DG is essential as a laminin-111 co-receptor in MECs that functions by mediating laminin anchoring to the cell surface, a process that allows laminin polymerization, tissue polarity, and {beta}-casein induction. The observed loss of laminin-111 assembly and signaling in DG-/-MECs provides insights into the signaling changes occurring in breast carcinomas and other cancers, where DG's laminin-binding function is frequently defective.

  15. Chondroitin sulphate modification in the alpha4 chain of human recombinant laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1).

    PubMed

    Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Doi, Masayuki; Patarroyo, Manuel; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-10-01

    We have produced human laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) using recombinant technology. Approximately half of the recombinant laminin-8 (rLN-8) molecules were found to have a chondroitin sulphate modification in the alpha4 chain. The substituted and non-substituted forms were separated and tested for cell adhesion activity. Lower cell adhesion promoting activity was seen for the substituted form, but the integrin receptor utilization was similar. We also found the human rLN-8 to behave identically in cell adhesion assays compared to a human/mouse hybrid variant of rLN-8. PMID:12392759

  16. Mutational analysis of the cleavage of the cancer-associated laminin receptor by stromelysin-3 reveals the contribution of flanking sequences to site recognition and cleavage efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Maria; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2008-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3) has long been implicated to play an important role in cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Using the thyroid hormone-dependent Xenopus laevis metamorphosis as a model, we have previously shown that ST3 is required for apoptosis during intestinal remodeling and that laminin receptor (LR) is an in vivo substrate of ST3 during this process. ST3 cleaves LR at two distinct sites that are conserved in mammalian LR. Human ST3 and LR are both associated with tumor development and cancer progression and human LR can also be cleaved by ST3, implicating a role of LR cleavage by ST3 in human cancers. Here, we carried out a series of mutational analyses on the two cleavage sites in LR. Our findings revealed that in addition to primary sequence at the cleavage site (positions P3-P3?, with the cleavage occurring between P1-P1?), flanking sequences/conformation also influenced the cleavage of LR by ST3. Furthermore, alanine substitution studies led to a surprising finding that surrounding sequence and/or conformation dictated the site of cleavage in LR by ST3. These results thus have important implications in our understanding of substrate recognition and cleavage by ST3 and argue for the importance of studying ST3 cleavage in the context of full-length substrates. Furthermore, the LR cleavage mutants generated here will also be valuable tools for future studies on the role of LR cleavage by ST3 in vertebrate development and cancer progression. PMID:19212658

  17. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-04-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.

  18. The Laminin Binding Integrin α6β1 in Prostate Cancer Perineural Invasion

    PubMed Central

    SROKA, ISIS C.; ANDERSON, TODD A.; MCDANIEL, KATHY M.; NAGLE, RAYMOND B.; GRETZER, MATTHEW B.; CRESS, ANNE E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasizing prostate tumor cells invade along nerves innervating the encapsulated human prostate gland in a process known as perineural invasion. The extacellular matrix laminin class of proteins line the neural route and tumor cells escaping from the gland express the laminin binding integrin α6β1 as a prominent cell surface receptor. Integrin α6β1 promotes aggressive disease and supports prostate tumor cell metastasis to bone. Laminins and their integrin receptors are necessary for the development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system, indicating the potential role for integrin receptors in directing prostate tumor cell invasion on nerves during perineural invasion. PMID:20432448

  19. A retinoic acid-responsive element is present in the 5' flanking region of the laminin B1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Vasios, G W; Gold, J D; Petkovich, M; Chambon, P; Gudas, L J

    1989-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA)-associated differentiation of murine F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells results in dramatic changes in gene expression. The cellular gene encoding the B1 subunit of the extracellular matrix protein laminin is transcriptionally activated by RA, and its transcription is further enhanced by N6,O2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) during the differentiation of F9 stem cells into extraembryonic parietal endoderm cells. We now report that expression vectors encoding the human RA receptors RAR-alpha, RAR-beta, and RAR-gamma can activate chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression from laminin B1 promoter/CAT expression vectors (e.g., p1.6LAMCAT) in RA-treated F9 cells, as measured in a transient transfection assay. Bt2cAMP does not further enhance the RA-associated increase in CAT activity. Through the use of deletion and mutation analyses, the RA-responsive element (RARE) of the murine laminin B1 gene has been defined as a 46-base-pair element between -477 and -432 of the laminin B1 5' flanking region. Insertion of a region of DNA containing this RARE in either orientation into a thymidine kinase promoter/CAT expression vector causes CAT expression to be activated 5- to 9-fold by the cotransfected human RAR-alpha or RAR-beta constructs in RA-treated F9 cells, and this RARE also functions in human HeLa cells. In contrast, this RARE in the p1.6LAMCAT vector does not activate CAT expression when cotransfected into F9 stem cells with the c-erbA gene in the presence of thyroid hormone. This suggests that the laminin B1 gene is activated by RA but not by thyroid hormone in vivo. Images PMID:2556699

  20. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  1. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate. PMID:1600626

  2. Endothelial Cell Laminin Isoforms, Laminins 8 and 10, Play Decisive Roles in T Cell Recruitment across the Blood–Brain Barrier in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sixt, Michael; Engelhardt, Britta; Pausch, Friederike; Hallmann, Rupert; Wendler, Olaf; Sorokin, Lydia M.

    2001-01-01

    An active involvement of blood–brain barrier endothelial cell basement membranes in development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been considered to date. Here we investigated the molecular composition and possible function of the extracellular matrix encountered by extravasating T lymphocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Endothelial basement membranes contained laminin 8 (α4β1γ1) and/or 10 (α5β1γ1) and their expression was influenced by proinflammatory cytokines or angiostatic agents. T cells emigrating into the CNS during EAE encountered two biochemically distinct basement membranes, the endothelial (containing laminins 8 and 10) and the parenchymal (containing laminins 1 and 2) basement membranes. However, inflammatory cuffs occurred exclusively around endothelial basement membranes containing laminin 8, whereas in the presence of laminin 10 no infiltration was detectable. In vitro assays using encephalitogenic T cell lines revealed adhesion to laminins 8 and 10, whereas binding to laminins 1 and 2 could not be induced. Downregulation of integrin α6 on cerebral endothelium at sites of T cell infiltration, plus a high turnover of laminin 8 at these sites, suggested two possible roles for laminin 8 in the endothelial basement membrane: one at the level of the endothelial cells resulting in reduced adhesion and, thereby, increased penetrability of the monolayer; and secondly at the level of the T cells providing direct signals to the transmigrating cells. PMID:11381080

  3. Laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) is synthesized by lymphoid cells, promotes lymphocyte migration and costimulates T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Geberhiwot, T; Assefa, D; Kortesmaa, J; Ingerpuu, S; Pedraza, C; Wondimu, Z; Charo, J; Kiessling, R; Virtanen, I; Tryggvason, K; Patarroyo, M

    2001-01-01

    Laminins are a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signalling functions. They are major components of basement membranes and are found in many organs, including the vasculature and other compartments of bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. However, expression, recognition and use of laminin isoforms by lymphoid cells are poorly understood. In the present study, lymphoid T cells (Jurkat) were found to synthesize laminin alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 mRNAs and polypeptides and to assemble the chains into laminin-8. Lymphoblastoid B (NAD-20) cells, lymphoid NK (NKL) cells and blood lymphocytes also contained laminin-8 and, after cell permeabilization, practically all blood lymphocytes reacted with mAbs to laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains. Following stimulation, blood lymphocytes secreted laminin-8, and this laminin isoform, but not laminin-10/11(alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), promoted chemokine-induced migration of the cells. In an activation-dependent manner, purified blood CD4 T cells adhered to immobilized laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 by using alpha6beta1 integrin, but minimally to laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1). Accordingly, laminin-8 and laminin-10/11, but not laminin-1, strongly costimulated proliferation of the T cells via the same integrin. Thus, lymphoid cells are able to synthesize and secrete complete laminin molecules. In addition, synthesis of laminin-8 and recognition of laminin-8 and -10/11 by lymphocytes indicate relevance of these laminin isoforms in lymphocyte physiology. PMID:11148143

  4. Variable region structure and staphylococcal protein A binding specificity of a mouse monoclonal IgM anti-laminin-receptor antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Feij, G C; Sabbaga, J; Carneiro, C R; Brgido, M M

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is a cell wall-attached polypeptide that acts as a B-lymphocyte superantigen. This activation correlates with specific VH gene segment usage in the B-cell receptor. B-cell receptor assembled from members of the VH3 family in humans, or S107 family in mice, has an intrinsic affinity for protein A. Human VH3-derived antibodies bind to domain D of protein A. We have characterized a mouse IgM monoclonal antibody that binds protein A. The sequencing of the variable region suggests an almost germline-encoded VH derived from S107 family and a V kappa 8-derived VL. The binding specificity of the monoclonal antibody was tested with various recombinant constructions derived from protein A. We show that, unlike human VH3-derived antibody, mouse S107-derived immunoglobulin binds to the B domain of the bacterial superantigen. PMID:9301540

  5. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation.

  6. Scaffold-forming and Adhesive Contributions of Synthetic Laminin-binding Proteins to Basement Membrane Assembly.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Capizzi, Stephanie; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2009-03-27

    Laminins that possess three short arms contribute to basement membrane assembly by anchoring to cell surfaces, polymerizing, and binding to nidogen and collagen IV. Although laminins containing the alpha4 and alpha5 subunits are expressed in alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, they may be ineffective substitutes because they bind weakly to cell surfaces and/or because they lack the third arm needed for polymerization. We asked whether linker proteins engineered to bind to deficient laminins that provide such missing activities would promote basement membrane assembly in a Schwann cell model. A chimeric fusion protein (alphaLNNd) that adds a short arm terminus to laminin through the nidogen binding locus was generated and compared with the dystrophy-ameliorating protein miniagrin (mAgrin) that binds to the laminin coiled-coil dystroglycan and sulfatides. alphaLNNd was found to mediate laminin binding to collagen IV, to bind to galactosyl sulfatide, and to selectively convert alpha-short arm deletion-mutant laminins LmDeltaalphaLN and LmDeltaalphaLN-L4b into polymerizing laminins. This protein enabled polymerization-deficient laminin but not an adhesion-deficient laminin lacking LG domains (LmDeltaLG) to assemble an extracellular matrix on Schwann cell surfaces. mAgrin, on the other hand, enabled LmDeltaLG to form an extracellular matrix on cell surfaces without increasing accumulation of non-polymerizing laminins. These gain-of-function studies reveal distinct polymerization and anchorage contributions to basement membrane assembly in which the three different LN domains mediate the former, and the LG domains provide primary anchorage with secondary contributions from the alphaLN domain. These findings may be relevant for an understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of laminin deficiency states. PMID:19189961

  7. Sialic acid-dependent recognition of laminin and fibrinogen by Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchara, J P; Sanchez, M; Chevailler, A; Marot-Leblond, A; Lissitzky, J C; Tronchin, G; Chabasse, D

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt to define the molecular basis of the adherence of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to the host tissues, a step which might be mediated by the recognition of basement membrane laminin or fibrinogen, we analyzed the binding of these glycoproteins by flow cytometry and a microtiter plate adherence assay. Flow cytometry revealed that the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled laminin to conidia was saturable and specific. Moreover, the ability of conidia to bind laminin increased with their maturation. Competition experiments showed a cross-reactivity between laminin and fibrinogen binding and a lack of interactions with glycosaminoglycans. In addition, the binding of laminin was not inhibited by the different adhesive synthetic peptides tested. Furthermore, the microtiter plate assay of adherence to chymotrypsin degradation products of laminin or fibrinogen purified by gel filtration suggested a unique binding site common to sequential degradation fragments or the presence of multiple binding sites on the two ligands. Therefore, the role of carbohydrates in the recognition process was investigated. Among the carbohydrates tested, constitutive of the conidial wall or of the oligosaccharide side chains of laminin and fibrinogen, only N-acetylneuraminic acid and sialyllactose inhibited the binding of these glycoproteins to conidia. In conclusion, these results strengthen the idea that the laminin and fibrinogen receptors in A. fumigatus are identical and suggest an interaction mediated by a sialic acid-specific lectin of the conidial wall. PMID:9199441

  8. Serum laminin and collagen IV in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutroubakis, I E; Petinaki, E; Dimoulios, P; Vardas, E; Roussomoustakaki, M; Maniatis, A N; Kouroumalis, E A

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aims: Laminin and collagen IV have been proposed as extracellular matrix serum markers. Because fibrosis is a major complication of inflammatory bowel disease, serum concentrations of laminin and collagen IV were measured in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and compared with inflammatory and healthy controls. Methods: Laminin and collagen IV serum concentrations were measured in 170 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (86 UC and 84 CD), in 23 patients with other causes of intestinal inflammation, and in 80 matched healthy controls using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Laminin and collagen IV concentrations were correlated with disease activity, type, localisation, and treatment. Results: Mean (SD) serum laminin concentrations were 281.0 (110.1) ng/ml in patients with UC, 275.6 (106.7) ng/ml in patients with CD, 192.0 (17.8) ng/ml in healthy controls, and 198.5 (32.5) ng/ml in inflammatory controls. Mean (SD) serum collagen IV concentrations were 72.8 (22.9) ng/ml in patients with UC, 71.0 (18.2) in patients with CD, 79.8 (12.2) ng/ml in healthy controls, and 88.9 (24.6) ng/ml in inflammatory controls. There was a significant difference among the four groups (p < 0.0001) for both markers. There was a strong correlation between serum laminin, but not collagen IV, and disease activity in both diseases. No significant association was found between these markers and disease localisation or disease type. Conclusions: Serum concentrations of laminin are increased, whereas serum concentrations of collagen IV are decreased, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. They may be useful surrogate markers for sustained inflammation and tissue remodelling. PMID:14600124

  9. Blood platelets contain and secrete laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and adhere to laminin-8 via alpha6beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Geberhiwot, T; Ingerpuu, S; Pedraza, C; Neira, M; Lehto, U; Virtanen, I; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Engvall, E; Patarroyo, M

    1999-12-15

    Laminins, a family of heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive/signaling properties, are characteristic components of basement membranes of vasculature and tissues. In the present study, permeabilized platelets were found to react with a monoclonal antibody to laminin gamma1 chain by immunofluorescence. In Western blot analysis of platelet lysates, several monoclonal antibodies to gamma1 and beta1 laminin chains recognized 220- to 230-kDa polypeptides, under reducing conditions, and a structure with much slower electrophoretic mobility under nonreducing conditions. Immunoaffinity purification on a laminin beta1 antibody-Sepharose column yielded polypeptides of 230, 220, 200, and 180 kDa from platelet lysates. In the purified material, mAbs to beta1 and gamma1 reacted with the two larger polypeptides, while affinity-purified rabbit antibodies to laminin alpha4 chain recognized the smallest polypeptide. Identity of the polypeptides was confirmed by microsequencing. One million platelets contained on average 1 ng of laminin (approximately 700 molecules per cell), of which 20-35% was secreted within minutes after stimulation with either thrombin or phorbol ester. Platelets adhered to plastic surfaces coated with the purified platelet laminin, and this process was largely inhibited by antibodies to beta1 and alpha6 integrin chains. We conclude that platelets contain and, following activation, secrete laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and that the cells adhere to the protein by using alpha6beta1 integrin. PMID:10585296

  10. Effect of laminin-binding BDNF on induction of recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration by miR-222 activation of mTOR signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Jin, Bin; Li, Da-Wei; Shen, Bin; Gong, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Dong, Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a common severe complication in neck surgery, which can cause varying degrees of vocal fold paralysis and respiratory tract problems. In present study, the effects of laminin-binding brain derived neurotrophic factor (LBD-BDNF) on recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration were explored and its possible mechanism was investigated. Methods: LBD-BDNF or NAT-BDNF (BDNF without LBD binding) treatment was performed in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits for sixteen weeks. The laryngeal nerve was removed, and histological examination as well as laryngeal electromyography was employed to evaluate its morphology and function of conduction. PC12 cells were cultured to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of LBD-BDNF. Neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration were determined in nerve cells. The expression of miRNAs and protein of mTOR was quantified by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. Results: In vivo experiments, LBD-BDNF significantly improved the histological structure and function of recurrent laryngeal nerve compared with NAT-BDNF. LBD-BDNF also markedly promoted neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration in PC12 cells in vitro experiments. The levels of miR-222 and p-mTOR were up-regulated by LBD-BDNF treatment in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. miR-222 inhibitor attenuated the expression of phosphorylated mTOR and miR-222 mimic enhanced its expression in PC12 cells. In addition, the improved nerve conduction by LBD-BDNF was canceled by miR-222 inhibitor, and the mTOR inhibitor reversed the effects of miR-222 inhibitor on LBD-BDNF treated cells. Conclusions: The present study revealed that LBD-BDNF promoted the recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits. The underlying mechanism was closely related to activation of p-mTOR by miR-222. PMID:26279751

  11. Identification of the N-acetylneuraminyllactose-specific laminin-binding protein of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen, K H; Wadström, T; Moran, A P

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori with the glycoprotein laminin was investigated. Binding of 125I-radiolabelled laminin in a liquid-phase assay by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating strains was rapid, saturable, specific, partially reversible, of high affinity, and insensitive to pH. Inhibition of laminin binding by fetuin, but not asialofetuin, and reduced bacterial binding to periodate- or sialidase-treated laminin indicated that glycosylation, particularly sialylation, was important for laminin binding by H. pylori. Inhibition experiments with monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides showed that the strains bound to a region spanning a trisaccharide. In particular, inhibition and displacement studies showed that binding to the trisaccharide N-acetylneuraminyl-alpha(2-3)-lactose [NeuAc(2-3)Lac] was preferential to that to the NeuAc(2-6)Lac isomer. Complete inhibition of laminin binding by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating strains was achieved only when isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as an inhibitor in combination with heat or protease treatment of H. pylori cells, thereby confirming the involvement of both LPS and a protein adhesin in laminin binding. Further inhibition experiments indicated that the protein receptor, rather than LPS, on H. pylori bound NeuAc(2-3)Lac. By using a Western blotting procedure, a 25-kDa outer membrane protein was identified as mediating laminin binding by both hemagglutinating and poorly hemagglutinating H. pylori strains. The specificity of binding was confirmed by complete inhibition of laminin binding by the 25-kDa protein with NeuAc(2-3)Lac. The data collectively suggest that a 25-kDa outer membrane protein acts in a lectin-like manner with LPS to mediate attachment of H. pylori to laminin. PMID:9038297

  12. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina. PMID:3902534

  13. Clinical significance of serum laminin levels in patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; ERTURK, KAYHAN; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules are considered useful markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of several types of malignant tumors. Laminin, a major structural component of the basement membrane, is a strong promoter of cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and proliferation via integrins and other cell surface receptors. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the serum level of laminin in lung cancer patients. A total of 80 patients with lung cancer were enrolled in the study. The serum laminin level was measured by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The median age was 58.5 years (range, 36–80 years). The majority of the patients had non-small cell lung carcinoma (85%) and stage IV disease (56%). The baseline serum laminin levels of patients were significantly higher compared to the control group (median values 1.17 vs. 0.78 ng/ml, P=0.033). However, the clinical variables, such as age, gender, histology, stage of disease and response to chemotherapy, were not correlated with serum laminin level (P>0.05). Similarly, serum laminin level was not associated with survival (P=0.68). In conclusion, the serum level of laminin may have a diagnostic value in lung cancer patients. However, its predictive and prognostic roles were not observed. PMID:27073638

  14. Keratinocyte-derived Laminin-332 Protein Promotes Melanin Synthesis via Regulation of Tyrosine Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake. PMID:24951591

  15. Laminin-based Nanomaterials for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Rebekah Anne

    Peripheral nerve transection occurs commonly in traumatic injury, causing motor and sensory deficits distal to the site of injury. One option for surgical repair is the nerve conduit. Conduits currently on the market are hollow tubes into which the nerve ends are sutured. Although these conduits fill the gap, they often fail due to the slow rate of regeneration over long gaps. To facilitate increased speed of regeneration and greater potential for functional recovery, the ideal conduit should provide biochemically relevant signals and physical guidance cues, thus playing an active role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this dissertation, I fabricated laminin-1 and laminin-polycaprolactone (PCL) blend nanofibers that mimic the geometry and functionality of the peripheral nerve basement membrane. These fibers resist hydration in aqueous media and require no harsh chemical crosslinkers. Adhesion and differentiation of both neuron-like and neuroprogenitor cells is improved on laminin nanofibrous meshes over two-dimensional laminin substrates. Blend meshes with varying laminin content were characterized for composition, tensile properties, degradation rates, and bioactivity in terms of cell attachment and axonal elongation. I have established that 10% (wt) laminin content is sufficient to retain the significant neurite-promoting effects of laminin critical in peripheral nerve repair. In addition, I utilized modified collector plate design to manipulate electric field gradients during electrospinning for the fabrication of aligned nanofibers. These aligned substrates provide enhanced directional guidance cues to the regenerating axons. Finally, I replicated the clinical problem of peripheral nerve transection using a rat tibial nerve defect model for conduit implantation. When the lumens of conduits were filled with nanofiber meshes of varying laminin content and alignment, I observed significant recovery of sensory and motor function over six weeks. This recovery was supported by nerve conduction studies and electromyography which described impulse transmission, muscle stimulation, and foot twitch through the region of regeneration. These studies provide a firm foundation for the use of natural-synthetic blend electrospun nanofibers to enhance existing hollow nerve guidance conduits. The similarity in surgical technique and obvious benefit to the patient should lead to rapid translation into clinical application.

  16. Laminin 411 and 511 promote the cholangiocyte differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mitani, Seiji; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-20

    The drug discovery research for cholestatic liver diseases has been hampered by the lack of a well-established human cholangiocyte model. Functional cholangiocyte-like cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to be a promising candidate for such research, but there remains no well-established method for differentiating cholangiocytes from human iPS cells. In this study, we searched for a suitable extracellular matrix to promote cholangiocyte differentiation from human iPS cells, and found that both laminin 411 and laminin 511 were suitable for this purpose. The gene expression levels of the cholangiocyte markers, aquaporin 1 (AQP1), SRY-box 9 (SOX9), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), Jagged 1 (JAG1), secretin receptor (SCTR), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT1) were increased by using laminin 411 or laminin 511 as a matrix. In addition, the percentage of AQP1-positive cells was increased from 61.8% to 92.5% by using laminin 411 or laminin 511. Furthermore, the diameter and number of cysts consisted of cholangiocyte-like cells were increased when using either matrix. We believe that the human iPS cell-derived cholangiocyte-like cells, which were generated by using our differentiation technology, would be useful for the drug discovery research of cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:27103433

  17. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 ; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 ; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  18. Laminin 332 Expression in Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Young; Chae, Seoung W.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Arain, Ahmad; Carpenter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive. PMID:22427740

  19. Both Laminin and Schwann cell Dystroglycan are necessary for proper clustering of Sodium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed Central

    Occhi, S.; Zambroni, D.; Del Carro, U.; Amadio, S.; Sirkowski, E. E.; Scherer, SS.; Campbell, K.; Moore, S.A.; Chen, Z-L.; Strickland, S.; Di Muzio, A.; Uncini, A.; Wrabetz, L.; Feltri, ML.

    2005-01-01

    Nodes of Ranvier are specialized axonal domains, where voltage-gated sodium channels cluster. How axons cluster molecules in discrete domains is largely unknown. Both axons and glia probably provide constraining mechanisms that contribute to domain formation. Proper sodium channel clustering in peripheral nerves depends on contact from Schwann cell microvilli, where at least one molecule, gliomedin, binds the sodium channel complex and induces its clustering. Furthermore, mice lacking Schwann cell dystroglycan have aberrant microvilli and poorly clustered sodium channels. Dystroglycan could interact at the basal lamina or at the axon-glial surface. Since dystroglycan is a laminin receptor, and laminin-2 mutations (merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy, MDC1A) cause reduced nerve conduction velocity, we asked whether laminins are involved. Here we show that the composition of both laminins and the dystroglycan complex at nodes differs from that of internodes. Mice defective in laminin-2 have poorly formed microvilli and abnormal sodium clusters. These abnormalities are similar, albeit less severe, than those of mice lacking dystroglycan. However, mice lacking all Schwann cell laminins show severe nodal abnormalities, suggesting other laminins compensate for the lack of laminin 2. Thus, even though laminins are located at a distance from the axo-glial junction, they are required for proper clustering of sodium channels. Laminins, through their specific nodal receptors and cytoskeletal linkages, may participate in the formation of mechanisms that constrain clusters at nodes. Finally, abnormal sodium channel clusters are present in a patient with MDC1A, providing a molecular basis for the reduced nerve conduction velocity in this disorder. PMID:16221851

  20. Laminins: Roles and Utility in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Valentina; Troughton, Lee D.; Hamill, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Laminins are complex extracellular macromolecules that are major players in the control of a variety of core cell processes, including regulating rates of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Laminins, and related extracellular matrix components, have essential roles in tissue homeostasis; however, during wound healing, the same proteins are critical players in re-epithelialization and angiogenesis. Understanding how these proteins influence cell behavior in these different conditions holds great potential in identifying new strategies to enhance normal wound closure or to treat chronic/nonhealing wounds. Recent Advances: Laminin-derived bioactive peptides and, more recently, laminin-peptide conjugated scaffolds, have been designed to improve tissue regeneration after injuries. These peptides have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and granulation tissue, and in promoting re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Critical Issues: Although there is now a wealth of knowledge concerning laminin form and function, there are still areas of some controversy. These include the relative contribution of two laminin-based adhesive devices (focal contacts and hemidesmosomes) to the re-epithelialization process, the impact and implications of laminin proteolytic processing, and the importance of laminin polymer formation on cell behavior. In addition, the roles in wound healing of the laminin-related proteins, netrins, and LaNts are still to be fully defined. Future Directions: The future of laminin-based therapeutics potentially lies in the bioengineering of specific substrates to support laminin deposition for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells for graft formation and transplantation. Significant recent advances suggest that this goal is within sight. PMID:25945287

  1. Effect of laminin-1 on intestinal cell differentiation involves inhibition of nuclear nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Turck, Natacha; Lefebvre, Olivier; Gross, Isabelle; Gendry, Patrick; Kedinger, Michèle; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Launay, Jean-François

    2006-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells are characterized by continuous renewal and differentiation events, which may be influenced by the basement membrane, and in particular laminins, which are major components of this specialized extracellular matrix. The function and signaling pathways of laminins in these processes are still poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the possible role and the subcellular localization of nucleolin, a nuclear shuttling protein, in relation to differentiation of human intestinal epithelial Caco2/TC7 cells triggered by exogenous laminin-1. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis indicated that laminin-1 induced early differentiation of the cells concomitantly to a decrease in nuclear nucleolin and its a cell surface location. We also showed that both effects of laminin-1 on Caco2/TC7 cells--induction of the differentiation marker sucrase-isomaltase and redistribution of nucleolin--could be mediated by a beta1-integrin dependent cascade that implicated activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. In addition, knock-down of nucleolin expression by the small interfering RNA strategy mimicked the effect of laminin-1 as it resulted in the induction of cell polarization and differentiation. Thus, our study suggests that changes in the subcellular distribution and expression level of nucleolin play an important role in intestinal cell differentiation and relay the signaling pathway induced by laminin-1. PMID:16245305

  2. Laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels and epidermal growth factor in lung neuroendocrine carcinoma: a model of a novel cooperative role of laminin-2 and epidermal growth factor in vessel neoplastic invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, Domenico; Ciocci, Luciano; Deriu, Gloria; Spinelli, Silvia; Cortese, Stefania; Masuelli, Laura; Morrone, Stefania; Filice, Mary Jo; Coloni, Giorgio Furio; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Baroni, Carlo Davide

    2006-03-01

    Capillaries expressing the laminin alpha2 chain in basement membranes may be considered early developing vessels in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Therefore, we investigated whether up-regulation of this extracellular matrix protein favors transendothelial migration of neoplastic cells and then metastasis. In lung small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which exhibit a stronger metastatic tendency among carcinomas, laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels were more numerous than in carcinoid tumors and supraglottis, breast, and lung non-small cell carcinomas, suggesting a direct relationship between these vessels and metastasis. In vitro studies showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a more efficient migration of the AE-2 lung neuroendocrine carcinoma cell line through the purified laminin alpha2 chain rather than through the laminin beta1 chain and fibronectin. AE-2 cells constitutively expressed all EGF receptors and the alpha6beta1 integrin, which is one of the laminin alpha2 chain receptors. EGF up-regulated alpha6beta1 expression in several tumors. In this regard, we show that EGF increased the chemo-kinetic migration of AE-2 cells through EAHY endothelial monolayers, which was inhibited by the anti-alpha6 integrin chain monoclonal antibody. These data indicate that laminin alpha2 chain and alpha6beta1 may be mutually involved in EGF-dependent migration of AE-2 cells and that laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels may favor metastasis of EGF-dependent tumors. PMID:16507913

  3. Identification of endothelial cell binding sites on the laminin gamma 1 chain.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M L; Nomizu, M; Delgado, M C; Kuratomi, Y; Hoffman, M P; Powell, S; Yamada, Y; Kleinman, H K; Malinda, K M

    1999-04-01

    The laminins belong to a family of trimeric basement membrane glycoproteins with multiple domains, structures, and functions. Endothelial cells bind laminin-1 and form capillary-like structures when plated on a laminin-1-rich basement membrane matrix, Matrigel. Laminin-1 is composed of 3 chains, alpha1, beta1, and gamma1. Because laminin-1 is known to contain multiple biologically active sites, we have screened 156 synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire laminin gamma1 chain for potential angiogenic sequences. Only 7 of these peptides, designated as C16, C25, C30, C38, C64, C75, and C102, disrupted the formation of capillary-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells on Matrigel. Dose-response experiments in the presence of 50 to 200 microg/mL showed that tube formation was prevented by most peptides at 150 and 200 microg/mL, except for C16, which showed strong activity at all concentrations. Active peptides promoted vessel sprouting from aorta rings and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, the active peptides also promoted endothelial cell adhesion to dishes coated with 0.1 microg of peptide and inhibited attachment to laminin-1 but not to plastic or fibronectin. Four of the active peptides, C25, C38, C75, and C102, may have cell-type specificity with endothelial cells, since they did not promote PC12 neurite outgrowth or adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma and human submandibular gland cells. These results suggest that specific laminin gamma1-chain peptides have angiogenic activity with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:10189356

  4. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  5. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  6. Attachment of adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) on laminin and two laminin fragments.

    PubMed

    Koch-Schneidemann, S; Gehr, P; Rutishauser, B; Eppenberger, H M

    1994-01-01

    Adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) were cultivated on five different substrates: gelatin, fibronectin, laminin-nidogen complex (laminin), the E8 laminin fragment, and the E1 laminin fragment. Comparative cell attachment assays have shown that ARC prefer adhesion to E8 laminin fragment and laminin. It were shown by video time-lapse (VTL) studies that, during the redifferentiation process of ARC in culture, the morphology of ARC grown on laminin, fibronectin, and gelatin is indistinguishable, whereas the size of ARC grown on the E8 fragment is larger, and when grown on the E1 fragment definitely smaller than ARC on the whole laminin protein. Immunostaining for vinculin combined with reflection contrast microscopy were used to visualize the focal contacts of ARC on these substrates. Quantitative measurements, done with the help of a test line system, show that the lengths of adhesion plaques/micron2 on gelatin, fibronectin, and laminin are about the same. On the E8 fragment more attachment sites/micron2 and on the E1 fragment fewer attachment sites/micron2 were counted than on whole laminin protein. This suggests that substrates influence the number of focal contacts. Correlating these results with the observations made in the VTL recording system, one can suggest that the length of adhesion sites/micron2 increases in very flat and large cells. PMID:7718361

  7. Laminin121 – Recombinant expression and interactions with integrins

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takako; Takagi, Junichi; Giudici, Camilla; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Deutzmann, Rainer; Timpl, Rupert; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Tonge, David

    2010-01-01

    Laminin-121, previously referred as to laminin-3, was expressed recombinantly in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by triple transfection of full-length cDNAs encoding mouse laminin α1, β2 and γ1 chains. The recombinant laminin-121 was purified using Heparin-Sepharose followed by molecular sieve chromatography and shown to be correctly folded by electron microscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectra of recombinant laminin-121 were very similar to those of laminin-111 isolated from Engelbreth-Holm Swarm tumor (EHS-laminin) but its Tm value was smaller than EHS-laminin and recombinant lamnin-111 suggesting that the replacement of the β chain reduced the stability of the coiled-coil structure of laminin-121. Its binding to integrins was compared with EHS-laminin, laminin-3A32 purified from murine epidermal cell line and recombinantly expressed laminins-111, -211 and -221. Laminin-121 showed the highest affinity to α6β1 and α7β1 integrins and furthermore, laminin-121 most effectively supported neurite outgrowth. Together, this suggests that the β2 laminins have higher affinity for integrins than the β1 laminins. PMID:20566382

  8. Mammalian and Drosophila cells adhere to the laminin α4 LG4 domain through syndecans, but not glypicans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown that the LG4 (laminin G-like) domain of the laminin α4 chain is responsible for the significantly higher affinity of the α4 chain to heparin than found for other α chains [Yamaguchi, Yamashita, Mori, Okazaki, Nomizu, Beck and Kitagawa (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 29458–29465]; four basic residues were identified to be essential for this activity [Yamashita, Beck and Kitagawa (2004) J. Mol. Biol. 335, 1145–1149]. By creating GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused LG1, LG2, LG4 and LG5 proteins, we found that only LG4 is active for the adhesion of human HT1080 cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Drosophila haemocytes Kc167 with a half-saturating concentration of 20 μg/ml. Adhesion was counteracted by treatment of the cells with heparin, heparan sulphate and heparitinase I. Upon mutating the four basic residues essential for heparin binding within LG4, the adhesion activity was abolished. Pull-down experiments using glutathione beads/GST-fusion proteins indicate a direct interaction of LG4 with syndecan-4, which might be the major receptor for cell adhesion. Neither the release of glypican-1 by treating human cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C nor targeted knockdown of dally or dally-like protein impaired the cell-adhesion activity. As the LG4–LG5 domain of the α4 chain is cleaved in vivo from the main body of laminin-8 (α4β1γ1), we suggest that the heparan sulphate proteoglycan-binding activity of LG4 is significant in modulating the signalling of Wnt, Decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factors. PMID:15182231

  9. Calcium sensing receptor activators: calcimimetics.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Paul E; Fotsch, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a fundamental role in serum calcium homeostasis. The CaR is expressed on the chief cells of the parathyroid gland and is responsible for controlling the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH acts on several organs including the bone, kidney, and intestine to tightly regulate the concentration of serum calcium. Substances other than calcium that activate the CaR are referred to as calcimimetics. Calcimimetics that bind to the CaR as agonists are referred to as type I. Type II calcimimetics bind to a site that is distinct from the physiological ligand and function as positive allosteric modulators of the CaR. Type II calcimimetics amplify the sensitivity of the CaR to serum calcium and are thus able to lower the concentration of serum PTH. Calcimimetics are being pursued as therapeutics for the treatment of disorders that are characterized by elevated levels of PTH such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (primary HPT and secondary HPT). In this review, we provide an overview of key results in the discovery of cinacalcet HCl (Sensipar in the US, Mimpara in Europe). In addition, other recently disclosed type II calcimimetics are discussed. PMID:18220738

  10. Laminin matrix promotes hepatogenic terminal differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Khalaj, Zahra; Lotfi, Abbas Sahebghadam; Kabir-Salmani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The application of stem cells holds great promises in cell transplants. Considering the lack of optimal in vitro model for hepatogenic differentiation, this study was designed to examine the effects of laminin matrix on the improvement of in vitro differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSC) into the more functional hepatocyte-like cells. Materials and Methods: Characterization of the hBM-MSCs was performed by immunophenotyping and their differentiation into the mesenchymal-derived lineage. Then, cells were seeded on the laminin-coated or tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The differentiation was carried out during two steps. Afterward, the expression of hepatocyte markers such as AFP, ALB, CK-18, and CK-19 as well as the expression of C-MET, the secretion of urea, and the activity of CYP3A4 enzyme were determined. Moreover, the cytoplasmic glycogen storage was examined by periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) staining. Results: The results demonstrated that the culture of hBM-MSC on laminin considerably improved hepatogenic differentiation compared to TCP group. A significant elevated level of urea biosynthesis and CYP3A4 enzyme activity was observed in the media of the laminin-coated differentiated cells (P<0.05). Furthermore higher expressions of both AFP and ALB were determined in cells differentiated on laminin matrix. Glycogen accumulation was not detected in the undifferentiated hBM-MSCs, however, both differentiated cells in laminin and TCPS groups demonstrated the intracellular glycogen accumulation on day 21 of hepatogenic differentiation. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings may indicate that laminin matrix can improve terminal differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from hBM-MSCs. Thus, laminin might be considered as a suitable coating in hepatic tissue engineering designs. PMID:27096062

  11. Cryptic fragment alpha4 LG4-5 derived from laminin alpha4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hironobu; Goto, Chie; Tajima, Rie; Koparal, Ayse Tansu; Kobori, Masato; Ohki, Yuji; Shitara, Kenya; Narita, Ryo; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Torii, Shuhei; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Yasuo

    2008-02-01

    Cleavage of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolysis unmasks cryptic sites and generates novel fragments with biological activities functionally distinct from those of the intact ECM molecule. The laminin G-like (LG)4-5 fragment has been shown to be excised from the laminin alpha4 chain in various tissues. However, the functional role of this fragment has remained unknown to date. To investigate this, we prepared alpha4 LG1-3 and alpha4 LG4-5 fragments by elastase digestion of recombinant alpha4 LG1-5, and examined their effects on de novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane extract (Matrigel) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Although the addition of whole alpha4 LG1-5 suppressed adipogenesis to some extent, the alpha4 LG4-5 fragment could strongly suppress adipogenesis at a concentration of less than 20 nm. Addition of the alpha4 LG4 module, which contains a heparin-binding region, had a suppressive effect, but this was lost in mutants with reduced heparin-binding activity. In addition, antibodies against the extracellular domain of syndecan-2 and -4, which are known receptors for the alpha4 LG4 module, suppressed adipogenesis. Thus, these results suggest that the cryptic alpha4 LG4-5 fragment derived from the laminin alpha4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of FGF-2 through syndecans. PMID:18067585

  12. Insulin Receptor Activation with Transmembrane Domain Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongsoon; Miyazaki, Masaya; Romeo, Giulio R.; Shoelson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Complementary surfaces are buried when peptide hormones, growth factors, or cytokines bind and activate cellular receptors. Although these extended surfaces provide high affinity and specificity to the interactions, they also present great challenges to the design of small molecules that might either mimic or antagonize the process. We show that the insulin receptor (IR) and downstream signals can be activated by targeting a site outside of its ligand-binding domain. A 24-residue peptide having the IR transmembrane (TM) domain sequence activates IR, but not related growth factor receptors, through specific interactions with the receptor TM domain. Like insulin-dependent activation, IR-TM requires that IR have a competent ATP-binding site and kinase activation loop. IR-TM also activates mutated receptors from patients with severe insulin resistance, which do not respond to insulin. These results show that IR can be activated through a pathway that bypasses its canonical ligand-binding domain. PMID:24867955

  13. Glomerular laminin isoform transitions: errors in metanephric culture are corrected by grafting.

    PubMed

    St John, P L; Wang, R; Yin, Y; Miner, J H; Robert, B; Abrahamson, D R

    2001-04-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly and maturation are marked by the replacement of laminin-1 (containing alpha 1-, beta 1-, and gamma 1-chains) with laminin-11 (consisting of alpha 5-, beta 2-, and gamma 1-chains). Similarly, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-chains of type IV collagen are replaced by collagen alpha 3-, alpha 4-, and alpha 5(IV)-chains. The cellular origins of these molecules and mechanisms for isoform removal and substitution are unknown. To explore glomerular laminin isoform transitions in vitro, we assessed metanephric organ cultures. Standard culture conditions do not support endothelial cell differentiation, and glomerular structures that form in vitro are avascular. Nevertheless, extensive podocyte development occurs in these cultures, including the formation of foot processes and assembly of a GBM-like matrix. Here, we show that the podocyte-specific markers, glomerular epithelial protein 1 and nephrin, which are normally expressed in capillary loop stage glomeruli in vivo, are also expressed by glomerular figures that form in organ culture. However, the GBM-like segments that form in vitro do not undergo normal laminin isoform switching. Instead, both laminin alpha 1- and alpha 5-chains are present, as is the beta 1-chain, but not beta 2. When avascular organ-cultured kidneys are grafted into anterior eye chambers, however, kidney-derived angioblasts establish extensive vasculature by 6 days, and glomeruli are lined by endothelial cells. We evaluated embryonic day 12 (E12) vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk1)-lacZ kidneys that had first been grown in organ culture for 6--7 days and then grafted into wild-type mice. Correct laminin isoform substitution occurred and correlated with the appearance of endothelial cells expressing Flk1. Our findings indicate that endothelial cells, and/or factors present in the circulation, mediate normal GBM laminin isoform transitions in vivo. PMID:11249861

  14. Recombinant human laminin-10 (alpha5beta1gamma1). Production, purification, and migration-promoting activity on vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masayuki; Thyboll, Jill; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Jansson, Katarina; Iivanainen, Antti; Parvardeh, Masomeh; Timpl, Rupert; Hedin, Ulf; Swedenborg, Jesper; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-04-12

    The laminin (LN) family of large heterotrimeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins has multiple functions: LNs take part in the regulation of processes such as cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation, in addition to contributing to the structure of basement membranes. LN-10, composed of alpha5, beta1, and gamma1 chains, is widely distributed in most basement membranes of both epithelia and endothelia. We determined the complete human cDNA sequence for the LN alpha5 chain and produced recombinant human LN-10 (rLN-10) in HEK293 cells by triple transfection of full-length cDNAs encoding the human LN alpha5, beta1, and gamma1 chains. The rLN-10 was purified using affinity chromatography and had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 800 kDa in SDS-PAGE and a native domain structure in rotary shadowing electron microscopy. By using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, integrin alpha(3)beta(1) was found to be a major mediator of adhesion of HT-1080 and human saphenous vein endothelial cells. Human saphenous vein endothelial cells adhered more strongly to rLN-10 than to LN-1 and LN-8 and showed better migration on rLN-10, compared with several other matrices. Considering the cell adhesive and migration-promoting properties of rLN-10 on endothelial cells, this molecule could be useful in improving the biocompatibility and endothelialization of vascular grafts. PMID:11821406

  15. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  16. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces.

  17. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  18. NMDA receptor activation by spontaneous glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Felipe; Kavalali, Ege T

    2009-05-01

    Under physiological conditions N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation requires coincidence of presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic depolarization due to the voltage-dependent block of these receptors by extracellular Mg(2+). Therefore spontaneous neurotransmission in the absence of action potential firing is not expected to lead to significant NMDA receptor activation. Here we tested this assumption in layer IV neurons in neocortex at their resting membrane potential (approximately -67 mV). In long-duration stable recordings, we averaged a large number of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs, >100) before or after application of dl-2 amino 5-phosphonovaleric acid, a specific blocker of NMDA receptors. The difference between the two mEPSC waveforms showed that the NMDA current component comprises approximately 20% of the charge transfer during an average mEPSC detected at rest. Importantly, the contribution of the NMDA component was markedly enhanced at membrane potentials expected for the depolarized up states (approximately -50 mV) that cortical neurons show during slow oscillations in vivo. In addition, partial block of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor component of the mEPSCs did not cause a significant reduction in the NMDA component, indicating that potential AMPA receptor-driven local depolarizations did not drive NMDA receptor activity at rest. Collectively these results indicate that NMDA receptors significantly contribute to signaling at rest in the absence of dendritic depolarizations or concomitant AMPA receptor activity. PMID:19261712

  19. What Kind of Signaling Maintains Pluripotency and Viability in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Laminin-511 with Serum-Free Medium?

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xeno-free medium contains no animal-derived components, but is composed of minimal growth factors and is serum free; the medium may be supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS medium). Serum-free and xeno-free culture of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) uses a variety of components based on ITS medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) that contain high levels of iron salt and glucose. Culture of hiPSCs also requires scaffolding materials, such as extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan, and vitronectin. The scaffolding component laminin-511, which is composed of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, binds to α3β1, α6β1, and α6β4 integrins on the cell membrane to induce activation of the PI3K/AKT- and Ras/MAPK-dependent signaling pathways. In hiPSCs, the interaction of laminin-511/α6β1 integrin with the cell–cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin confers protection against apoptosis through the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway (the major pathways for cell death) and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (Fyn)-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. The expression levels of α6β1 integrin and E-cadherin on cell membranes are controlled through the activation of insulin receptor/insulin, FGF receptor/FGF2, or activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-dependent TGF-β signaling. A combination of growth factors, medium constituents, cell membrane-located E-cadherin, and α6β1 integrin-induced signaling is required for pluripotent cell proliferation and for optimal cell survival on a laminin-511 scaffold. In this review, we discuss and explore the influence of growth factors on the cadherin and integrin signaling pathways in serum-free and xeno-free cultures of hiPSCs during the preparation of products for regenerative medicinal therapies. In addition, we suggest the optimum serum-free medium components for use with laminin-511, a new scaffold for hiPSC culture. PMID:27096107

  20. What Kind of Signaling Maintains Pluripotency and Viability in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Laminin-511 with Serum-Free Medium?

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Xeno-free medium contains no animal-derived components, but is composed of minimal growth factors and is serum free; the medium may be supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS medium). Serum-free and xeno-free culture of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) uses a variety of components based on ITS medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) that contain high levels of iron salt and glucose. Culture of hiPSCs also requires scaffolding materials, such as extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan, and vitronectin. The scaffolding component laminin-511, which is composed of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, binds to α3β1, α6β1, and α6β4 integrins on the cell membrane to induce activation of the PI3K/AKT- and Ras/MAPK-dependent signaling pathways. In hiPSCs, the interaction of laminin-511/α6β1 integrin with the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin confers protection against apoptosis through the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway (the major pathways for cell death) and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (Fyn)-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. The expression levels of α6β1 integrin and E-cadherin on cell membranes are controlled through the activation of insulin receptor/insulin, FGF receptor/FGF2, or activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-dependent TGF-β signaling. A combination of growth factors, medium constituents, cell membrane-located E-cadherin, and α6β1 integrin-induced signaling is required for pluripotent cell proliferation and for optimal cell survival on a laminin-511 scaffold. In this review, we discuss and explore the influence of growth factors on the cadherin and integrin signaling pathways in serum-free and xeno-free cultures of hiPSCs during the preparation of products for regenerative medicinal therapies. In addition, we suggest the optimum serum-free medium components for use with laminin-511, a new scaffold for hiPSC culture. PMID:27096107

  1. Laminin C1 expression by uterine carcinoma cells is associated with tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hiroyasu; Wu, Ren-Chin; Wang, Yihong; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Shiozawa, Tanri; Wang, Tian-Li; Fader, Amanda N.; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Molecular markers associated with tumor progression in uterine carcinoma are poorly defined. In this study, we determine whether upregulation of LAMC1, a gene encoding extracellular matrix protein, laminin γ1, is associated with various uterine carcinoma subtypes and stages of tumor progression. Methods An analysis of the immunostaining patterns of laminin γ1 in normal endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and a total of 150 uterine carcinomas, including low-grade and high-grade endometrioid carcinomas, uterine serous and clear cell carcinoma, was performed. Clinicopathological correlation was performed to determine biological significance. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set was used to validate our results. Results As compared to normal proliferative and secretory endometrium, for which laminin γ1 immunore-activity was almost undetectable, increasing laminin C1 staining intensity was observed in epithelial cells from atypical hyperplasia to low-grade endometrioid to high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, respectively. Laminin γ1 expression was significantly associated with FIGO stage, myometrial invasion, cervical/adnexal involvement, angiolymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. Similarly, analysis of the endometrial carcinoma data set from TCGA revealed that LAMC1 transcript levels were higher in high-grade than those in low-grade endometrioid carcinoma. Silencing IAMC1 expression by siRNAs in a high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cell line did not affect its proliferative activity but significantly suppressed cell motility and invasion in vitro. Conclusions These data suggest that laminin γ1 may contribute to the development and progression of uterine carcinoma, likely through enhancing tumor cell motility and invasion. Laminin γ1 warrants further investigation regarding its role as a biomarker and therapeutic target in uterine carcinoma PMID:26343160

  2. Avian NK activities, cells and receptors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally L; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W; Kaufman, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) activity has been examined in birds for over 30 years, but evidence that avian NK activity plays crucial roles in disease is only suggestive. In chickens, NK activity is mediated by TCR0 cells in the intestinal epithelium, but elsewhere subsets of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells (NKT cells) may be more important. There are few lectin-like NK receptor genes, located in the genomic region syntenic with the natural killer complex (NKC) as well as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast, a huge number of Ig-like receptor genes are located in a region syntenic with the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). PMID:18948017

  3. Glycine-dependent activation of NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kirstie A.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the only neurotransmitter receptors whose activation requires two distinct agonists. Heterotetramers of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, NMDA receptors are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they mediate excitatory currents in response to synaptic glutamate release. Pore opening depends on the concurrent presence of glycine, which modulates the amplitude and time course of the glutamate-elicited response. Gating schemes for fully glutamate- and glycine-bound NMDA receptors have been described in sufficient detail to bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic receptor behaviors; for several receptor isoforms, these schemes include glutamate-binding steps. We examined currents recorded from cell-attached patches containing one GluN1/GluN2A receptor in the presence of several glycine-site agonists and used kinetic modeling of these data to develop reaction schemes that include explicit glycine-binding steps. Based on the ability to match a series of experimentally observed macroscopic behaviors, we propose a model for activation of the glutamate-bound NMDA receptor by glycine that predicts apparent negative agonist cooperativity and glycine-dependent desensitization in the absence of changes in microscopic binding or desensitization rate constants. These results complete the basic steps of an NMDA receptor reaction scheme for the GluN1/GluN2A isoform and prompt a reevaluation of how glycine controls NMDA receptor activation. We anticipate that our model will provide a useful quantitative instrument to further probe mechanisms and structure–function relationships of NMDA receptors and to better understand the physiological and pathological implications of endogenous fluctuations in extracellular glycine concentrations. PMID:25964432

  4. Lung-Specific Loss of α3 Laminin Worsens Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I.; Rogel, Micah R.; Eisenberg, Jessica L.; Hamill, Kevin J.; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A.; Ridge, Karen M.; Misharin, Alexander V.; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3fl/fl). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression. PMID:25188360

  5. Lung-specific loss of α3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-04-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression. PMID:25188360

  6. Laminin alpha5 is essential for the formation of the zebrafish fins.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ashley E; Sanderford, Justyn; Frank, Diane; Talbot, William S; Driever, Wolfgang; Kimelman, David

    2007-11-15

    The vertebrate fin fold, the presumptive evolutionary antecedent of the paired fins, consists of two layers of epidermal cells extending dorsally and ventrally over the trunk and tail of the embryo, facilitating swimming during the embryonic and larval stages. Development of the fin fold requires dramatic changes in cell shape and adhesion during early development, but the proteins involved in this process are completely unknown. In a screen of mutants defective in fin fold morphogenesis, we identified a mutant with a severe fin fold defect, which also displays malformed pectoral fins. We find that the cause of the defect is a non-sense mutation in the zebrafish lama5 gene that truncates laminin alpha5 before the C-terminal laminin LG domains, thereby preventing laminin alpha5 from interacting with its cell surface receptors. Laminin is mislocalized in this mutant, as are the membrane-associated proteins, actin and beta-catenin, that normally form foci within the fin fold. Ultrastructural analysis revealed severe morphological abnormalities and defects in cell-cell adhesion within the epidermis of the developing fin fold at 36 hpf, resulting in an epidermal sheet that can not extend away from the body. Examining the pectoral fins, we find that the lama5 mutant is the first zebrafish mutant identified in which the pectoral fins fail to make the transition from an apical epidermal ridge to an apical fold, a transformation that is essential for pectoral fin morphogenesis. We propose that laminin alpha5, which is concentrated at the distal ends of the fins, organizes the distal cells of the fin fold and pectoral fins in order to promote the morphogenesis of the epidermis. The lama5 mutant provides novel insight into the role of laminins in the zebrafish epidermis, and the molecular mechanisms driving fin formation in vertebrates. PMID:17919534

  7. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair. PMID:24722588

  8. Regeneration of Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons is Synergistically Enhanced by Substrate-Bound Hemolymph Proteins and Laminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Callen; Dufrense, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated Aplysia hemolymph as a source of endogenous factors to promote regeneration of bag cell neurons. We describe a novel synergistic effect between substrate-bound hemolymph proteins and laminin. This combination increased outgrowth and branching relative to either laminin or hemolymph alone. Notably, the addition of hemolymph to laminin substrates accelerated growth cone migration rate over ten-fold. Our results indicate that the active factor is either a high molecular weight protein or protein complex and is not the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Substrate-bound factor(s) from central nervous system-conditioned media also had a synergistic effect with laminin, suggesting a possible cooperation between humoral proteins and nervous system extracellular matrix. Further molecular characterization of active factors and their cellular targets is warranted on account of the magnitude of the effects reported here and their potential relevance for nervous system repair.

  9. Activation of heteroliganded mouse muscle nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Milescu, Lorin S; Heckmann, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    The activation of the mouse muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was studied in the presence of carbachol, and in the simultaneous presence of carbachol and choline. The channel currents were recorded under steady-state conditions using cell-attached single-channel patch clamp, and during transient exposures to the agonists using a piezo-driven fast application system. The presence of choline resulted in inhibition of currents elicited by carbachol. The inhibitory effect of choline manifested as a reduction in the effective opening rate (increase in the mean intracluster closed time duration) in single-channel recordings. In the fast application experiments, the peak current amplitude was reduced and the current rise time increased when choline was co-applied with carbachol. The data were analysed according to a model in which receptor interactions with carbachol and choline resulted in three types of ligation: receptors occupied by two carbachol molecules, receptors occupied by two choline molecules, and receptors in which one agonist binding site was occupied by carbachol and the other by choline, i.e. heteroliganded receptors. All three agonist-bound receptor populations could open albeit with different efficacies. The affinity of the resting receptor to choline was estimated to be 1–2 mm, and heteroliganded receptors opened with an opening rate constant of ∼ 3000 s−1. The results of the analysis suggest that the presence of choline in the neuromuscular junction in vivo has little effect on the time course of synaptic currents. Nevertheless, the contribution of heteroliganded receptors should be taken into consideration when the receptor is exposed simultaneously to two or more agonists. PMID:15718267

  10. Interdomain movements in metabotropic glutamate receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siluo; Cao, Jianhua; Jiang, Ming; Labesse, Gilles; Liu, Jianfeng; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Rondard, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    Many cell surface receptors are multimeric proteins, composed of several structural domains, some involved in ligand recognition, whereas others are responsible for signal transduction. In most cases, the mechanism of how ligand interaction in the extracellular domains leads to the activation of effector domains remains largely unknown. Here we examined how the extracellular ligand binding to the venus flytrap (VFT) domains of the dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors activate the seven transmembrane (7TM) domains responsible for G protein activation. These two domains are interconnected by a cysteine-rich domain (CRD). We show that any of the four disulfide bridges of the CRD are required for the allosteric coupling between the VFT and the 7TM domains. More importantly, we show that a specific association of the two CRDs corresponds to the active state of the receptor. Indeed, a specific crosslinking of the CRDs with intersubunit disulfide bridges leads to fully constitutively active receptors, no longer activated by agonists nor by allosteric modulators. These data demonstrate that intersubunit movement at the level of the CRDs represents a key step in metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. PMID:21896740

  11. Beta1 integrin and alpha-dystroglycan binding sites are localized to different laminin-G-domain-like (LG) modules within the laminin alpha5 chain G domain.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Talts, Jan F

    2003-01-01

    Laminins are a group of extracellular-matrix proteins important in development and disease. They are heterotrimers, and specific domains in the different chains have specialized functions. The G domain of the alpha5 chain has now been produced in transfected mammalian cells as single modules and two tandem arrays, alpha5LG1-3 and alpha5LG4-5 (LG is laminin G domain-like). Using these fragments we produced specific polyclonal antibodies functional in immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies and in solid-phase assays. Both alpha5LG tandem arrays had physiologically relevant affinities for sulphated ligands such as heparin and sulphatides. Cells adhered to these fragments and acquired a spread morphology when plated on alpha5LG1-3. Binding of integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 was localized to the alpha5LG1-3 modules, and alpha-dystroglycan binding was localized to the alpha5LG4-5 modules, thus locating these activities to different LG modules within the laminin alpha5 G domain. However, both these activities were of relatively low affinity, indicating that integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the laminin 10/11 alpha5G domain depends on contributions from the other chains of the heterotrimer and that high-affinity alpha-dystroglycan binding could be dependent on specific Ca(2+)-ion-co-ordinating amino acids absent from alpha5LG4-5. PMID:12519075

  12. Chain specificity assignment of monoclonal antibodies to human laminins by using recombinant laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains.

    PubMed

    Geberhiwot, T; Wondimu, Z; Salo, S; Pikkarainen, T; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Virtanen, I; Patarroyo, M

    2000-05-01

    In the present study, the chain specificity of 16 commonly used monoclonal antibodies to human laminin(s) was analysed by using recombinant laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains. By ELISA, all antibodies reacted with purified placenta laminin, and most antibodies recognised either recombinant beta1 or gamma1 chains. Reactivity and chain specificity was confirmed against the recombinant chains in Western blotting under non-reducing conditions, and only a few antibodies were reactive under reducing conditions. Most antibodies were able to immunoprecipitate associated laminin beta1/gamma1 chains from platelet lysates. Based on these results and data from the literature, a tentative epitope map is presented. PMID:10842099

  13. Coffee contains potent opiate receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Boublik, J H; Quinn, M J; Clements, J A; Herington, A C; Wynne, K N; Funder, J W

    1983-01-20

    Opiate receptor-active peptide fragments (exorphins) have been identified recently in casein and gluten hydrolysates, and morphine has been found in bovine and human milk. To determine whether similar peptides or alkaloids occur in other foodstuffs, we have screened potential sources using a rat brain homogenate assay to detect opiate receptor activity. We report here that instant coffee powders from a variety of manufacturers compete with tritiated naloxone for binding to opiate receptors in the rat brain membrane preparations, with no significant difference between normal and decaffeinated coffee. The receptor binding activity resembles that seen with opiate antagonists, in that there was no change in the half-maximal effective dose (ED50) in the presence of 100 mM Na+; on bioassay, the activity was similarly shown to be antagonistic and specific for opiate-induced inhibition of twitch. Preliminary characterization of the activity reveals that it has a molecular weight (MW) in the range 1,000-3,500, is heat-stable, ether-extractable, not modified by enzymatic digestion with papain, and clearly separable from caffeine and morphine on TLC. As its concentration in an average cup of coffee is five times the ED50, these data suggest that drinking coffee may be followed by effects mediated via opiate receptors, as well as effects of caffeine. PMID:6296693

  14. Dissection of the Osteogenic Effects of Laminin-332 Utilizing Specific LG Domains: LG3 Induces Osteogenic Differentiation, but not Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Klees, Robert F.; Salasznyk, Roman M.; Ward, Donald F.; Crone, Donna E.; Williams, William A.; Harris, Mark P.; Boskey, Adele; Quaranta, Vito; Plopper, George E.

    2008-01-01

    The overall mechanisms governing the role of laminins during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are poorly understood. We previously reported that laminin-332 induces an osteogenic phenotype in hMSC and does so through a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) dependent pathway. We hypothesized that this is a result of integrin-ECM binding, and that it occurs via the known α3 LG3 integrin binding domain of laminin-332. To test this hypothesis we cultured hMSC on several different globular domains of laminin-332. hMSC adhered best to the LG3 domain, and this adhesion maximally activated FAK and ERK within 120 minutes. Prolonged culturing (8 or 16 days) of hMSC on LG3 led to activation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 and expression of key osteogenic markers (osterix, bone sialoprotein 2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, extracellular calcium) in hMSC. LG3 domain binding did not increase matrix mineralization, demonstrating that the LG3 domain alone is not sufficient to induce complete osteogenic differentiation in vitro. We conclude that the LG3 domain mediates attachment of hMSC to laminin-332 and that this adhesion recapitulates most, but not all, of the osteogenic differentiation associated with laminin-5 binding to hMSC. PMID:18206871

  15. NMDA Receptor Activity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Caro, Mario; Hadzimichalis, Norell

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntingtons disease, Alzheimers disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms. PMID:23772215

  16. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  17. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  18. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise.

  19. The role of laminins in basement membrane function

    PubMed Central

    AUMAILLEY, MONIQUE; SMYTH, NEIL

    1998-01-01

    Laminins are a family of multifunctional macromolecules, ubiquitous in basement membranes, and represent the most abundant structural noncollagenous glycoproteins of these highly specialised extracellular matrices. Their discovery started with the difficult task of isolating molecules produced by cultivated cells or extracted from tissues. The development of molecular biology techniques has facilitated and accelerated the identification and the characterisation of new laminin variants making it feasible to identify full-length polypeptides which have not been purified. Further, genetically engineered laminin fragments can be generated for studies of their structure-function relationship, permitting the demonstration that laminins are involved in multiple interactions with themselves, with other components of the basal lamina, and with cells. It endows laminins with a central role in the formation, the architecture, and the stability of basement membranes. In addition, laminins may both separate and connect different tissues, i.e. the parenchymal and the interstitial connective tissues. Laminins also provide adjacent cells with a mechanical scaffold and biological information either directly by interacting with cell surface components, or indirectly by trapping growth factors. In doing so they trigger and control cellular functions. Recently, the structural and biological diversity of the laminins has started to be elucidated by gene targeting and by the identification of laminin defects in acquired or inherited human diseases. The consequent phenotypes highlight the pivotal role of laminins in determining heterogeneity in basement membrane functions. PMID:9758133

  20. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  1. Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Katsuji; Sukenobu, Naoe; Sasaki, Tomo; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Takeo; Kasai, Ryoji; Yamasaki, Kazuo; Hazeki, Osamu

    2003-09-01

    Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin isolated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), was examined for its biological activities. In rat adipocytes, the compound increased the rate of glucose uptake and decreased the isoproterenol-induced glycerol release. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human insulin receptors, it increased the Erk activity. These insulin-like actions were accompanied by the increased tyrosine-phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptors. Tryptic digestion of the extracellular sites of the insulin receptors markedly increased the effective concentrations of insulin without changing those of lagerstroemin. Thus lagerstroemin was considered to cause its insulin-like actions by a mechanism different from that employed by insulin. PMID:14501154

  2. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  3. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  4. Common mechanisms activate plant guard receptors and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    In metazoans, the innate immune system uses Pattern Recognition Receptors to detect conserved microbial products, whereas in plants Guard Receptors detect virulence factors or activities encoded by pathogens. In a recent study, Williams and colleagues report that plant Guard receptors can be activated by a mechanism remarkably similar to that of mammalian Toll-like Receptor 4. PMID:25224694

  5. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Express α7 Integrin to Mediate Their Migration on Laminin.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Norianne T; Khankan, Rana R; Phelps, Patricia E

    2016-01-01

    The unique glia located in the olfactory system, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), are implicated as an attractive choice for transplantation therapy following spinal cord injury because of their pro-regenerative characteristics. Adult OECs are thought to improve functional recovery and regeneration after injury by secreting neurotrophic factors and making cell-to-cell contacts with regenerating processes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We show first that α7 integrin, a laminin receptor, is highly expressed at the protein level by OECs throughout the olfactory system, i.e., in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve, and olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Then we asked if OECs use the α7 integrin receptor directly to promote neurite outgrowth on permissive and neutral substrates, in vitro. We co-cultured α7+/+ and α7lacZ/lacZ postnatal cerebral cortical neurons with α7+/+ or α7lacZ/lacZ OECs and found that genotype did not effect the ability of OECs to enhance neurite outgrowth by direct contact. Loss of α7 integrin did however significantly decrease the motility of adult OECs in transwell experiments. Twice as many α7+/+ OECs migrated through laminin-coated transwells compared to α7+/+ OECs on poly-L-lysine (PLL). This is in contrast to α7lacZ/lacZ OECs, which showed no migratory preference for laminin substrate over PLL. These results demonstrate that OECs express α7 integrin, and that laminin and its α7 integrin receptor contribute to adult OEC migration in vitro and perhaps also in vivo. PMID:27078717

  6. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Express α7 Integrin to Mediate Their Migration on Laminin

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Norianne T.; Khankan, Rana R.; Phelps, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    The unique glia located in the olfactory system, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), are implicated as an attractive choice for transplantation therapy following spinal cord injury because of their pro-regenerative characteristics. Adult OECs are thought to improve functional recovery and regeneration after injury by secreting neurotrophic factors and making cell-to-cell contacts with regenerating processes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We show first that α7 integrin, a laminin receptor, is highly expressed at the protein level by OECs throughout the olfactory system, i.e., in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve, and olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Then we asked if OECs use the α7 integrin receptor directly to promote neurite outgrowth on permissive and neutral substrates, in vitro. We co-cultured α7+/+ and α7lacZ/lacZ postnatal cerebral cortical neurons with α7+/+ or α7lacZ/lacZ OECs and found that genotype did not effect the ability of OECs to enhance neurite outgrowth by direct contact. Loss of α7 integrin did however significantly decrease the motility of adult OECs in transwell experiments. Twice as many α7+/+ OECs migrated through laminin-coated transwells compared to α7+/+ OECs on poly-L-lysine (PLL). This is in contrast to α7lacZ/lacZ OECs, which showed no migratory preference for laminin substrate over PLL. These results demonstrate that OECs express α7 integrin, and that laminin and its α7 integrin receptor contribute to adult OEC migration in vitro and perhaps also in vivo. PMID:27078717

  7. Receptor Dissociation and B-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is one of the most abundant receptors on the surface of B cells with roughly 100,000-200,000 copies per cell. Signaling through the BCR is crucial for the activation and differentiation of B cells. Unlike other receptors, the BCR can be activated by a large set of structurally different ligands, but the molecular mechanism of BCR activation is still a matter of controversy. Although dominant for a long time, the cross-link model (CLM) of BCR activation is not supported by recent studies of the nanoscale organization of the BCR on the surface of resting B cells. In contrast to the prediction of CLM, the numerous BCR complexes on these cells are not randomly distributed monomers but rather form oligomers which reside within membrane confinements. This finding is more in line with the dissociation activation model (DAM), wherein B-cell activation is accompanied by an opening of the auto-inhibited BCR oligomers instead of a cross-linking of the BCR monomers. In this review, we discuss in detail the new findings and their implications for BCR signaling. PMID:26428245

  8. Laminin α1 regulates age-related mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix accumulation through the TGF-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liang; Kurihara, Hidetake; de Vega, Susana; Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Xu, Zhuo; Nonaka, Risa; Kazuno, Saiko; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Miner, Jeffrey H; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2014-06-01

    Laminin α1 (LAMA1), a subunit of the laminin-111 basement membrane component, has been implicated in various biological functions in vivo and in vitro. Although LAMA1 is present in kidney, its roles in the kidney are unknown because of early embryonic lethality. Herein, we used a viable conditional knockout mouse model with a deletion of Lama1 in the epiblast lineage (Lama1(CKO)) to study the role of LAMA1 in kidney development and function. Adult Lama1(CKO) mice developed focal glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria with age. In addition, mesangial cell proliferation was increased, and the mesangial matrix, which normally contains laminin-111, was greatly expanded. In vitro, mesangial cells from Lama1(CKO) mice exhibited significantly increased proliferation compared with those from controls. This increased proliferation was inhibited by the addition of exogenous LAMA1-containing laminin-111, but not by laminin-211 or laminin-511, suggesting a specific role for LAMA1 in regulating mesangial cell behavior. Moreover, the absence of LAMA1 increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation, and inhibitors of TGF-β1 receptor I kinase blocked Smad2 phosphorylation in both control and Lama1(CKO) mesangial cells, indicating that the increased Smad2 phosphorylation occurred in the absence of LAMA1 via the TGF-β1 receptor. These findings suggest that LAMA1 plays a critical role in kidney function and kidney aging by regulating the mesangial cell population and mesangial matrix deposition through TGF-β/Smad signaling. PMID:24720953

  9. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  10. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  11. The Short Arm of Laminin γ2 Chain of Laminin-5 (Laminin-332) Binds Syndecan-1 and Regulates Cellular Adhesion and Migration by Suppressing Phosphorylation of Integrin β4 Chain

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takashi; Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Hashimoto, Junko; Kariya, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of laminin-5 at the short arm of the γ2 chain (γ2sa) is known to convert this laminin from a cell adhesion type to a motility type. Here, we studied this mechanism by analyzing the functions of γ2sa. In some immortalized or tumorigenic human cell lines, a recombinant γ2sa, in either soluble or insoluble (coated) form, promoted the adhesion of these cells to the processed laminin-5 (Pr-LN5), and it suppressed their migration stimulated by serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF). γ2sa also suppressed EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of integrin β4 and resultant disruption of hemidesmosome-like structures in keratinocytes. γ2sa bound to syndecan-1, and this binding, as well as its cell adhesion activity, was blocked by heparin. By analyzing the activities of three different γ2sa fragments, the active site of γ2sa was localized to the NH2-terminal EGF-like sequence (domain V or LEa). Suppression of syndecan-1 expression by the RNA interference effectively blocked the activities of domain V capable of promoting cell adhesion and inhibiting the integrin β4 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that domain V of the γ2 chain negatively regulates the integrin β4 phosphorylation, probably through a syndecan-1–mediated signaling, leading to enhanced cell adhesion and suppressed cell motility. PMID:17314405

  12. Laminin-Mediated Interactions in Thymocyte Migration and Development.

    PubMed

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Aras; Golbert, Daiane Cristina Ferreira; Riederer, Ingo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Intrathymic T-cell differentiation is a key process for the development and maintenance of cell-mediated immunity, and occurs concomitantly to highly regulated migratory events. We have proposed a multivectorial model for describing intrathymic thymocyte migration. One of the individual vectors comprises interactions mediated by laminins (LMs), a heterotrimeric protein family of the extracellular matrix. Several LMs are expressed in the thymus, being produced by microenvironmental cells, particularly thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Also, thymocytes and epithelial cells express integrin-type LM receptors. Functionally, it has been reported that the dy/dy mutant mouse (lacking the LM isoform 211) exhibits defective thymocyte differentiation. Several data show haptotactic effects of LMs upon thymocytes, as well as their adhesion on TECs; both effects being prevented by anti-LM or anti-LM receptor antibodies. Interestingly, LM synergizes with chemokines to enhance thymocyte migration, whereas classe-3 semaphorins and B ephrins, which exhibit chemorepulsive effects in the thymus, downregulate LM-mediated migratory responses of thymocytes. More recently, we showed that knocking down the ITGA6 gene (which encodes the ?6 integrin chain of LM receptors) in human TECs modulates a large number of cell migration-related genes and results in changes of adhesion pattern of thymocytes onto the thymic epithelium. Overall, LM-mediated interactions can be placed at the cross-road of the multivectorial process of thymocyte migration, with a direct influence per se, as well as by modulating other molecular interactions associated with the intrathymic-trafficking events. PMID:26635793

  13. Biophysical analysis of a lethal laminin alpha-1 mutation reveals altered self-interaction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Nikodemus, Denise; Besong, Tabot M D; Reuten, Raphael; Meier, Markus; Harding, Stephen E; Winzor, Donald J; Koch, Manuel; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Laminins are key basement membrane molecules that influence several biological activities and are linked to a number of diseases. They are secreted as heterotrimeric proteins consisting of one α, one β, and one γ chain, followed by their assembly into a polymer-like sheet at the basement membrane. Using sedimentation velocity, dynamic light scattering, and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we studied self-association of three laminin (LM) N-terminal fragments α-1 (hLM α-1N), α-5 (hLM α-5N) and β-3 (hLM β-3N) originating from the short arms of the human laminin αβγ heterotrimer. Corresponding studies of the hLM α-1N C49S mutant, equivalent to the larval lethal C56S mutant in zebrafish, have shown that this mutation causes enhanced self-association behavior, an observation that provides a plausible explanation for the inability of laminin bearing this mutation to fulfill functional roles in vivo, and hence for the deleterious pathological consequences of the mutation on lens function. PMID:26215696

  14. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-08-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  16. Overexpression of Laminin-8 in Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells Promotes Angiogenesis-Related Functions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhou, Lisa; Tran, Hoang T.; Chen, Yi; Nguyen, Ngon E.; Karasek, Marvin A.; Marinkovich, M. Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of endogenous overexpression of laminin-8 on angiogenesis and wound healing in primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). HDMECs expressed laminin-8 and laminin-10, but no other laminins, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assay using a panel of antibodies to individual laminin chains. To study laminin-8 function, full-length human laminin α4 cDNA was retrovirally transferred to HDMEC, and specific overexpression of laminin-8 was verified by Western blot. Laminin-8 overexpression promoted endothelial cell spreading and migration in scratch assays and accelerated angiogenic tubule formation in collagen gel overlay assays. Strong inhibitory effect of β1 integrin and weak inhibition by αvβ3 integrin antibodies were observed in laminin-8-stimulated cell migration, but only β1 integrin antibodies affected tubule formation. These studies suggest that laminin-8 overexpression may prove to be a useful method to engineer HDMECs to promote angiogenesis and wound repair. PMID:16374451

  17. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.; Burrell, Bryna E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4+ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin ?4 to laminin ?5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin ?4 function or inducing laminin ?5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing ?4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation. PMID:24691446

  18. Loss of β2-laminin alters calcium sensitivity and voltage-gated calcium channel maturation of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Schenning, Mitja P; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    β2-laminin is a key mediator in the differentiation and formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Loss of β2-laminin results in significant structural and functional aberrations such as decreased number of active zones and reduced spontaneous release of transmitter. In vitro β2-laminin has been shown to bind directly to the pore forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Neurotransmission is initially mediated by N-type VGCCs, but by postnatal day 18 switches to P/Q-type VGCC dominance. The present study investigated the changes in neurotransmission during the switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated transmitter release at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Analysis of the relationship between quantal content and extracellular calcium concentrations demonstrated a decrease in the calcium sensitivity, but no change in calcium dependence at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Electrophysiological studies on VGCC sub-types involved in transmitter release indicate N-type VGCCs remain the primary mediator of transmitter release at matured β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Immunohistochemical analyses displayed irregularly shaped and immature β2-laminin-deficient neuromuscular junctions when compared to matured wild-type junctions. β2-laminin-deficient junctions also maintained the presence of N-type VGCC clustering within the presynaptic membrane, which supported the functional findings of the present study. We conclude that β2-laminin is a key regulator in development of the NMJ, with its loss resulting in reduced transmitter release due to decreased calcium sensitivity stemming from a failure to switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25556799

  19. Origin of basal activity in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian odorant receptors form a large, diverse group of G protein–coupled receptors that determine the sensitivity and response profile of olfactory receptor neurons. But little is known if odorant receptors control basal and also stimulus-induced cellular properties of olfactory receptor neurons other than ligand specificity. This study demonstrates that different odorant receptors have varying degrees of basal activity, which drives concomitant receptor current fluctuations and basal action potential firing. This basal activity can be suppressed by odorants functioning as inverse agonists. Furthermore, odorant-stimulated olfactory receptor neurons expressing different odorant receptors can have strikingly different response patterns in the later phases of prolonged stimulation. Thus, the influence of odorant receptor choice on response characteristics is much more complex than previously thought, which has important consequences on odor coding and odor information transfer to the brain. PMID:20974772

  20. An adhesome comprising laminin, dystroglycan and myosin IIA is required during notochord development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Buisson, Nicolas; Sirour, Cathy; Moreau, Nicole; Denker, Elsa; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Goullancourt, Aline; Darribère, Thierry; Bello, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane receptor for laminin that must be expressed at the right time and place in order to be involved in notochord morphogenesis. The function of Dg was examined in Xenopus laevis embryos by knockdown of Dg and overexpression and replacement of the endogenous Dg with a mutated form of the protein. This analysis revealed that Dg is required for correct laminin assembly, for cell polarization during mediolateral intercalation and for proper differentiation of vacuoles. Using mutations in the cytoplasmic domain, we identified two sites that are involved in cell polarization and are required for mediolateral cell intercalation, and a site that is required for vacuolation. Furthermore, using a proteomic analysis, the cytoskeletal non-muscle myosin IIA has been identified for the first time as a molecular link between the Dg-cytoplasmic domain and cortical actin. The data allowed us to identify the adhesome laminin-Dg-myosin IIA as being required to maintain the cortical actin cytoskeleton network during vacuolation, which is crucial to maintain the shape of notochordal cells. PMID:25359726

  1. Disruption Of Laminin-Integrin-CD151-FAK Axis Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells To ErbB2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiuwei H.; Flores, Ludmila M.; Li, Qinglin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Xu, Fenghui; Krop, Ian E.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to anti-ErbB2 agents is a significant problem in the treatment of human ErbB2+ breast cancers. We show here that adhesion of human ErbB2+ breast cancer cells to basement membrane laminin-5 provides substantial resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib, agents that respectively target the extracellular and kinase domains of ErbB2. Knockdown of laminin-binding integrins (?6?4, ?3?1) or associated tetraspanin protein CD151 reversed laminin-5 resistance, and sensitized ErbB2+ cells to trastuzumab and lapatinib. CD151 knockdown, together with trastuzumab treatment, inhibited ErbB2 activation and downstream signaling through Akt, Erk1/2, and FAK. Hence, ErbB2 function in mammary tumor cells is promoted by integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-5, with strong support by CD151, leading to signaling through FAK. Consequently, removal or inhibition of any of these components (laminin-5, integrin, CD151, FAK) markedly sensitizes cells to anti-ErbB2 agents. These new insights should be useful when devising strategies for overcoming drug resistance in ErbB2+ cancers. PMID:20197472

  2. How IGF-1 activates its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kavran, Jennifer M; McCabe, Jacqueline M; Byrne, Patrick O; Connacher, Mary Katherine; Wang, Zhihong; Ramek, Alexander; Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Hristova, Kalina; Cole, Philip A; Leahy, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in growth and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. A ligand-dependent conformational change is thought to regulate IGF1R activity, but the nature of this change is unclear. We point out an underappreciated dimer in the crystal structure of the related Insulin Receptor (IR) with Insulin bound that allows direct comparison with unliganded IR and suggests a mechanism by which ligand regulates IR/IGF1R activity. We test this mechanism in a series of biochemical and biophysical assays and find the IGF1R ectodomain maintains an autoinhibited state in which the TMs are held apart. Ligand binding releases this constraint, allowing TM association and unleashing an intrinsic propensity of the intracellular regions to autophosphorylate. Enzymatic studies of full-length and kinase-containing fragments show phosphorylated IGF1R is fully active independent of ligand and the extracellular-TM regions. The key step triggered by ligand binding is thus autophosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03772.001 PMID:25255214

  3. Mechanism of NMDA Receptor Inhibition and Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shujia; Stein, Richard A; Yoshioka, Craig; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Goehring, April; Mchaourab, Hassane S; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-04-21

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated, calcium-permeable ion channels that mediate synaptic transmission and underpin learning and memory. NMDAR dysfunction is directly implicated in diseases ranging from seizure to ischemia. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about how the NMDAR transitions between inactive and active states and how small molecules inhibit or activate ion channel gating. Here, we report electron cryo-microscopy structures of the GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor in an ensemble of competitive antagonist-bound states, an agonist-bound form, and a state bound with agonists and the allosteric inhibitor Ro25-6981. Together with double electron-electron resonance experiments, we show how competitive antagonists rupture the ligand binding domain (LBD) gating "ring," how agonists retain the ring in a dimer-of-dimers configuration, and how allosteric inhibitors, acting within the amino terminal domain, further stabilize the LBD layer. These studies illuminate how the LBD gating ring is fundamental to signal transduction and gating in NMDARs. PMID:27062927

  4. IP3 Receptors: Toward Understanding Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Colin W.; Tovey, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and their relatives, ryanodine receptors, are the channels that most often mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Their regulation by Ca2+ allows them also to propagate cytosolic Ca2+ signals regeneratively. This brief review addresses the structural basis of IP3R activation by IP3 and Ca2+. IP3 initiates IP3R activation by promoting Ca2+ binding to a stimulatory Ca2+-binding site, the identity of which is unresolved. We suggest that interactions of critical phosphate groups in IP3 with opposite sides of the clam-like IP3-binding core cause it to close and propagate a conformational change toward the pore via the adjacent N-terminal suppressor domain. The pore, assembled from the last pair of transmembrane domains and the intervening pore loop from each of the four IP3R subunits, forms a structure in which a luminal selectivity filter and a gate at the cytosolic end of the pore control cation fluxes through the IP3R. PMID:20980441

  5. Combinatorial Fibronectin and Laminin Signaling Promote Highly Efficient Cardiac Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Silin; Wong, Lian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising and potentially unlimited cell source for myocardial repair and regeneration. Recently, multiple methodologies—primarily based on the optimization of growth factors—have been described for efficient cardiac differentiation of hESCs. However, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling in CM differentiation has not yet been explored fully. This study examined the role of ECM signaling in the efficient generation of CMs from both H7 and H9 ESCs. The hESCs were differentiated on ECM substrates composed of a range of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) ratios and gelatin and evaluated by the fluorescence activated cell scanning (FACS) analysis on day 14. Of the ECM substrates examined, the 70:30 FN:LN reproducibly generated the greatest numbers of CMs from both hESC lines. Moreover, the LN receptor integrin β4 (ITGB4) and FN receptor integrin β5 (ITGB5) genes, jointly with increased phosphorylated focal adhension kinase and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERKs), were up-regulated over 13-fold in H7 and H9 cultured on 70:30 FN:LN compared with gelatin. Blocking studies confirmed the role of all these molecules in CM specification, suggesting that the 70:30 FN:LN ECM promotes highly efficient differentiation of CMs through the integrin-mediated MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Lastly, the data suggest that FN:LN-induced signaling utilizes direct cell-to-cell signaling from distinct ITGB4+ and ITGB5+ cells. PMID:25126479

  6. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fc? receptor (Fc?R) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed Fc?Rs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and Fc?R binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or Fc?R binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  7. Laminin-Mediated Interactions in Thymocyte Migration and Development

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas; Golbert, Daiane Cristina Ferreira; Riederer, Ingo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Intrathymic T-cell differentiation is a key process for the development and maintenance of cell-mediated immunity, and occurs concomitantly to highly regulated migratory events. We have proposed a multivectorial model for describing intrathymic thymocyte migration. One of the individual vectors comprises interactions mediated by laminins (LMs), a heterotrimeric protein family of the extracellular matrix. Several LMs are expressed in the thymus, being produced by microenvironmental cells, particularly thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Also, thymocytes and epithelial cells express integrin-type LM receptors. Functionally, it has been reported that the dy/dy mutant mouse (lacking the LM isoform 211) exhibits defective thymocyte differentiation. Several data show haptotactic effects of LMs upon thymocytes, as well as their adhesion on TECs; both effects being prevented by anti-LM or anti-LM receptor antibodies. Interestingly, LM synergizes with chemokines to enhance thymocyte migration, whereas classe-3 semaphorins and B ephrins, which exhibit chemorepulsive effects in the thymus, downregulate LM-mediated migratory responses of thymocytes. More recently, we showed that knocking down the ITGA6 gene (which encodes the α6 integrin chain of LM receptors) in human TECs modulates a large number of cell migration-related genes and results in changes of adhesion pattern of thymocytes onto the thymic epithelium. Overall, LM-mediated interactions can be placed at the cross-road of the multivectorial process of thymocyte migration, with a direct influence per se, as well as by modulating other molecular interactions associated with the intrathymic-trafficking events. PMID:26635793

  8. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  9. Receptor-activating autoantibodies and disease: preeclampsia and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E

    2012-01-01

    The research reviewed in this article provides examples of autoantibody-mediated receptor activation that likely contributes to disease. The classic example is Graves’ hyperthyroidism, in which autoantibodies activate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor resulting in overproduction of thyroid hormones. Other compelling examples come from the cardiovascular literature and include agonistic autoantibodies targeting the cardiac β1-adrenergic receptor, which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. Autoantibodies capable of activating α1-adrenergic receptors are associated with refractory hypertension and cardiomyopathy. A prominent example is preeclampsia, a hypertensive disease of pregnancy, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies that activate the major angiotensin receptor, AT1. AT1 receptor-activating autoantibodies are also observed in kidney transplant recipients suffering from severe vascular rejection and malignant hypertension. AT1 receptor-activating autoantibodies and antibodies that activate the endothelin-1 receptor, ETA, are prevalent in individuals diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. Thus, the presence of agonistic autoantibodies directed to G protein-coupled receptors has been observed in numerous cardiovascular disease states. Rapidly emerging evidence indicates that receptor-activating autoantibodies contribute to disease, and that efforts to detect and remove these pathogenic autoantibodies or block their actions will provide promising therapeutic possibilities. PMID:21895478

  10. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  11. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor Type 1 Attenuates Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadnie, Chelsea A.; Hinton, David J.; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L.; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  12. Properly formed but improperly localized synaptic specializations in the absence of laminin alpha4.

    PubMed

    Patton, B L; Cunningham, J M; Thyboll, J; Kortesmaa, J; Westerblad, H; Edström, L; Tryggvason, K; Sanes, J R

    2001-06-01

    Precise apposition of pre- to postsynaptic specializations is required for optimal function of chemical synapses, but little is known about how it is achieved. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, active zones (transmitter release sites) in the nerve terminal lie directly opposite junctional folds in the postsynaptic membrane. Few active zones or junctional folds form in mice lacking the laminin beta2 chain, which is normally concentrated in the synaptic cleft. beta2 and the broadly expressed gamma1 chain form heterotrimers with alpha chains, three of which, alpha2, alpha4 and alpha5, are present in the synaptic cleft. Thus, alpha2beta2gamma1, alpha4beta2gamma1 and alpha5beta2gamma1 heterotrimers are all lost in beta2 mutants. In mice lacking laminin alpha4, active zones and junctional folds form in normal numbers, but are not precisely apposed to each other. Thus, formation and localization of synaptic specializations are regulated separately, and alpha4beta2gamma1 (called laminin-9) is critical in the latter process. PMID:11369940

  13. PDGF enhances IRES-mediated translation of Laminin B1 by cytoplasmic accumulation of La during epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole C. C.; Huber, Heidemarie; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Laminin B1 (LamB1) regulates tumor cell migration and invasion. Carcinoma cells acquire invasive properties by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a fundamental step in dissemination of metastatic cells from the primary tumor. Recently, we showed that enhanced translation of LamB1 upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We demonstrated that the IRES transacting factor La binds the minimal IRES motif and positively modulates IRES activity of LamB1. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances IRES activity of LamB1 by the increasing cytoplasmic localization of La during EMT. Accordingly, cells expressing dominant negative PDGF receptor display reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of La and show no elevation of IRES activity or endogenous LamB1 levels after stimulation with PDGF. Furthermore, La-mediated regulation of LamB1 IRES activity predominantly depends on MAPK/ERK signaling downstream of PDGF. Notably, LamB1 expression is not significantly downregulated by the impairment of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In vivo, knockdown of La associated with decreased LamB1 expression and reduced tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that PDGF is required for the cytoplasmic accumulation of La that triggers IRES-dependent translation of LamB1 during EMT. PMID:22904067

  14. Modulation of Glucagon Receptor Pharmacology by Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-2 (RAMP2)*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Cathryn; Lu, Jing; Li, Naichang; Barkan, Kerry; Richards, Gareth O.; Roberts, David J.; Skerry, Timothy M.; Poyner, David; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Dowell, Simon J.; Willars, Gary B.; Ladds, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors play important, opposing roles in regulating blood glucose levels. Consequently, these receptors have been identified as targets for novel diabetes treatments. However, drugs acting at the GLP-1 receptor, although having clinical efficacy, have been associated with severe adverse side-effects, and targeting of the glucagon receptor has yet to be successful. Here we use a combination of yeast reporter assays and mammalian systems to provide a more complete understanding of glucagon receptor signaling, considering the effect of multiple ligands, association with the receptor-interacting protein receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2), and the role of individual G protein α-subunits. We demonstrate that RAMP2 alters both ligand selectivity and G protein preference of the glucagon receptor. Importantly, we also uncover novel cross-reactivity of therapeutically used GLP-1 receptor ligands at the glucagon receptor that is abolished by RAMP2 interaction. This study reveals the glucagon receptor as a previously unidentified target for GLP-1 receptor agonists and highlights a role for RAMP2 in regulating its pharmacology. Such previously unrecognized functions of RAMPs highlight the need to consider all receptor-interacting proteins in future drug development. PMID:26198634

  15. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cação-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres. PMID:24820070

  16. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

  17. Laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell stemness and muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H.; E. Mason, Christopher; Strickland, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Muscle-resident PDGFRβ+ cells, which include pericytes and PW1+ interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ+ cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ+ cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ+ cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy. PMID:27138650

  18. Laminin regulates PDGFRβ(+) cell stemness and muscle development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H; E Mason, Christopher; Strickland, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Muscle-resident PDGFRβ(+) cells, which include pericytes and PW1(+) interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ(+) cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ(+) cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ(+) cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ(+) cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy. PMID:27138650

  19. Expression of laminin in pancreatic neoplasms and in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Haglund, C; Roberts, P J; Nordling, S; Ekblom, P

    1984-09-01

    The distribution of laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein, was studied by immunohistological techniques in 10 samples of normal pancreatic tissue, in 15 samples of chronic pancreatitis, and in 33 pancreatic neoplasms. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were pretreated with pepsin and immunostained for laminin. As judged by the expression of laminin, normal pancreatic glands were surrounded by a continuous, intact basement membrane. In chronic pancreatitis the basement membrane was also mainly continuous, but focally weaker and thinner than around normal glands. In pancreatic adenocarcinomas laminin was irregularly distributed and in large areas totally absent. In anaplastic carcinomas no extracellular laminin was seen, but two cases showed some intracellular laminin in a punctate pattern. The findings suggest that these cancers have defects in the deposition of a basement membrane or that it is degraded. Our data suggest that the integrity of the basement membrane correlates with the degree of malignancy in ductal adenocarcinomas, but this is not the case for mucinous cystic neoplasms or for islet cell tumors. In these neoplasms a nearly intact basement membrane was seen both in malignant tumors and in their benign counterparts. PMID:6089598

  20. Hedgehog Signaling and Laminin Play Unique and Synergistic Roles in Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew T.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and laminin-111, a basement membrane protein, are required for early muscle development. Hh signaling specifies different populations of muscle fibers and laminin-111 is critical for early muscle morphogenesis. However, additional requirements for Hh signaling and laminin during later phases of muscle development are not known. Furthermore, interactions between Hh signaling and laminin in this context are unknown. We used laminin gamma1 mutant zebrafish and cyclopamine to block Hh signal transduction separately and in combination to investigate their functions and interactions. We found that both Hh signaling and laminin are required for normal myosin chain expression. In addition, Hh signaling and laminin act synergistically during fast-twitch fiber elongation: fast muscle cells do not elongate in embryos deficient for both Hh signaling and laminin. Finally, we present evidence which suggests that Hh signaling is indirectly required via slow fiber specification for recovery of fast fiber elongation in laminin gamma1 mutant embryos. PMID:20063418

  1. Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

  2. Association of the erythropoietin receptor with protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Linnekin, D; Evans, G A; D'Andrea, A; Farrar, W L

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the signal transduction mechanism of the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (Epo). Epo stimulation of Ba/F3 cells transfected with the Epo receptor resulted in increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of 97, 75, and 55 kDa. Epo-induced increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein were also detected within the Epo receptor complex, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase is associated with the Epo receptor. Protein tyrosine kinase activity was found within the Epo receptor complex and modulation of this activity was observed after treatment of cells with Epo. Furthermore, constitutively high amounts of protein kinase activity were observed in Epo receptor complexes isolated from autonomously growing cells coexpressing the Epo receptor and the leukemogenic glycoprotein gp55. The dominant phosphotyrosylprotein found associated with the Epo receptor was 97 kDa. An Epo receptor-associated protein of identical molecular mass was also found to bind ATP, a characteristic critical for protein kinases. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the Epo receptor is associated with protein tyrosine kinase activity and further suggest that a 97-kDa phosphotyrosylprotein associated with the Epo receptor is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in Epo-mediated signal transduction. Images PMID:1378622

  3. Transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 chain in regenerating murine liver: Restricted localization of laminin chains and nidogen-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Yamato . E-mail: yamato@sapmed.ac.jp; Mochizuki, Yoichi; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2005-04-15

    Most interstitia between epithelial and endothelial cells contain basal laminae (BLs), as defined by electron microscopy. However, in liver, the sinusoidal interstitium (called space of Disse) between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) lacks BLs. Because laminins are major components of BLs throughout the body, whether laminins exist in sinusoids has been a controversial issue. Despite recent advances, the distribution and expression of laminin chains have not been well defined in mammalian liver. Here, using a panel of antibodies, we examined laminins in normal and regenerating mouse livers. Of {alpha} chains, {alpha}5 was widely observed in all BLs except for sinusoids, while the other {alpha} chains were variously expressed in Glisson's sheath and central veins. Laminin {gamma}1 was also distributed to all BLs except for sinusoids. Although the {beta}2 chain was observed in all BLs and sinusoids, the expression of {beta}1 chain was restricted to Glisson's sheath. Detailed analysis of regenerating liver revealed that {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains appeared in sinusoids and were produced by stellate cells. The staining of {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains reached its maximum intensity at 6 days after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). Moreover, in vitro studies showed that {alpha}1-containing laminin promoted spreading of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) isolated from normal liver, but not other hepatic cells. In addition, SECs isolated from regenerating liver elongated pseudopodia on {alpha}1-containing laminin more so than did cells from normal liver. The transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 may promote formation of sinusoids after PHx.

  4. Monocytic cells synthesize, adhere to, and migrate on laminin-8 (alpha 4 beta 1 gamma 1).

    PubMed

    Pedraza, C; Geberhiwot, T; Ingerpuu, S; Assefa, D; Wondimu, Z; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Virtanen, I; Patarroyo, M

    2000-11-15

    Laminins, a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signaling properties, are major components of vascular and other basement membranes. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin isoforms by leukocytes are poorly understood. In monoblastic THP-1 cells, transcripts for laminin gamma(1)-, beta(1)-, and alpha(4)-chains were detected by RT-PCR. Following immunoaffinity purification on a laminin beta(1) Ab-Sepharose column, laminin beta(1)- (220 kDa), gamma(1)- (200 kDa), and alpha(4)- (180/200 kDa) chains were detected by Western blotting in THP-1 cells and in two other monoblastic cell lines, U-937 and Mono Mac 6. After cell permeabilization, a mAb to laminin gamma(1)-chain reacted with practically all blood monocytes by immunofluorescence flow cytometry, and laminin-8 (alpha(4)beta(1)gamma(1)) could be isolated also from these cells. Monoblastic JOSK-I cells adhered constitutively to immobilized recombinant laminin-8, less than to laminin-10/11 (alpha(5)beta(1)gamma(1)/alpha(5)beta(2)gamma(1)) but to a higher level than to laminin-1 (alpha(1)beta(1)gamma(1)). Compared with the other laminin isoforms, adhesion to laminin-8 was preferentially mediated by alpha(6)beta(1) and beta(2) integrins. Laminin-8 and, to a lower extent, laminin-1 promoted spontaneous and chemokine-induced migration of blood monocytes, whereas laminin-10/11 was inhibitory. Altogether, the results indicate that leukocytes, as other cell types, are able to synthesize complete laminin molecules. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin-8 by leukocytes suggest a major role of this laminin isoform in leukocyte physiology. PMID:11067943

  5. Thyroid hormone receptors regulate adipogenesis and carcinogenesis via crosstalk signaling with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They are ligand-dependent transcription factors that interact with their cognate hormone response elements in the promoters to regulate respective target gene expression to modulate cellular functions. While the transcription activity of each is regulated by their respective ligands, recent studies indicate that via multiple mechanisms PPARs and TRs crosstalk to affect diverse biological functions. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological impact of crosstalk between these two important nuclear receptors, focusing on their roles in adipogenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:19741045

  6. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  7. Deletion of laminin-8 results in increased tumor neovascularization and metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongjun; Doi, Masayuki; Wang, Jianming; Cao, Renhai; Liu, Baohua; Chan, Kui Ming; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Sorokin, Lydia; Cao, Yihai; Tryggvason, Karl

    2004-06-15

    Laminin-8 (alpha 4 beta 1 gamma 1) is one of the major laminin isoforms expressed in vascular endothelial basement membranes. Here we show that deletion of laminin-8 in mice affects angiogenesis under pathological conditions. Murine tumor models used in laminin alpha 4-deficient mice results in hyperneovascularization and significant promotion of tumor growth and metastasis. The higher tumor growth rates in mutant mice correlate with decreased tumor cell apoptosis. Depletion of laminin alpha 4 chain may alter the structure of vascular basement membranes, leading to increased angiogenesis. Our data suggest that the laminin-8 plays a critical role in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:15205311

  8. Ultrastructural colocalization of nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 with laminin-1 in murine kidney basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Miosge, N; Köther, F; Heinemann, S; Kohfeldt, E; Herken, R; Timpl, R

    2000-02-01

    Nidogen-1, a key component of basement membranes, is considered to function as a link between laminin and collagen type IV networks. Recently a new member of the nidogen family, nidogen-2, has been characterized. Preliminary immunohistochemical data indicated that nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 show a similar tissue distribution at the light microscopic level. We have now localized nidogen-1 and nidogen-2, as well as their corresponding mRNAs, at the light and electron microscopic levels in adult mouse kidney, by in situ hybridization and immunogold histochemistry, as well as carrying out double labeling with laminin-1. Both nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 mRNAs are found not only in mesenchymal cells of embryonic tissues, but also in all epithelial and endothelial cells in adult mouse kidney. Both nidogens are ubiquitous basement membrane components in the mouse kidney, being found in glomerular, tubular, and capillary compartments and Bowman's capsule. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 colocalizes with laminin-1. The results indicate that nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 could well substitute for one another in some of their biological activities in kidney, for example, stabilizing basement membrane networks in vivo. PMID:10766264

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying proteins in the human cerebral vasculature.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kevin R; Wainwright, Anna; Edvinsson, Lars; Pickard, John D; Hill, Raymond G

    2002-05-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin belong to a structurally related neuropeptide family and are potent vasodilators expressed in the trigeminovascular system. The molecular identity of receptors for these proteins has only recently been elucidated. Central to functional binding of these neuropeptides is the G-protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), whose cell surface expression and pharmacology is determined by coexpression of a receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP). CRLR combined with RAMP binds calcitonin gene-related peptide with high affinity, whereas CRLR coexpression with RAMP2 or -3 confers high-affinity binding of adrenomedullin. The authors investigated the expression of these receptor components in human cerebral vasculature to further characterize neuropeptide receptor content and the potential functions of these receptors. Localization has been carried out using specific antisera raised against immunogenic peptide sequences that were subsequently applied using modern immunohistochemical techniques and confocal microscopy. The results are the first to show the presence of these receptor component proteins in human middle meningeal, middle cerebral, pial, and superficial temporal vessels, and confirm that both calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors may arise from the coassembly of RAMPs with CRLR in these vessel types. These novel data advance the understanding of the molecular function of the trigeminovascular system, its potential role in vascular headache disorders such as migraine, and may lead to possible ways in which future synthetic ligands may be applied to manage these disorders. PMID:11973435

  10. Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To better understand how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional states and analyzed the resulting structures using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that transition to the active state involves a corkscrew motion of the receptor assembly, driven by closure of the ligand binding domain. Desensitization is accompanied by disruption of the amino terminal domain tetramer in AMPA, but not kainate receptors, with a 2-fold to 4-fold symmetry transition in the ligand binding domains in both subtypes. The 7.6 Å structure of a desensitized kainate receptor shows how these changes accommodate channel closing. These findings integrate previous physiological, biochemical, and structural analyses of glutamate receptors and provide a molecular explanation for key steps in receptor gating. PMID:25119039

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trans-Activation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Fina, Daniele; Gioia, Valentina; Peluso, Ilaria; Caprioli, Flavio; Stolfi, Carmine; Perfetti, Alessandra; Giusto Spagnoli, Luigi; Palmieri, Giampiero; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is involved in gastric cancer (GC) cell growth. However, the mechanism that sustains EGFR signaling in GC remains unknown. Since protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been shown to trans-activate EGFR in several cell types, we examined the role of PAR-2 in GC. We show here that in vitro activation of PAR-2 enhances the growth of two GC cell lines, AGS and MKN28. In both these cell lines, PAR-2 trans-activated EGFR and inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by AG1478 or specific EGFR siRNA completely prevented PAR-2-driven proliferation. Antibody blockade of EGF-like ligands to EGFR did not modify EGFR signaling or cell growth induced by PAR-2 activation. In contrast, PAR-2 promoted Src activation and interaction of this kinase with EGFR. In support of this, inhibition of Src kinase activity by PP1 or siRNA blocked PAR-2-induced EGFR signaling cascade and cell growth. Finally, PAR-2 was detectable in both normal and GC specimens, but its expression was more pronounced in GC than controls and correlated with activated EGFR. These data show that PAR-2 is overexpressed in GC and suggest a role of PAR-2 in EGFR trans-activation and cell growth. PMID:16816379

  12. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  13. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPAR? in rodents inc...

  14. P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update.

    PubMed

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Müller, Christa E

    2006-01-01

    Pyrimidine nucleotides, including UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose, are important signaling molecules which activate G protein-coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs) of the P2Y family. Four distinct pyrimidine nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes have been cloned, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6 and P2Y14. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors are activated by UTP (the P2Y2, and the rat but not the human P2Y4 receptor are also activated by ATP), the P2Y6 receptor is activated by UDP, and the P2Y14 receptor by UDP-glucose. Furthermore, non-P2Y GPCRs, the cysteinylleukotriene receptors (CysLT1R and CysLT2R) have been described to be activated by UDP in addition to activation by cysteinylleukotrienes. While P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor activation results in stimulation of phospholipase C, the P2Y14 receptor is coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Derivatives and analogs of the physiological nucleotides UTP, UDP and ATP have been synthesized and evaluated in order to obtain enzymatically stable, subtype-selective agonists. The P2Y2 receptor agonists diuridine tetraphosphate (diquafosol) and the uracil-cytosine dinucleotide denufosol are currently undergoing clinical trials for dry eye disease, retinal detachment disease, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and cystic fibrosis, respectively. The first antagonists for P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors that appear to be selective versus other P2Y receptor subtypes have recently been described. Selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors are still lacking. Uracil nucleotide-sensitive P2Y receptor subtypes may constitute future targets for the treatment of certain cancer types, vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and immunomodulatory intervention. They have also been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. This article is an updated version of "P2-Pyrimidinergic Receptors and Their Ligands" by C. E. Müller published in Curr. Pharm. Des. 2002, 8, 2353-2369. PMID:16475938

  15. Ensemble of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Active States

    PubMed Central

    Park, P.S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in cellular signal transduction and are important targets for therapeutics. Although these receptors have been intensely studied for quite some time, our understanding about their mechanism of action is still incomplete. GPCR activity has traditionally been viewed within the context of two-state models where the receptor is in equilibrium between a single inactive state and a single active state. This framework is too simple and restrictive to accommodate more recent observations made on these receptors, which instead point to a situation where the receptor can adopt several different active conformational substates with distinct functional effects. Structural and functional evidence for this emerging view is presented in this review. Implications of this emerging view in rationalizing diseased states and in drug discovery are also discussed. PMID:22300048

  16. Expression of laminin and fibronectin in renal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Menon, Santosh; Kakkar, Nandita; Radotra, B D

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal dysplasia is a matter of debate. Recent theories have conceptualized the role of extracellular matrix proteins in the genesis of renal dysplasia. During normal nephrogenesis, collagen type I and III and fibronectins are lost and laminin and syndecan appear once proper induction has occurred. Any deviation from the normal pattern is said to lead to dysplasia. In this study, the expressions of adhesive glycoproteins, laminin, and fibronectin were studied immunohistochemically in 25 autopsy cases of renal dysplasia and normal age-matched control cases. These cases of renal dysplasia were categorized into 3 groups based on the period of gestation: 20 to 26 weeks, 27 to 33 weeks, and 34 to 40 weeks. The immunohistochemical findings were graded from 0 to 4+ based on the visual intensity. Chi-square analysis was used to calculate the difference in expressions of laminin and fibronectin in cases and controls as a whole and within and between age groups. Immunostaining for laminin in all age groups showed a significant difference in expression between dysplastic kidneys (less expression) and normal controls (greater expression). In the case of fibronectin expression, all but 1 group showed a significant difference, with dysplastic kidneys showing more and normal controls showing less expression. The inference derived is that laminin expression decreases and fibronectin expression increases in renal dysplasia compared with normal nephrogenesis. PMID:15630524

  17. Laminin-111: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goudenege, Sébastien; Lamarre, Yann; Dumont, Nicolas; Rousseau, Joël; Frenette, Jérôme; Skuk, Daniel; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) still needs effective treatments, and myoblast transplantation (MT) is considered as an approach to repair damaged skeletal muscles. DMD is due to the complete loss of dystrophin from muscles. The lack of link between the contracting apparatus and the extracellular matrix leads to frequent damage to the sarcolemma triggering muscle fiber necrosis. Laminins are major proteins in the extracellular matrix. Laminin-111 is normally present in skeletal and cardiac muscles in mice and humans but only during embryonic development. In this study, we showed that intramuscular injection of laminin-111 increased muscle strength and resistance in mdx mice. We also used laminin-111 as a coadjuvant in MT, and we showed this protein decreased considerably the repetitive cycles of degeneration, inflammatory reaction, and regeneration. Moreover, MT is significantly improved. To explain the improvement, we confirmed with the same myoblast cell batch that laminin-111 improves proliferation and drastically increases migration in vitro. These results are extremely important because DMD could be treated only by the injection of a recombinant protein, a simple and safe therapy to prevent loss of muscle function. Moreover, the improvement in MT would be significant to treat the muscles of DMD patients who are already weak. PMID:20683444

  18. Interdicting Gq Activation in Airway Disease by Receptor-Dependent and Receptor-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carr, Richard; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Zhang, Jie; Lam, Hong; An, Steven S; Tall, Gregory G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Benovic, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Gαqβγ heterotrimer (Gq), an important mediator in the pathology of airway disease, plays a central role in bronchoconstriction and airway remodeling, including airway smooth muscle growth and inflammation. Current therapeutic strategies to treat airway disease include the use of muscarinic and leukotriene receptor antagonists; however, these pharmaceuticals demonstrate a limited clinical efficacy as multiple Gq-coupled receptor subtypes contribute to these pathologies. Thus, broadly inhibiting the activation of Gq may be an advantageous therapeutic approach. Here, we investigated the effects of broadly inhibiting Gq activation in vitro and ex vivo using receptor-dependent and receptor-independent strategies. P4pal-10 is a protease activated receptor 4-derived pepducin that exhibits efficacy toward multiple Gq-coupled receptors. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that P4pal-10 selectively inhibits all G protein coupling to several Gq-coupled receptors, including protease activated receptor 1, muscarinic acetylcholine M3, and histamine H1 receptors, while demonstrating no direct effect on Gq. We also evaluated the ability of FR900359, also known as UBO-QIC, to directly inhibit Gq activation. FR900359 inhibited spontaneous Gαq nucleotide exchange, while having little effect on Gαsβγ, Gαiβγ, or Gα12/13βγ heterotrimer activity. Both P4pal-10 and FR900359 inhibited Gq-mediated intracellular signaling and primary human airway smooth muscle growth, whereas only FR900359 effectively interdicted agonist-promoted airway contraction in human precision cut lung slices. These studies serve as a proof of concept that the broad-based inhibition of Gq activation may be a useful therapeutic approach to treat multiple common pathologies of airway disease. PMID:26464325

  19. Activity of chlormethiazole at human recombinant GABAA and NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Usala, Marcello; Thompson, Sally Anne; Whiting, Paul J; Wafford, Keith A

    2003-01-01

    Investigation into the modulatory effects of chlormethiazole at human recombinant ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was undertaken to gain insight into its mechanism of action and determine if the drug exhibited any subtype-selective activity. Despite a structural similarity to the ?-subunit-selective compound loreclezole, chlormethiazole did not show any difference in maximum efficacy and only a slight difference in EC50 in its potentiating action at ?1?1?2 and ?1?2?2 GABAA receptor subtypes with preference for ?1?1?2. Similar to the previously reported subtype-dependent activity of pentobarbital, chlormethiazole elicited a significantly greater degree of maximum potentiation on receptors lacking a ?2 subunit, and also those receptors containing an ?4 or ?6 subunit. This also demonstrates that chlormethiazole does not act via the benzodiazepine binding site. Unlike pentobarbital and propofol, chlormethiazole elicited only a slight direct GABAA receptor activation at concentrations up to 1 mM. In addition, the drug did not potentiate anaesthetic-mediated currents elicited by pentobarbital or propofol, suggesting that chlormethiazole may be acting via an anaesthetic binding site. Chlormethiazole produced weak nonselective inhibition of human NMDA NR1a+NR2A and NR1a+NR2B receptors. IC50's were approximately 500 ?M that likely exceed the therapeutic dose range for chlormethiazole, indicating that the primary mechanism of the compounds in vivo activity is via GABAA receptors. PMID:14530209

  20. Biological activity of a polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents data on the activity of a new APHC2 polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptors, which was isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. It has been shown that APHC2 has an analgesic activity, does not impair normal motor activity, and does not change body temperature of experimental animals, which has a great practical value for design of potent analgesics of a new generation. Further study of the characteristics of binding of the polypeptide to the TRPV1 receptor may show approaches to the development of other antagonists of this receptor that do not influence the body temperature. PMID:26725234

  1. Regulated laminin-332 expression in human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Armanet, Mathieu; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Morel, Philippe; Parnaud, Géraldine; Rousselle, Patricia; Sinigaglia, Corinne; Berney, Thierry; Bosco, Domenico

    2009-12-01

    Laminin-332 (LN-332) is a basement membrane component known to exert a beneficial effect on rat pancreatic beta cells in vitro. In this work, we analyzed the expression of LN-332 in human islets, its expression after inflammatory insults by cytokines, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect. By Western blotting and RT-PCR, we showed that LN-332 was expressed in isolated human islets. By immunofluorescence on pancreas sections, we observed that labeling was confined to endocrine cells in islets. Confocal microscopy analysis on isolated islet cells revealed that labeling was granular but did not colocalize with hormone secretory granules. LN-332 was most abundant in cultured islets compared to freshly isolated islets and was found in culture medium, which suggests that it was secreted by islets. When islets were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1beta, expression and secretion of LN-332 increased as compared to control. No effect was observed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity, inhibited culture- and IL-1beta-induced LN-332 expression in islets. These results show that LN-332, known to have some beneficial effect on beta cells in vitro, is produced and secreted by endocrine islet cells and is up-regulated by stressing conditions such as culture and IL-1beta-exposure. PMID:19667121

  2. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  3. Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D.; Miller, Lydia K.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of receptor signaling is increased by receptor heteromerization leading to dynamic regulation of receptor function. While a number of studies have demonstrated that family A G-protein-coupled receptors are capable of forming heteromers in vitro, the role of these heteromers in normal physiology and disease has been poorly explored. In this study, direct interactions between CB1 cannabinoid and delta opioid receptors in the brain were examined. Additionally, regulation of heteromer levels and signaling in a rodent model of neuropathic pain was explored. First we examined changes in the expression, function and interaction of these receptors in the cerebral cortex of rats with a peripheral nerve lesion that resulted in neuropathic pain. We found that, following the peripheral nerve lesion, the expression of both cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) are increased in select brain regions. Concomitantly, an increase in CB1R activity and decrease in DOR activity was observed. We hypothesize that this decrease in DOR activity could be due to heteromeric interactions between these two receptors. Using a CB1R-DOR heteromer-specific antibody, we found increased levels of CB1R-DOR heteromer protein in the cortex of neuropathic animals. We subsequently examined the functionality of these heteromers by testing whether low, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands influenced DOR signaling in the cortex. We found that, in cortical membranes from animals that experienced neuropathic pain, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands significantly enhanced DOR activity. Moreover, this activity is selectively blocked by a heteromer-specific antibody. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for CB1R-DOR heteromers in altered cortical function of DOR during neuropathic pain. Moreover, they suggest the possibility that a novel heteromer-directed therapeutic strategy for enhancing DOR activity, could potentially be employed to reduce anxiety associated with chronic pain. PMID:23272051

  4. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  5. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVIII. Proteinase-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, Morley D; Compton, Steven J

    2002-06-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique subclass of G-protein-coupled receptors of which four family members have now been cloned from a number of species. The novel mechanism of receptor activation involves the proteolytic unmasking of a cryptic N-terminal receptor sequence that, remaining tethered, binds to and triggers receptor function. In addition, short (five to six amino acids) synthetic peptides, based on the proteolytically revealed motif, can activate PARs without the unmasking of the tethered ligand. This article summarizes the experiments leading to the pharmacological characterization and cloning of the four PAR family members and provides a rationale for their designation by the acronym "PAR". The ability to distinguish among the PARs pharmacologically 1) with selective proteinase activators, 2) with receptor-selective peptide agonists, and 3) with peptide and nonpeptide antagonists is discussed, as are the molecular mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization/internalization. Finally, the potential physiological roles of the PARs, which are widely distributed in many organs in the settings of tissue injury, repair, and remodeling, including embryogenesis and oncogenesis are discussed, and the newly appreciated roles of proteinases as signaling molecules that can act as either functional agonists or antagonists are highlighted. PMID:12037136

  6. Evidence That a Laminin-Like Insect Protein Mediates Early Events in the Interaction of a Phytoparasite with Its Vector's Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; dos Santos, Andre Luis Souza; Lery, Letícia Miranda Santos; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Oliveira, Mauricio Martins; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2012-01-01

    Phytomonas species are plant parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae, which are transmitted by phytophagous insects. Some Phytomonas species cause major agricultural damages. The hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus is natural and experimental host for several species of trypanosomatids, including Phytomonas spp. The invasion of the insect vectors' salivary glands is one of the most important events for the life cycle of Phytomonas species. In the present study, we show the binding of Phytomonas serpens at the external face of O. fasciatus salivary glands by means of scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro interaction of living parasites with total proteins from the salivary glands in ligand blotting assays. This binding occurs primarily through an interaction with a 130 kDa salivary gland protein. The mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digest of this protein matched 23% of human laminin-5 β3 chain precursor sequence by 16 digested peptides. A protein sequence search through the transcriptome of O. fasciatus embryo showed a partial sequence with 51% similarity to human laminin β3 subunit. Anti-human laminin-5 β3 chain polyclonal antibodies recognized the 130 kDa protein by immunoblotting. The association of parasites with the salivary glands was strongly inhibited by human laminin-5, by the purified 130 kDa insect protein, and by polyclonal antibodies raised against the human laminin-5 β3 chain. This is the first report demonstrating that a laminin-like molecule from the salivary gland of O. fasciatus acts as a receptor for Phytomonas binding. The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa. PMID:23118944

  7. Evidence that a laminin-like insect protein mediates early events in the interaction of a Phytoparasite with its vector's salivary gland.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Dias, Felipe; Souza dos Santos, Andre Luis; Santos Lery, Letícia Miranda; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Oliveira, Mauricio Martins; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2012-01-01

    Phytomonas species are plant parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae, which are transmitted by phytophagous insects. Some Phytomonas species cause major agricultural damages. The hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus is natural and experimental host for several species of trypanosomatids, including Phytomonas spp. The invasion of the insect vectors' salivary glands is one of the most important events for the life cycle of Phytomonas species. In the present study, we show the binding of Phytomonas serpens at the external face of O. fasciatus salivary glands by means of scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro interaction of living parasites with total proteins from the salivary glands in ligand blotting assays. This binding occurs primarily through an interaction with a 130 kDa salivary gland protein. The mass spectrometry of the trypsin-digest of this protein matched 23% of human laminin-5 β3 chain precursor sequence by 16 digested peptides. A protein sequence search through the transcriptome of O. fasciatus embryo showed a partial sequence with 51% similarity to human laminin β3 subunit. Anti-human laminin-5 β3 chain polyclonal antibodies recognized the 130 kDa protein by immunoblotting. The association of parasites with the salivary glands was strongly inhibited by human laminin-5, by the purified 130 kDa insect protein, and by polyclonal antibodies raised against the human laminin-5 β3 chain. This is the first report demonstrating that a laminin-like molecule from the salivary gland of O. fasciatus acts as a receptor for Phytomonas binding. The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa. PMID:23118944

  8. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  9. Recombinant laminin-8 (alpha(4)beta(1)gamma(1)). Production, purification,and interactions with integrins.

    PubMed

    Kortesmaa, J; Yurchenco, P; Tryggvason, K

    2000-05-19

    Laminins are a large family of heterotrimeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that, in addition to having structural roles, take part in the regulation of processes such as cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. The laminin alpha(4) chain is widely distributed both in adults and during development in tissues such as cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle fibers, vascular endothelia, lungs, and in peripheral nerves. It can associate with laminin beta(1)/gamma(1) chains to form laminin-8 and with the beta(2)/gamma(1) chains to form laminin-9. Functional studies on these laminins have been hampered by poor availability of the protein in pure and soluble forms. To facilitate studies on laminin-8, recombinant laminin-8 was produced in a mammalian expression system, purified and shown to form native Y-shaped molecules in rotary shadowing electron microscopy. Integrins mediating cell adhesion to laminin-8 were identified using function-blocking mAbs. The integrin specificities were found to differ somewhat from that of laminin-1. Integrin alpha(6)beta(1) was found to be a major mediator of adhesion of HT-1080 and cultured capillary endothelial cells to laminin-8. Considering the expression patterns of laminin-8 and integrin alpha(6)beta(1) it is likely that the former is a ligand for the latter in vivo as well. PMID:10809728

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanisms of activation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication. These single-pass transmembrane receptors, which bind polypeptide ligands — mainly growth factors — play key roles in processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism and motility. Recent progress has been achieved towards an understanding of the precise (and varied) mechanisms by which RTKs are activated by ligand binding and by which signals are propagated from the activated receptors to downstream targets in the cell. PMID:17306972

  11. Laminin promotes vascular network formation in 3D in vitro collagen scaffolds by regulating VEGF uptake

    PubMed Central

    Stamati, Katerina; Priestley, John V.; Mudera, Vivek; Cheema, Umber

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential neovascularisation process, which if recapitulated in 3D in vitro, will provide better understanding of endothelial cell (EC) behaviour. Various cell types and growth factors are involved, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 key components. We were able to control the aggregation pattern of ECs in 3D collagen hydrogels, by varying the matrix composition and/or having a source of cells signalling angiogenic proteins. These aggregation patterns reflect the different developmental pathways that ECs take to form different sized tubular structures. Cultures with added laminin and thus increased expression of α6 integrin showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in VEGFR2 positive ECs and increased VEGF uptake. This resulted in the end-to-end network aggregation of ECs. In cultures without laminin and therefore low α6 integrin expression, VEGFR2 levels and VEGF uptake were significantly lower (p<0.05). These ECs formed contiguous sheets, analogous to the ‘wrapping’ pathway in development. We have identified a key linkage between integrin expression on ECs and their uptake of VEGF, regulated by VEGFR2, resulting in different aggregation patterns in 3D. PMID:24907654

  12. Functions of the extracellular histidine residues of receptor activity-modifying proteins vary within adrenomedullin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Kato, Johji

    2008-12-05

    Receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP)-2 and -3 chaperone calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane, where together they form heterodimeric adrenomedullin (AM) receptors. We investigated the contributions made by His residues situated in the RAMP extracellular domain to AM receptor trafficking and receptor signaling by co-expressing hCRLR and V5-tagged-hRAMP2 or -3 mutants in which a His residue was substituted with Ala in HEK-293 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that hRAMP2-H71A mediated normal hCRLR surface delivery, but the resultant heterodimers showed significantly diminished [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-evoked cAMP production. Expression of hRAMP2-H124A and -H127A impaired surface delivery of hCRLR, which impaired or abolishing AM binding and receptor signaling. Although hRAMP3-H97A mediated full surface delivery of hCRLR, the resultant heterodimers showed impaired AM binding and signaling. Other His residues appeared uninvolved in hCRLR-related functions. Thus, the His residues of hRAMP2 and -3 differentially govern AM receptor function.

  13. Collagen type IV, laminin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), alpha1 and alpha6 integrins expression in the liver with metastases from malignant gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gulubova, Maya Vladova

    2004-01-01

    Basement membrane proteins and integrins can profoundly affect the biological behaviour of metastasic tumour cells. Using light and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry, we showed the presence of alterations in the occurrence of collagen type IV and laminin, and the expression of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in the livers of patients with metastases from gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. The myofibroblast-like cells in the metastatic stroma were studied. Parallel expressions of alpha-SMA, collagen type IV and alpha1 integrin chain, and appearance of laminin and alpha6 integrin chain immunoreactivity in the extratumoral liver tissue were markedly increased in sinusoids associated with metastases. Furthermore, ultrastructural immunohistochemistry detected tumour cells adhered to amorphous laminin deposits in the metastases. Laminin occurrence in liver sinusoids was visible as fine amorphous deposits in the space of Disse. The similarity between alpha-SMA-positive stromal cells in metastatic stroma and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was established by the presence of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The immune deposits of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains were observed on the hepatocyte microvilli and on the membrane of sinusoidal endothelial cells. These findings suggest that metastatic cells produce stimuli that induce HSCs activation and sinusoidal changes. In addition, the enhanced parallel expression of alphaSMA, collagen type IV, laminin and of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in sinusoids associated with metastases, might potentiate the further dissemination of tumour cells in new liver areas. PMID:15679046

  14. Bortezomib Does Not Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin α2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Zandra; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain-deficiency, also known as MDC1A, is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is no cure. Patients with complete laminin α2 chain-deficiency typically have an early onset disease with a more severe muscle phenotype while patients with residual laminin α2 chain expression usually have a milder disease course. Similar genotype-phenotype correlations can be seen in the dy3K/dy3K and dy2J/dy2J mouse models of MDC1A, respectively, with dy3K/dy3K mice presenting the more severe phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib partially improves muscle morphology and increases lifespan in dy3K/dy3K mice. Here, we explore the use of bortezomib in dy2J/dy2J animals. However, bortezomib neither improved histological hallmarks of disease nor increased muscle strength and locomotive activity in dy2J/dy2J mice. Altogether our data suggest that proteasome inhibition does not mitigate muscle dysfunction caused by partial laminin α2 chain-deficiency. Still, it is possible that proteasome inhibition could be useful as a supportive therapy in patients with complete absence of laminin α2 chain. PMID:26731667

  15. Understanding Cytokine and Growth Factor Receptor Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Mariya; Whitty, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the detailed mechanism of action of cytokine and growth factor receptors – and particularly our quantitative understanding of the link between structure, mechanism and function – lags significantly behind our knowledge of comparable functional protein classes such as enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors, and ion channels. In particular, it remains controversial whether such receptors are activated by a mechanism of ligand-induced oligomerization, versus a mechanism in which the ligand binds to a pre-associated receptor dimer or oligomer that becomes activated through subsequent conformational rearrangement. A major limitation to progress has been the relative paucity of methods for performing quantitative mechanistic experiments on unmodified receptors expressed at endogenous levels on live cells. In this article we review the current state of knowledge on the activation mechanisms of cytokine and growth factor receptors, critically evaluate the evidence for and against the different proposed mechanisms, and highlight other key questions that remain unanswered. New approaches and techniques have led to rapid recent progress in this area, and the field is poised for major advances in the coming years, which promises to revolutionize our understanding of this large and biologically and medically important class of receptors. PMID:23046381

  16. Cloning, constitutive activity and expression profiling of two receptors related to relaxin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Proost, Paul; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) comprise a cluster of transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular domain. This receptor group can be classified into three subtypes. Belonging to the subtype C LGRs are the mammalian relaxin receptors LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which mediate important reproductive and other processes. We identified two related receptors in the genome of the fruit fly and cloned their open reading frames into an expression vector. Interestingly, dLGR3 demonstrated constitutive activity at very low doses of transfected plasmid, whereas dLGR4 did not show any basal activity. Both receptors exhibited a similar expression pattern during development, with relatively high transcript levels during the first larval stage. In addition, both receptors displayed higher expression in male adult flies as compared to female flies. Analysis of the tissue distribution of both receptor transcripts revealed a high expression of dLGR3 in the female fat body, while the expression of dLGR4 peaked in the midgut of both the wandering and adult stage. PMID:25064813

  17. Activation of spinal GABAB receptors normalizes N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Peng; Wu, Yu-Ming; Guo, Wen-Ya; Guo, Yue-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2014-06-15

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity is increased, while GABAB receptor is downregulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn in diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we determined the interaction of NMDARs and GABAB receptors in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was significantly lower in STZ-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, significantly increased the PWT in STZ-treated rats, an effect that was abolished by pre-administration of the GABAB receptor specific antagonist CGP55845. Spinal NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit, protein and mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in STZ-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal baclofen significantly reduced the NR2B protein and mRNA expression levels in STZ-treated rats. Intrathecal administration of CGP55845 eliminated baclofen-induced reduction of NR2B protein and mRNA levels in STZ-treated rats. In addition, the phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein level was significantly higher in the spinal cord dorsal horn in STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of baclofen significantly decreased phosphorylated CREB protein level in STZ-treated rats; an effect was blocked by CGP55845. These data suggest that activation of GABAB receptors in the spinal cord dorsal horn normalizes NMDAR expression level in diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:24787504

  18. Histidine(7.36(305)) in the conserved peptide receptor activation domain of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor couples peptide binding and receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mayevu, Nkateko M I; Choe, Han; Abagyan, Ruben; Seong, Jae Young; Millar, Robert P; Katz, Arieh A; Flanagan, Colleen A

    2015-02-15

    Transmembrane helix seven residues of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) couple agonist binding to a conserved receptor activation mechanism. Amino-terminal residues of the GnRH peptide determine agonist activity. We investigated GnRH interactions with the His(7.36(305)) residue of the GnRH receptor, using functional and computational analysis of modified GnRH receptors and peptides. Non-polar His(7.36(305)) substitutions decreased receptor affinity for GnRH four- to forty-fold, whereas GnRH signaling potency was more decreased (~150-fold). Uncharged polar His(7.36(305)) substitutions decreased GnRH potency, but not affinity. [2-Nal(3)]-GnRH retained high affinity at receptors with non-polar His(7.36(305)) substitutions, supporting a role for His(7.36(305)) in recognizing Trp(3) of GnRH. Compared with GnRH, [2-Nal(3)]-GnRH potency was lower at the wild type GnRH receptor, but unchanged or higher at mutant receptors. Results suggest that His(7.36(305)) of the GnRH receptor forms two distinct interactions that determine binding to Trp(3) and couple agonist binding to the conserved transmembrane domain network that activates GPCRs. PMID:25583361

  19. Soluble Extracts from Helicobacter pylori Induce Dome Formation in Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers in a Laminin-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Terrés, A. M.; Windle, H. J.; Ardini, E.; Kelleher, D. P.

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach at the interface between the mucus layer and the apical pole of gastric epithelial cells. A number of secreted and shed products from the bacteria, such as proteins and lipopolysaccharide, are likely to have a role in the pathogenesis at the epithelial level. To determine the physiological response of transporting polarized epithelia to released soluble factors from the bacterium, we used the T84 cell line. Monolayers of T84 cells were exposed to soluble extracts from H. pylori. The extracts induced rapid “dome” formation as well as an immediate decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Domes are fluid-filled blister-like structures unique to polarized epithelia. Their formation has been linked to sodium-transporting events as well as to diminished adherence of the cells to the substrate. H. pylori-induced dome formation in T84 monolayers was exacerbated by amiloride and inhibited by ouabain. Furthermore, it was associated with changes in the expression of the laminin binding α6β4 integrin and the 67-kDa laminin receptor. Domes formed primarily on laminin-coated filters, rather than on fibronectin or collagen matrices, and their formation was inhibited by preincubating the bacterial extract with soluble laminin. This effect was specific to H. pylori and independent of the urease, vacA, cagA, and Lewis phenotype of the strains. These data indicate that released elements from H. pylori can alter the physiological balance and integrity of the epithelium in the absence of an underlying immune response. PMID:12819097

  20. Activation and inhibition of erythropoietin receptor function: role of receptor dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Watowich, S S; Hilton, D J; Lodish, H F

    1994-01-01

    Members of the cytokine receptor superfamily have structurally similar extracellular ligand-binding domains yet diverse cytoplasmic regions lacking any obvious catalytic domains. Many of these receptors form ligand-induced oligomers which are likely to participate in transmembrane signaling. A constitutively active (factor-independent) mutant of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), R129C in the exoplasmic domain, forms disulfide-linked homodimers, suggesting that the wild-type EPO-R is activated by ligand-induced homodimerization. Here, we have taken two approaches to probe the role EPO-R dimerization plays in signal transduction. First, on the basis of the crystal structure of the ligand-bound, homodimeric growth hormone receptor (GH-R) and sequence alignment between the GH-R and EPO-R, we identified residues of the EPO-R which may be involved in intersubunit contacts in an EPO-R homodimer. Residue 129 of the EPO-R corresponds to a residue localized to the GH-R dimer interface region. Alanine or cysteine substitutions were introduced at four other residues of the EPO-R predicted to be in the dimer interface region. Substitution of residue E-132 or E-133 with cysteine renders the EPO-R constitutively active. Like the arginine-to-cysteine mutation at position 129 in the exoplasmic domain (R129C), E132C and E133C form disulfide-linked homodimers, suggesting that constitutive activity is due to covalent dimerization. In the second approach, we have coexpressed the wild-type EPO-R with inactive mutants of the receptor missing all or part of the cytosolic domain. These truncated receptors have a dominant inhibitory effect on the proliferative action of the wild-type receptor. Taken together, these results strengthen the hypothesis that an initial step in EPO- and EPO-R-mediated signal transduction is ligand-induced receptor dimerization. Images PMID:8196600

  1. Endothelin-converting enzyme 2 differentially regulates opioid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Fujita, W; Gomes, I; Bobeck, E; Devi, L A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opioid receptor function is modulated by post-activation events such as receptor endocytosis, recycling and/or degradation. While it is generally understood that the peptide ligand gets co-endocytosed with the receptor, relatively few studies have investigated the role of the endocytosed peptide and peptide processing enzymes in regulating receptor function. In this study, we focused on endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2), a member of the neprilysin family of metallopeptidases that exhibits an acidic pH optimum, localizes to an intracellular compartment and selectively processes neuropeptides including opioid peptides in vitro, and examined its role in modulating ? receptor recycling and resensitization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of ECE2 inhibition on hydrolysis of the endocytosed peptide was examined using thin-layer chromatography and on ? opioid receptor trafficking using either elisa or microscopy. The effect of ECE2 inhibition on receptor signalling was measured using a cAMP assay and, in vivo, on antinociception induced by intrathecally administered opioids by the tail-flick assay. KEY RESULTS The highly selective ECE2 inhibitor, S136492, significantly impaired ? receptor recycling and signalling by only those ligands that are ECE2 substrates and this was seen both in heterologous cells and in cells endogenously co-expressing ? receptors with ECE2. We also found that ECE2 inhibition attenuated antinociception mediated only by opioid peptides that are ECE2 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that ECE2, by selectively processing endogenous opioid peptides in the endocytic compartment, plays a role in modulating opioid receptor activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24990314

  2. HINT1 protein cooperates with cannabinoid 1 receptor to negatively regulate glutamate NMDA receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of a large number of drugs currently in therapeutic use. Likewise, the glutamate ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in certain neurological disorders, such as neurodegeration, neuropathic pain and mood disorders, as well as psychosis and schizophrenia. Thus, there is now an important need to characterize the interactions between GPCRs and NMDARs. Indeed, these interactions can produce distinct effects, and whereas the activation of Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) increases the calcium fluxes associated to NMDARs, that of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) antagonizes their permeation. Notably, a series of proteins interact with these receptors affecting their responses and interactions, and then emerge as novel therapeutic targets for the aforementioned pathologies. Results We found that in the presence of GPCRs, the HINT1 protein influences the activity of NMDARs, whereby NMDAR activation was enhanced in CNR1+/+/HINT1-/- cortical neurons and the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 provided these cells with no protection against a NMDA insult. NMDAR activity was normalized in these cells by the lentiviral expression of HINT1, which also restored the neuroprotection mediated by cannabinoids. NMDAR activity was also enhanced in CNR1-/-/HINT1+/+ neurons, although this activity was dampened by the expression of GPCRs like the MOR, CNR1 or serotonin 1A (5HT1AR). Conclusions The HINT1 protein plays an essential role in the GPCR-NMDAR connection. In the absence of receptor activation, GPCRs collaborate with HINT1 proteins to negatively control NMDAR activity. When activated, most GPCRs release the control of HINT1 and NMDAR responsiveness is enhanced. However, cannabinoids that act through CNR1 maintain the negative control of HINT1 on NMDAR function and their protection against glutamate excitotoxic insult persists. PMID:24093505

  3. Clinically used selective oestrogen receptor modulators increase LDL receptor activity in primary human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cerrato, F; Fernández-Suárez, M E; Alonso, R; Alonso, M; Vázquez, C; Pastor, O; Mata, P; Lasunción, M A; Gómez-Coronado, D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We assessed the effect of tamoxifen, raloxifene and toremifene and their combinations with lovastatin on LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes from normolipidaemic and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) subjects, and human HepG2 hepatocytes and MOLT-4 lymphoblasts. Experimental Approach Lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, treated with different compounds, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labelled LDL uptake was analysed by flow cytometry. Key Results Tamoxifen, toremifene and raloxifene, in this order, stimulated DiI-LDL uptake by lymphocytes by inhibiting LDL-derived cholesterol trafficking and subsequent down-regulation of LDL receptor expression. Differently to what occurred in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells, only tamoxifen consistently displayed a potentiating effect with lovastatin in primary lymphocytes. The SERM-mediated increase in LDL receptor activity was not altered by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780 nor was it reproduced by 17β-oestradiol. However, the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen was equally effective as tamoxifen. The SERMs produced similar effects on LDL receptor activity in heterozygous FH lymphocytes as in normal lymphocytes, although none of them had a potentiating effect with lovastatin in heterozygous FH lymphocytes. The SERMs had no effect in homozygous FH lymphocytes. Conclusions and Implications Clinically used SERMs up-regulate LDL receptors in primary human lymphocytes. There is a mild enhancement between SERMs and lovastatin of lymphocyte LDLR activity, the potentiation being greater in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells. The effect of SERMs is independent of oestrogen receptors but is preserved in the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen. This mechanism may contribute to the cholesterol-lowering action of SERMs. PMID:25395200

  4. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Palanker, Laura; Necakov, Aleksandar S.; Sampson, Heidi M.; Ni, Ruoyu; Hu, Chun; Thummel, Carl S.; Krause, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are a large family of transcription factors that play major roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism and disease. To determine how, where and when nuclear receptors are regulated by small chemical ligands and/or protein partners, we have used a ‘ligand sensor’ system to visualize spatial activity patterns for each of the 18 Drosophila nuclear receptors in live developing animals. Transgenic lines were established that express the ligand binding domain of each nuclear receptor fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4. When combined with a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, the fusion proteins show tissue- and stage-specific patterns of activation. We show that these responses accurately reflect the presence of endogenous and exogenously added hormone, and that they can be modulated by nuclear receptor partner proteins. The amnioserosa, yolk, midgut and fat body, which play major roles in lipid storage, metabolism and developmental timing, were identified as frequent sites of nuclear receptor activity. We also see dynamic changes in activation that are indicative of sweeping changes in ligand and/or co-factor production. The screening of a small compound library using this system identified the angular psoralen angelicin and the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb as activators of the Ultraspiracle (USP) ligand-binding domain. These results demonstrate the utility of this system for the functional dissection of nuclear receptor pathways and for the development of new receptor agonists and antagonists that can be used to modulate metabolism and disease and to develop more effective means of insect control. PMID:16914501

  5. Probing the activation sequence of NMDA receptors with lurcher mutations.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Swetha E; Shogan, Tamer; Page, Jessica C; Kasperek, Eileen M; Popescu, Gabriela K

    2012-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation involves a dynamic series of structural rearrangements initiated by glutamate binding to glycine-loaded receptors and culminates with the clearing of the permeation pathway, which allows ionic flux. Along this sequence, three rate-limiting transitions can be quantified with kinetic analyses of single-channel currents, even though the structural determinants of these critical steps are unknown. In inactive receptors, the major permeation barrier resides at the intersection of four M3 transmembrane helices, two from each GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, at the level of the invariant SYTANLAAF sequence, known as the lurcher motif. Because the A7 but not A8 residues in this region display agonist-dependent accessibility to extracellular solutes, they were hypothesized to form the glutamate-sensitive gate. We tested this premise by examining the reaction mechanisms of receptors with substitutions in the lurcher motifs of GluN1 or GluN2A subunits. We found that, consistent with their locations relative to the proposed activation gate, A8Y decreased open-state stability, whereas A7Y dramatically stabilized open states, primarily by preventing gate closure; the equilibrium distribution of A7Y receptors was strongly shifted toward active states and resulted in slower microscopic association and dissociation rate constants for glutamate. In addition, for both A8- and A7-substituted receptors, we noticed patterns of kinetic changes that were specific to GluN1 or GluN2 locations. This may be a first indication that the sequence of discernible kinetic transitions during NMDA receptor activation may reflect subunit-dependent movements of M3 helices. Testing this hypothesis may afford insight into the activation mechanism of NMDA receptors. PMID:22891278

  6. Localization of a tumor cell adhesion domain of laminin by a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Skubitz, A.P.N.; Charonis, A.S.; Tsilibary, E.C.; Furcht, L.T. )

    1987-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to localize the domain(s) of laminin to which tumor cells adhere. Rat Y3-Ag 1.2.3 myeloma cells were fused with spleen cells from a rat immunized with a purified 440-kDa fragment of chymotrypsin-digested laminin. Three monoclonal antibodies (AL-1 to AL-3) that bound to intact laminin in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay were chosen for further analysis. The epitopes recognized by these antibodies were characterized by radioimmunoassays, immunoblotting, radioimmunoprecipitation, and immunoaffinity chromatography. In cell adhesion assays, monoclonal antibody AL-2 inhibited the highly metastatic melanoma cell line, K-1735-M4, to both intact laminin and the 440-kDa fragment of laminin. Electron microscopic examination of laminin-monoclonal antibody interactions showed that monoclonal antibody AL-2 reacted with the long arm of laminin directly below the cross-region. Two monoclonal antibodies that failed to inhibit tumor cell adhesion to laminin reacted with epitopes on the lateral short arms or cross-region of laminin as seen by electron microscopy. These results suggest that a new tumor cell binding domain of laminin may be located close to the cross-region on the long arm of laminin.

  7. Injectable Laminin-Functionalized Hydrogel for Nucleus Pulposus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Aubrey T.; Mancino, Robert J.; Bowles, Robby D.; Brunger, Jonathan M.; Tainter, David M.; Chen, Yi-Te; Richardson, William J; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell delivery to the pathological intervertebral disc (IVD) has significant therapeutic potential for enhancing IVD regeneration. The development of injectable biomaterials that retain delivered cells, promote cell survival, and maintain or promote an NP cell phenotype in vivo remains a significant challenge. Previous studies have demonstrated NP cell laminin interactions in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region of the IVD that promote cell attachment and biosynthesis. These findings suggest that incorporating laminin ligands into carriers for cell delivery may be beneficial for promoting NP cell survival and phenotype. Here, an injectable, laminin-111 functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-LM111) hydrogel was developed as a biomaterial carrier for cell delivery to the IVD. We evaluated the mechanical properties of the PEG-LM111 hydrogel, and its ability to retain delivered cells in the IVD space. Gelation occurred in approximately 20 minutes without an initiator, with dynamic shear moduli in the range of 0.9 1.4 kPa. Primary NP cell retention in cultured IVD explants was significantly higher over 14 days when cells were delivered within a PEG-LM111 carrier, as compared to cells in liquid suspension. Together, these results suggest this injectable laminin-functionalized biomaterial may be an easy to use carrier for delivering cells to the IVD. PMID:23849345

  8. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  9. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  10. Opportunistic activation of TRP receptors by endogenous lipids: Exploiting lipidomics to understand TRP receptor cellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Heather B.; Raboune, Siham; Hollis, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) form a large family of ubiquitous non-selective cation channels that function as cellular sensors and in many cases regulate intracellular calcium. Identification of the endogenous ligands that activate these TRP receptors is still under intense investigation with the majority of these channels still remaining “orphans”. That these channels respond to a variety of external stimuli (e.g. plant-derived lipids, changes in temperature, and changes in pH) provides a framework for their abilities as cellular sensors, however, the mechanism of direct activation is still under much debate and research. In the cases where endogenous ligands (predominately lipids) have shown direct activation of a channel, multiple ligands have been shown to activate the same channel suggesting that these receptors are “promiscuous” in nature. Lipidomics of a growing class of endogenous lipids, N-acyl amides, the most famous of which is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (the endogenous cannabinoid, Anandamide) is providing a novel set of ligands that have been shown to activate some members of the TRP family and have the potential to deorphanize many more. Here it is argued that activation of TRPV receptors, a subset of the larger family of TRPs, by multiple endogenous lipids that are structurally analogous is a model system to drive our understanding that many TRP receptors are not promiscuous, but are more characteristically “opportunistic” in nature; exploiting the structural similarity and biosynthesis of a narrow range of analogous endogenous lipids. In addition, this manuscript will compare the activation properties of TRPC5 to the activity profile of an “orphan” lipid, N-palmitoyl glycine; further demonstrating that lipidomics aimed at expanding our knowledge of the family of N-acyl amides has the potential to provide novel avenues of research for TRP receptors. PMID:23178153

  11. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  12. Prolonged activation of NMDA receptors promotes dephosphorylation and alters postendocytic sorting of GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Miho; Vargas, Karina J; Wilkins, Megan E; Ramírez, Omar A; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Pangalos, Menelas N; Smart, Trevor G; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    Slow and persistent synaptic inhibition is mediated by metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). GABABRs are responsible for the modulation of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals and for hyperpolarization at postsynaptic sites. Postsynaptic GABABRs are predominantly found on dendritic spines, adjacent to excitatory synapses, but the control of their plasma membrane availability is still controversial. Here, we explore the role of glutamate receptor activation in regulating the function and surface availability of GABABRs in central neurons. We demonstrate that prolonged activation of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) leads to endocytosis, a diversion from a recycling route, and subsequent lysosomal degradation of GABABRs. These sorting events are paralleled by a reduction in GABABR-dependent activation of inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents. Postendocytic sorting is critically dependent on phosphorylation of serine 783 (S783) within the GABABR2 subunit, an established substrate of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). NMDA-R activation leads to a rapid increase in phosphorylation of S783, followed by a slower dephosphorylation, which results from the activity of AMPK and protein phosphatase 2A, respectively. Agonist activation of GABABRs counters the effects of NMDA. Thus, NMDA-R activation alters the phosphorylation state of S783 and acts as a molecular switch to decrease the abundance of GABABRs at the neuronal plasma membrane. Such a mechanism may be of significance during synaptic plasticity or pathological conditions, such as ischemia or epilepsy, which lead to prolonged activation of glutamate receptors. PMID:20643948

  13. Prolonged activation of NMDA receptors promotes dephosphorylation and alters postendocytic sorting of GABAB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Terunuma, Miho; Vargas, Karina J.; Wilkins, Megan E.; Ramírez, Omar A.; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Pangalos, Menelas N.; Smart, Trevor G.; Moss, Stephen J.; Couve, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Slow and persistent synaptic inhibition is mediated by metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). GABABRs are responsible for the modulation of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals and for hyperpolarization at postsynaptic sites. Postsynaptic GABABRs are predominantly found on dendritic spines, adjacent to excitatory synapses, but the control of their plasma membrane availability is still controversial. Here, we explore the role of glutamate receptor activation in regulating the function and surface availability of GABABRs in central neurons. We demonstrate that prolonged activation of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) leads to endocytosis, a diversion from a recycling route, and subsequent lysosomal degradation of GABABRs. These sorting events are paralleled by a reduction in GABABR-dependent activation of inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents. Postendocytic sorting is critically dependent on phosphorylation of serine 783 (S783) within the GABABR2 subunit, an established substrate of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). NMDA-R activation leads to a rapid increase in phosphorylation of S783, followed by a slower dephosphorylation, which results from the activity of AMPK and protein phosphatase 2A, respectively. Agonist activation of GABABRs counters the effects of NMDA. Thus, NMDA-R activation alters the phosphorylation state of S783 and acts as a molecular switch to decrease the abundance of GABABRs at the neuronal plasma membrane. Such a mechanism may be of significance during synaptic plasticity or pathological conditions, such as ischemia or epilepsy, which lead to prolonged activation of glutamate receptors. PMID:20643948

  14. AT2 RECEPTOR ACTIVITIES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Matavelli, Luis C.; Siragy, Helmy M.

    2014-01-01

    Although angiotensin II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was discovered over two decades ago, its contribution to physiology and pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. Current knowledge suggests that under normal physiologic conditions, AT2R counterbalances the effects of angiotensin II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R). A major obstacle for AT2R investigations was the lack of specific agonists. Most of the earlier AT2R studies were performed using the peptidic agonist, CG42112A, or the non-peptidic antagonist PD123319. CGP42112A is non-specific for AT2R and in higher concentrations can bind to AT1R. Recently, the development of specific non-peptidic AT2R agonists boosted the efforts in identifying the therapeutic potentials for AT2R stimulation. Unlike AT1R, AT2R is involved in vasodilation via release of bradykinin and nitric oxide, anti-inflammation and healing from injury. Interestingly, the vasodilatory effects of AT2R stimulation were not associated with significant reduction in blood pressure. In the kidney, AT2R stimulation produced natriuresis, increased renal blood flow, and reduced tissue inflammation. In animal studies, enhanced AT2R function led to reduction of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, and reduced the size of the infarcted area. Similarly, AT2R stimulation demonstrated protective effects in vasculature and brain. PMID:25636068

  15. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action. PMID:19049593

  17. Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Joel R; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Rao, Prashant; Pierson, Jason; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Mayer, Mark L; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-10-16

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To gain a better understanding of how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped rat AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional states and analysed the resulting structures using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that transition to the active state involves a 'corkscrew' motion of the receptor assembly, driven by closure of the ligand-binding domain. Desensitization is accompanied by disruption of the amino-terminal domain tetramer in AMPA, but not kainate, receptors with a two-fold to four-fold symmetry transition in the ligand-binding domains in both subtypes. The 7.6 Å structure of a desensitized kainate receptor shows how these changes accommodate channel closing. These findings integrate previous physiological, biochemical and structural analyses of glutamate receptors and provide a molecular explanation for key steps in receptor gating. PMID:25119039

  18. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  19. Down-regulation of cellular platelet-derived growth factor receptors induced by an activated neu receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lehtola, L; Nistér, M; Hölttä, E; Westermark, B; Alitalo, K

    1991-01-01

    The functional integration of growth factor signaling occurs at several levels in target cells. One of the most proximal mechanisms is receptor transmodulation, by which one activated receptor can regulate the expression of other receptors in the same cells. Well-established transregulatory loops involve platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) down-regulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and beta-type transforming growth factors modulation of PDGF receptors. We have studied the relationship between neu tyrosine kinase activation and the expression of the PDGF receptors in transfected NIH/3T3 cells. Expression of the neu oncogene, but not of the neu proto-oncogene, was associated with a decrease of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors on the cell surface, as measured by [125-I]PDGF-AA and -BB binding. These results were corroborated by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of the PDGF beta-receptors. PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor mRNAs were strongly decreased in the neu oncogene-transformed cells in comparison with control cells expressing the neu proto-oncogene. Down-regulation of the PDGF receptors and their mRNAs was also observed after EGF treatment of cells expressing a chimeric EGF receptor/neu receptor, where the neu tyrosine kinase is activated by EGF binding. These results show that the neu tyrosine kinase can down-modulate PDGF receptor expression, and the effect is mediated via decreased PDGF receptor mRNA levels. Images PMID:1685673

  20. Structure-activity relationships of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Stanislaus, D; Janovick, J A; Conn, P M

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of cell-surface receptors is to discriminate the specific signaling molecule or ligand from a large array of chemically diverse extracellular substances and to activate an effector signaling cascade that triggers an intracellular response and eventually a biological effect. G protein-coupled cell-surface receptors (GPCRs) mediate their intracellular actions through the activation of guanine nucleotide-binding signal-transducing proteins (G proteins), which form a diverse family of regulatory GTPases that, in the GTP-bound state, bind and activate downstream membrane-localized effectors. Hundreds of GPCRs signal through one or more of these G proteins in response to a large variety of stimuli including photons, neurotransmitters, and hormones of variable molecular structure. The mechanisms by which these ligands provoke activation of the receptor/G-protein system are highly complex and multifactorial. Knowledge and mapping of the structural determinants and requirements for optimal GPCR function are of paramount importance, not only for a better and more detailed understanding of the molecular basis of ligand action and receptor function in normal and abnormal conditions, but also for a rational design of early diagnostic and therapeutic tools that may allow exogenous regulation of receptor and G protein function in disease processes. PMID:10714355

  1. Toll-like receptors: Activation, signalling and transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Dominic

    2015-08-01

    Families of innate immune receptors serve as the bodies primary defence system by recognising and rapidly responding to infection by microorganisms or to endogenous danger signals and initiating inflammatory processes. Whilst Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family to be discovered, important and exciting discoveries continue to emerge into the molecular mechanisms that control their activation and regulation. Herein, I will provide an overview of TLR activation and their downstream signalling cascades, and discuss some of the recent findings concerning the assembly of a TLR oligomeric signalling platform, known as the Myddosome. Further, a brief examination of the importance of crosstalk between multiple TLRs or between TLRs and other innate immune receptors for appropriate and coordinated immune responses will be presented. Finally, I will discuss the importance of mechanisms that regulate TLRs with a focus on the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in modulating transcriptional responses downstream of TLRs. PMID:25846205

  2. Ghrelin receptor conformational dynamics regulate the transition from a preassembled to an active receptor:Gq complex

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; M'Kadmi, Cline; Gagne, Didier; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Denoyelle, Sverine; Gaibelet, Grald; Gavara, Laurent; Garcia de Souza Costa, Mauricio; Perahia, David; Trinquet, Eric; Mouillac, Bernard; Galandrin, Sgolne; Gals, Cline; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Floquet, Nicolas; Martinez, Jean; Marie, Jacky; Banres, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    How G protein-coupled receptor conformational dynamics control G protein coupling to trigger signaling is a key but still open question. We addressed this question with a model system composed of the purified ghrelin receptor assembled into lipid discs. Combining receptor labeling through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, lanthanide resonance energy transfer, and normal mode analyses, we directly demonstrate the occurrence of two distinct receptor:Gq assemblies with different geometries whose relative populations parallel the activation state of the receptor. The first of these assemblies is a preassembled complex with the receptor in its basal conformation. This complex is specific of Gq and is not observed with Gi. The second one is an active assembly in which the receptor in its active conformation triggers G protein activation. The active complex is present even in the absence of agonist, in a direct relationship with the high constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor. These data provide direct evidence of a mechanism for ghrelin receptor-mediated Gq signaling in which transition of the receptor from an inactive to an active conformation is accompanied by a rearrangement of a preassembled receptor:G protein complex, ultimately leading to G protein activation and signaling. PMID:25605885

  3. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  4. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  5. Prostacyclin prevents murine lung cancer independent of the membrane receptor by activation of peroxisomal proliferator--activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Nemenoff, Raphael; Meyer, Amy M; Hudish, Tyler M; Mozer, Anthony B; Snee, Amy; Narumiya, Shuh; Stearman, Robert S; Winn, Robert A; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Geraci, Mark W; Keith, Robert L

    2008-10-01

    Overexpression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) decreases lung tumor multiplicity in chemical- and cigarette-smoke-induced murine lung cancer models. Prostacyclin signals through a single G-protein-coupled receptor (IP), which signals through cyclic AMP. To determine the role of this receptor in lung cancer chemoprevention by prostacyclin, PGIS-overexpressing mice were crossed to mice that lack the IP receptor [IP(-/-)]. Carcinogen-induced lung tumor incidence was similar in IP(+/+), IP(+/-), and IP(-/-) mice, and overexpression of PGIS gave equal protection in all three groups, indicating that the protective effects of prostacyclin are not mediated through activation of IP. Because prostacyclin can activate members of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors, we examined the role of PPARgamma in the protection of prostacyclin against lung tumorigenesis. Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, activated PPARgamma in nontransformed bronchial epithelial cells and in a subset of human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Iloprost-impregnated chow fed to wild-type mice resulted in elevated lung macrophages and decreased lung tumor formation. Transgenic animals with lung-specific PPARgamma overexpression also developed fewer lung tumors. This reduction was not enhanced by administration of supplemental iloprost. These studies indicate that PPARgamma is a critical target for prostacyclin-mediated lung cancer chemoprevention and may also have therapeutic activity. PMID:19138979

  6. Laminin-database v.2.0: an update on laminins in health and neuromuscular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Golbert, Daiane C. F.; Santana-van-Vliet, Eliane; Mundstein, Alex S.; Calfo, Vicente; Savino, Wilson; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2014-01-01

    The laminin (LM)-database, hosted at http://www.lm.lncc.br, was published in the NAR database 2011 edition. It was the first database that provided comprehensive information concerning a non-collagenous family of extracellular matrix proteins, the LMs. In its first version, this database contained a large amount of information concerning LMs related to health and disease, with particular emphasis on the haemopoietic system. Users can easily access several tabs for LMs and LM-related molecules, as well as LM nomenclatures and direct links to PubMed. The LM-database version 2.0 integrates data from several publications to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge of LMs in health and disease. The novel features include the addition of two new tabs, ‘Neuromuscular Disorders’ and ‘miRNA-–LM Relationship’. More specifically, in this updated version, an expanding set of data has been displayed concerning the role of LMs in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the putative involvement of microRNAs. Given the importance of LMs in several biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell death, this upgraded version expands for users a panoply of information, regarding complex molecular circuitries that involve LMs in health and disease, including neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24106090

  7. Modulation of Opioid Receptor Ligand Affinity and Efficacy Using Active and Inactive State Receptor Models

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Jessica P.; Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2012-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are widely used for the treatment of pain; however chronic use results in the development of tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist maintains the analgesia associated with MOR agonists, but with reduced negative side effects. Using our newly refined opioid receptor models for structure-based ligand design, we have synthesized several pentapeptides with tailored affinity and efficacy profiles. In particular, we have obtained pentapeptides 8, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]NH2, and 12, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]OH, which demonstrates high affinity and full agonist behavior at MOR, high affinity but very low efficacy for DOR, and minimal affinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Functional properties of these peptides as MOR agonists/DOR antagonists lacking undesired KOR activity make them promising candidates for future in vivo studies of MOR/DOR interactions. Subtle structural variation of 12, by substituting D-Cys5 for L-Cys5, generated analog 13 which maintains low nanomolar MOR and DOR affinity, but which displays no efficacy at either receptor. These results demonstrate the power and utility of accurate receptor models for structure-based ligand design, as well as the profound sensitivity of ligand function on its structure. PMID:22882801

  8. New and selective ryanodine receptor activators for insect control.

    PubMed

    Lahm, George P; Cordova, Daniel; Barry, James D

    2009-06-15

    Diamide insecticides have emerged as one of the most promising new classes of insecticide chemistry owing to their excellent insecticidal efficacy and high margins of mammalian safety. Chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, the first two insecticides from this class, demonstrate exceptional activity across a broad range of pests in the order Lepidoptera. This chemistry has been confirmed to control insects via activation of ryanodine receptors which leads to uncontrolled calcium release in muscle. The high levels of mammalian safety are attributed to a strong selectivity for insect over mammalian receptors. PMID:19186058

  9. Protease-Activated Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in Visceral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cenac, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The protease-activated receptors (PARs) play a pivotal role in inflammatory and nociceptive processes. PARs have raised considerable interest because of their capacity to regulate numerous aspects of viscera physiology and pathophysiology. The present article summarizes research on PARs and proteases as signalling molecules in visceral pain. In particular, experiments in animal models suggest that PAR2 is important for visceral hypersensitivity. Moreover, endogenous PAR2 agonists seem to be released by colonic tissue of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting a role for this receptor in visceral pain perception. Thus, PARs, together with proteases that activate them, represent exciting targets for therapeutic intervention on visceral pain. PMID:24396336

  10. Protease-activated receptor 1-dependent neuronal damage involves NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Cecily E.; Mannaioni, Guido; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Sastre, Aristide A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed throughout the central nervous system. PAR1 activation by brain-derived as well as blood-derived proteases has been shown to have variable and complex effects in a variety of animal models of neuronal injury and inflammation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of PAR1 on lesion volume in wild-type or PAR1−/− C57Bl/6 mice subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or injected with NMDA in the striatum. We found that removal of PAR1 reduced infarct volume following transient focal ischemia to 57% of control. Removal of PAR1 or application of a PAR1 antagonist also reduced the neuronal injury associated with intrastriatal injection of NMDA to 60% of control. To explore whether NMDA receptor potentiation by PAR1 activation contributes to the harmful effects of PAR1, we investigated the effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on the neuroprotective phenotype of PAR1−/− mice. We found that MK801 reduced penumbral but not core neuronal injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or intrastriatal NMDA injection. Lesion volumes in both models were not significantly different between PAR1−/− mice treated with and without MK801. Use of the NMDA receptor antagonist and dissociative anesthetic ketamine also renders NMDA-induced lesion volumes identical in PAR1−/− mice and wild-type mice. These data suggest that the ability of PAR1 activation to potentiate NMDA receptor function may underlie its harmful actions during injury. PMID:19416668

  11. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  12. Kallikrein activates bradykinin B2 receptors in absence of kininogen.

    PubMed

    Biyashev, Dauren; Tan, Fulong; Chen, Zhenlong; Zhang, Kai; Deddish, Peter A; Erdös, Ervin G; Hecquet, Claudie

    2006-03-01

    Kallikreins cleave plasma kininogens to release the bioactive peptides bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (Lys-BK). These peptides then activate widely disseminated B2 receptors with consequences that may be either noxious or beneficial. We used cultured cells to show that kallikrein can bypass kinin release to activate BK B2 receptors directly. To exclude intermediate kinin release or kininogen uptake from the cultured medium, we cultured and maintained cells in medium entirely free of animal proteins. We compared the responses of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express human B2 receptors (CHO B2) and cells that coexpress angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) as well (CHO AB). We found that BK (1 nM or more) and tissue kallikrein (1-10 nM) both significantly increased release of arachidonic acid beyond unstimulated baseline level. An enzyme-linked immunoassay for kinin established that kallikrein did not release a kinin from CHO cells. We confirmed the absence of kininogen mRNA with RT-PCR to rule out kininogen synthesis by CHO cells. We next tested an ACE inhibitor for enhanced BK receptor activation in the absence of kinin release and synthesized an ACE-resistant BK analog as a control for these experiments. Enalaprilat (1 microM) potentiated kallikrein (100 nM) in CHO AB cells but was ineffective in CHO B2 cells that do not bear ACE. We concluded that kallikrein activated B2 receptors without releasing a kinin. Furthermore, inhibition of ACE enhanced the receptor activation by kallikrein, an action that may contribute to the manifold therapeutic effects of ACE inhibitors. PMID:16272198

  13. A Phytochrome Sensory Domain Permits Receptor Activation by Red Light.

    PubMed

    Reichhart, Eva; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Tichy, Alexandra-Madelaine; McKenzie, Catherine; Janovjak, Harald

    2016-05-17

    Optogenetics and photopharmacology enable the spatio-temporal control of cell and animal behavior by light. Although red light offers deep-tissue penetration and minimal phototoxicity, very few red-light-sensitive optogenetic methods are currently available. We have now developed a red-light-induced homodimerization domain. We first showed that an optimized sensory domain of the cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 can be expressed robustly and without cytotoxicity in human cells. We then applied this domain to induce the dimerization of two receptor tyrosine kinases-the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and the neurotrophin receptor trkB. This new optogenetic method was then used to activate the MAPK/ERK pathway non-invasively in mammalian tissue and in multicolor cell-signaling experiments. The light-controlled dimerizer and red-light-activated receptor tyrosine kinases will prove useful to regulate a variety of cellular processes with light. PMID:27101018

  14. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation. PMID:25386994

  15. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  16. Steroid Receptor RNA Activator - A nuclear receptor coregulator with multiple partners: Insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Colley, Shane M; Leedman, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) occupies a unique and enigmatic position within the nuclear receptor (NR) field and more broadly in transcriptional regulation. This is as a result of its transcripts having both coding and non-coding coactivator activities along with its protein product SRAP performing mixed coactivator/repressor functions. Recent publications have provided greater understanding of SRA gene product activities and how they affect not only NR function, but now more broadly, signalling pathways involved in differentiation and metabolism. This review will discuss the isolation of SRA, its gene products, regulation of transcription along with its in vitro and in vivo activities with a particular focus on its actions as an RNA and its binding partners. PMID:21807064

  17. The Lutheran glycoprotein: a multifunctional adhesion receptor.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Christine E; Telen, Marilyn J

    2006-04-01

    The Lutheran blood group system, which comprises one of the largest families of human red blood cell (RBC) antigens, resides on two immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins: Lutheran and basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM). These two glycoproteins arise via alternative splicing of mRNA from a single gene and differ in structure only in the lengths of their cytoplasmic tails. Both are expressed on RBCs as well as a variety of other cell types, and they are overexpressed on sickle RBCs (SS RBC). B-CAM/Lu is the critical receptor for SS RBC adhesion to the extracellular matrix protein laminin, an interaction thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle cell-related vasoocclusive events. Recent work has also shown that B-CAM/Lu on RBCs can undergo activation as a result of adrenergic signaling pathways. The high affinity of B-CAM/Lu for laminin is also thought to contribute to various developmental processes, including organogenesis, vascular development, erythropoiesis, and smooth muscle development and organization. Interestingly, the B-CAM spliceoform seems to be overexpressed by a variety of different malignant tumors and may be involved, along with other adhesion receptor proteins, in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Studies of B-CAM/Lu have thus expanded from defining antigen-specific polymorphisms to investigations of processes involved in sickle cell disease, human development, and cancer biology. PMID:16584446

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  19. Glucocorticoid receptor mediates the gluconeogenic activity of the farnesoid X receptor in the fasting condition.

    PubMed

    Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; Baldelli, Franco; Zampella, Angela; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a master gene orchestrating the activation of gluconeogenic genes in the liver in response to food withdrawal. Mechanisms of GR regulation by other nuclear receptors, however, are poorly defined. Here, we report that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid sensor, activates gluconeogenic pathways in the liver and regulates GR expression and activity. FXR-null mice are hypoglycemic in the unfed state and exhibit both a reduced hepatic production of glucose in response to the pyruvate challenge and a decreased expression of two rate-limiting enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), along with blunted liver expression of GR. Treating wild-type mice with a semisynthetic FXR ligand (6E-CDCA) increases the liver expression of GR, PEPCK, and G6Pase. This effect was lost in fed animals, as well as in FXR(-/-) mice. The human and mouse GR promoters contain a conserved FXR-responsive element (an ER-8 sequence) whose activation by FXR ligation leads to GR transcription. GR silencing by siRNA in vitro or its pharmacological antagonism in vivo with mifepristone reverses the effect of FXR activation on expression of gluconeogenic genes. These findings demonstrate that an FXR-GR pathway regulates the activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transition from the unfed to the fed state. PMID:22447981

  20. Relationship between expression of laminin and pathological features in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Wang, Yu-Ying; Song, Jin-Dan

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and significance of laminin in human colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Using the monoclonal antibody to laminin and streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method, the expression of laminin in 63 cases of human colorectal carcinoma tissues was determined. RESULTS: In normal marge intestinal mucosa adjacent to carcinoma, laminin was largely restricted to basement membrane in continuous linear pattern. In contrast, human colorectal carcinomas exhibited a progressive loss of an intact basement membrane that was correlated with decreasing differentiation degree. Well and moderately differentiated tumors exhibited a thin basement membrane with intermittent disruptions, and poorly differentiated tumors exhibited no areas of intact basement membrane. An association was found between lack of basement membrane laminin immunohistochemical staining in colorectal carcinoma and poorly differentiated tumor (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical staining for laminin could provide a very useful indexfor the determination of the differentiation degree of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:11819279

  1. Thrombopoietin receptor activation by myeloproliferative neoplasm associated calreticulin mutants.

    PubMed

    Chachoua, Ilyas; Pecquet, Christian; El-Khoury, Mira; Nivarthi, Harini; Albu, Roxana-Irina; Marty, Caroline; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Vertenoeil, Gaëlle; Ngo, Anna; Koay, Ann; Raslova, Hana; Courtoy, Pierre J; Choong, Meng Ling; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2016-03-10

    Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) represented by deletions and insertions in exon 9 inducing a -1/+2 frameshift are associated with a significant fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The mechanisms by which CALR mutants induce MPN are unknown. Here, we show by transcriptional, proliferation, biochemical, and primary cell assays that the pathogenic CALR mutants specifically activate the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR/MPL). No activation is detected with a battery of type I and II cytokine receptors, except granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, which supported only transient and weak activation. CALR mutants induce ligand-independent activation of JAK2/STAT/phosphatydylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways via TpoR, and autonomous growth in Ba/F3 cells. In these transformed cells, no synergy is observed between JAK2 and PI3-K inhibitors in inhibiting cytokine-independent proliferation, thus showing a major difference from JAK2V617F cells where such synergy is strong. TpoR activation was dependent on its extracellular domain and its N-glycosylation, especially at N117. The glycan binding site and the novel C-terminal tail of the mutant CALR proteins were required for TpoR activation. A soluble form of TpoR was able to prevent activation of full-length TpoR provided that it was N-glycosylated. By confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, CALR mutants exhibit different intracellular localization from that of wild-type CALR. Finally, knocking down either MPL/TpoR or JAK2 in megakaryocytic progenitors from patients carrying CALR mutations inhibited cytokine-independent megakaryocytic colony formation. Taken together, our study provides a novel signaling paradigm, whereby a mutated chaperone constitutively activates cytokine receptor signaling. PMID:26668133

  2. The activating enzyme of NEDD8 inhibits steroid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meiyun; Long, Xinghua; Bailey, Jason A; Reed, Chad A; Osborne, Elizabeth; Gize, Edward A; Kirk, Eric A; Bigsby, Robert M; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2002-02-01

    Coregulator proteins, coactivators and corepressors, have a profound influence on steroid receptor activity and play a role in regulating receptor levels. To identify novel coregulators of nuclear receptors, we used the ligand-binding and hinge region of ERalpha as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from rat uterine luminal epithelium. We report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a protein homologous to yeast and human ubiquitin-activating enzyme 3 (Uba3), the catalytic subunit of the activating enzyme of the ubiquitin-like NEDD8 (neural precursor cellexpressed developmentally down-regulated) conjugation pathway (known as neddylation). Sequence analysis revealed that Uba3 contains multiple nuclear receptor (NR)-interacting motifs (NR boxes), which are known to mediate interactions between coregulatory proteins and ligand-activated NRs. Yeast two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrated that Uba3 directly interacts with ligand-occupied ERalpha and ERbeta. Transient transfection of Uba3 in mammalian cells inhibited ER-mediated transactivation in a time-dependent fashion; Uba3 had no effect on the initial events of transcriptional activation by liganded ER, but it blocked the progressive increase in target gene expression during continuous stimulation. Uba3 also inhibited transactivation by AR and PR in mammalian cells but had no effect on a steroid receptor-independent transactivation pathway. An enzymatically silent form of Uba3 did not inhibit ER-induced transcription, and a Uba3-binding fragment of amyloid precursor protein-binding protein, the other subunit of the NEDD8-activating enzyme, partially overcame Uba3-mediated inhibition, demonstrating that the neddylation activity of Uba3 is required for its inhibition of steroid receptor transactivation. Thus, Uba3 inhibits transcription induced by steroid hormone receptors through a novel mechanism that involves the neddylation pathway. Understanding the mechanisms controlling hormone responsiveness of target tissues, such as the uterus and mammary gland, may lead to novel insights of therapeutic intervention. PMID:11818503

  3. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  4. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  5. Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sounier, Rémy; Mas, Camille; Steyaert, Jan; Laeremans, Toon; Manglik, Aashish; Huang, Weijiao; Kobilka, Brian K; Déméné, Héléne; Granier, Sébastien

    2015-08-20

    µ-Opioid receptors (µORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by a structurally diverse spectrum of natural and synthetic agonists including endogenous endorphin peptides, morphine and methadone. The recent structures of the μOR in inactive and agonist-induced active states (Huang et al., ref. 2) provide snapshots of the receptor at the beginning and end of a signalling event, but little is known about the dynamic sequence of events that span these two states. Here we use solution-state NMR to examine the process of μOR activation using a purified receptor (mouse sequence) preparation in an amphiphile membrane-like environment. We obtain spectra of the μOR in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of the high-affinity agonist BU72 alone, or with BU72 and a G protein mimetic nanobody. Our results show that conformational changes in transmembrane segments 5 and 6 (TM5 and TM6), which are required for the full engagement of a G protein, are almost completely dependent on the presence of both the agonist and the G protein mimetic nanobody, revealing a weak allosteric coupling between the agonist-binding pocket and the G-protein-coupling interface (TM5 and TM6), similar to that observed for the β2-adrenergic receptor. Unexpectedly, in the presence of agonist alone, we find larger spectral changes involving intracellular loop 1 and helix 8 compared to changes in TM5 and TM6. These results suggest that one or both of these domains may play a role in the initial interaction with the G protein, and that TM5 and TM6 are only engaged later in the process of complex formation. The initial interactions between the G protein and intracellular loop 1 and/or helix 8 may be involved in G-protein coupling specificity, as has been suggested for other family A G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245377

  6. Orexin Receptor Subtype Activation and Locomotor Behavior in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Willis K.; Bagley, Sara L.; Ferguson, Alastair V.; White, Meghan M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Orexin producing neurons, located primarily in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus, project to a wide spectrum of brain sites where they influence numerous behaviors as well as modulating the neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress. While some of the actions of orexin appear to be mediated via the type 1 receptor, some are not, including its action on the release of one stress hormone, prolactin. We describe here the ability of orexin to increase locomotor behaviors and identify the importance of both receptor subtypes in these actions. Methods Rats were tested for their behavioral responses to the central activation of both the type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) receptor (ICV orexin A), as compared to OX2R activation using a relatively selective OX2R agonist in the absence or presence of an orexin receptor antagonist that possesses highest affinity for the OX1R. Results Increases in locomotor activity were observed, effects which were expressed by not only orexin A, which binds to both the OX1R and the OX2R receptors, but also by the relatively selective OX2R agonist, [(Ala11, Leu15)-orexin B]. Furthermore the OX1R selective antagonist only partially blocked the action of orexin A on most locomotor behaviors and did not block the actions of [(Ala11, Leu15)-orexin B]. Conclusion We conclude that orexin A exerts its effects on locomotor behavior via both the OX1R and OX2R and that agonism or antagonism of only one of these receptors for therapeutic purposes (i.e. sleep disorders) would not provide selectivity in terms of associated behavioral side effects. PMID:19889100

  7. Structural elucidation of full-length nidogen and the laminin-nidogen complex in solution.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Bernards, Claudia; Meier, Markus; McEleney, Kevin; Winzor, Donald J; Koch, Manuel; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Nidogen-1 is a key basement membrane protein that is required for many biological activities. It is one of the central elements in organizing basal laminae including those in the skin, muscle, and the nervous system. The self-assembling extracellular matrix that also incorporates fibulins, fibronectin and integrins is clamped together by networks formed between nidogen, perlecan, laminin and collagen IV. To date, the full-length version of nidogen-1 has not been studied in detail in terms of its solution conformation and shape because of its susceptibility to proteolysis. In the current study, we have expressed and purified full-length nidogen-1 and have investigated its solution behavior using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The ab initio shape reconstruction of the complex between nidogen-1 and the laminin γ-1 short arm confirms that the interaction is mediated solely by the C-terminal domains: the rest of the domains of both proteins do not participate in complex formation. PMID:23948589

  8. Laminin E8 fragments support efficient adhesion and expansion of dissociated human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Suemori, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Yamada, Masashi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Hayashi, Maria; Kumagai, Hideaki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Kawase, Eihachiro

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the potential to provide an infinite source of tissues for regenerative medicine. Although defined xeno-free media have been developed, culture conditions for reliable propagation of hESCs still require considerable improvement. Here we show that recombinant E8 fragments of laminin isoforms (LM-E8s), which are the minimum fragments conferring integrin-binding activity, promote greater adhesion of hESCs and hiPSCs than do Matrigel and intact laminin isoforms. Furthermore, LM-E8s sustain long-term self-renewal of hESCs and hiPSCs in defined xeno-free media with dissociated cell passaging. We successfully maintained three hESC and two hiPSC lines on LM-E8s in three defined media for 10 passages. hESCs maintained high level expression of pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype after 30 passages and could differentiate into all three germ layers. This culture system allows robust proliferation of hESCs and hiPSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:23212365

  9. The Search for Endogenous Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh P.; Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    In its simplest aspect, this review is an attempt to describe the major ligand classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide models that may help define the physiological activator or “endogenous ligand” of the AHR. We begin by presenting evidence that supports a developmental function for the AHR. This is followed by proposing mechanisms by which an endogenous ligand and consequent AHR activation might be important during normal physiology and development. With this background, we then present a survey of the known xenobiotic, endogenous, dietary and “un-conventional” activators of the AHR. When possible, this includes information about their induction potency, receptor binding affinity and potential for exposure. Because of the essential function of the AHR in embryonic development, we discuss the candidacy of each of these compounds as physiologically important activators. PMID:18076143

  10. Guggulsterone activates multiple nuclear receptors and induces CYP3A gene expression through the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Brobst, Dan E; Ding, Xunshan; Creech, Katrina L; Goodwin, Bryan; Kelley, Brian; Staudinger, Jeff L

    2004-08-01

    Gugulipid is an extract of the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul, that is used to treat hyperlipidemia in humans. The lipid-lowering activity is found in the stereoisomers and plant sterols Z-guggulsterone and E-guggulsterone. The molecular basis for the lipid-lowering action of guggulsterone has been suggested to be antagonism of the farnesoid X receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. To determine whether guggulsterone has the ability to function as an agonist of other nuclear receptor family members, we screened a panel of these proteins for their ability to transactivate reporter genes. Here, we show that guggulsterones activate the estrogen receptor alpha isoform, progesterone receptor, and pregnane X receptor. Concentration-response analysis using reporter gene assays indicate that guggulsterones activate these three receptors with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, we show that guggulsterone-mediated activation of the pregnane X receptor induces the expression of CYP3A genes in both rodent and human hepatocytes. Protein interaction assays indicate that guggulsterones interact directly with pregnane X receptor, thereby modulating interaction with protein cofactors. We introduce a novel method to screen herbal remedies for their ability to activate pregnane X receptor. Pregnane X receptor activation is known to cause herb-drug interactions, and our data suggest that gugulipid therapy should be used cautiously in patients taking prescription medications that are metabolized by CYP3A family members. Moreover, our data suggest the need for additional studies of guggulsterones agonist activity against estrogen receptor alpha isoform and the progesterone receptor. PMID:15075359

  11. Activation of Axonal Receptors by GABA Spillover Increases Somatic Firing

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Axons can be depolarized by ionotropic receptors and transmit subthreshold depolarizations to the soma by passive electrical spread. This raises the possibility that axons and axonal receptors can participate in integration and firing in neurons. Previously, we have shown that exogenous GABA depolarizes cerebellar granule cell axons through local activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and the soma through electrotonic spread of the axonal potential resulting in increased firing. We show here that excitability of granule cells is also increased by release of endogenous GABA from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) and spillover activation of parallel fiber GABAARs in mice and rats. Changes in granule cell excitability were assessed by excitability testing after activation of MLIs with channelrhodopsin or electrical stimulation in the molecular layer. In granule cells lacking an axon, excitability was not changed, suggesting that axonal receptors are required. To determine the distance over which subthreshold potentials may spread, we estimated the effective axonal electrical length constant (520 μm) by excitability testing and focal uncaging of RuBi–GABA on the axon at varying distances from the soma. These data suggest that GABAAR-mediated axonal potentials can participate in integration and firing of cerebellar granule cells. PMID:24155298

  12. Interaction of receptor-activity-modifying protein1 with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin; Kleinert, Peter; Troxler, Heinz; Kelm, Jens M; Ittner, Lars M; Fischer, Jan A; Born, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 is an accessory protein of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer defines a receptor for the potent vasodilatory calcitonin gene-related peptide. A wider tissue distribution of RAMP1, as compared to that of the CLR, is consistent with additional biological functions. Here, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments identified beta-tubulin as a novel RAMP1-interacting protein. GST pull-down experiments indicated interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the interaction between the N-terminal region of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Interestingly, alpha-tubulin was co-extracted with beta-tubulin in pull-down experiments and immunoprecipitation of RAMP1 coprecipitated alpha- and beta-tubulin. Confocal microscopy indicated colocalization of RAMP1 and tubulin predominantly in axon-like processes of neuronal differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, the findings point to biological roles of RAMP1 beyond its established interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:17493758

  13. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat subfornical organ neurones.

    PubMed

    Honda, E; Ono, K; Toyono, T; Kawano, H; Masuko, S; Inenaga, K

    2003-08-01

    Cholinergic muscarinic inputs to subfornical organ (SFO) neurones in rats were studied using histochemical, molecular-biological and electrophysiological techniques. Neurones in the medial septum and the diagonal band (MS-DBB) were retrogradely labelled by a tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex injected into the SFO. Some in the MS-DBB were double-labelled by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antibody. Many ChAT-immunoreactive fibres were observed in the SFO. M3 muscarinic receptor subtype-like immunoreactivity, detected using a polyclonal antiserum, was observed in the SFO. In slice preparations, muscarine induced inward currents in a dose-related manner. The inward currents were suppressed by the relatively M3 muscarinic receptor selective antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiredine methiodide. In the whole-cell current mode, muscarine depolarized the membrane with increased frequency of action potentials. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of M2-M5 receptor mRNA in the SFO tissues. These results suggest that the SFO receives cholinergic muscarinic synaptic inputs from the MS-DBB. Acetylcholine postsynaptically activates and depolarizes neurones in the SFO partly through specific muscarinic receptors, including M3 receptor subtypes. PMID:12834438

  14. M3-muscarinic receptor promotes insulin release via receptor phosphorylation/arrestin-dependent activation of protein kinase D1.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kok Choi; Butcher, Adrian J; McWilliams, Phillip; Jones, David; Wess, Jrgen; Hamdan, Fadi F; Werry, Tim; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Charlton, Steven J; Munson, Sarah E; Cragg, Hannah A; Smart, Alison D; Tobin, Andrew B

    2010-12-01

    The activity of G protein-coupled receptors is regulated via hyper-phosphorylation following agonist stimulation. Despite the universal nature of this regulatory process, the physiological impact of receptor phosphorylation remains poorly studied. To address this question, we have generated a knock-in mouse strain that expresses a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of the M(3)-muscarinic receptor, a prototypical G(q/11)-coupled receptor. This mutant mouse strain was used here to investigate the role of M(3)-muscarinic receptor phosphorylation in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Importantly, the phosphorylation deficient receptor coupled to G(q/11)-signaling pathways but was uncoupled from phosphorylation-dependent processes, such as receptor internalization and ?-arrestin recruitment. The knock-in mice showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, indicating that M(3)-muscarinic receptors expressed on pancreatic islets regulate glucose homeostasis via receptor phosphorylation-/arrestin-dependent signaling. The mechanism centers on the activation of protein kinase D1, which operates downstream of the recruitment of ?-arrestin to the phosphorylated M(3)-muscarinic receptor. In conclusion, our findings support the unique concept that M(3)-muscarinic receptor-mediated augmentation of sustained insulin release is largely independent of G protein-coupling but involves phosphorylation-/arrestin-dependent coupling of the receptor to protein kinase D1. PMID:21078968

  15. CINPA1 is an inhibitor of constitutive androstane receptor that does not activate pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  16. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  18. An endothelial laminin isoform, laminin 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), is secreted by blood neutrophils, promotes neutrophil migration and extravasation, and protects neutrophils from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Juronen, Erkki; Xie, Xun; Lindbom, Lennart; Doi, Masayuki; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Thyboll, Jill; Tryggvason, Karl; Fadeel, Bengt; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2004-09-15

    During extravasation, neutrophils migrate through the perivascular basement membrane (BM), a specialized extracellular matrix rich in laminins. Laminins 8 (LN-8) (alpha4beta1gamma1) and 10 (LN-10) (alpha5beta1gamma1) are major components of the endothelial BM, but expression, recognition, and use of these laminin isoforms by neutrophils are poorly understood. In the present study, we provide evidence, using a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies against human laminin alpha4 (LNalpha4) chain, that neutrophils contain and secrete LN-8, and that this endogenous laminin contributes to chemoattractant-induced, alphaMbeta2-integrin-dependent neutrophil migration through albumin-coated filters. Phorbol ester-stimulated neutrophils adhered to recombinant human (rh) LN-8, rhLN-10, and mouse LN-1 (mLN-1) (alpha1beta1gamma1) via alphaMbeta2-integrin, and these laminin isoforms strongly promoted chemoattractant-induced neutrophil migration via the same integrin. However, only rhLN-8 enhanced the spontaneous migration. In addition, recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneum following an inflammatory stimulus was impaired in LNalpha4-deficient mice. rhLN-8 also protected isolated neutrophils from spontaneous apoptosis. This study is the first to identify a specific laminin isoform in neutrophils and provides evidence for the role of LN-8 in the adhesion, migration, extravasation, and survival of these cells. PMID:15172971

  19. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  20. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani França; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane--subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies--whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  1. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani França; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane – subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies - whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  2. Different phenolic compounds activate distinct human bitter taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Mateus, Nuno; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; De Freitas, Victor

    2013-02-20

    Bitterness is a major sensory attribute of several common foods and beverages rich in polyphenol compounds. These compounds are reported as very important for health as chemopreventive compounds, but they are also known to taste bitter. In this work, the activation of the human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, by six polyphenol compounds was analyzed. The compounds chosen are present in a wide range of plant-derived foods and beverages, namely, red wine, beer, tea, and chocolate. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a hydrolyzable tannin, (-)-epicatechin is a precursor of condensed tannins, procyanidin dimer B3 and trimer C2 belong to the condensed tannins, and malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are anthocyanins. The results show that the different compounds activate different combinations of the ~25 TAS2Rs. (-)-Epicatechin activated three receptors, TAS2R4, TAS2R5, and TAS2R39, whereas only two receptors, TAS2R5 and TAS2R39, responded to PGG. In contrast, malvidin-3-glucoside and procyanidin trimer stimulated only one receptor, TAS2R7 and TAS2R5, respectively. Notably, tannins are the first natural agonists found for TAS2R5 that display high potency only toward this receptor. The catechol and/or galloyl groups appear to be important structural determinants that mediate the interaction of these polyphenolic compounds with TAS2R5. Overall, the EC(50) values obtained for the different compounds vary 100-fold, with the lowest values for PGG and malvidin-3-glucoside compounds, suggesting that they could be significant polyphenols responsible for the bitterness of fruits, vegetables, and derived products even if they are present in very low concentrations. PMID:23311874

  3. NMDA-type glutamate receptors participate in reduction of food intake following hindbrain melanocortin receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Hindbrain injection of a melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist, MTII, reduces food intake primarily by reducing meal size. Our previously reported results indicate that N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) play an important role in the control of meal size and food intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of NTS NMDARs contribute to reduction of food intake in response to fourth ventricle or NTS injection of MTII. We found that coinjection of a competitive NMDAR antagonist (d-CPP-ene) with MTII into the fourth ventricle or directly into the NTS of adult male rats attenuated MTII-induced reduction of food intake. Hindbrain NMDAR antagonism also attenuated MTII-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in NTS neurons and prevented synapsin I phosphorylation in central vagal afferent endings, both of which are cellular mechanisms previously shown to participate in hindbrain melanocortinergic reduction of food intake. Together, our results indicate that NMDAR activation significantly contributes to reduction of food intake following hindbrain melanocortin receptor activation, and it participates in melanocortinergic signaling in NTS neural circuits that mediate reduction of food intake. PMID:25394828

  4. The thrombopoietin receptor P106L mutation functionally separates receptor signaling activity from thrombopoietin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stockklausner, Clemens; Klotter, Anne-Christine; Dickemann, Nicole; Kuhlee, Isabelle N; Duffert, Christin M; Kerber, Carolin; Gehring, Niels H; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2015-02-12

    The interaction between thrombopoietin (THPO) and its receptor c-Mpl regulates downstream cytokine signaling and platelet homeostasis. Hereditary mutations of c-Mpl can either result in loss-of-function and thrombocytopenia or in gain-of-function and thrombocythemia (HT), and are important models to analyze the mechanism of c-Mpl activity. We have analyzed the effect of the c-Mpl P106L gain-of-function and the nearby loss-of-function R102P and F104S mutations, which cause HT or thrombocytopenia, respectively, on posttranslational processing, intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and cell proliferation. In contrast to R102P and F104S, the P106L mutant confers cytokine-independent growth and stimulates downstream signaling after THPO treatment in Ba/F3 cells. Despite their opposite function, R102P and P106L, both lead to abnormal subcellular receptor distribution, lack of membrane localization, impaired glycosylation, and elevated THPO serum levels in effected patients. These findings indicate that the activation of downstream signaling by c-Mpl P106L does not require correct processing, trafficking, and cell surface expression of c-Mpl, whereas the negative feedback loop controlling THPO serum levels requires cell surface expression of the receptor. Thus, we propose that the P106L mutation functionally separates the activity of c-Mpl in downstream signaling from that in maintaining platelet homeostasis. PMID:25538044

  5. AMPA Receptors and Kainate Receptors Encode Different Features of Afferent Activity

    PubMed Central

    Frerking, Matthew; Ohliger-Frerking, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Postsynaptic kainate receptors (KARs) have been found in the CNS along with AMPA receptors (AMPARs), but because KAR-mediated EPSCs are much smaller and slower than AMPAR-mediated EPSCs, it remains unclear whether these postsynaptic KARs are functionally significant. In this study we measured KAR- and AMPAR-mediated EPSPs in hippocampal interneurons, and then we used these EPSPs in a model to examine the effects of afferent firing on each receptor. In this model the KARs generated a large tonic depolarization when activated by a small population of afferent fibers firing asynchronously at physiologically relevant firing rates (1–5 Hz). At 3–5 Hz this tonic depolarization exceeded the peak depolarization mediated by AMPARs in response to the same afferent activity. We also found that, unlike AMPARs, KARs did not generate large oscillations in membrane potential during theta rhythms. When simulated EPSCs were injected into interneurons to mimic afferents firing at 5 Hz, we found that currents simulating KARs elicited more spiking than currents simulating AMPARs. We also found that simulated AMPARs, but not KARs, could transmit presynaptic theta rhythms into postsynaptic spiking at the theta rhythm. Our results suggest that synaptically activated KARs have a strong influence on membrane potential and that AMPARs and KARs differ in their ability to encode temporal information. PMID:12196565

  6. Protease activated receptor-1 mediated dual kinase receptor transactivation stimulates the expression of glycosaminoglycan synthesizing genes.

    PubMed

    Kamato, Danielle; Thach, Lyna; Getachew, Robel; Burch, Micah; Hollenberg, Morley D; Zheng, Wenhua; Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are one of the most important targets for therapeutics due to their abundance and diversity. The G protein-coupled receptor for thrombin can transactivate protein tyrosine kinase receptors (PTKR) and we have recently established that it can also transactivate serine/threonine kinase receptors (S/TKR). A comprehensive knowledge of the signalling pathways that GPCR transactivation elicits is necessary to fully understand the implications of both GPCR activation and the impact of target drugs. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin elicits dual transactivation-dependent signalling pathways to stimulate mRNA expression of glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase 1. The PTKR mediated response involves matrix metalloproteinases and the phosphorylation of the MAP kinase Erk. The S/TKR mediated response differs markedly and involves the phosphorylation of Smad2 carboxy terminal serine residues and does not involve matrix metalloproteinases. This work shows that all of the thrombin mediated signalling to glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzyme gene expression occurs via transactivation-dependent pathways and does not involve transactivation-independent signalling. These findings highlight the complexity of thrombin-mediated transactivation signalling and the broader implications of GPCR targeted therapeutics. PMID:26548632

  7. Neurosteroid Structure-Activity Relationships for Functional Activation of Extrasynaptic δGABAA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Carver, Chase Matthew; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-04-01

    Synaptic GABAA receptors are primary mediators of rapid inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurologic disorders. The δ-subunit GABAA receptors are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. However, the neurosteroid structure-function relationship at δGABAA receptors within the native hippocampus neurons remains unclear. Here we report a structure-activity relationship for neurosteroid modulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in the murine dentate gyrus granule cells. We recorded neurosteroid allosteric potentiation of GABA as well as direct activation of tonic currents using a wide array of natural and synthetic neurosteroids. Our results shows that, for all neurosteroids, the C3α-OH group remains obligatory for extrasynaptic receptor functional activity, as C3β-OH epimers were inactive in activating tonic currents. Allopregnanolone and related pregnane analogs exhibited the highest potency and maximal efficacy in promoting tonic currents. Alterations at the C17 or C20 region of the neurosteroid molecule drastically altered the transduction kinetics of tonic current activation. The androstane analogs had the weakest modulatory response among the analogs tested. Neurosteroid potentiation of tonic currents was completely (approximately 95%) diminished in granule cells from δ-knockout mice, suggesting that δ-subunit receptors are essential for neurosteroid activity. The neurosteroid sensitivity of δGABAA receptors was confirmed at the systems level using a 6-Hz seizure test. A consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model at extrasynaptic δGABAA receptors is proposed based on a structure-activity relationship for activation of tonic current and seizure protection. PMID:26857959

  8. Endogenous laminin is required for human airway smooth muscle cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thai; McNeill, Karol D; Gerthoffer, William T; Unruh, Helmut; Halayko, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Background Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction underlies acute bronchospasm in asthma. ASM cells can switch between a synthetic-proliferative phenotype and a contractile phenotype. While the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) components on modulation of ASM cells to a synthetic phenotype have been reported, the role of ECM components on maturation of ASM cells to a contractile phenotype in adult lung is unclear. As both changes in ECM components and accumulation of contractile ASM are features of airway wall remodelling in asthma, we examined the role of the ECM protein, laminin, in the maturation of contractile phenotype in human ASM cells. Methods Human ASM cells were made senescence-resistant by stable expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Maturation to a contractile phenotype was induced by 7-day serum deprivation, as assessed by immunoblotting for desmin and calponin. The role of laminin on ASM maturation was investigated by comparing the effects of exogenous laminin coated on culture plates, and of soluble laminin peptide competitors. Endogenous expression of laminin chains during ASM maturation was also measured. Results Myocyte binding to endogenously expressed laminin was required for ASM phenotype maturation, as laminin competing peptides (YIGSR or GRGDSP) significantly reduced desmin and calponin protein accumulation that otherwise occurs with prolonged serum deprivation. Coating of plastic cell culture dishes with different purified laminin preparations was not sufficient to further promote accumulation of desmin or calponin during 7-day serum deprivation. Expression of α2, β1 and γ1 laminin chains by ASM cells was specifically up-regulated during myocyte maturation, suggesting a key role for laminin-2 in the development of the contractile phenotype. Conclusion While earlier reports suggest exogenously applied laminin slows the spontaneous modulation of ASM to a synthetic phenotype, we show for the first time that endogenously expressed laminin is required for ASM maturation to the contractile phenotype. As endogenously expressed laminin chains α2, β1 and γ1 are uniquely increased during myocyte maturation, these laminin chains may be key in this process. Thus, human ASM maturation appears to involve regulated endogenous expression of a select set of laminin chains that are essential for accumulation of contractile phenotype myocytes. PMID:16968549

  9. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  10. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  11. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels. PMID:26884649

  12. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels. PMID:26884649

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Their discovery in the 1990s provided insights into the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis; the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and the modulation of important biological and pathological processes related to inflammation, among others. Since then, PPARs have become an exciting therapeutic target for several diseases. PPARs are expressed by many tumors including lung carcinoma cells, and their function has been linked to the process of carcinogenesis in lung. Consequently, intense research is being conducted in this area with the hope of discovering new PPAR-related therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer. This review summarizes the research being conducted in this area and focuses on the mechanisms by which PPARs are believed to affect lung tumor cell biology. PMID:18274632

  14. Models for the activation pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, S.R.; Niyogi, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor's intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which occurs upon formation of the receptor-ligand complex, is the critical regulatory event affecting the subsequent EGF-dependent cellular responses leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism by which EGF-dependent activation of receptor kinase activity takes place is not clearly understood. In this study, the growth factor-dependent activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase was examined in vitro using detergent-solubilized, partially purified GEF receptors from A5431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Evaluation of the cooperativity observed in the EGF-dependent activation of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase would suggest a mechanism requiring the binding of the EGF peptide to both ligand binding sites on a receptor dimer to induce full receptor kinase activity. Equations describing potential cooperative kinase activation pathways have been examined. The theoretical system which best simulates the allosteric regulation observed in the experimental kinase activation data is that describing multiple essential activation. In addition, studies using mutant analogs of the EGF peptide ligand appear to confirm the requirement for an essential conformational change in the receptor-ligand complex to activate the receptor kinase activity. Several mutant growth factor analogues are able to occupy the ligand binding sites on the receptor without inducing the fully active receptor conformation.

  15. Effects of tobacco ethylene receptor mutations on receptor kinase activity, plant growth and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jun; Lei, Gang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Zhi-Gang; Tao, Jian-Jun; Hao, Yu-Jun; Cao, Yang-Rong; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2009-09-01

    Ethylene receptor is the first component of ethylene signaling that regulates plant growth, development and stress responses. Previously, we have demonstrated that tobacco subfamily 2 ethylene receptor NTHK1 had Ser/Thr kinase activity, and overexpression of NTHK1 caused large rosette, reduced ethylene sensitivity, and increased salt sensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Here we found that N-box mutation in the NTHK1 kinase domain abolished the kinase activity and led to disruption of NTHK1 roles in conferring reduced ethylene sensitivity and salt sensitive response in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, N-box mutation had partial effects on NTHK1 regulation of rosette growth and expression of salt- and ethylene-responsive genes AtNAC2, AtERF1 and AtCor6.6. Mutation of conserved residues in the H box did not affect kinase activity, seedling growth, ethylene sensitivity or salt-induced epinasty in transgenic plants but did influence NTHK1 function in control of specific salt- and ethylene-responsive gene expression. Compared with NTHK1, the tobacco subfamily 1 ethylene receptor NtETR1 had His kinase activity and played a weak role in regulation of rosette growth, triple response and salt response. Mutation of the conserved His residue in the NtETR1 H box eliminated phosphorylation and altered the effect of Ntetr1-1 on reporter gene activity. These results imply that the Ser/Thr kinase activity of NTHK1 is differentially required for various responses, and NTHK1 plays a larger role than NtETR1. PMID:19608714

  16. Structural insights into μ-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N.; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Kato, Hideaki E.; Livingston, Kathryn E.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Kling, Ralf; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M.; Traynor, John R.; Weis, William I.; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To understand the structural basis for μOR activation, we obtained a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and stabilized by a G protein-mimetic camelid-antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three GPCRs. PMID:26245379

  17. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  18. Cannabinoid 1 receptor activation inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated cationic influx into rat cultured primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, A; Santha, P; Paule, C C; Nagy, I

    2009-09-15

    The majority of polymodal nociceptors express the non-selective cationic channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor, which plays a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory heat hyperalgesia and visceral hyper-reflexia. Thus, blocking transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated signalling in primary sensory neurons would provide significant pain relief and reduced visceral hyperactivity in inflammatory conditions. Here, we report that cannabinoids including the endogenous agent, anandamide (3-30 nM) and the synthetic compounds, arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (500 nM) and 1,1-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol (1 microM) significantly reduce cobalt influx that is mediated through the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor in rat cultured primary sensory neurons. The cannabinoid-evoked inhibitory effect can be reversed by rimonabant (200 nM), an antagonist of the cannabinoid 1 receptor. While anandamide- and arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide fail to evoke inhibitory effects on the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-mediated responses, the inhibitory effect of 1,1-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol is maintained, when the cannabinoids are applied together with the inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E(2) (10 microM) and bradykinin (10 microM). These results indicate that activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor can reduce the activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor in primary sensory neurons, though the inhibitory effect of agents, which activate both the cannabinoid 1 and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor could be reduced in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19463903

  19. Liver X Receptor β and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ regulate cholesterol transport in cholangiocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuefeng; Jung, Dongju; Webb, Paul; Zhang, Aijun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Lifei; Ayers, Stephen D.; Gabbi, Chiara; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Alpini, Gianfranco; Moore, David D.; LeSage, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) play crucial roles in regulation of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, metabolism and conversion to bile acids, but their actions in cholangiocytes have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the roles of NRs in cholangiocyte physiology and cholesterol metabolism and flux. We examined the expression of NRs and other genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in freshly isolated and cultured rodent cholangiocytes and found that these cells express a specific subset of NRs which includes Liver X Receptor β (LXRβ) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ). Activation of LXRβ and/or PPARδ in cholangiocytes induces ATP-binding cassette cholesterol transporter A1 (ABCA1) and increases cholesterol export at the basolateral compartment in polarized cultured cholangiocytes. In addition, PPARδ induces Niemann Pick C1 Like L1 (NPC1L1), which imports cholesterol into cholangiocytes and is expressed on the apical cholangiocyte membrane, via specific interaction with a PPRE within the NPC1L1 promoter. Based on these studies, we propose that (i) LXRβ and PPARδ coordinate NPC1L1/ABCA1 dependent vectorial cholesterol flux from bile through cholangiocytes and (ii) manipulation of these processes may influence bile composition with important applications in cholestatic liver disease and gallstone disease, serious health concerns for humans. PMID:22729460

  20. Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to αvβ3 integrin, but was moderate to weak with αvβ5, αvβ6, α2β1, and α6β1. Interestingly, the inhibition of r-Cam-dis on pancreatic cancer cell lines adhesion to laminin-1 was more effective than that to vitronectin. Based on our binding results to integrin receptors and previous adhesion studies using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, it is suggested that r-Cam-dis could be inhibiting adhesion of pancreatic cancer cell lines through integrins α2β1, α6β1, αvβ5, and αvβ6. PMID:26045944

  1. Human Laminin Isotype Coating for Creating Islet Cell Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shingo; Ohashi, Kazuo; Utoh, Rie; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Our experimental approach toward the development of new islet-based treatment for diabetes mellitus has been the creation of a monolayered islet cell construct (islet cell sheet), followed by its transplantation into a subcutaneous pocket. Previous studies describe rat laminin-5 (chain composition: α3, β3, γ2) as a suitable extracellular matrix (ECM) for surfaces comprised of a coated temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm). To progress toward the clinical application of this approach, the present study attempted to identify an optimal human ECM as a coating material on PIPAAm surfaces, which allowed islet cells to attach on the surfaces and subsequently to be harvested as a monolithic cell sheet. Dispersed rat islet cells were seeded onto PIPAAm dishes coated with various human laminin isotypes: human laminin (HL)-211, HL-332, HL-411, HL-511, and HL-placenta. Plating efficiency at day 1, the confluency at day 3, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test at day 3 were performed. The highest value of plating efficiency was found in the HL-332-PIPAAm group (83.1 ± 0.7%). The HL-332-PIPAAm group also showed the highest cellular confluency (98.6 ± 0.5%). Islet cells cultured on the HL-332-PIPAAm surfaces showed a positive response in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test. By reducing culture temperature from 37°C to 20°C in the HL-332-PIPAAm group, cells were able to be harvested as a monolithic islet sheet. The present study showed that HL-332 was an optimal human-derived ECM on a PIPAAm coating for preparing islet cell sheets. PMID:26858907

  2. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell’Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation. PMID:27069764

  3. Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Sounier, Rémy; Mas, Camille; Steyaert, Jan; Laeremans, Toon; Manglik, Aashish; Huang, Weijiao; Kobilka, Brian; Déméné, Héléne; Granier, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    μ-Opioid receptors (μOR) are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by a structurally diverse spectrum of natural and synthetic agonists including endogenous endorphin peptides, morphine and methadone. The recent structures of the μOR in inactive1 and agonist-induced active states (companion article) provide snapshots of the receptor at the beginning and end of a signaling event, but little is known about the dynamic sequence of events that span these two states. Here we report the use of solution-state NMR to examine the process of μOR activation. We obtained spectra of the μOR in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of the high-affinity agonist BU72 alone, or with BU72 and a G protein mimetic nanobody. Our results show that conformational changes in transmembrane segments (TM) 5 and 6, which are required for the full engagement of a G protein, are almost completely dependent on the presence of both the agonist and the G protein mimetic nanobody revealing a weak allosteric coupling between the agonist binding pocket and the G protein coupling interface (TM5 and TM6) similar to what has been observed for the β2-adrenergic receptor2. Unexpectedly, in the presence of agonist alone, we observe larger spectral changes involving intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) and helix 8 (H8), when compared to changes in TM5 and TM6. These results suggest that one or both of these domains may play a role in the initial interaction with the G protein, and that TM5 and TM6 are only engaged later in the process of complex formation. The initial interactions between the G protein and ICL1 and/or H8 may play a role in G protein coupling specificity as has been suggested for other family A GPCRs. PMID:26245377

  4. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) as targets for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret; McIntosh, Kathryn; Bushell, Trevor; Sloan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2016-04-15

    Since the identification of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family as mediators of serine protease activity in the 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in the elucidation of their pathophysiological roles. The development of drugs that target PARs has been the focus of many laboratories for the potential treatment of thrombosis, cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of PAR activation and G protein signalling pathways evoked in response to the growing list of endogenous proteases has yielded great insight into receptor regulation at the molecular level. This has led to the development of new selective modulators of PAR activity, particularly PAR1. The mixed success of targeting PARs has been best exemplified in the context of inhibiting PAR1 as a new antiplatelet therapy. The development of the competitive PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar (Zontivity), has clearly shown the value in targeting PAR1 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however the severity of associated bleeding with this drug has limited its use in the clinic. Due to the efficacy of thrombin acting via PAR1, strategies to selectively inhibit specific PAR1-mediated G protein signalling pathways or to target the second thrombin platelet receptor, PAR4, are being devised. The rationale behind these alternative approaches is to bias downstream thrombin activity via PARs to allow for inhibition of pro-thrombotic pathways but maintain other pathways that may preserve haemostatic balance and improve bleeding profiles for widespread clinical use. This review summarizes the structural determinants that regulate PARs and the modulators of PAR activity developed to date. PMID:27068977

  5. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-05-15

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4-7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μM taurine or 10 μM glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μM 4-aminopyridine in low Mg(2+) solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μM strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μM), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl(-) accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥ 1 mM) or glycine (100 μM) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μM) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  6. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  8. Deletion of the Laminin α4 Chain Leads to Impaired Microvessel Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Thyboll, Jill; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Cao, Renhai; Soininen, Raija; Wang, Ling; Iivanainen, Antti; Sorokin, Lydia; Risling, Mårten; Cao, Yihai; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-01-01

    The laminin α4 chain, a component of laminin-8 and -9, is expressed in basement membranes, such as those beneath endothelia, the perineurium of peripheral nerves, and around developing muscle fibers. Laminin α4-null mice presented with hemorrhages during the embryonic and neonatal period and had extensive bleeding and deterioration of microvessel growth in experimental angiogenesis, as well as mild locomotion defects. Histological examination of newborn mice revealed delayed deposition of type IV collagen and nidogen into capillary basement membranes, and electron microscopy showed discontinuities in the lamina densa. The results demonstrate a central role for the laminin α4 chain in microvessel growth and, in the absence of other laminin α chains, in the composition of endothelial basement membranes. PMID:11809810

  9. Deletion of the laminin alpha4 chain leads to impaired microvessel maturation.

    PubMed

    Thyboll, Jill; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Cao, Renhai; Soininen, Raija; Wang, Ling; Iivanainen, Antti; Sorokin, Lydia; Risling, Mårten; Cao, Yihai; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-02-01

    The laminin alpha4 chain, a component of laminin-8 and -9, is expressed in basement membranes, such as those beneath endothelia, the perineurium of peripheral nerves, and around developing muscle fibers. Laminin alpha4-null mice presented with hemorrhages during the embryonic and neonatal period and had extensive bleeding and deterioration of microvessel growth in experimental angiogenesis, as well as mild locomotion defects. Histological examination of newborn mice revealed delayed deposition of type IV collagen and nidogen into capillary basement membranes, and electron microscopy showed discontinuities in the lamina densa. The results demonstrate a central role for the laminin alpha4 chain in microvessel growth and, in the absence of other laminin alpha chains, in the composition of endothelial basement membranes. PMID:11809810

  10. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-01-01

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first, second or third N-terminal residue leads to a loss of activity, suggesting that a defined spacing of more than one structural component may be important for ligand-receptor interaction. Finally, we did not observe an antagonistic effect of the inactive peptides on phospholipase C activation or DNA synthesis induced by alpha-thrombin (1 nM) or SFLLRNP (3 microM). PMID:7686363

  11. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-06-15

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first, second or third N-terminal residue leads to a loss of activity, suggesting that a defined spacing of more than one structural component may be important for ligand-receptor interaction. Finally, we did not observe an antagonistic effect of the inactive peptides on phospholipase C activation or DNA synthesis induced by alpha-thrombin (1 nM) or SFLLRNP (3 microM). PMID:7686363

  12. In vitro modulation of estrogen receptor activity by norfluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    LUPU, DIANA; POP, ANCA; CHERFAN, JULIEN; KISS, BÉLA; LOGHIN, FELICIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants increasingly prescribed for pregnancy and postpartum depression. However, these compounds can cross the placenta and also pass into breast milk, thus reaching the fetus and infant during critical developmental stages, potentially causing adverse effects. Fluoxetine, a widely used SSRI, has been shown to affect (neuro)endocrine signaling in various organisms, including humans. This compound can also interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and cause an estrogen-dependent uterotrophic response in rodents. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to assess if the active metabolite of fluoxetine, namely norfluoxetine (NFLX), shares the same capacity for estrogen receptor interaction. Methods The in vitro (anti)estrogenic activity of norfluoxetine was assessed using a firefly luciferase reporter construct in the T47D-Kbluc breast cancer cell line. These cells express nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) that can activate the transcription of the luciferase reporter gene upon binding of ER agonists. Light emission was monitored in case of cells exposed to norfluoxetine or mixtures of norfluoxetine-estradiol. Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin-based assay. Results During individual testing, NFLX was able to induce a significant increase in luciferase activity compared to control, but only at the highest concentration tested (10 μM). In binary mixtures with estradiol (30 pM constant concentration) a significant increase in luminescence was observed at low submicromolar norfluoxetine concentrations compared to estradiol alone. Conclusion Norfluoxetine can induce estrogenic effects in vitro and can potentiate the activity of estradiol. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these observed estrogenic effects may have detrimental consequences for human exposure. PMID:26609274

  13. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  14. Feedback control of T-cell receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cliburn; Stark, Jaroslav; George, Andrew J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of T-cell recognition is vital to the immune response. Ligand engagement with the T-cell receptor (TCR) results in the activation of a complex sequence of signalling events, both on the cell membrane and intracellularly. Feedback is an integral part of these signalling pathways, yet is often ignored in standard accounts of T-cell signalling. Here we show, using a mathematical model, that these feedback loops can explain the ability of the TCR to discriminate between ligands with high specificity and sensitivity, as well as provide a mechanism for sustained signalling. The model also explains the recent counter-intuitive observation that endogenous 'null' ligands can significantly enhance T-cell signalling. Finally, the model may provide an archetype for receptor switching based on kinase-phosphatase switches, and thus be of interest to the wider signalling community. PMID:15255048

  15. Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorγ Increases Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Tumor Specification

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Zeng, Xiao; Kopelovich, Levy; Glazer, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    PPARγ is a nuclear receptor that regulates gene transcription associated with intermediary metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, as well as tumor suppression and proliferation. To understand the role of PPARγ in tumorigenesis, transgenic mice were generated with mammary gland-directed expression of the dominant-negative transgene, Pax8PPARγ. Transgenic mice were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type mice, but mammary epithelial cells expressed a greater a high percentage of CD29hi/CD24neg, CK5+ and double positive CK14/CK18 cells. These changes correlated with reduced PTEN and increased Ras, ERK and AKT activation. Although spontaneous tumorigenesis did not occur, transgenic animals were highly susceptible to progestin/DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which in contrast to wild-type mice, resulted in a high tumor multiplicity and most importantly, in the appearance of predominantly estrogen receptorα-positive (ER+) ductal adenocarcinomas. Tumors expressed a similar PTENlo/pERKhi/pAKThi phenotype as mammary epithelium, and exhibited high activation of ERE-dependent reporter gene activity. Tumorigenesis in MMTV-Pax8PPARγ mice was insensitive to the chemopreventive effect of a PPARγ agonist, but was profoundly inhibited by the ER antagonist fulvestrant. These results reveal important new insights into the previously unrecognized role of PPARγ in the specification of mammary lineage and the development of ER+ tumors. PMID:19147585

  16. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female reproduction. PMID:22641418

  17. DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristy K Michael; Al-Rayyan, Numan; Ivanova, Margarita M; Mattingly, Kathleen A; Ripp, Sharon L; Klinge, Carolyn M; Prough, Russell A

    2013-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were reported to associate with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but some carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor studies question this claim. The purpose of this study was to determine how DHEA and its metabolites affect estrogen receptors α or β (ERα or ERβ)-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. In transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, androstenediol, DHEA, and DHEA-S activated ERα. In ERβ transfected HepG2 cells, androstenedione, DHEA, androstenediol, and 7-oxo DHEA stimulated reporter activity. ER antagonists ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, general P450 inhibitor miconazole, and aromatase inhibitor exemestane inhibited activation by DHEA or metabolites in transfected cells. ERβ-selective antagonist R,R-THC (R,R-cis-diethyl tetrahydrochrysene) inhibited DHEA and DHEA metabolite transcriptional activity in ERβ-transfected cells. Expression of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes: pS2, progesterone receptor, cathepsin D1, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 was increased by DHEA and its metabolites in an ER-subtype, gene, and cell-specific manner. DHEA metabolites, but not DHEA, competed with 17β-estradiol for ERα and ERβ binding and stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, demonstrating that DHEA metabolites interact directly with ERα and ERβin vitro, modulating estrogen target genes in vivo. PMID:23123738

  18. Association of the Laminin, Alpha 5 (LAMA5) rs4925386 with height and longevity in an elderly population from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Crocco, Paolina; De Rango, Francesco; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    Studies in animal models and humans suggest that reduced growth and adult stature are associated with lifespan extension. Moreover, epidemiological studies reported a positive association between adult height and risk of multiple cancers. Yet, it is unclear which factors mediate these relationships. Laminins are major components of the basement membranes and cooperate with growth factors and matrix-dependent receptors in cell proliferation and differentiation. Previously, we reported the association of rs659822-C/T in LAMA5, encoding the laminin-α5 chain, with weight and height in a cohort of healthy 64-107 aged Italian individuals. Notably, two independent meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies found the C-allele of LAMA5 rs4925386-C/T correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. We tested additional SNPs within the LAMA5 gene for association with anthropometric traits and longevity in our cohort of elderly subjects (N=624). Under an additive model, the rs2427283-C allele (P=0.02) and the rs4925386-T allele (P=0.01) were associated with shorter stature. Age-stratified analyses showed that the rs4925386-T allele was also positively associated with longevity (P=0.001). The association of LAMA5 rs4925386 alleles with both inter-individual differences in height and in longevity suggests that laminins may be among the factors linking stature and cancer susceptibility. PMID:26968355

  19. Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by NMDA receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Mark R.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2010-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors provide a mechanism by which the function of NMDA glutamate receptors can be modulated. As NMDA receptor hypofunction is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, the pharmacological regulation of mGlu receptor activity represents a promising therapeutic approach. We examined the effects of the positive allosteric mGlu5 receptor modulator 3- cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB), alone and in combination with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, on a task measuring cognitive set-shifting ability. This task measures NMDA receptor-dependent cognitive abilities analogous to those impaired in schizophrenia. Systemic administration of CDPPB (10 & 30 mg/kg i.p) blocked MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced impairments in set-shifting ability. The effect on learning was dose-dependent, with the 30 mg/kg dose having a greater effect than the 10 mg/kg dose across all trials. This ameliorative effect of CDPPB reflected a reduction in MK-801-induced perseverative responding. These results add to the evidence that mGlu5 receptors interact functionally with NMDA receptors to regulate behavior, and suggest that positive modulators of mGlu5 receptors may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of disorders, like schizophrenia, characterized by impairments in cognitive flexibility and memory. PMID:20371234

  20. Inhibition of staurosporine-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-1 and endothelial cell protein C receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, Laurent O; Griffin, John H

    2003-01-01

    In a model of staurosporine-induced apoptosis using EAhy926 endothelial cells, inhibition of apoptosis by activated protein C was dose-dependent and required the enzyme's active site, implicating activated protein C-mediated proteolysis. Consistent with this implication, both protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) were required for the anti-apoptotic effects of activated protein C. PMID:12683950

  1. An Improved Ivermectin-activated Chloride Channel Receptor for Inhibiting Electrical Activity in Defined Neuronal Populations*

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity. Several neuronal silencing methods have been developed, with the bacterial light-activated halorhodopsin and the invertebrate allatostatin-activated G protein-coupled receptor proving the most successful to date. However, both techniques may be difficult to implement clinically due to their requirement for surgically implanted stimulus delivery methods and their use of nonhuman receptors. A third silencing method, an invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor (GluClR) activated by ivermectin, solves the stimulus delivery problem as ivermectin is a safe, well tolerated drug that reaches the brain following systemic administration. However, the limitations of this method include poor functional expression, possibly due to the requirement to coexpress two different subunits in individual neurons, and the nonhuman origin of GluClR. Here, we describe the development of a modified human α1 glycine receptor as an improved ivermectin-gated silencing receptor. The crucial development was the identification of a mutation, A288G, which increased ivermectin sensitivity almost 100-fold, rendering it similar to that of GluClR. Glycine sensitivity was eliminated via the F207A mutation. Its large unitary conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G α1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue appears essential for exquisite ivermectin sensitivity. PMID:20308070

  2. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent activation of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription by 3-methycholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Jonathan M.; Waxman, David J. . E-mail: djw@bu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response elements upstream of target genes. Recently, AhR ligands were reported to induce formation of an AhR-estrogen receptor (ER) complex, which can bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) and stimulate transcription of ER target genes. Presently, we investigate the effect of the AhR ligands 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (BZ126) on ERE-regulated luciferase reporter activity and endogenous ER target gene expression. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, 3MC induced transcription of ER reporter genes containing native promoter sequences of the ER-responsive genes complement 3 and pS2 and heterologous promoters regulated by isolated EREs. Dose-response studies revealed that the concentration of 3MC required to half-maximally activate transcription (EC{sub 5}) was >100-fold higher for an ER reporter (27-57 {mu}M) than for an AhR reporter (86-250 nM) in both MCF-7 cells and in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. 3MC also stimulated expression of the endogenous ER target genes amphiregulin, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor, albeit to a much lower extent than was achieved following stimulation with 17{beta}-estradiol. In Ishikawa cells, 3MC, but not BZ126 or TCDD, stimulated ER{alpha}-dependent reporter activity but did not induce expression of endogenous ER target genes. Finally, studies carried out in the AhR-positive rat hepatoma cell line 5L and the AhR-deficient variant BP8 demonstrated that ER reporter activity could be induced by 3MC in a manner that was independent of AhR and thus distinct from the AhR-ER 'hijacking' mechanism described recently. 3MC may thus elicit estrogenic activity by multiple mechanisms.

  4. The third cytoplasmic loop of a yeast G-protein-coupled receptor controls pathway activation, ligand discrimination, and receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, C J; Blumer, K J

    1994-01-01

    To identify functional domains of G-protein-coupled receptors that control pathway activation, ligand discrimination, and receptor regulation, we have used as a model the alpha-factor receptor (STE2 gene product) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From a collection of random mutations introduced in the region coding for the third cytoplasmic loop of Ste2p, six ste2sst alleles were identified by genetic screening methods that increased alpha-factor sensitivity 2.5- to 15-fold. The phenotypic effects of ste2sst and sst2 mutations were not additive, consistent with models in which the third cytoplasmic loop of the alpha-factor receptor and the regulatory protein Sst2p control related aspects of pheromone response and/or desensitization. Four ste2sst mutations did not dramatically alter cell surface expression or agonist binding affinity of the receptor; however, they did permit detectable responses to an alpha-factor antagonist. One ste2sst allele increased receptor binding affinity for alpha-factor and elicited stronger responses to antagonist. Results of competition binding experiments indicated that wild-type and representative mutant receptors bound antagonist with similar affinities. The antagonist-responsive phenotypes caused by ste2sst alleles were therefore due to defects in the ability of receptors to discriminate between agonist and antagonist peptides. One ste2sst mutation caused rapid, ligand-independent internalization of the receptor. These results demonstrate that the third cytoplasmic loop of the alpha-factor receptor is a multifunctional regulatory domain that controls pathway activation and/or desensitization and influences the processes of receptor activation, ligand discrimination, and internalization. PMID:8164685

  5. T cell antigen receptor activation and actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sudha; Curado, Silvia; Mayya, Viveka

    2013-01-01

    T cells constitute a crucial arm of the adaptive immune system and their optimal function is required for a healthy immune response. After the initial step of T cell-receptor (TCR) triggering by antigenic peptide complexes on antigen presenting cell (APC), the T cell exhibits extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. This cytoskeletal remodeling leads to formation of an immunological synapse [1] characterized by regulated clustering, segregation and movement of receptors at the interface. Synapse formation regulates T cell activation and response to antigenic peptides and proceeds via feedback between actin cytoskeleton and TCR signaling. Actin polymerization participates in various events during the synapse formation, maturation, and eventually its disassembly. There is increasing knowledge about the actin effectors that couple TCR activation to actin rearrangements [2, 3], and how defects in these effectors translate into impairment of T cell activation. In this review we aim to summarize and integrate parts of what is currently known about this feedback process. In addition, in light of recent advancements in our understanding of TCR triggering and translocation at the synapse, we speculate on the organizational and functional diversity of microfilament architecture in the T cell. PMID:23680625

  6. Synaptic NMDA receptor activity boosts intrinsic antioxidant defences

    PubMed Central

    Papadia, Sofia; Soriano, Francesc X.; Lveill, Frdric; Martel, Marc-Andre; Dakin, Kelly A.; Hansen, Henrik H.; Kaindl, Angela; Sifringer, Marco; Fowler, Jill; Stefovska, Vanya; Mckenzie, Grahame; Craigon, Marie; Corriveau, Roderick; Ghazal, Peter; Horsburgh, Karen; Yankner, Bruce A.; Wyllie, David J. A.; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic antioxidant defences are important for neuronal longevity. We show that synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosts antioxidant defences through changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Synaptic activity enhances thioredoxin activity, facilitates the reduction of overoxidized peroxiredoxins, and promotes resistance to oxidative stress. Resistance is mediated by coordinated transcriptional changes: synaptic NMDAR activity inactivates a novel FOXO target gene, the thioredoxin inhibitor Txnip. Conversely, NMDAR blockade upregulates Txnip in vivo and in vitro, where it binds thioredoxin and promotes vulnerability to oxidative damage. Synaptic activity also up-regulates the peroxiredoxin re-activating genes Sestrin2 and Sulfiredoxin, via C/EBP? and AP-1 respectively. Mimicking these expression changes is sufficient to strengthen antioxidant defences. Trans-synaptic stimulation of synaptic NMDARs is crucial for boosting antioxidant defences: chronic bath activation of all (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs induces no antioxidative effects. Thus, synaptic NMDAR activity may influence the progression of pathological processes associated with oxidative damage. PMID:18344994

  7. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  8. Laminin isoforms: biological roles and effects on the intracellular distribution of nuclear proteins in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, Natacha; Gross, Isabelle; Gendry, Patrick; Stutzmann, Jeanne; Freund, Jean-Noel; Kedinger, Michele; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Launay, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Launay@inserm.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-02-15

    Laminins are structurally and functionally major components of the extracellular matrix. Four isoforms of laminins (laminin-1, -2, -5 and -10) are expressed in a specific pattern along the crypt-villus axis of the intestine. Previous works indicated that expression of these isoforms is developmentally regulated and that laminins could modulate the behaviour of intestinal cells, but the exact role of each isoform remained unclear. Here, we report the first systematic analysis of the cellular functions of the four isoforms using the human colon adenocarcinoma Caco2/TC7 cell line as a model. We compared the respective abilities of each isoform to modulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. We found that the isoforms were functionally distinct, with laminin-10 being the most adhesive substratum, laminin-2, laminin-5 and laminin-10 enhancing cellular proliferation and at the opposite, laminin-1 stimulating intestinal cell differentiation. To begin to characterise the molecular events induced by the different isoforms, we examined by immunofluorescence the intracellular distribution of several nuclear proteins, recently highlighted by a nuclear proteomic approach. We observed clear nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of these proteins, which depended on the laminin isoform. These results provide evidence for a distinct functional role of laminins in intestinal cell functions characterised by specific localisation of nuclear proteins.

  9. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to natural sex differentiation, during sex inversion treatments, androgens, either endogenous or exogenous, participate in inducing testicular differentiation. PMID:24815887

  10. Over-expression of laminin correlates to recovery of vasogenic edema following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, J-Y; Ko, A-R; Kang, T-C

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the up-regulation of laminin expression represents the astroglio-vascular responses to status epilepticus (SE) in the rat brain to better understand the role of vasogenic edema in epileptogenic insult. In the hippocampus, vasogenic edema was observed in the hippocampus 12h after SE when astroglial degeneration was undetected. Vasogenic edema in the hippocampus was more severe in the CA1 region where astroglial loss was absent than in the dentate gyrus showing astroglial degeneration. In the piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema was accompanied by appearance of astroglial degeneration 12h after SE. Laminin expression in the hippocampus and the PC was increased 3 days and 4 days after SE, respectively. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the hippocampus and the PC with concomitant reduction of SMI-71 (the endothelial barrier antigen) expression. Four weeks after SE, laminin expression was reduced in vessels showing strong SMI-71 expression within vasogenic edema lesion. Inhibition of SE-induced vasogenic edema formation by BQ788 effectively prevented laminin over-expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that laminin over-expression may be one of consequences from vasogenic edema rather than astroglial loss, and that laminin over-expression may promote migration of astrocytes to damaged or newly generated vessels to repair brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption accompanied by the reconstruction of endothelial barrier. PMID:24931765

  11. Evidence for the direct interaction of chicken gizzard 5'-nucleotidase with laminin and fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Stochaj, U; Dieckhoff, J; Mollenhauer, J; Cramer, M; Mannherz, H G

    1989-09-15

    The ectoenzyme 5'-nucleotidase purified from chicken gizzard is shown to specifically interact with laminin and fibronectin, components of the extracellular matrix, by a number of different techniques: (i) cosedimentation with laminin by sucrose gradient centrifugation; (ii) affinity adsorption to both laminin- and fibronectin-Sepharose 4-B; (iii) specific binding to both laminin and fibronectin dotted onto cellulose filters; and (iv) monoclonal antibodies against 5'-nucleotidase are shown to interfere with the interaction of 5'-nucleotidase with laminin and fibronectin. For all the techniques employed, the interactions were found to be specific, since 5'-nucleotidase did not bind to unrelated proteins such as bovine serum albumin or to monomeric actin. The interaction of purified chicken gizzard 5'-nucleotidase could be demonstrated for the hydrophobic enzyme solubilized in detergent and after its reconstitution into artificial phospholipid vesicles. The affinity adsorption experiments indicate that reconstituted enzyme binds more strongly to both laminin and fibronectin. The 5'-nucleotidase employed in this study is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycan-phosphatidylinositol linker. After treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, the enzyme is transformed into a hydrophilic form, for which interactions with laminin and fibronectin could also be demonstrated by the dot-blot technique. Thus controlled cleavage of the phosphatidylinositol linker of 5'-nucleotidase could enable cells to rapidly alter their adhesiveness to certain components of the extracellular matrix. PMID:2550083

  12. The impact of laminin on 3D neurite extension in collagen gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn E.; Papke, Jason B.; Kutosky, Hannah P.; Throm, Allison; Hammer, Joshua A.; Harkins, Amy B.; Kuntz Willits, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this research was to characterize the effect of laminin on three-dimensional (3D) neurite growth. Gels were formed using type I collagen at concentrations of 0.4-2.0 mg mL-1 supplemented with laminin at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 µg mL-1. When imaged with confocal microscopy, laminin was shown to follow the collagen fibers; however, the addition of laminin had minimal effect on the stiffness of the scaffolds at any concentration of collagen. Individual neurons dissociated from E9 chick dorsal root ganglia were cultured in the gels for 24 h, and neurite lengths were measured. For collagen gels without laminin, a typical bimodal response of neurite outgrowth was observed, with increased growth at lower concentrations of collagen gel. However, alteration of the chemical nature of the collagen gel by the laminin additive shifted, or completely mitigated, the bimodal neurite growth response seen in gels without laminin. Expression of integrin subunits, α1, α3, α6 and β1, were confirmed by PCR and immunolabeling in the 3D scaffolds. These results provide insight into the interplay between mechanical and chemical environment to support neurite outgrowth in 3D. Understanding the relative impact of environmental factors on 3D nerve growth may improve biomaterial design for nerve cell regeneration.

  13. The insulin receptor of rat brain is coupled to tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, R W; Hendricks, S A; Quarum, M; Roth, J

    1984-03-25

    Insulin receptors from rat brain were studied for receptor-associated tyrosine kinase activity. In solubilized, lectin-purified receptor preparations, insulin stimulated the phosphorylation of the beta subunit of its receptor as well as of exogenous substrates. Phosphoamino acid analysis of casein phosphorylated by these preparations revealed that 32P incorporation occurred predominantly on tyrosine residues. Receptor and casein phosphorylations were specific for insulin and analogues that also bind to the insulin receptor. The insulin dose response for phosphorylation of brain receptor resembled that reported for the purified insulin receptor from human placenta (Kasuga, M., Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y., Blithe, D.L., and Kahn, C.R. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 2137-2141), suggesting similar insulin sensitivity and coupling of the brain receptor kinase. Four polyclonal antisera to the insulin receptor were able to bind and immunoprecipitate the brain receptor; however, only two antisera activated the receptor-associated kinase. Thus, the brain insulin receptor, like the well studied non-neural receptor, is coupled to tyrosine kinase activity, making regulation of cellular events by insulin in neural tissue possible. PMID:6368546

  14. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  15. MAPK/ERK-Dependent Translation Factor Hyperactivation and Dysregulated Laminin γ2 Expression in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Martin; Natarajan, Easwar; Barron, Patricia; Widlund, Hans R.; Rheinwald, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Lesions displaying a variety of dysplastic changes precede invasive oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, there are no histopathological criteria for either confirming or staging premalignancy. SCCs and dysplasias frequently contain cells that abnormally express the γ2 subunit of laminin-332. We developed cell culture models to investigate γ2 dysregulation. Normal human keratinocytes displayed density-dependent repression of γ2, whereas premalignant keratinocytes and SCC cells overexpressed γ2 and secreted laminin assembly intermediates. Neoplastic cells had hyperactive EGFR/MAPK(ERK) signaling coordinate with overexpressed γ2, and EGFR and MEK inhibitors normalized γ2 expression. Keratinocytes engineered to express HPV16 E6 or activated mutant HRAS, cRAF1, or MEK1 lost density repression of γ2 and shared with neoplastic cells signaling abnormalities downstream of ERK, including increased phosphorylation of S6 and eIF4 translation factors. Notably, qPCR results revealed that γ2 overexpression was not accompanied by increased γ2 mRNA levels, consistent with ERK-dependent, eIF4B-mediated translation initiation of the stem-looped, 5′-untranslated region of γ2 mRNA in neoplastic cells. Inhibitors of MEK, but not of TORC1/2, blocked S6 and eIF4B phosphorylation and γ2 overexpression. Immunostaining of oral dysplasias identified γ2 overexpression occurring within fields of basal cells that had elevated p-S6 levels. These results reveal a causal relationship between ERK-dependent translation factor activation and laminin γ2 dysregulation and identify new markers of preinvasive neoplastic change during progression to SCC. PMID:22546478

  16. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine-a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist-displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine-an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)-prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  17. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hoeller, Alexandre A.; Costa, Ana Paula R.; Bicca, Maíra A.; Matheus, Filipe C.; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L.; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L.; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; de Lima, Thereza C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine—a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist—displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine–an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)–prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  18. Theoretical studies of the activation mechanism of histamine H sub 2 -receptors: Dimaprit and the receptor model

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, L.; Mazurek, A.P.; Osman, R.; Weinstein, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are used to explore the interaction of dimaprit, a histamine H,-receptor agonist, with a molecular complex designed to model the specific recognition of histamine, and the H{sub 2}-receptor activation mechanism triggered by the binding of the ligand. The stabilization of several isomeric forms of the isothiourea moiety of dimaprit in the receptor model is considered, including models for the monocationic and dicationic forms that are likely to exist under physiological conditions. The energetics of proton transfer from a receptor site to the ligand are evaluated in the presence and absence of models for other sites in the receptor. The energetic contribution of ligand desolvation to the various steps in the receptor binding and activation mechanism is estimated from calculations of the enthalpy of solvation in water represented as a continuum dielectric. The results indicate that the most likely manner in which dimaprit mimics the binding of histamine to the proposed proton donor site in the H{sub 2}-receptor model requires the sulfur in the isothiourea moiety of dimaprit to act as the proton acceptor in the activation mechanism. The simulation of this mechanism reveals its feasibility and indicates that the monocation form of dimaprit, rather than the dication, is likely to be the physiologically active species.

  19. Synaptic NMDA receptor activity boosts intrinsic antioxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Sofia; Soriano, Francesc X; Lveill, Frdric; Martel, Marc-Andre; Dakin, Kelly A; Hansen, Henrik H; Kaindl, Angela; Sifringer, Marco; Fowler, Jill; Stefovska, Vanya; McKenzie, Grahame; Craigon, Marie; Corriveau, Roderick; Ghazal, Peter; Horsburgh, Karen; Yankner, Bruce A; Wyllie, David J A; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Hardingham, Giles E

    2008-04-01

    Intrinsic antioxidant defenses are important for neuronal longevity. We found that in rat neurons, synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosted antioxidant defenses by making changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin (Prx) system. Synaptic activity enhanced thioredoxin activity, facilitated the reduction of overoxidized Prxs and promoted resistance to oxidative stress. Resistance was mediated by coordinated transcriptional changes; synaptic NMDAR activity inactivated a previously unknown Forkhead box O target gene, the thioredoxin inhibitor Txnip. Conversely, NMDAR blockade upregulated Txnip in vivo and in vitro, where it bound thioredoxin and promoted vulnerability to oxidative damage. Synaptic activity also upregulated the Prx reactivating genes Sesn2 (sestrin 2) and Srxn1 (sulfiredoxin), via C/EBPbeta and AP-1, respectively. Mimicking these expression changes was sufficient to strengthen antioxidant defenses. Trans-synaptic stimulation of synaptic NMDARs was crucial for boosting antioxidant defenses; chronic bath activation of all (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs induced no antioxidative effects. Thus, synaptic NMDAR activity may influence the progression of pathological processes associated with oxidative damage. PMID:18344994

  20. Laminin Network Formation Studied by Reconstitution of Ternary Nodes in Solution*

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Alan; Hohenester, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    The polymerization of laminins into a cell-associated network is a key process in basement membrane assembly. Network formation is mediated by the homologous short arm tips of the laminin heterotrimer, each consisting of a globular laminin N-terminal (LN) domain followed by a tandem of laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (LEa) domains. How the short arms interact in the laminin network is unclear. Here, we have addressed this question by reconstituting laminin network nodes in solution and analyzing them by size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Recombinant LN-LEa1–4 fragments of the laminin α1, α2, α5, β1, and γ1 chains were monomeric in solution. The β1 and γ1 fragments formed the only detectable binary complex and ternary complexes of 1:1:1 stoichiometry with all α chain fragments. Ternary complex formation required calcium and did not occur at 4 °C, like the polymerization of full-length laminins. Experiments with chimeric short arm fragments demonstrated that the LEa2–4 regions of the β1 and γ1 fragments are dispensable for ternary complex formation, and an engineered glycan in the β1 LEa1 domain was also tolerated. In contrast, mutation of Ser-68 in the β1 LN domain (corresponding to a Pierson syndrome mutation in the closely related β2 chain) abolished ternary complex formation. We conclude that authentic ternary nodes of the laminin network can be reconstituted for structure-function studies. PMID:23166322

  1. Aberrant expression of laminin-332 promotes cell proliferation and cyst growth in ARPKD.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Dang, Suparna; Marinkovich, M Peter; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yoder, Bradley; Torres, Vicente E; Wallace, Darren P

    2014-03-15

    Basement membrane abnormalities have often been observed in kidney cysts of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and animal models. There is an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, including laminin-α3,β3,γ2 (laminin-332), in human autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Knockdown of PKD1 paralogs in zebrafish leads to dysregulated synthesis of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that altered basement membrane assembly may be a primary defect in ADPKD. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-332 is aberrantly expressed in cysts and precystic tubules of human autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) kidneys as well as in the kidneys of PCK rats, an orthologous ARPKD model. There was aberrant expression of laminin-γ2 as early as postnatal day 2 and elevated laminin-332 protein in postnatal day 30, coinciding with the formation and early growth of renal cysts in PCK rat kidneys. We also show that a kidney cell line derived from Oak Ridge polycystic kidney mice, another model of ARPKD, exhibited abnormal lumen-deficient and multilumen structures in Matrigel culture. These cells had increased proliferation rates and altered expression levels of laminin-332 compared with their rescued counterparts. A function-blocking polyclonal antibody to laminin-332 significantly inhibited their abnormal proliferation rates and rescued their aberrant phenotype in Matrigel culture. Furthermore, abnormal laminin-332 expression in cysts originating from collecting ducts and proximal tubules as well as in precystic tubules was observed in a human end-stage ADPKD kidney. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of laminin-332 contributes to the aberrant proliferation of cyst epithelial cells and cyst growth in genetic forms of PKD. PMID:24370592

  2. Aberrant expression of laminin-332 promotes cell proliferation and cyst growth in ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Suparna; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Lazarova, Zelmira; Yoder, Bradley; Torres, Vicente E.; Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane abnormalities have often been observed in kidney cysts of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and animal models. There is an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, including laminin-α3,β3,γ2 (laminin-332), in human autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Knockdown of PKD1 paralogs in zebrafish leads to dysregulated synthesis of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that altered basement membrane assembly may be a primary defect in ADPKD. In this study, we demonstrate that laminin-332 is aberrantly expressed in cysts and precystic tubules of human autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) kidneys as well as in the kidneys of PCK rats, an orthologous ARPKD model. There was aberrant expression of laminin-γ2 as early as postnatal day 2 and elevated laminin-332 protein in postnatal day 30, coinciding with the formation and early growth of renal cysts in PCK rat kidneys. We also show that a kidney cell line derived from Oak Ridge polycystic kidney mice, another model of ARPKD, exhibited abnormal lumen-deficient and multilumen structures in Matrigel culture. These cells had increased proliferation rates and altered expression levels of laminin-332 compared with their rescued counterparts. A function-blocking polyclonal antibody to laminin-332 significantly inhibited their abnormal proliferation rates and rescued their aberrant phenotype in Matrigel culture. Furthermore, abnormal laminin-332 expression in cysts originating from collecting ducts and proximal tubules as well as in precystic tubules was observed in a human end-stage ADPKD kidney. Our results suggest that abnormal expression of laminin-332 contributes to the aberrant proliferation of cyst epithelial cells and cyst growth in genetic forms of PKD. PMID:24370592

  3. Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Smetana, R W; Alford, S; Dubuc, R

    2007-05-01

    In lampreys, brain stem reticulospinal (RS) neurons constitute the main descending input to the spinal cord and activate the spinal locomotor central pattern generators. Cholinergic nicotinic inputs activate RS neurons, and consequently, induce locomotion. Cholinergic muscarinic agonists also induce locomotion when applied to the brain stem of birds. This study examined whether bath applications of muscarinic agonists could activate RS neurons and initiate motor output in lampreys. Bath applications of 25 microM muscarine elicited sustained, recurring depolarizations (mean duration of 5.0 +/- 0.5 s recurring with a mean period of 55.5 +/- 10.3 s) in intracellularly recorded rhombencephalic RS neurons. Calcium imaging experiments revealed that muscarine induced oscillations in calcium levels that occurred synchronously within the RS neuron population. Bath application of TTX abolished the muscarine effect, suggesting the sustained depolarizations in RS neurons are driven by other neurons. A series of lesion experiments suggested the caudal half of the rhombencephalon was necessary. Microinjections of muscarine (75 microM) or the muscarinic receptor (mAchR) antagonist atropine (1 mM) lateral to the rostral pole of the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus induced or prevented, respectively, the muscarinic RS neuron response. Cells immunoreactive for muscarinic receptors were found in this region and could mediate this response. Bath application of glutamatergic antagonists (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione/D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid) abolished the muscarine effect, suggesting that glutamatergic transmission is needed for the effect. Ventral root recordings showed spinal motor output coincides with RS neuron sustained depolarizations. We propose that unilateral mAchR activation on specific cells in the caudal rhombencephalon activates a circuit that generates synchronous sustained, recurring depolarizations in bilateral populations of RS neurons. PMID:17344371

  4. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential for modulation of inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, S E; Kendall, D A

    2010-08-01

    Cannabinoids act via cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)) and the ion channel receptor TRPV1. Evidence has now emerged suggesting that an additional target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. There are three PPAR subtypes alpha, delta (also known as beta) and gamma, which regulate cell differentiation, metabolism and immune function. The major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and ajulemic acid, a structural analogue of the phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPARgamma. Other cannabinoids which activate PPARgamma include N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, THC, cannabidiol, HU210, WIN55212-2 and CP55940. The endogenous acylethanolamines, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide regulate feeding and body weight, stimulate fat utilization and have neuroprotective effects mediated through PPARalpha. Other endocannabinoids that activate PPARalpha include anandamide, virodhamine and noladin ether. There is, as yet, little direct evidence for interactions of cannabinoids with PPARdelta. There is a convergence of effects of cannabinoids, acting via cell surface and nuclear receptors, on immune cell function which provides promise for the targeted therapy of a variety of immune, particularly neuroinflammatory, diseases. PMID:19833407

  5. Involvement of Activating NK Cell Receptors and Their Modulation in Pathogen Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Marras, Francesco; Bozzano, Federica; De Maria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are endowed with cell-structure-sensing receptors providing inhibitory protection from self-destruction (inhibitory NK receptors, iNKRs, including killer inhibitory receptors and other molecules) and rapid triggering potential leading to functional cell activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine receptors, and activating NK cell receptors including natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, i.e., NKp46, NKp46, and NKp44). NCR and NKG2D recognize ligands on infected cells which may be endogenous or may directly bind to some structures derived from invading pathogens. In this paper, we address the known direct or indirect interactions between activating receptors and pathogens and their expression during chronic HIV and HCV infections. PMID:21860586

  6. The First Structure–Activity Relationship Studies for Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand–receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine (ACh), but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs, and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure–activity relationships (SARs) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10 000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3. PMID:25587888

  7. Activation of GABA-A Receptor Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced MMP-9 Activation by ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    TYAGI, NEETU; GILLESPIE, WILLIAM; VACEK, JONATHAN C.; SEN, UTPAL; TYAGI, SURESH C.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to γ-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. However, the role of GABA-A receptor in Hcy-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is not clear. We hypothesized that Hcy causes cerebrovascular remodeling by increasing redox stress and MMP-9 activity via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and by inhibition of GABA-A receptors, thus behaving as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species production was detected using the fluorescent probe, 2′–7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Hcy increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase-4 concomitantly suppressing thioredoxin. Hcy caused activation of MMP-9, measured by gelatin zymography. The GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol ameliorated the Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activation. In parallel, Hcy caused phosphorylation of ERK and selectively decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4). Treatment of the endothelial cell with muscimol restored the levels of TIMP-4 to the levels in control group. Hcy induced expression of iNOS and decreased eNOS expression, which lead to a decreased NO bioavailability. Furthermore muscimol attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 via ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hcy competes with GABA-A receptors, inducing the oxidative stress transduction pathway and leading to ERK activation. PMID:19308943

  8. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPAR?) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  9. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  10. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  11. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lei; Jacob, Asha; Wang, Ping; Wu, Rongqian

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health care problem and a significant socioeconomic challenge worldwide. No specific therapy for TBI is available. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Although PPAR-γ was originally characterized in adipose tissue as a regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, recent studies showed that PPAR-γ is present in most cell types and plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, cellular differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the molecular mechanisms of PPAR-γ-related neuroprotection after TBI. Growing evidence has indicated that the beneficial effects of PPAR-γ activation in TBI appear to be mediated through downregulation of inflammatory responses, reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of neurogenesis. A thorough understanding of the PPAR-γ pathway will be critical to the development of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of patients with TBI. PMID:21072262

  12. Antitussive activity of Withania somnifera and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nosálová, Gabriela; Sivová, Veronika; Ray, Bimalendu; Fraňová, Soňa; Ondrejka, Igor; Flešková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. It contains 65% arabinose and 18% galactose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan in conscious, healthy adult guinea pigs and the role of the opioid pathway in the antitussive action. A polysaccharide extract was given orally in a dose of 50 mg/kg. Cough was induced by an aerosol of citric acid in a concentration 0.3 mol/L, generated by a jet nebulizer into a plethysmographic chamber. The intensity of cough response was defined as the number of cough efforts counted during a 3-min exposure to the aerosol. The major finding was that arabinogalactan clearly suppressed the cough reflex; the suppression was comparable with that of codeine that was taken as a reference drug. The involvement of the opioid system was tested with the use of a blood-brain barrier penetrable, naloxone hydrochloride, and non-penetrable, naloxone methiodide, to distinguish between the central and peripheral mu-opioid receptor pathways. Both opioid antagonists acted to reverse the arabinogalactan-induced cough suppression; the reversion was total over time with the latter antagonist. We failed to confirm the presence of a bronchodilating effect of the polysaccharide, which could be involved in its antitussive action. We conclude that the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from Withania somnifera has a distinct antitussive activity consisting of cough suppression and that this action involves the mu-opioid receptor pathways. PMID:25252908

  13. Potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity by sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Le Drean, Yves; Mincheneau, Nathalie; Le Goff, Pascale; Michel, Denis

    2002-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor, subject to several types of posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination. We showed that the GR is covalently modified by the small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) peptide in mammalian cells. We demonstrated that GR sumoylation is not dependent on the presence of the ligand and regulates the stability of the protein as well as its transcriptional activity. SUMO-1 overexpression induces dramatic GR degradation, abolished by proteasome inhibition. We also found that SUMO-1 stimulates the transactivation capacity of GRs to an extent largely exceeding those observed so far for other sumoylated transcription factors. Overexpression of SUMO-1 specifically enhances the ligand-induced transactivation of GR up to 8-fold. However, this hyperactivation occurs only in the context of a synergy between multiple molecules of GRs. It requires more than one receptor DNA-binding site in promoter and becomes more prominent as the number of sites increases. Interestingly, these observations may be related to the transcriptional properties of the synergy control region of GRs, which precisely contains two evolutionary conserved sumoylation sites. We propose a model in which SUMO-1 regulates the synergy control function of GR and serves as a unique signal for activation and destruction. PMID:12193561

  14. Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Dou, Tonghai; Xu, Jiaxi; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Jianlei; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) plays an important role in the control of energy balance and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Different transcript variants were investigated not only in human but also in other vertebrates. To look into the evolutionary changes of these variants, we analyzed the genomic sequences of PPAR gamma genes from several vertebrate species, as well as their mRNA and EST data. Several potential alternative splicing exons at the 5'-end of the PPAR gamma gene were identified. The 5'-end of the PPAR gamma gene is discovered to be evolutionarily active and recruits new exons via different strategies. Moreover, it is shown that the only coding alternative exon (exon B) processes much higher Ka/Ks compared with its constitutive counterparts. In addition, its Ka/Ks is greater than 1 in the rat, mouse, and rabbit, indicating adaptive evolution and possible energy storage related gain-of-function for the exon. PMID:20515805

  15. The activation of liver X receptors inhibits toll-like receptor-9-induced foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Morello, Silvana; Chen, Shuang; Bonavita, Eduardo; Pinto, Aldo

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are related to foam cell formation (FCF), key event in the establishment/progression of atherosclerosis. The activation of TLR2 and TLR4 can increase FCF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in FCF. Murine macrophages were treated with CpG-ODN, TLR9 agonist, and oxidized particles of LDL (Paz-PC) and FCF was analyzed by means of Oil Red O staining. The administration of CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC onto macrophages increased the amount of lipid droplets, correlated to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IFNbeta, and IP-10. The underlying mechanism by which TLR9 ligation influenced Paz-PC in the FCF was NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent, as observed by higher levels of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha, increased nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, lower levels of the total IKKalpha protein and higher release of interferon-dependent cytokines, such as IP-10. Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate lipid cellular transport and negatively modulate TLR-dependent signaling pathways. Indeed, the addition of GW3965, synthetic LXRs agonist, significantly reduced FCF after CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC stimulation. In this condition, we observed decreased levels of the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, related to the higher presence of LXRalpha into the nucleus. TNF-alpha, IP-10, and IFNbeta levels were reduced by the administration of GW3965 following CpG-ODN and Paz-PC treatment. In conclusion, the activation of TLR9 facilitates the formation of foam cells in an NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent manner, countered by the activation of LXRs. This study further support LXRs as potential anti-atherosclerotic target. PMID:20049870

  16. Subcellular Localization of Activated AKT in Estrogen Receptor- and Progesterone Receptor-Expressing Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Badve, Sunil; Collins, Nikail R.; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Turbin, Dmitry; Leung, Samuel; Thorat, Mangesh; Dunn, Sandra E.; Geistlinger, Tim R.; Carroll, Jason S.; Brown, Myles; Bose, Shikha; Teitell, Michael A.; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2010-01-01

    Activated v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase (pAKT) is localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and/or nucleus in 50% of cancers. The clinical importance of pAKT localization and the mechanism(s) controlling this compartmentalization are unknown. In this study, we examined nuclear and cytoplasmic phospho-AKT (pAKT) expression by immunohistochemistry in a breast cancer tissue microarray (n = 377) with ≈15 years follow-up and integrated these data with the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), and FOXA1. Nuclear localization of pAKT (nuclear-pAKT) was associated with long-term survival (P = 0.004). Within the ERα+/PR+ subgroup, patients with nuclear-pAKT positivity had better survival than nuclear-pAKT–negative patients (P ≤ 0.05). The association of nuclear-pAKT with the ERα+/PR+ subgroup was validated in an independent cohort (n = 145). TCL1 family proteins regulate nuclear transport and/or activation of AKT. TCL1B is overexpressed in ERα-positive compared with ERα-negative breast cancers and in lung metastasis–free breast cancers. Therefore, we examined the possible control of TCL1 family member(s) expression by the estrogen:ERα pathway. Estradiol increased TCL1B expression and increased nuclear-pAKT levels in breast cancer cells; short- interfering RNA against TCL1B reduced nuclear-pAKT. Overexpression of nuclear-targeted AKT1 in MCF-7 cells increased cell proliferation without compromising sensitivity to the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen. These results suggest that subcellular localization of activated AKT plays a significant role in determining its function in breast cancer, which in part is dependent on TCL1B expression. PMID:20228224

  17. Gain control of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activity by receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase ?

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Gang; Xue, Sheng; Chry, Nadge; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Jindong; Kwan, Chun L.; Fu, Yang-Ping; Lu, You-Ming; Liu, Mingyao; Harder, Kenneth W.; Yu, Xian-Min

    2002-01-01

    Src kinase regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to play an important role in processes related to learning and memory, ethanol sensitivity and epilepsy. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of Src family kinase activity in the control of NMDA receptors. Here we report that the distal phosphatase domain (D2) of protein tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTP?) binds to the PDZ2 domain of post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95). Thus, Src kinase, its activator (PTP?) and substrate (NMDA receptors) are linked by the same scaffold protein, PSD95. Removal of PTP? does not affect the association of Src with NMDA receptors, but turns off the constitutive regulation of NMDA receptors by the kinase. Further more, we found that application of the PTP? catalytic domains (D1+D2) into neurones enhances NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. Conversely, the blockade of endogenous PTP? inhibits NMDA receptor activity and the induction of long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurones. Thus, PTP? is a novel up-regulator of synaptic strength in the CNS. PMID:12065411

  18. Selective Antibody Intervention of Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation through Fc γ Receptor Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Limin; Daubeuf, Bruno; Triantafilou, Martha; Olden, Robin; Dépis, Fabien; Raby, Anne-Catherine; Herren, Suzanne; Dos Santos, Anaelle; Malinge, Pauline; Dunn-Siegrist, Irene; Benmkaddem, Sanae; Geinoz, Antoine; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Rousseau, François; Buatois, Vanessa; Salgado-Pires, Susana; Reith, Walter; Monteiro, Renato; Pugin, Jérôme; Leger, Olivier; Ferlin, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Triantafilou, Kathy; Elson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is mediated mainly by leukocytes that express both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Fc γ receptors (FcγR). Dysregulated activation of leukocytes via exogenous and endogenous ligands of TLR4 results in a large number of inflammatory disorders that underlie a variety of human diseases. Thus, differentially blocking inflammatory cells while sparing structural cells, which are FcγR-negative, represents an elegant strategy when targeting the underlying causes of human diseases. Here, we report a novel tethering mechanism of the Fv and Fc portions of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies that achieves increased potency on inflammatory cells. In the presence of ligand (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), TLR4 traffics into glycolipoprotein microdomains, forming concentrated protein platforms that include FcγRs. This clustering produces a microenvironment allowing anti-TLR4 antibodies to co-engage TLR4 and FcγRs, increasing their avidity and thus substantially increasing their inhibitory potency. Tethering of antibodies to both TLR4 and FcγRs proves valuable in ameliorating inflammation in vivo. This novel mechanism of action therefore has the potential to enable selective intervention of relevant cell types in TLR4-driven diseases. PMID:24737331

  19. Selective antibody intervention of Toll-like receptor 4 activation through Fc γ receptor tethering.

    PubMed

    Shang, Limin; Daubeuf, Bruno; Triantafilou, Martha; Olden, Robin; Dépis, Fabien; Raby, Anne-Catherine; Herren, Suzanne; Dos Santos, Anaelle; Malinge, Pauline; Dunn-Siegrist, Irene; Benmkaddem, Sanae; Geinoz, Antoine; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Rousseau, François; Buatois, Vanessa; Salgado-Pires, Susana; Reith, Walter; Monteiro, Renato; Pugin, Jérôme; Leger, Olivier; Ferlin, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Triantafilou, Kathy; Elson, Greg

    2014-05-30

    Inflammation is mediated mainly by leukocytes that express both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Fc γ receptors (FcγR). Dysregulated activation of leukocytes via exogenous and endogenous ligands of TLR4 results in a large number of inflammatory disorders that underlie a variety of human diseases. Thus, differentially blocking inflammatory cells while sparing structural cells, which are FcγR-negative, represents an elegant strategy when targeting the underlying causes of human diseases. Here, we report a novel tethering mechanism of the Fv and Fc portions of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies that achieves increased potency on inflammatory cells. In the presence of ligand (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), TLR4 traffics into glycolipoprotein microdomains, forming concentrated protein platforms that include FcγRs. This clustering produces a microenvironment allowing anti-TLR4 antibodies to co-engage TLR4 and FcγRs, increasing their avidity and thus substantially increasing their inhibitory potency. Tethering of antibodies to both TLR4 and FcγRs proves valuable in ameliorating inflammation in vivo. This novel mechanism of action therefore has the potential to enable selective intervention of relevant cell types in TLR4-driven diseases. PMID:24737331

  20. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

  1. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-04-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  2. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-01-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  3. Genetics of the low density lipoprotein receptor. Diminished receptor activity in lymphocytes from heterozygotes with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed Central

    Bilheimer, D W; Ho, Y K; Brown, M S; Anderson, R G; Goldstein, J L

    1978-01-01

    Using circulating mononuclear cells as a readily available tissue and using the rate of high affinity degradation of 125-I-labeled low density lipoprotein (LDL) as an index of cell surface LDL receptor activity, we have measured receptor activity in cells from 53 individuals. This group includes 32 healthy subjects, 15 subjects with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia, and 6 subjects with hyperlipidemic disorders other than familial hypercholesterolemia. 7 of the healthy subjects and 10 of the heterozygotes were members of a single large kindred with five-generation transmission of the mutant familial hypercholesterolemia gene. LDL receptor activity was assayed in blood mononuclear cells under two sets of conditions. First, 125I-LDL degradation was measured in purified lymphocytes that had been incubated for 3 days in the absence of lipoproteins so as to induce a high level of LDL receptor activity. Phase-contrast autoradiograms of cells incubated with 125I-LDL and electron micrographs of cells incubated with ferritin-labeled LDL confirmed the existence of LDL receptors on lymphocytes. Second, 125I-LDL degradation was measured in mixed mononuclear cells (85-90% lymphocytes and 5-15% monocytes) immediately after their isolation from the bloodstream. This assay represented an attempt to assess the number of receptors actually expressed on the cells when they were in the circulation. Under both sets of conditions, cells from the familial hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes expressed an average of about one-half the normal number of LDL receptors. The current findings are consistent with the conclusion that heterozygotes with familial hypercholesterolemia possess only one functional allele at the LDL receptor locus and that the consequent deficiency of LDL receptors produces the clinical syndrome of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Images PMID:205553

  4. Transient laminin beta 1a Induction Defines the Wound Epidermis during Zebrafish Fin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Merriman, Alexander F; Savage, Jeremiah; Willer, Jason; Wahlig, Taylor; Katsanis, Nicholas; Yin, Viravuth P; Poss, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer. These events facilitate expression of the morphogenetic factors shha and lef1, basolateral positioning of phosphorylated Igf1r, patterning of new osteoblasts, and regeneration of bone. By contrast, lamb1a function is dispensable for juvenile body growth, homeostatic adult tissue maintenance, repair of split fins, or renewal of genetically ablated osteoblasts. fgf20a mutations or transgenic Fgf receptor inhibition disrupt lamb1a expression, linking a central growth factor to epithelial maturation during regeneration. Our findings reveal transient induction of lamb1a in epithelial cells as a key, growth factor-guided step in formation of a signaling-competent regeneration epidermis. PMID:26305099

  5. Transient laminin beta 1a Induction Defines the Wound Epidermis during Zebrafish Fin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Merriman, Alexander F.; Savage, Jeremiah; Willer, Jason; Wahlig, Taylor; Katsanis, Nicholas; Yin, Viravuth P.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer. These events facilitate expression of the morphogenetic factors shha and lef1, basolateral positioning of phosphorylated Igf1r, patterning of new osteoblasts, and regeneration of bone. By contrast, lamb1a function is dispensable for juvenile body growth, homeostatic adult tissue maintenance, repair of split fins, or renewal of genetically ablated osteoblasts. fgf20a mutations or transgenic Fgf receptor inhibition disrupt lamb1a expression, linking a central growth factor to epithelial maturation during regeneration. Our findings reveal transient induction of lamb1a in epithelial cells as a key, growth factor-guided step in formation of a signaling-competent regeneration epidermis. PMID:26305099

  6. Substituted NDP-MSH peptides paired with mutant melanocortin-4 receptors demonstrate the role of transmembrane 6 in receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Beth A; Ling, Nicholas; Chen, Chen

    2007-09-18

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and cachexia. Molecular interactions between peptide ligands and MC4R have been studied in detail. Less is known regarding the role of these interactions in the mechanism of MC4R activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of human MC4R activation by [Nle4, d-Phe7]alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), by first defining the role of the His6-d-Phe7-Arg8-Trp9 residues in receptor activation (Emax for stimulation of cAMP accumulation) using modified peptides, then understanding how their interaction with the receptor modulates activation using site-directed mutagenesis and a molecular model of NDP-MSH bound to the active state of the receptor. Alanine substitution indicated that the d-Phe7, Arg8, and Trp9 side chains contribute binding energy but are not essential for the receptor activation event. Conversely, His6 to Ala6 substitution reduced receptor activation but did not affect affinity. Chlorine substitutions on the d-Phe7 side chain also inhibited receptor activation. F261(6.51)A and F284(7.35)A receptor mutations acted as gain-of-function mutations, restoring efficacy to the His6 and d-Phe7 substituted peptides that had lost efficacy at the wild-type receptor. Based on a model of NDP-MSH and MC4R interaction, the antagonist behavior of these peptides is consistent with the prevention of transmembrane 6 (TM6) rotation. This data supports the hypothesis that increasing the size of d-Phe7 directly interferes with TM6 rotation, preventing receptor activation. We further propose that removing the interaction with the His6 side chain reorients the peptide within the binding pocket, indirectly impeding TM6 rotation by strengthening peptide interaction with F261(6.51) and F284(7.35). These findings refine the molecular basis for the mechanism of ligand-stimulated hMC4R activation and will be useful for the development of hMC4R agonists and antagonists. PMID:17713970

  7. Receptor-mediated activation of spermatozoan guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J K; Tubb, D J; Garbers, D L

    1986-11-15

    The sea urchin egg peptides speract (Gly-Phe-Asp-Leu-Asn-Gly-Gly-Gly-Val-Gly) and resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2) bind to spermatozoa of the homologous species (Lytechinus pictus or Arbacia punctulata, respectively) and cause transient elevations of cyclic GMP concentrations (Hansbrough, J. R., and Garbers, D. L. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1447-1452). The addition of these peptides to spermatozoan membrane preparations caused a rapid and dramatic (up to 25-fold) activation of guanylate cyclase. The peptide-induced activation of guanylate cyclase was transient, and the subsequent decline in enzyme activity coincided with conversion of a high Mr (phosphorylated) form of guanylate cyclase to a low Mr (dephosphorylated) form. When membranes were incubated at pH 8.0, the high Mr form was converted to the low Mr form without substantial changes in basal enzyme activity. However, the peptide-stimulated activity of the low Mr form of guanylate cyclase was much less than the peptide-stimulated activity of the high Mr form. Activation of the low Mr form by peptide was not transient and persisted for at least 10 min. In addition, the pH 8.0 treatment that caused the Mr conversion of guanylate cyclase also caused an increase in the peptide-binding capacity of the membranes. We propose a model in which activation of the membrane form of guanylate cyclase is receptor-mediated; the extent of enzyme activation is modulated by its phosphorylation state. PMID:2876990

  8. Recombinant human betacellulin. Molecular structure, biological activities, and receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Shintani, A; Nakata, M; Shing, Y; Folkman, J; Igarashi, K; Sasada, R

    1994-04-01

    Soluble forms of human betacellulin (BTC) were purified to homogeneity from the conditioned medium of mouse A9 cells transfected with the BTC precursor cDNA. Three types of soluble BTC, designated BTC-1a, BTC-1b and BTC-2, were resolved by cation-exchange and size-exclusion column chromatography. Physicochemical analysis has revealed that BTC-1a represents the glycosylated, intact molecule composed of 80 amino acid residues (Asp32 to Tyr111 of the precursor molecule). BTC-1b appears to be a truncated molecule lacking 12 amino acid residues from the amino terminus of BTC-1a. BTC-2 was found to be a 50-amino acid molecule (Arg62 to Tyr111) that corresponds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural unit. The biological activities of these BTC molecules were essentially identical as judged by their mitogenicity on Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. BTC and EGF were equipotent in stimulating Balb/c 3T3 cell proliferation and rat mesangial cell Ca2+ mobilization as well as in inhibiting the growth of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. BTC and EGF antagonized each other with similar dose dependence for binding to A431 cells, indicating that these factors bind the same receptor molecules with equivalent avidity. The Kd value of EGF receptor (EGFR) and BTC is 0.5 nM as determined on Balb/c 3T3 cells. In addition, human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-453 cells, which express multiple members of the EGFR family, were found to possess 2.7 x 10(3) BTC binding sites/cell, and the binding was readily quenched by EGF. These results suggest that the primary receptor for BTC is EGFR. PMID:8144591

  9. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  10. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Sophora flavescens Activates Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laiyou; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Li, Guodong; Li, Dan; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Guo, Grace L.

    2010-01-01

    Sophora flavescens (SF) is an herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and skin diseases. It was recently reported that SF up-regulates CYP3A expression. The mechanism of SF-induced CYP3A expression is unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that SF-induced CYP3A expression is mediated by the activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR). We used two cell lines, DPX2 and HepaRG, to investigate the role of PXR in SF-induced CYP3A expression. The DPX2 cell line is derived from HepG2 cells with the stable transfection of human PXR and a luciferase reporter gene linked with a human PXR response element identified in the CYP3A4 gene promoter. In DPX2 cells, SF activated PXR in a concentration-dependent manner. We used a metabolomic approach to identify the chemical constituents in SF, which were further analyzed for their effect on PXR activation and CYP3A regulation. One chemical in SF, N-methylcytisine, was identified as an individual chemical that activated PXR. HepaRG is a highly differentiated hepatoma cell line that mimics human hepatocytes. In HepaRG cells, N-methylcytisine significantly induced CYP3A4 expression, and this induction was suppressed by the PXR antagonist sulforaphane. These results suggest that SF induces CYP3A expression via the activation of PXR. PMID:20736322

  11. Preadipocyte proliferation is elevated by calcium sensing receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gladys; Villalobos, Elisa; Fuentes, Cecilia; Villarroel, Pia; Reyes, Marcela; Díaz, Ximena; Mattar, Pamela; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide problem, despite considerable efforts against it. While excess body fat defines obesity, adipose tissue quality and functionality are key to whether cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities develop. Adipose tissue cellular composition can vary considerably, and excess adipocyte progenitors (preadipocytes) is associated with obesity. We have proposed that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activation in adipose tissue leads to dysfunction. This study evaluated whether CaSR activation elevates preadipocyte proliferation. Human LS14 preadipocytes were exposed to CaSR activators cinacalcet (2 µM), GdCl3 (5 µM) and spermine (1 µM), and cell viability was evaluated after 72h. CaSR activators elevated proliferation by 19-24%, and CaSR silencing (siRNA) abolished the effect. Cinacalcet elevated phospho-ERK1/2 content, and upstream inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reverted cinacalcet-induced proliferation. Cinacalcet also elevated expression of the proinflammatory factors IL1β, IL6 and CCL2. The results suggest that CaSR induces preadipocyte proliferation, partly through ERK1/2 activation. Considering reported proinflammatory and adipogenic CaSR effects, excess preadipocyte proliferation further supports the dysfunctional effect of CaSR in obesity. PMID:25986659

  12. Functional selectivity of dopamine receptor agonists. I. Selective activation of postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors linked to adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Mottola, David M; Kilts, Jason D; Lewis, Mechelle M; Connery, Hilary S; Walker, Q David; Jones, Sara R; Booth, Raymond G; Hyslop, Deborah K; Piercey, Monford; Wightman, R Mark; Lawler, Cindy P; Nichols, David E; Mailman, Richard B

    2002-06-01

    Dihydrexidine (DHX), the first high-affinity D(1) dopamine receptor full agonist, is only 10-fold selective for D(1) versus D(2) receptors, having D(2) affinity similar to the prototypical agonist quinpirole. The D(2) functional properties of DHX and its more D(2) selective analog N-n-propyl-dihydrexidine (PrDHX) were explored in rat brain and pituitary. DHX and PrDHX had binding characteristics to D(2) receptors in rat striatum typical of D(2) agonists, binding to both high- and low-affinity sites and being sensitive to guanine-nucleotides. Consistent with these binding data, both DHX and PrDHX inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis in striatum with a potency and intrinsic activity equivalent to that of quinpirole. Unexpectedly, however, DHX and PrDHX had little functional effect at D(2) receptors expressed on dopaminergic neurons that mediate inhibition of cell firing, dopamine release, or dopamine synthesis. Quantitative receptor competition autoradiography demonstrated that DHX bound to D(2) receptors in striatum (predominantly postsynaptic receptor sites) with equal affinity as D(2) sites in the substantia nigra (autoreceptor sites). The data from these experiments, coupled with what is known about the location of specific dopamine receptor isoforms, lead to the hypothesis that DHX, after binding to D(2L) and D(2S) receptors, causes agonist-typical functional changes only at some of these receptors. This phenomenon (herein termed "functional selectivity") suggests that drugs may be targeted not only at specific receptor isoforms but also at separate functions mediated by a single isoform, yielding novel approaches to drug discovery. PMID:12023552

  13. Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Induces VEGF Independently of HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Riis, Simone Elkjær; Frøbert, Ole; Yang, Sufang; Kastrup, Jens; Zachar, Vladimir; Simonsen, Ulf; Fink, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Background Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) can promote angiogenesis through secretion of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In other cell types, it has been shown that induction of VEGF is mediated by both protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and hypoxia inducible factor 1(HIF-1). The present study hypothesized that PAR2 stimulation through activation of kinase signaling cascades lead to induction of HIF-1 and secretion of VEGF. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of PAR2 receptors on the surface of hASCs. Blocking the PAR2 receptors with a specific antibody prior to trypsin treatment showed these receptors are involved in trypsin-evoked increase in VEGF secretion from hASCs. Blocking with specific kinase inhibitors suggested that that activation of MEK/ERK and PI3-kinase/Akt pathways are involved in trypsin-eveoked induction of VEGF. The effect of the trypsin treatment on the transcription of VEGF peaked at 6 hours after the treatment and was comparable to the activation observed after keeping hASCs for 24 hours at 1% oxygen. In contrast to hypoxia, trypsin alone failed to induce HIF-1 measured with ELISA, while the combination of trypsin and hypoxia had an additive effect on both VEGF transcription and secretion, results which were confirmed by Western blot. Conclusion In hASCs trypsin and hypoxia induce VEGF expression through separate pathways. PMID:23049945

  14. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  15. Activation of toll like receptor 4 attenuates GABA synthesis and postsynaptic GABA receptor activities in the spinal dorsal horn via releasing interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Jiang, Enshe; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, expressed predominantly on microglia in the CNS. Activation of spinal TLR4 plays a critical role in the genesis of pathological pain induced by nerve injury, bone cancer, and tissue inflammation. Currently, it remains unknown how synaptic activities in the spinal dorsal horn are regulated by TLR4 receptors. Through recording GABAergic currents in neurons and glial glutamate transporter currents in astrocytes in rodent spinal slices, we determined whether and how TLR4 modulates GABAergic synaptic activities in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. We found that activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces GABAergic synaptic activities through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Specifically, LPS causes the release of IL-1β from microglia. IL-1β in turn suppresses GABA receptor activities at the postsynaptic site through activating protein kinase C (PKC) in neurons. GABA synthesis at the presynaptic site is reduced upon activation of TLR4. Glial glutamate transporter activities are suppressed by IL-1β and PKC activation induced by LPS. The suppression of glial glutamate transporter activities leads to a deficiency of glutamine supply, which results in an attenuation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle-dependent GABA synthesis. These findings shed light on understanding synaptic plasticity induced by activation of TLR4 under neuroinflammation and identify GABA receptors, glial glutamate transporters, IL-1β and PKC as therapeutic targets to abrogate abnormal neuronal activities following activation of TLR4 in pathological pain conditions. PMID:25571780

  16. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments. PMID:17997039

  17. Estradiol improves cerebellar memory formation by activating estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Corina E; Milojkovic, Bogdan A; Haasdijk, Elize D; Kramer, Piet; De Jong, Frank H; Krust, Andrée; De Zeeuw, Chris I; De Jeu, Marcel T G

    2007-10-01

    Learning motor skills is critical for motor abilities such as driving a car or playing piano. The speed at which we learn those skills is subject to many factors. Yet, it is not known to what extent gonadal hormones can affect the achievement of accurate movements in time and space. Here we demonstrate via different lines of evidence that estradiol promotes plasticity in the cerebellar cortex underlying motor learning. First, we show that estradiol enhances induction of long-term potentiation at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse, whereas it does not affect long-term depression; second, we show that estradiol activation of estrogen receptor beta receptors in Purkinje cells significantly improves gain-decrease adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas it does not affect general eye movement performance; and third, we show that estradiol increases the density of parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses, whereas it does not affect the density of climbing fiber synapses. We conclude that estradiol can improve motor skills by potentiating cerebellar plasticity and synapse formation. These processes may be advantageous during periods of high estradiol levels of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. PMID:17913916

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  19. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly to reach a peak that corresponds to PO ∼0.96. PMID:26206191

  20. The Structure of the GM-CSF Receptor Complex Reveals a Distinct Mode of Cytokine Receptor Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; McClure, Barbara J.; Stomski, Frank C.; Dottore, Mara; Powell, Jason; Ramshaw, Hayley; Woodcock, Joanna M.; Xu, Yibin; Guthridge, Mark; McKinstry, William J.; Lopez, Angel F.; Parker, Michael W.

    2008-08-11

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers therapeutic value for other diseases. Its receptors are heterodimers consisting of a ligand-specific {alpha} subunit and a {beta}c subunit that is shared with the interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 receptors. How signaling is initiated remains an enigma. We report here the crystal structure of the human GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor ternary complex and its assembly into an unexpected dodecamer or higher-order complex. Importantly, mutagenesis of the GM-CSF receptor at the dodecamer interface and functional studies reveal that dodecamer formation is required for receptor activation and signaling. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics.

  1. Laminins containing the β2 and γ3 chains regulate astrocyte migration and angiogenesis in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Bachay, Galina; Biswas, Saptarshi; Pinzón-Duarte, Germán; Hunter, Dale D.; Brunken, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathologies of retinal blood vessels are among the major causes of blindness worldwide. A key cell type that regulates retinal vascular development is the astrocyte. Generated extrinsically to the retina, astrocytes migrate into the retina through the optic nerve head. Even though there is a strong correlation between astrocyte distribution and retinal vascular development, the factors that guide astrocytes into the retina remain unclear. In this study, we show that astrocytes migrate within a laminin-containing basement membrane - the inner limiting membrane. Genetic deletion of the laminin β2 and γ3 chains affects astrocyte migration and spatial distribution. We show that laminins act as haptotactic factors in vitro in an isoform-specific manner, inducing astrocyte migration and promoting astrocyte differentiation. The addition of exogenous laminins to laminin-null retinal explants rescues astrocyte migration and spatial patterning. Furthermore, we show that the loss of laminins reduces β1 integrin expression in astrocytes. Culturing laminin-null retinal astrocytes on laminin substrates restores focal localization of β1 integrin. Finally, we show that laminins containing β2 and γ3 chains regulate subsequent retinal blood vessel growth and maintain vascular integrity. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate clearly that laminins containing β2 and γ3 chains are indispensable for migration and spatial organization of astrocytes and that they play a crucial role during retinal angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:23571221

  2. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. ); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. ); Rouvinen, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  3. Human bradykinin B(2) receptor is activated by kallikrein and other serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Hecquet, C; Tan, F; Marcic, B M; Erdös, E G

    2000-10-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and kallidin (Lys-BK), liberated from kininogens by kallikreins, are ligands of the BK B(2) receptor. We investigated whether kallikreins, besides releasing peptide agonist, could also activate the receptor directly. We studied the effect of porcine and human recombinant tissue kallikrein and plasma kallikrein on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization and [(3)H]arachidonic acid release from cultured cells stably transfected to express human BK B(2) receptor (CHO/B(2), MDCK/B(2), HEK/B(2)), and endothelial cells were used as control cells. As with BK, the actions of kallikrein were blocked by the B(2) antagonist, HOE 140. Kallikrein was inactive on cells lacking B(2) receptor. Kallikrein and BK desensitized the receptor homologously but there was no cross-desensitization. Furthermore, 50 nM human cathepsin G and 50 nM trypsin also activated the receptor; this also was blocked by HOE 140. Experiments excluded a putative kinin release by proteases. [(3)H]AA release by BK was reduced by 40% by added kininase I (carboxypeptidase M); however, receptor activation by tissue kallikrein, trypsin, or cathepsin G was not affected. Prokallikrein and inhibited kallikrein were inactive, suggesting cleavage of a peptide bond in the receptor. Kallikreins were active on mutated B(2) receptor missing the 19 N-terminal amino acids, suggesting a type of activation different from that of thrombin receptor. Paradoxically, tissue kallikreins decreased the [(3)H]BK binding to the receptor with a low K(D) (3 nM) and inhibited it 78%. Thus, kallikreins and some other proteases activate human BK B(2) receptor directly, independent of BK release. The BK B(2) receptor may belong to a new group of serine protease-activated receptors. PMID:10999954

  4. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  5. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  6. RSUME Enhances Glucocorticoid Receptor SUMOylation and Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Druker, Jimena; Liberman, Ana C.; Antunica-Noguerol, Mara; Gerez, Juan; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Rein, Theo; Iiguez-Lluh, Jorge A.; Holsboer, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity is modulated by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. The GR has three SUMOylation sites: lysine 297 (K297) and K313 in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and K721 within the ligand-binding domain. SUMOylation of the NTD sites mediates the negative effect of the synergy control motifs of GR on promoters with closely spaced GR binding sites. There is scarce evidence on the role of SUMO conjugation to K721 and its impact on GR transcriptional activity. We have previously shown that RSUME (RWD-containing SUMOylation enhancer) increases protein SUMOylation. We now demonstrate that RSUME interacts with the GR and increases its SUMOylation. RSUME regulates GR transcriptional activity and the expression of its endogenous target genes, FKBP51 and S100P. RSUME uncovers a positive role for the third SUMOylation site, K721, on GR-mediated transcription, demonstrating that GR SUMOylation acts positively in the presence of a SUMOylation enhancer. Both mutation of K721 and small interfering RNA-mediated RSUME knockdown diminish GRIP1 coactivator activity. RSUME, whose expression is induced under stress conditions, is a key factor in heat shock-induced GR SUMOylation. These results show that inhibitory and stimulatory SUMO sites are present in the GR and at higher SUMOylation levels the stimulatory one becomes dominant. PMID:23508108

  7. Visualization of Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Marnie E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and affect multiple tissues. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate transcription by binding to DNA at conserved estrogen response elements, and such elements have been used to report ER activity in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. We generated stable, transgenic zebrafish containing five consecutive elements upstream of a c-fos minimal promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize and quantify transcriptional activation in live larvae. Transgenic larvae show robust, dose-dependent estrogen-dependent fluorescent labeling in the liver, consistent with er gene expression, whereas ER antagonists inhibit GFP expression. The nonestrogenic steroids dexamethasone and progesterone fail to activate GFP, confirming ER selectivity. Natural and synthetic estrogens activated the transgene with varying potency, and two chemicals, genistein and bisphenol A, preferentially induce GFP expression in the heart. In adult fish, fluorescence was observed in estrogenic tissues such as the liver, ovary, pituitary gland, and brain. Individual estrogen-responsive neurons and their projections were visualized in the adult brain, and GFP-positive neurons increased in number after 17β-estradiol exposure. The transgenic estrogen-responsive zebrafish allow ER signaling to be monitored visually and serve as in vivo sentinels for detection of estrogenic compounds. PMID:21540282

  8. Modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor activity by ROS and RNS.

    PubMed

    Donoso, Paulina; Sanchez, Gina; Bull, Ricardo; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Calcium release through cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) triggers heart muscle contraction. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), normally produced in the heart, promote endogenous RyR2 S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation. These reversible redox modifications increase RyR2 activity in vitro, and presumably also in vivo. RyR2 S-glutathionylation increases under physiologically relevant conditions (tachycardia and exercise), suggesting that cardiac cells utilize this redox modification to increase RyR2 activity under increased demand. In contrast, in vivo changes in RyR2 S-nitrosylation in response to physiological stimuli remain uncharacterized. The number and identity of the highly reactive RyR2 cysteine residues and the nature of the redox modification they undergo are presently unknown. Likewise, the physiological sources of ROS/RNS responsible for functionally relevant RyR2 redox modifications have not been completely identified. The redox state of RyR2 is altered in heart failure leading to enhanced RyR2 activity, which presumably contributes to decrease SR calcium content and induce other calcium release abnormalities observed in heart failure. Greater understanding of RyR2 redox modulation is necessary to counteract the deleterious consequences of RyR2 activity deregulation caused by oxidative stress. PMID:21196188

  9. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity.

    PubMed

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa; Conti, Lucia; Gessani, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  10. Utilizing Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Direct Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, David L.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent an attractive lymphocyte population for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to lyse tumor targets without prior sensitization and without need for human leukocyte antigens-matching. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are able to enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies. CARs consist of an external recognition domain (typically a small chain variable fragment) directed at a specific tumor antigen that is linked with one or more intracellular signaling domains that mediate lymphocyte activation. Most CAR studies have focused on their expression in T cells. However, use of CARs in NK cells is starting to gain traction because they provide a method to redirect these cells more specifically to target refractory cancers. CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated using NK cell lines, as well as NK cells isolated from peripheral blood, and NK cells produced from human pluripotent stem cells. This review will outline the CAR constructs that have been reported in NK cells with a focus on comparing the use of different signaling domains in combination with other co-activating domains. PMID:25972867

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Equipped with Estrogen Receptor Modulation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Rood, Michael K.; Johnson, Kenyetta A.; Patil, Vishal; Raftery, Eric D.; Yao, Li-Pan D.; Rice, Marcie; Azizi, Bahareh; Doyle, Donald F.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    We described a set of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) equipped with either an antagonist or an agonist of the estrogen receptor (ER) to confer selective activity against breast cancers. These bifunctional compounds potently inhibit HDAC at nanomolar concentrations, and either agonize or antagonize ERα and ERβ. The ER antagonist activities of tamoxifen-HDACi conjugates (Tam-HDACi) are nearly identical to those of tamoxifen. Conversely, ethynyl-estradiol HDACi conjugates (EED-HDACi) have attenuated ER agonist activities relative to the parent ethynyl-estradiol. In silico docking analysis provides structural basis for the trends of ER agonism/antagonism and ER subtype selectivity. Excitingly, lead Tam-HDACi conjugates show anticancer activity that is selectively more potent against MCF-7 (ERα positive breast) compared to MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer), DU145 (prostate cancer) or Vero (non-cancerous cell line). This dual-targeting approach illustrates the utility of designing small molecules with an emphasis on cell-type selectivity, not merely improved potency, working towards a higher therapeutic index at the earliest stages of drug development. PMID:23786452

  12. Pathway-selective antagonism of proteinase activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Suen, J Y; Cotterell, A; Lohman, R J; Lim, J; Han, A; Yau, M K; Liu, L; Cooper, M A; Vesey, D A; Fairlie, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a GPCR associated with inflammation, metabolism and disease. Clues to understanding how to block PAR2 signalling associated with disease without inhibiting PAR2 activation in normal physiology could be provided by studies of biased signalling. Experimental Approach PAR2 ligand GB88 was profiled for PAR2 agonist and antagonist properties by several functional assays associated with intracellular G-protein-coupled signalling in vitro in three cell types and with PAR2-induced rat paw oedema in vivo. Key Results In HT29 cells, GB88 was a PAR2 antagonist in terms of Ca2+ mobilization and PKC phosphorylation, but a PAR2 agonist in attenuating forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, myosin phosphatase phosphorylation and actin filament rearrangement. In CHO-hPAR2 cells, GB88 inhibited Ca2+ release, but activated Gi/o and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In human kidney tubule cells, GB88 inhibited cytokine secretion (IL6, IL8, GM-CSF, TNF-α) mediated by PAR2. A rat paw oedema induced by PAR2 agonists was also inhibited by orally administered GB88 and compared with effects of locally administered inhibitors of G-protein coupled pathways. Conclusions and Implications GB88 is a biased antagonist of PAR2 that selectively inhibits PAR2/Gq/11/Ca2+/PKC signalling, leading to anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, while being an agonist in activating three other PAR2-activated pathways (cAMP, ERK, Rho) in human cells. These findings highlight opportunities to design drugs to block specific PAR2-linked signalling pathways in disease, without blocking beneficial PAR2 signalling in normal physiology, and to dissect PAR2-associated mechanisms of disease in vivo. PMID:24821440

  13. Determinants of the Heightened Activity of Glucocorticoid Receptor Translational Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Ingrid K.; Cao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Translational isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor α (GR-A, -B, -C1, -C2, -C3, -D1, -D2, and -D3) have distinct tissue distribution patterns and unique gene targets. The GR-C3 isoform-expressing cells are more sensitive to glucocorticoid killing than cells expressing other GRα isoforms and the GR-D isoform–expressing cells are resistant to glucocorticoid killing. Whereas a lack of activation function 1 (AF1) may underlie the reduced activity of the GR-D isoforms, it is not clear how the GR-C3 isoform has heightened activity. Mutation analyses and N-terminal tagging demonstrated that steric hindrance is probably the mechanism for the GR-A, -B, -C1, and -C2 isoforms to have lower activity than the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, truncation scanning analyses revealed that residues 98 to 115 are critical in the hyperactivity of the human GR-C3 isoform. Chimera constructs linking this critical fragment with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain showed that GR residues 98 to 115 do not contain any independent transactivation activity. Mutations at residues Asp101 or Gln106 and Gln107 all reduced the activity of the GR-C3 isoform. In addition, functional studies indicated that Asp101 is crucial for the GR-C3 isoform to recruit coregulators and to mediate glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Thus, charged and polar residues are essential components of an N-terminal motif that enhances the activity of AF1 and the GR-C3 isoform. These studies, together with the observations that GR isoforms have cell-specific expression patterns, provide a molecular basis for the tissue-specific functions of GR translational isoforms. PMID:23820903

  14. Purinergic signaling negatively regulates activity of an olfactory receptor in an odorant-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhang, C

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular purines and pyrimidines are important signaling molecules that mediate diverse biological functions via cell surface purinergic receptors. Although purinergic modulation to olfactory activity has been reported, cell-specific expression and action of purinergic receptors deserve further exploration. We physiologically characterized expression of purinergic receptors in a set of olfactory sensory neurons that are responsive to both acetophenone and benzaldehyde (AB-OSNs). Sparsely distributed in the most ventral olfactory receptor zone, AB-OSNs were activated by P2 purinergic receptor agonists but not by P1 purinergic receptor agonist adenosine. Both P2X-selective agonist α,β-methylene ATP and P2Y-selective agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) were stimulatory to AB-OSNs, indicating expression of both P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors in AB-OSNs. Pharmacological characterization of receptor specificity using various P2X and P2Y agonists and antagonists illustrated that P2X1 and P2Y2 receptors played major roles in purinergic signaling in AB-OSNs. Interestingly, the results of purinergic modulation to acetophenone-evoked responses were different from those to benzaldehyde-evoked responses within the same neurons. Activation of P2X1 receptors had more profound inhibitory effects on benzaldehyde-evoked intracellular calcium elevation than on acetophenone-evoked responses within the same neurons, and the reverse was true when P2Y2 receptors were activated. Cross-adaptation data showed that acetophenone and benzaldehyde bound to the same olfactory receptor. Thus, our study has demonstrated that purinergic signaling of P2X and P2Y receptors has different effects on olfactory transduction mediated by a defined olfactory receptor and the consequences of purinergic modulation of olfactory activity might depend on stereotypic structures of the odorant-receptor complex. PMID:24928349

  15. Bicyclic heterocyclic anthranilic diamides as ryanodine receptor modulators with insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Jeanguenat, André; Durieux, Patricia; Edmunds, Andrew J F; Hall, Roger G; Hughes, Dave; Loiseleur, Olivier; Pabba, Jagadish; Stoller, André; Trah, Stephan; Wenger, Jean; Dutton, Anna; Crossthwaite, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The diamide insecticides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR). The synthesis of various bicyclic anthranilic derivatives is reported. Their activity against the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR) and their insecticidal activity in the greenhouse is presented, as well as structure activity relationship considerations. PMID:26688073

  16. Effect of chemoreceptor and pulmonary receptor stimulation on dilator nares EMG activity in the dog.

    PubMed

    Blum, D J; McCaffrey, T V

    1983-12-01

    To define the relationship between central control of upper airway muscles and respiratory muscle function, the electromyographic responses of the dilator nares muscles to stimulation of chemoreceptors and pulmonary receptors were studied in six anesthetized dogs. Only at maximal levels of hypoxia was the inspiratory activity of the dilator nares significantly increased. Hypercapnic stimulation increased the inspiratory activity with each incremental increase in CO2. Pulmonary stretch receptor stimulation produced by lung inflation inhibited dilator nares activity. Pulmonary irritant receptor stimulation by intravenously administered histamine increased dilator nares activity, as did pulmonary J receptor stimulation by the intravenous administration of capsaicin. PMID:6420746

  17. His499 Regulates Dimerization and Prevents Oncogenic Activation by Asparagine Mutations of the Human Thrombopoietin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Emilie; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Sato, Takeshi; Dass, Sharmila; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Shwe, Myat M; Staerk, Judith; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Smith, Steven O

    2016-02-01

    Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR) imparts a specific orientation on the transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domains of the receptors that is required for physiologic activation via receptor dimerization. To map the inactive and active dimeric orientations of the TM helices, we performed asparagine (Asn)-scanning mutagenesis of the TM domains of the murine and human TpoR. Substitution of Asn at only one position (S505N) activated the human receptor, whereas Asn substitutions at several positions activated the murine receptor. Second site mutational studies indicate that His(499) near the N terminus of the TM domain is responsible for protecting the human receptor from activation by Asn mutations. Structural studies reveal that the sequence preceding His(499) is helical in the murine receptor but non-helical in peptides corresponding to the TM domain of the inactive human receptor. The activating S505N mutation and the small molecule agonist eltrombopag both induce helix in this region of the TM domain and are associated with dimerization and activation of the human receptor. Thus, His(499) regulates the activation of human TpoR and provides additional protection against activating mutations, such as oncogenic Asn mutations in the TM domain. PMID:26627830

  18. Chronic activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus increases excitatory synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimok; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in regulating neuronal activity have been extensively characterized. Although early studies show that CB1 receptors are present in the nervous system and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are in the immune system, recent evidence indicates that CB2 receptors are also expressed in the brain. Activation or blockade of CB2 receptors in vivo induces neuropsychiatric effects, but the cellular mechanisms of CB2 receptor function are unclear. The aim of this study is to determine how activation of CB2 receptors present in the hippocampus regulates synaptic function. Here, we show that when organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampal slices were treated with a CB2 receptor agonist (JWH133 or GP1a) for 7–10 days, quantal glutamate release became more frequent and spine density was increased via extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Chronic intraperitoneal injection of JWH133 into mice also increased excitatory synaptic transmission. These effects were blocked by a CB2 receptor antagonist (SR144528) or absent from hippocampal slices of CB2 receptor knock-out mice. This study reveals a novel cellular function of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus and provides insights into how cannabinoid receptor subtypes diversify the roles of cannabinoids in the brain. PMID:25504573

  19. Thrombin-Mediated Direct Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2: Another Target for Thrombin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hansen, Kristina K; Renaux, Bernard; Polley, Danny; Gibson, Stacy; Vanderboor, Christina; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2016-05-01

    Thrombin is known to signal to cells by cleaving/activating a G-protein-coupled family of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). The signaling mechanism involves the proteolytic unmasking of an N-terminal receptor sequence that acts as a tethered receptor-activating ligand. To date, the recognized targets of thrombin cleavage and activation for signaling are PAR1 and PAR4, in which thrombin cleaves at a conserved target arginine to reveal a tethered ligand. PAR2, which like PAR1 is also cleaved at an N-terminal arginine to unmask its tethered ligand, is generally regarded as a target for trypsin but not for thrombin signaling. We now show that thrombin, at concentrations that can be achieved at sites of acute injury or in a tumor microenvironment, can directly activate PAR2 vasorelaxation and signaling, stimulating calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase responses along with triggeringβ-arrestin recruitment. Thus, PAR2 can be added alongside PAR1 and PAR4 to the targets, whereby thrombin can affect tissue function. PMID:26957205

  20. Immunomodulatory role of proteinase-activated receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, Anne; Palmer, Helen; Nickdel, Mohammad B; Dunning, Lynette; Lockhart, John C; Plevin, Robin; Mcinnes, Iain B; Ferrell, William R

    2012-01-01

    Objective Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated in inflammatory articular pathology. Using the collagen-induced arthritis model (CIA) the authors have explored the capacity of PAR2 to regulate adaptive immune pathways that could promote autoimmune mediated articular damage. Methods Using PAR2 gene deletion and other approaches to inhibit or prevent PAR2 activation, the development and progression of CIA were assessed via clinical and histological scores together with ex vivo immune analyses. Results The progression of CIA, assessed by arthritic score and histological assessment of joint damage, was significantly (p<0.0001) abrogated in PAR2 deficient mice or in wild-type mice administered either a PAR2 antagonist (ENMD-1068) or a PAR2 neutralising antibody (SAM11). Lymph node derived cell suspensions from PAR2 deficient mice were found to produce significantly less interleukin (IL)-17 and IFNγ in ex vivo recall collagen stimulation assays compared with wild-type littermates. In addition, substantial inhibition of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12 along with GM-CSF and MIP-1α was observed. However, spleen and lymph node histology did not differ between groups nor was any difference detected in draining lymph node cell subsets. Anticollagen antibody titres were significantly lower in PAR2 deficient mice. Conclusion These data support an important role for PAR2 in the pathogenesis of CIA and suggest an immunomodulatory role for this receptor in an adaptive model of inflammatory arthritis. PAR2 antagonism may offer future potential for the management of inflammatory arthritides in which a proteinase rich environment prevails. PMID:22563031

  1. Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors but not seven-membrane-spanning receptors or phorbol esters activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ginès, P; Li, X; Zamarripa, J L; Brown, S E; Wieder, E D; Nakamura, T; Guzelian, P S; Schrier, R W; Heasley, L E; Nemenoff, R A

    1995-10-01

    The response of rat hepatocytes to hormones and growth factors has been extensively studied with respect to phospholipase regulation and calcium mobilization. However, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade which integrates signals from a wide variety of extracellular stimuli has not been examined in these cells. Thus, in the present study the pathways leading to activation of MAP kinase in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were investigated. Growth factors acting through tyrosine kinase receptors (epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor) increased Raf and MAP kinase activity through a protein kinase C and calcium-independent pathway. Agonists acting through seven-membrane-spanning receptors (arginine vasopressin and angiotensin II) increased intracellular calcium concentration but did not stimulate Raf or MAP kinase activity. Arginine vasopressin, however, stimulated MAP kinase activity in rat 1a fibroblasts transfected with the hepatic V1a receptor and in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was also unable to stimulate Raf and MAP kinase in hepatocytes in spite of a marked activation of protein kinase C. We conclude that only signals arising from tyrosine kinase receptors are able to activate MAP kinase in hepatocytes. Neither agonists acting through seven-membrane-spanning receptors nor phorbol esters stimulate MAP kinase in hepatocytes. The results suggest that specific cellular components that link seven-membrane-spanning receptors with MAP kinase activation in tissues such as vascular smooth muscle are absent in rat hepatocytes. PMID:7557884

  2. Mechanisms Governing the Activation and Trafficking of Yeast G Protein-coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Christopher J.; Overton, Mark C.; Blumer, Kendall J.

    1998-01-01

    We have addressed the mechanisms governing the activation and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by analyzing constitutively active mating pheromone receptors (Ste2p and Ste3p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Substitution of the highly conserved proline residue in transmembrane segment VI of these receptors causes constitutive signaling. This proline residue may facilitate folding of GPCRs into native, inactive conformations, and/or mediate agonist-induced structural changes leading to G protein activation. Constitutive signaling by mutant receptors is suppressed upon coexpression with wild-type, but not G protein coupling-defective, receptors. Wild-type receptors may therefore sequester a limiting pool of G proteins; this apparent “precoupling” of receptors and G proteins could facilitate signal production at sites where cell surface projections form during mating partner discrimination. Finally, rather than being expressed mainly at the cell surface, constitutively active pheromone receptors accumulate in post-endoplasmic reticulum compartments. This is in contrast to other defective membrane proteins, which apparently are targeted by default to the vacuole. We suggest that the quality-control mechanism that retains receptors in post-endoplasmic reticulum compartments may normally allow wild-type receptors to fold into their native, fully inactive conformations before reaching the cell surface. This may ensure that receptors do not trigger a response in the absence of agonist. PMID:9529386

  3. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  4. Autophagy is increased in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle and its inhibition improves muscle morphology in a mouse model of MDC1A.

    PubMed

    Carmignac, Virginie; Svensson, Martina; Körner, Zandra; Elowsson, Linda; Matsumura, Cintia; Gawlik, Kinga I; Allamand, Valerie; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2011-12-15

    Congenital muscular dystrophy caused by laminin α2 chain deficiency (also known as MDC1A) is a severe and incapacitating disease, characterized by massive muscle wasting. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a major role in muscle wasting and we recently demonstrated that increased proteasomal activity is a feature of MDC1A. The autophagy-lysosome pathway is the other major system involved in degradation of proteins and organelles within the muscle cell. However, it remains to be determined if the autophagy-lysosome pathway is dysregulated in muscular dystrophies, including MDC1A. Using the dy(3K)/dy(3K) mouse model of laminin α2 chain deficiency and MDC1A patient muscle, we show here that expression of autophagy-related genes is upregulated in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle. Moreover, we found that autophagy inhibition significantly improves the dystrophic dy(3K)/dy(3K) phenotype. In particular, we show that systemic injection of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) reduces muscle fibrosis, atrophy, apoptosis and increases muscle regeneration and muscle mass. Importantly, lifespan and locomotive behavior were also greatly improved. These findings indicate that enhanced autophagic activity is pathogenic and that autophagy inhibition holds a promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of MDC1A. PMID:21920942

  5. The zebrafish activating immune receptor Nitr9 signals via Dap12

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sheng; Zhou, Jun-min; Chen, Xinghong; Shah, Radhika N.; Liu, Jinhong; Orcutt, Timothy M.; Traver, David; Djeu, Julie Y.; Litman, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Both inhibitory and activating forms of natural killer (NK) cell receptors are found in mammals. The activating receptors play a direct role in the recognition of virally infected or transformed cells and transduce activating signals into the cell by partnering with an adaptor protein, which contains a cytoplasmic activation motif. Activating NK receptors encoded by the mammalian leukocyte receptor complex (e.g., killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors) and the natural killer complex (e.g., Ly49s) partner with the adaptor protein DAP12, whereas NK receptors encoded in the CD94/NKG2 complex partner with the adaptor protein DAP10. Novel immune-type receptors (NITRs) found in bony fish share several common features with immunoglobulin-type NK receptors. Nitr9 is a putative activating receptor in zebrafish that induces cytotoxicity within the context of human NK cells. One isoform of Nitr9, Nitr9L, is shown here to preferentially partner with a zebrafish ortholog of Dap12. Cross-linking the Nitr9L–Dap12 complex results in activation of the phosphytidylinositol 3-kinase→AKT→extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway suggesting that the DAP12-based activating pathway is conserved between bony fish and mammals. PMID:17891481

  6. GABAB Receptor Activation Inhibits Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning in the Entorhinal Cortex by Activating TREK-2 K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Yang, Chuanxiu; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Grisanti, Laurel; Watt, John; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Liu, Rugao; Porter, James E.; Lei, Saobo

    2009-01-01

    Summary The entorhinal cortex (EC) is regarded as the gateway to the hippocampus and thus is essential for learning and memory. Whereas the EC expresses a high density of GABAB receptors, the functions of these receptors in this region remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of GABAB receptor activation on neuronal excitability in the EC and spatial learning. Application of baclofen, a specific GABAB receptor agonist, inhibited significantly neuronal excitability in the EC. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition in the EC was mediated via activating TREK-2, a type of two-pore domain K+ channels and required the functions of inhibitory G proteins and protein kinase A pathway. Depression of neuronal excitability in the EC underlies GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of spatial learning as assessed by Morris water maze. Our study indicates that GABAB receptors exert a tight control over spatial learning by modulating neuronal excitability in the EC. PMID:19640481

  7. Attachment to an endogenous laminin-like protein initiates sprouting by leech neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, M; Masuda-Nakagawa, L; Beck, K

    1988-09-01

    Leech neurons in culture sprout rapidly when attached to extracts from connective tissue surrounding the nervous system. Laminin-like molecules that promote sprouting have now been isolated from this extracellular matrix. Two mAbs have been prepared that react on immunoblots with a approximately equal to 220- and a approximately equal to 340-kD polypeptide, respectively. These antibodies have been used to purify molecules with cross-shaped structures in the electron microscope. The molecules, of approximately equal to 10(3) kD on nonreducing SDS gels, have subunits of approximately equal to 340, 220, and 160-180 kD. Attachment to the laminin-like molecules was sufficient to initiate sprouting by single isolated leech neurons in defined medium. This demonstrates directly a function for a laminin-related invertebrate protein. The mAbs directed against the approximately equal to 220-kD chains of the laminin-like leech molecule labeled basement membrane extracellular matrix in leech ganglia and nerves. A polyclonal antiserum against the approximately equal to 220-kD polypeptide inhibited neurite outgrowth. Vertebrate laminin did not mediate the sprouting of leech neurons; similarly, the leech molecule was an inert substrate for vertebrate neurons. Although some traits of structure, function, and distribution are conserved between vertebrate laminin and the invertebrate molecule, our results suggest that the functional domains differ. PMID:3047150

  8. Neural cell alignment by patterning gradients of the extracellular matrix protein laminin

    PubMed Central

    Chelli, Beatrice; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Greco, Pierpaolo; Bystrenova, Eva; Bianchi, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic orientation and accurate positioning of neural cells is achieved by patterning stripes of the extracellular matrix protein laminin on the surface of polystyrene tissue culture dishes by micromoulding in capillaries (MIMICs). Laminin concentration decreases from the entrance of the channels in contact with the reservoir towards the end. Immunofluorescence analysis of laminin shows a decreasing gradient of concentration along the longitudinal direction of the stripes. The explanation is the superposition of diffusion and convection of the solute, the former dominating at length scales near the entrance (characteristic length around 50 μm), the latter further away (length scale in excess of 900 μm). These length scales are independent of the channel width explored from about 15 to 45 μm. Neural cells are randomly seeded and selectively adhere to the pattern, leaving the unpatterned areas depleted even upon 6 days of incubation. Cell alignment was assessed by the orientation of the long axis of the 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained nuclei. Samples on patterned the laminin area exhibit a large orientational order parameter. As control, cells on the unpatterned laminin film exhibit no preferential orientation. This implies that the anisotropy of laminin stripes is an effective chemical stimulus for cell recruiting and alignment. PMID:24501672

  9. Synergistic effect of laminin and mesenchymal stem cells on tracheal mucosal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Jin Ho; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Park, Seok-Won; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have been successfully undertaken of tracheal reconstruction in terms of the maintaining the framework of the graft, most cases of reconstruction failure have resulted from delayed mucosal regeneration. The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether laminin-coated asymmetrically porous membrane (APM) scaffold enhances mucosal regeneration, to compare the mucosalization capability with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded APM, and to determine whether laminin coating and MSC seeding has a synergistic effect on mucosal regeneration. We reconstructed the full-thickness anterior tracheal defect of 36 New Zealand White rabbits with the APM scaffold. MSCs were isolated from the rabbit's inguinal fat. The animals were divided into 4 groups by the presence of laminin coating on APM and application of MSC [Group I, -/- (laminin/MSC); Group II, -/+; Group III, +/-; Group IV, +/+]. Endoscopy and histologic evaluation were performed and the results were compared among the groups. The results showed that ciliated columnar epithelium was regenerated earlier in groups II and III than in group I. Furthermore, the application of laminin and MSC had synergistic effects on tracheal epithelial regeneration. These results demonstrate that tracheal reconstruction by laminin-coated APM seeded with MSCs is most effective in enhancing tracheal mucosalization, and appears to be promising strategy in the regenerative treatment of tracheal defects. PMID:25617133

  10. Laminin enhances the growth of human neural stem cells in defined culture media

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Peter E; Lathia, Justin D; Caldwell, Maeve A; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Human neural stem cells (hNSC) have the potential to provide novel cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. In order to realise this goal, protocols need to be developed that allow for large quantities of hNSC to be cultured efficiently. As such, it is important to identify factors which enhance the growth of hNSC. In vivo, stem cells reside in distinct microenvironments or niches that are responsible for the maintenance of stem cell populations. A common feature of niches is the presence of the extracellular matrix molecule, laminin. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of exogenous laminin on hNSC growth. Results To measure hNSC growth, we established culture conditions using B27-supplemented medium that enable neurospheres to grow from human neural cells plated at clonal densities. Limiting dilution assays confirmed that neurospheres were derived from single cells at these densities. Laminin was found to increase hNSC numbers as measured by this neurosphere formation. The effect of laminin was to augment the proliferation/survival of the hNSC, rather than promoting the undifferentiated state. In agreement, apoptosis was reduced in dissociated neurospheres by laminin in an integrin β1-dependent manner. Conclusion The addition of laminin to the culture medium enhances the growth of hNSC, and may therefore aid their large-scale production. PMID:18651950

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of laminin-1 and Ki-67 in radicular cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cysts are those which arise from the epithelium associated with the development of teeth. Some odontogenic cysts were found to have special biological features that make them distinct from other lesions. This study was conducted to detect the immunoepxression of laminin-1 and Ki-67 in both radicular cysts (RCs) and keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and to examine the possible predictive value of these markers. Methods Thirteen cases of RCs and twelve cases of KCOTs were included in this study. Antibodies against laminin-1 and Ki-67 were used as primary antibodies. Results ten cases out of thirteen cases of RCs were immunopositive to laminin-1. The immunonegative cases of RCs showed high degree of inflammation inside the connective tissue wall. One case out of twelve cases of KCOTs was immunopositive to laminin-1 and the rest were immunonegative. Seven cases out of thirteen cases of RCs showed immunopositivity for Ki-67 with increased numbers of immunopositive cells when the inflammation was severe in the connective tissue wall. All KCOTS were immunopositive to Ki-67. Conclusions The benign nature of radicular cysts and the aggressive behavior of keratocystic odontogenic tumors could be explained by the expression of laminin and Ki-67. Laminin-1 and Ki-67 could be valuable markers for the prediction of the biologic behavior of cystic lesions. PMID:21366912

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA Is a Laminin-Binding Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh; Brissette, Catherine A.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA outer surface protein plays a significant role in mammalian infection by the Lyme disease spirochete and is an important antigen for the serodiagnosis of human infection. B. burgdorferi adheres to host extracellular matrix components, including laminin. The results of our studies indicate that BmpA and its three paralogous proteins, BmpB, BmpC, and BmpD, all bind to mammalian laminin. BmpA did not bind mammalian type I or type IV collagens or fibronectin. BmpA-directed antibodies significantly inhibited the adherence of live B. burgdorferi to laminin. The laminin-binding domain of BmpA was mapped to the carboxy-terminal 80 amino acids. Solubilized collagen inhibited BmpA-laminin binding, suggesting interactions through the collagen-binding domains of laminin. These results, together with previous data, indicate that BmpA and its paralogs are targets for the development of preventative and curative therapies for Lyme disease. PMID:19703983

  13. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  14. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

  15. Activation of Postnatal Neural Stem Cells Requires Nuclear Receptor TLX

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Wenze; Zou, Yuhua; Shen, ChengCheng; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually produce new neurons in postnatal brains. However, the majority of these cells stay in a non-dividing, inactive state. The molecular mechanism that is required for these cells to enter proliferation still remains largely unknown. Here, we show that nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) controls the activation status of postnatal NSCs in mice. Lineage tracing indicates that TLX-expressing cells give rise to both activated and inactive postnatal NSCs. Surprisingly, loss of TLX function does not result in spontaneous glial differentiation, but rather leads to a precipitous age-dependent increase of inactive cells with marker expression and radial morphology for NSCs. These inactive cells are mis-positioned throughout the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus during development and can proliferate again after reintroducing ectopic TLX. RNA-seq analysis of sorted NSCs revealed a TLX-dependent global expression signature, which includes the p53 signaling pathway. TLX regulates p21 expression in a p53-dependent manner and acute removal of p53 can rescue the proliferation defect of TLX-null NSCs in culture. Together, these findings suggest that TLX acts as an essential regulator that ensures the proliferative ability of postnatal NSCs by controlling their activation through genetic interaction with p53 and other signaling pathways. PMID:21957244

  16. Inhibition on Apoptosis Induced by Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure in Retinal Ganglion Cell-5 via Laminin Upregulating β1-integrin/Focal Adhesion Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Chen, Yan-Ming; Sun, Ming-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Ya-Chen; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by degeneration of neurons due to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). High intraocular pressure (HIOP), the main risk factor, causes the optic nerve damage. However, the precise mechanism of HIOP-induced RGC death is not yet completely understood. This study was conducted to determine apoptosis of RGC-5 cells induced by elevated hydrostatic pressures, explore whether laminin is associated with apoptosis under pressure, whether laminin can protect RGCs from apoptosis and affirm the mechanism that regulates the process of RGCs survival. Methods: RGC-5 cells were exposed to 0, 20, 40, and 60 mmHg in a pressurized incubator for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The effect of elevated hydrostatic pressure on RGC-5 cells was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and Western blotting of cleaved caspase-3 protein. Location and expression of laminin were detected by immunofluorescence. The expression of β1-integrin, phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (PKB, or AKT) were investigated with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. Results: Elevated hydrostatic pressure induced apoptosis in cultured RGC-5 cells. Pressure with 40 mmHg for 24 h induced a maximum apoptosis. Laminin was declined in RGC-5 cells after exposing to 40 mmHg for 24 h. After pretreating with laminin, RGC-5 cells survived from elevated pressure. Furthermore, β1-integrin and phosphorylation of FAK and AKT were increased compared to 40 mmHg group. Conclusions: The data show apoptosis tendency of RGC-5 cells with elevated hydrostatic pressure. Laminin can protect RGC-5 cells against high pressure via β1-integrin/FAK/AKT signaling pathway. These results suggest that the decreased laminin of RGC-5 cells might be responsible for apoptosis induced by elevated hydrostatic pressure, and laminin or activating β1-integrin/FAK/AKT pathway might be potential treatments to prevent RGC loss in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:27064044

  17. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  18. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors provides agents with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenny W; Woodward, David F; Martos, Jose L; Cornell, Clive L; Carling, Robert W; Kingsley, Philip J; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    A polypharmacologic approach to prostanoid based anti-inflammatory therapeutics was undertaken in order to exploit both the anti- and proinflammatory properties attributed to the various prostanoid receptors. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors yielded a prototype compound, compound 1 (AGN 211377), that antagonizes prostaglandin D2 receptors (DPs) DP1 (49) and DP2 (558), prostaglandin E2 receptors (EPs) EP1 (266) and EP4 (117), prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP) (61), and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) (11) while sparing EP2, EP3, and prostaglandin I2 receptors (IPs); Kb values (in nanomoles) are given in parentheses. Compound 1 evoked a pronounced inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide or TNF-α stimulated primary human macrophages. These cytokine/chemokines included cluster of designation 40 receptor (CD40), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein 78 (ENA-78), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) (MCP-1), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). In contrast, the inhibitory effects of most antagonists selective for a single receptor were modest or absent, and selective EP2 receptor blockade increased cytokine release in some instances. Compound 1 also showed clear superiority to the cyclooxygenase inhibitors diclofenac and rofecoxib. These findings reveal that blockade of multiple prostanoid receptors, with absent antagonism of EP2 and IP, may provide more effective anti-inflammatory activity than global suppression of prostanoid synthesis or highly selective prostanoid receptor blockade. These investigations demonstrate the first working example of prostanoid receptor polypharmacology for potentially safer and more effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics by blocking multiple proinflammatory receptors while sparing those with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26420849

  19. Can Specific Protein-Lipid Interactions Stabilize an Active State of the Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor?

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Herce, Henry D; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E

    2015-10-20

    G-protein-coupled receptors are eukaryotic membrane proteins with broad biological and pharmacological relevance. Like all membrane-embedded proteins, their location and orientation are influenced by lipids, which can also impact protein function via specific interactions. Extensive simulations totaling 0.25 ms reveal a process in which phospholipids from the membrane's cytosolic leaflet enter the empty G-protein binding site of an activated β2 adrenergic receptor and form salt-bridge interactions that inhibit ionic lock formation and prolong active-state residency. Simulations of the receptor embedded in an anionic membrane show increased lipid binding, providing a molecular mechanism for the experimental observation that anionic lipids can enhance receptor activity. Conservation of the arginine component of the ionic lock among Rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors suggests that intracellular lipid ingression between receptor helices H6 and H7 may be a general mechanism for active-state stabilization. PMID:26488656

  20. Activation of 5-hyrdoxytryptamine 7 receptors within the rat nucleus tractus solitarii modulates synaptic properties.

    PubMed

    Matott, Michael P; Kline, David D

    2016-03-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent neuromodulator with multiple receptor types within the cardiorespiratory system, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) - the central termination site of visceral afferent fibers. The 5-HT7 receptor facilitates cardiorespiratory reflexes through its action in the brainstem and likely in the nTS. However, the mechanism and site of action for these effects is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression and function of 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. 5-HT7 receptor mRNA and protein were identified across the rostrocaudal extent of the nTS. To determine 5-HT7 receptor function, we examined nTS synaptic properties following 5-HT7 receptor activation in monosynaptic nTS neurons in the in vitro brainstem slice preparation. Application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists altered tractus solitarii evoked and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents which were attenuated with a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated changes in excitatory postsynaptic currents were also altered by block of 5-HT1A and GABAA receptors. Interestingly, 5-HT7 receptor activation also reduced the amplitude but not frequency of GABAA-mediated inhibitory currents. Together these results indicate a complex role for 5-HT7 receptors in the nTS that mediate its diverse effects on cardiorespiratory parameters. PMID:26779891

  1. Triclocarban Mediates Induction of Xenobiotic Metabolism through Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Li, Tao; Evans, Ronald M.; Hammock, Bruce; Tukey, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is used as a broad-based antimicrobial agent that is commonly added to personal hygiene products. Because of its extensive use in the health care industry and resistance to degradation in sewage treatment processes, TCC has become a significant waste product that is found in numerous environmental compartments where humans and wildlife can be exposed. While TCC has been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, few studies have been conducted linking exposure to TCC and induction of xenobiotic metabolism through regulation by environmental sensors such as the nuclear xenobiotic receptors (XenoRs). To identify the ability of TCC to activate xenobiotic sensors, we monitored XenoR activities in response to TCC treatment using luciferase-based reporter assays. Among the XenoRs in the reporter screening assay, TCC promotes both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) activities. TCC treatment to hUGT1 mice resulted in induction of the UGT1A genes in liver. This induction was dependent upon the constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) because no induction occurred in hUGT1Car−/− mice. Induction of the UGT1A genes by TCC corresponded with induction of Cyp2b10, another CAR target gene. TCC was demonstrated to be a phenobarbital-like activator of CAR in receptor-based assays. While it has been suggested that TCC be classified as an endocrine disruptor, it activates ERα leading to induction of Cyp1b1 in female ovaries as well as in promoter activity. Activation of ERα by TCC in receptor-based assays also promotes induction of human CYP2B6. These observations demonstrate that TCC activates nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and ERα both in vivo and in vitro and might have the potential to alter normal physiological homeostasis. Activation of these xenobiotic-sensing receptors amplifies gene expression profiles that might represent a mechanistic base for potential human health effects from exposure to TCC. PMID:22761658

  2. Trigeminal Medullary Dorsal Horn Neurons Activated by Nasal Stimulation Coexpress AMPA, NMDA, and NK1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P. F.; DiNovo, K. M.; Westerhaus, D. J.; Vizinas, T. A.; Peevey, J. F.; Lach, M. A.; Czarnocki, P.

    2013-01-01

    Afferent information initiating the cardiorespiratory responses during nasal stimulation projects from the nasal passages to neurons within the trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) via the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN). Central AEN terminals are thought to release glutamate to activate the MDH neurons. This study was designed to determine which neurotransmitter receptors (AMPA, kainate, or NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes or the Substance P receptor NK1) are expressed by these activated MDH neurons. Fos was used as a neuronal marker of activated neurons, and immunohistochemistry combined with epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine which neurotransmitter receptor subunits were coexpressed by activated MDH neurons. Results indicate that, during nasal stimulation with ammonia vapors in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, activated neurons within the superficial MDH coexpress the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 (95.8%) and GluA2/3 (88.2%), the NMDA glutamate receptor subunits GluN1 (89.1%) and GluN2A (41.4%), and NK1 receptors (64.0%). It is therefore likely that during nasal stimulation the central terminals of the AEN release glutamate and substance P that then produces activation of these MDH neurons. The involvement of AMPA and NMDA receptors may mediate fast and slow neurotransmission, respectively, while NK1 receptor involvement may indicate activation of a nociceptive pathway. PMID:24967301

  3. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits. PMID:26187692

  4. Activation of retinoid X receptors induces apoptosis in HL-60 cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, L; Thomázy, V A; Shipley, G L; Fésüs, L; Lamph, W; Heyman, R A; Chandraratna, R A; Davies, P J

    1995-01-01

    Retinoids induce myeloblastic leukemia (HL-60) cells to differentiate into granulocytes, which subsequently die by apoptosis. Retinoid action is mediated through at least two classes of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors, which bind both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors, which bind only 9-cis retinoic acid. Using receptor-selective synthetic retinoids and HL-60 cell sublines with different retinoid responsiveness, we have investigated the contribution that each class of receptors makes to the processes of cellular differentiation and death. Our results demonstrate that ligand activation of retinoic acid receptors is sufficient to induce differentiation, whereas ligand activation of retinoid X receptors is essential for the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cell lines. PMID:7791761

  5. Effect of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, J F; Grémeaux, T; Rochet, N; Van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1987-01-01

    To explain the insulin resistance induced by catecholamines, we studied the tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors in a state characterized by elevated noradrenaline concentrations in vivo, i.e. cold-acclimation. Insulin receptors were partially purified from brown adipose tissue of 3-week- or 48 h-cold-acclimated mice. Insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors prepared from cold-acclimated mice were decreased. Since the effect of noradrenaline is mediated by cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, we tested the effect of the purified catalytic subunit of this enzyme on insulin receptors purified by wheat-germ agglutinin chromatography. The catalytic subunit had no effect on basal phosphorylation, but completely inhibited the insulin-stimulated receptor phosphorylation. Similarly, receptor kinase activity towards exogenous substrates such as histone or a tyrosine-containing copolymer was abolished. This inhibitory effect was observed with receptors prepared from brown adipose tissue, isolated hepatocytes and skeletal muscle. The same results were obtained on epidermal-growth-factor receptors. Further, the catalytic subunit exerted a comparable effect on the phosphorylation of highly purified insulin receptors. To explain this inhibition, we were able to rule out the following phenomena: a change in insulin binding, a change in the Km of the enzyme for ATP, activation of a phosphatase activity present in the insulin-receptor preparation, depletion of ATP, and phosphorylation of a serine residue of the receptor. These results suggest that the alteration in the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity induced by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase could contribute to the insulin resistance produced by catecholamines. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2822014

  6. Cannabinoid receptor activation shifts temporally engendered patterns of dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-05-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration--suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55,212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner--suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55,212-2. PMID:24345819

  7. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Shifts Temporally Engendered Patterns of Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration—suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55 212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner—suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55 212-2. PMID:24345819

  8. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  9. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  10. Kallikrein Promotes Inflammation in Human Dental Pulp Cells Via Protease-Activated Receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Tomomi; Kamio, Naoto; Okabe, Tatsu; Muromachi, Koichiro; Matsushima, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), a serine protease, cleaves high-molecular weight kininogen to produce bradykinin, a potent vasodilator and pro-inflammatory peptide. In addition, KLKB1 activates plasminogen and other leukocyte and blood coagulation factors and processes pro-enkephalin, prorenin, and C3. KLKB1 has also been shown to cleave protease-activated receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. In this study, we investigated KLKB1-dependent inflammation and activation of protease-activated receptor-1 in human dental pulp cells. These cells responded to KLKB1 stimulation by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) , upregulating cyclooxygenase-2, and secreting prostaglandin E2 . Remarkably, SCH79797, an antagonist of protease-activated receptor-1, blocked these effects. Thus, these data indicate that KLKB1 induces inflammatory reactions in human dental tissues via protease-activated receptor 1. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1522-1528, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566265

  11. CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zheng, Qiang; Xiao, Li; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, is well known to exhibit oxidative stress and lung injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) activation to ameliorate the proinflammatory activity induced by PQ in rats. JWH133, a CB2 agonist, was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to PQ exposure. After PQ exposure for 4, 8, 24, and 72 h, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the arterial blood samples were collected for detection of PaO2 level. At 72 h after PQ exposure, lung tissues were collected to determine the lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, myeloperoxidase activity, lung histopathology, the protein expression level of CB2, MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK1/2), and NF-κBp65. After rats were pretreated with JWH133, PQ-induced lung edema and lung histopathological changes were significantly attenuated. PQ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF, increases of PaO2 in arterial blood, and MPO levels in the lung tissue were significantly reduced. JWH133 could efficiently activate CB2, while inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB activation. The results suggested that activating CB2 receptor exerted protective activity against PQ-induced ALI, and it potentially contributed to the suppression of the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24963491

  12. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis. PMID:19915805

  13. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 mediates dorsal root ganglion neuronal degeneration in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Acharjee, Shaona; Zhu, Yu; Maingat, Ferdinand; Pardo, Carlos; Ballanyi, Klaus; Hollenberg, Morley D.

    2011-01-01

    Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of lentivirus infections of the peripheral nervous system including both human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Proteinase-activated receptors are G protein-coupled receptors implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 is expressed on different cell types within the nervous system including neurons and glia, but little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory peripheral nerve diseases, particularly lentivirus-related distal sensory polyneuropathy. Herein, the expression and functions of proteinase-activated receptor-1 in the peripheral nervous system during human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections were investigated. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression was most evident in autopsied dorsal root ganglion neurons from subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus, compared with the dorsal root ganglia of uninfected subjects. Human immunodeficiency virus or feline immunodeficiency virus infection of cultured human or feline dorsal root ganglia caused upregulation of interleukin-1β and proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression. In the human immunodeficiency virus- or feline immunodeficiency virus-infected dorsal root ganglia, interleukin-1β activation was principally detected in macrophages, while neurons showed induction of proteinase-activated receptor-1. Binding of proteinase-activated receptor-1 by the selective proteinase-activated receptor-1-activating peptide resulted in neurite retraction and soma atrophy in conjunction with cytosolic calcium activation in human dorsal root ganglion neurons. Interleukin-1β exposure to feline or human dorsal root ganglia caused upregulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 in neurons. Exposure of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected dorsal root ganglia to the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevented proteinase-activated receptor-1 induction and neurite retraction. In vivo feline immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with increased proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression on neurons and interleukin-1β induction in macrophages. Moreover, feline immunodeficiency virus infection caused hyposensitivity to mechanical stimulation. These data indicated that activation and upregulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 by interleukin-1β contributed to dorsal root ganglion neuronal damage during lentivirus infections leading to the development of distal sensory polyneuropathy and might also provide new targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:22021895

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ɣ activation induces 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in human alternative macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Copin, Corinne; Duhem, Christian; Derudas, Bruno; Neve, Bernardette; Noel, Benoit; Eeckhoute, Jerome; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Staels, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses the intracellular reduction of inactive cortisone to active cortisol, the natural ligand activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor controlling inflammation, lipid metabolism and the macrophage polarization state. In this study, we investigated the impact of macrophage polarization on the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 and the role of PPAR therein. Methods and Results 11β-HSD1 gene expression is higher in pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages than in resting macrophages (RM), whereas its activity is highest in M2 macrophages. Interestingly, PPARγ activation induces 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in M2 macrophages, but not in RM or M1 macrophages. Consequently, human M2 macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness to the 11β-HSD1 substrate cortisone, an effect amplified by PPAR -induction of 11β-HSD1 activity, as illustrated by an increased expression of GR target genes. Conclusions Our data identify a positive cross-talk between PPARγ and GR in human M2 macrophages via the induction of 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. PMID:22207732

  15. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Hyun Keun

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  16. Structural determinants of subtype selectivity and functional activity of angiotensin II receptors.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Jessica; Wallinder, Charlotta; Hallberg, Anders; Åqvist, Johan; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo

    2016-02-15

    Agonists of the angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2), a G-protein coupled receptor, promote tissue protective effects in cardiovascular and renal diseases, while antagonists reduce neuropathic pain. We here report detailed molecular models that explain the AT2 receptor selectivity of our recent series of non-peptide ligands. In addition, minor structural changes of these ligands that provoke different functional activity are rationalized at a molecular level, and related to the selectivity for the different receptor conformations. These findings should pave the way to structure based drug discovery of AT2 receptor ligands. PMID:26810314

  17. Linking receptor activation to changes in Sw I and II of Gα proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Heidi E.; Kaya, Ali I.; Gilbert, James A.; Preininger, Anita M.

    2013-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors catalyze nucleotide exchange on G proteins, which results in subunit dissociation and effector activation. In the recent β2AR-Gs structure, portions of Switch I and II of Gα are not fully elucidated. We paired fluorescence studies of receptor-Gαi interactions with the β2AR-Gs and other Gi structures to investigate changes in Switch I and II during receptor activation and GTP binding. The β2/β3 loop containing Leu194 of Gαi is located between Switches I and II, in close proximity to IC2 of the receptor and the C-terminus of Gα, thus providing an allosteric connection between these Switches and receptor activation. We compared the environment of residues in myristoylated Gαi proteins in the heterotrimer to that upon receptor activation and subsequent GTP binding. Upon receptor activation, residues in both Switch regions are less solvent-exposed, as compared to the heterotrimer. Upon GTPγS binding, the environment of several residues in Switch I resemble the receptor-bound state, while Switch II residues display effects on their environment which are consistent with their role in GTP binding and Gβγ dissociation. The ability to merge available crystal structures with solution studies is a powerful tool to gain insight into conformational changes associated with receptor-mediated Gi protein activation. PMID:23466875

  18. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ai-Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Xing; Yu, Ai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered as the most promising cells source for bone engineering. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors play important roles in bone mass turnover. The aim of this study is to test if activation of CB2 receptor by chemical agonist could enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone BM-MSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining and real time PCR were performed to test the osteogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was carried out to examine the mineralization. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to study the role of CB2 receptor in osteogenic differentiation. Results showed activation of CB2 receptor increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes, and enhanced deposition of calcium in extracellular matrix. Knockdown of CB2 receptor by siRNA inhibited ALP activity and mineralization. Results of immunofluorescent staining showed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase is reduced by knocking down of CB2 receptor. Finally, bone marrow samples demonstrated that expression of CB2 receptor is much lower in osteoporotic patients than in healthy donors. Taken together, data from this study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays important role in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Lack of CB2 receptor may be related to osteoporosis. PMID:25685815

  19. Upregulation of Monocyte Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor during Human Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Pascale E. P.; ten Hove, Tessa; te Velde, Anje A.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) (CD87) plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. To assess the effect of endotoxin on cellular uPAR, uPAR expression was determined on leukocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in seven healthy subjects following intravenous injection of endotoxin (lot G; 4 ng/kg). Endotoxin induced a transient increase in uPAR expression on monocytes, reaching a 92% ± 46% increase over baseline expression after 6 h (P < 0.05). Endotoxin did not influence uPAR expression on granulocytes, while uPAR remained undetectable on lymphocytes. Endotoxin also increased soluble uPAR levels in plasma (P < 0.05). Stimulation of human whole blood with endotoxin or gram-positive stimuli in vitro also resulted in an upregulation of monocyte uPAR expression. Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) upregulated monocyte uPAR expression, anti-TNF did not influence the endotoxin-induced increase in monocyte uPAR expression. These data suggest that infectious stimuli may influence monocyte function in vivo by enhancing the expression of uPAR. PMID:10722614

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  1. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma. PMID:26308584

  2. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  3. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  4. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR-?/?) inhibits human breast cancer cell line tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Morales, Jose L; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of activation and overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPAR-?/? in human MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative; ER(-)) and MCF7 (estrogen-receptor-positive; ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines was examined. Target gene induction by ligand activation of PPAR-?/? was increased by overexpression of PPAR-?/? compared with controls. Overexpression of PPAR-?/? caused a decrease in cell proliferation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared with controls, whereas ligand activation of PPAR-?/? further inhibited proliferation of MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression and/or ligand activation of PPAR-?/? in MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 cells had no effect on experimental apoptosis. Decreased clonogenicity was observed in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 overexpressing PPAR-?/? in response to ligand activation of PPAR-?/? as compared with controls. Ectopic xenografts developed from MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells overexpressing PPAR-?/? were significantly smaller, and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? caused an even greater reduction in tumor volume as compared with controls. Interestingly, the decrease in MDA-MB-231 tumor size after overexpressing PPAR-?/? and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? correlated with increased necrosis. These data show that ligand activation and/or overexpression of PPAR-?/? in two human breast cancer cell lines inhibits relative breast cancer tumorigenicity and provide further support for the development of ligands for PPAR-?/? to specifically inhibit breast carcinogenesis. These new cell-based models will be invaluable tools for delineating the role of PPAR-?/? in breast cancer and evaluating the effects of PPAR-?/? agonists. PMID:24464939

  6. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-05-13

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. PMID:27049309

  7. Laminins and TGF-beta maintain cell polarity and functionality of human gastric glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Basque, Jean-René; Chailler, Pierre; Ménard, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    The human gastric glandular epithelium produces a gastric lipase enzyme (HGL) that plays an important role in digestion of dietary triglycerides. To assess the involvement of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the regulation of this enzymic function, normal gastric epithelial cells were cultured on collagen type I, Matrigel, and laminins (LN)-1 and -2 with or without TGF-beta1. Epithelial morphology and HGL expression were evaluated using microscopy techniques, enzymic assays, Western blot, Northern hybridization, and RT-PCR. A correlation was observed between the cell polarity status and the level of HGL expression. TGF-beta1 alone or individual matrix components stimulated cell spreading and caused a downfall of HGL activity and mRNA. By contrast, Matrigel preserved the morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells and maintained HGL expression. The combination of LNs with TGF-beta1 (two constituents of Matrigel) exerted similar beneficial effects on epithelial cell polarity and evoked a 10-fold increase of HGL levels that was blunted by a neutralizing antibody against the alpha(2)-integrin subunit and by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors PD-98059 (p42/p44) or SB-203580 (p38). This investigation demonstrates for the first time that a powerful synergism between a growth factor and basement membrane LNs positively influences cell polarity and functionality of the human gastric glandular epithelium through an activation of the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin and effectors of two MAPK pathways. PMID:11880276

  8. Current in vitro high throughput screening approaches to assess nuclear receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Raucy, Judy L; Lasker, Jerome M

    2010-11-01

    The screening of new drug candidates for nuclear receptor activation can identify agents with the potential to produce drug-drug interactions or elicit adverse drug effects. The nuclear receptors of interest are those that control the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, and include the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This review will focus on the methods currently used to assess activation of these receptors. Assessment of nuclear receptor activation can be accomplished using direct or indirect approaches. Indirect methods quantify specific gene products that result from nuclear receptor activation while direct approaches measure either the binding of ligands to the receptors or the transcriptional events produced by ligand binding. Assays that directly quantify nuclear receptor activation are growing in popularity and, importantly, are amenable to high throughput screening (HTS). Several ligand binding assays are currently being utilized, including radioligand competition binding, where compounds compete with radiolabelled ligand for binding to PXR or CAR, such as the scintillation proximity binding assay that measures the reaction of ligands with receptor-coated beads. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has also been developed, where the fluorescent signal is generated via the ligand-dependent interaction between the fluorescently-labeled ligand binding domain of a nuclear receptor and co-activator proteins. Other in vitro activation assays include transient- and stably-transfected cell lines incorporating an expression vector for PXR, CAR or AhR plus a reporter gene vector containing response elements. The methods focused on in this review will be limited to the more direct in vitro approaches that are amenable to high throughput screening. PMID:21189134

  9. Effects of platelet activating factor receptor antagonists on intracellular platelet activating factor function in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Koike, H; Imanishi, N; Natsume, Y; Morooka, S

    1994-11-15

    We investigated the effects of the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists, SM-12502 ((+)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(pyridyl)- thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride), WEB-2086 (3-(4-(2-chlorphenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno(3,2-f)-(1,2,4)triazolo(4, 3- a)(1,4)diazepin-2-yl)-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone) and RP-48740 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole-7-carboxamide) on the PAF-mediated activation of rat neutrophils. These antagonists inhibited PAF-induced degranulation and chemotaxis in neutrophils at a dose that correlated well with PAF-induced platelet aggregation based on the statistical analyses. N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L- phenylalanin (fMLP)-induced cellular responses were also inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonists, but their inhibitory potencies did not correlate with those for PAF-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, the doses required for inhibition were higher than those required against PAF-induced responses (i.e. IC50 ratio of WEB-2086, SM-12502 and RP-48740 in fMLP-induced/PAF-induced degranulation was 40.0, 2.8 and 5.6, respectively). PAF receptor antagonists inhibited inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production and the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store site after stimulation with PAF. In the fMLP-induced responses, PAF receptor antagonists did not inhibit IP3 production and Ca2+ release, but did inhibit transmembrane Ca2+ influx. These results suggest the presence of distinct PAF receptor subtype, to which exogenously added PAF binds, while endogenously produced PAF binds to the other. Intracellular PAF, which was produced by fMLP-stimulation, may play an important role in the late phase of signal transduction, and may participate in the transmembrane Ca2+ influx. PMID:7895770

  10. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse olfactory sensory neurons with defined odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Timothy; Savigner, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems need to tease out stimulation-evoked activity against a noisy background. In the olfactory system, the odor response profile of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is dependent on the type of odorant receptor it expresses. OSNs also exhibit spontaneous activity, which plays a role in establishing proper synaptic connections and may also increase the sensitivity of the cells. However, where the spontaneous activity originates and whether it informs sensory-evoked activity remain unclear. We addressed these questions by examining patch-clamp recordings of genetically labeled mouse OSNs with defined odorant receptors in intact olfactory epithelia. We show that OSNs expressing different odorant receptors had significantly different rates of basal activity. Additionally, OSNs expressing an inactive mutant I7 receptor completely lacked spontaneous activity, despite being able to fire action potentials in response to current injection. This finding strongly suggests that the spontaneous firing of an OSN originates from the spontaneous activation of its G protein-coupled odorant receptor. Moreover, OSNs expressing the same receptor displayed considerable variation in their spontaneous activity, and the variation was broadened upon odor stimulation. Interestingly, there is no significant correlation between the spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in these neurons. This study reveals that the odorant receptor type determines the spontaneous firing rate of OSNs, but the basal activity does not correlate with the activity induced by near-saturated odor stimulation. The implications of these findings on olfactory information processing are discussed. PMID:23596334

  11. Activation of 5-HT2A/C receptor reduces glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured auditory cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao

    2016-02-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) permeable to chloride only mediate tonic inhibition in the cerebral cortex where glycinergic projection is completely absent. The functional modulation of GlyRs was largely studied in subcortical brain regions with glycinergic transmissions, but the function of cortical GlyRs was rarely addressed. Serotonin could broadly modulate many ion channels through activating 5-HT2 receptor, but whether cortical GlyRs are subjected to serotonergic modulation remains unexplored. The present study adopted patch clamp recordings to examine functional regulation of strychnine-sensitive GlyRs currents in cultured cortical neurons by DOI (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. DOI caused a concentration-dependent reduction of GlyR currents with unchanged reversal potential. This reduction was blocked by the selective receptor antagonists (ritanserin and risperidone) and G protein inhibitor (GDP-β-s) demonstrated that the reducing effect of DOI on GlyR current required the activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Strychnine-sensitive tonic currents revealed the inhibitory tone mediated by nonsynaptic GlyRs, and DOI similarly reduced the tonic inhibition. The impaired microtube-dependent trafficking or clustering of GlyRs was thought to be involved in that nocodazole as a microtube depolymerizing drug largely blocked the inhibition mediated by 5-HT2A/C receptors. Our results suggested that activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors might suppress cortical tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and the findings would provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and possibly facilitate to develop the therapeutic treatment of neurological diseases such as tinnitus through regulating cortical GlyRs. PMID:26371055

  12. Apoptotic Mechanisms of Peroxisome ProliferatorActivated Receptor-? Activation in Acinar Cells During Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Lou, Xiao-Li; Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which activation of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? promotes apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreatitis. Methods AR42j cells pretreated with the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone were activated by cerulein as an in vitro model of acute pancreatitis. Inflammatory cytokines and amylase were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Activity of caspases was determined. Bax and Bcl-2 levels were assayed by Western blot. Results Cytokines, amylase, and cellular proliferation decreased in pioglitazone-pretreated cells. Pioglitazone increased the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in cerulein-activated AR42j cells as well as in the pancreas of rats 3 hours after induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Acinar cell apoptosis was induced by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential in the pioglitazone group. Pioglitazone increased expression of proapoptotic Bax proteins and decreased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in cerulein-induced AR42j cells and decreased Bcl-2 levels in pancreatic tissue of severe acute pancreatitis rats 1 and 3 hours after induction. Conclusion Pioglitazone may promote apoptosis of acinar cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26495791

  13. Pleiotropic Activities of Vitamin D Receptors – Adequate Activation for Multiple Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jackson W; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, elicits physiological regulation of gene transcription following binding of its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological activities of vitamin D contribute to regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D, like other steroid hormone receptors, can regulate a diverse range of biological activities across many tissues. Such properties raise the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be detrimental to bone and muscular health, but also a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes including increased risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immune system disorders and cancer. Advances in transcriptional research provide data not only on ligand-dependent activities of the VDR, but other activities of vitamin D extending to rapid modulation of intra-cellular signaling pathways as well as apparent ligand-independent interactions between the VDR and other transcriptionally active proteins. In this review, we detail the chief molecular activities of the VDR in regulating gene transcription, intracellular signaling and actions of VDR via binding to transcriptional regulating proteins. The breadth of biological activities attributed to vitamin D informs clinical biochemists and health care professionals on the implications of vitamin D deficiency for health. PMID:26224895

  14. NPS-1034, a novel MET inhibitor, inhibits the activated MET receptor and its constitutively active mutants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Sik; Hong, Seung-Woo; Moon, Jai-Hee; Kim, Jin-Sun; Jung, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Seung-Mi; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, InKi; Yoon, Seon-Joo; Lee, Chang-Gyu; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Bongcheol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Shin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Tae Won

    2014-06-01

    The MET proto-oncogene product, which is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Point mutations in MET lead to the aberrant activation of the receptor in many types of human malignancies, and the deregulated activity of MET has been correlated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. MET has therefore attracted considerable attention as a potential target in anticancer therapy. Here, we report that a novel MET kinase inhibitor, NPS-1034, inhibits various constitutively active mutant forms of MET as well as HGF-activated wild-type MET. NPS-1034 inhibited the proliferation of cells expressing activated MET and promoted the regression of tumors formed from such cells in a mouse xenograft model through anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions. NPS-1034 also inhibited HGF-stimulated activation of MET signaling in the presence or absence of serum. Furthermore, when tested on 27 different MET variants, NPS-1034 inhibited 15 of the 17 MET variants that exhibited autophosphorylation with nanomolar potency; only the F1218I and M1149T variants were not inhibited by NPS-1034. Notably, NPS-1034 inhibited three MET variants that are resistant to the MET inhibitors SU11274, NVP-BVU972, and PHA665752. Together, these results suggest that NPS-1034 can be used as a potent therapeutic agent for human malignancies bearing MET point mutations or expressing activated MET. PMID:24173966

  15. Five Layers of Receptor Signaling in γδ T-Cell Differentiation and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sérgio T.; Ribot, Julie C.; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of γδ T-cells to immunity to infection or tumors critically depend on their activation and differentiation into effectors capable of secreting cytokines and killing infected or transformed cells. These processes are molecularly controlled by surface receptors that capture key extracellular cues and convey downstream intracellular signals that regulate γδ T-cell physiology. The understanding of how environmental signals are integrated by γδ T-cells is critical for their manipulation in clinical settings. Here, we discuss how different classes of surface receptors impact on human and murine γδ T-cell differentiation, activation, and expansion. In particular, we review the role of five receptor types: the T-cell receptor (TCR), costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, NK receptors, and inhibitory receptors. Some of the key players are the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which differentially impact on pro-inflammatory subsets of γδ T-cells; the cytokine receptors IL-2R, IL-7R, and IL-15R, which drive functional differentiation and expansion of γδ T-cells; the NK receptor NKG2D and its contribution to γδ T-cell cytotoxicity; and the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and BTLA that control γδ T-cell homeostasis. We discuss these and other receptors in the context of a five-step model of receptor signaling in γδ T-cell differentiation and activation, and discuss its implications for the manipulation of γδ T-cells in immunotherapy. PMID:25674089

  16. Myelin-Derived Lipids Modulate Macrophage Activity by Liver X Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Irrthum, Alexandre; Smeets, Hubert J. M.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R.; Mulder, Monique; Stinissen, Piet; Hellings, Niels; Hendriks, Jerome J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing degenerated myelin, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent studies have described an altered macrophage phenotype after myelin internalization. However, it is unclear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype can influence lesion progression. Here we demonstrate, by using genome wide gene expression analysis, that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages have an enhanced expression of genes involved in migration, phagocytosis and inflammation. Interestingly, myelin internalization also induced the expression of genes involved in liver-X-receptor signaling and cholesterol efflux. In vitro validation shows that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages indeed have an increased capacity to dispose intracellular cholesterol. In addition, myelin suppresses the secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-6 by macrophages, which was mediated by activation of liver-X-receptor β. Our data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by nuclear receptor activation, which may subsequently affect lesion progression in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:22984598

  17. Myelin-derived lipids modulate macrophage activity by liver X receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Jeroen F J; Timmermans, Silke; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Irrthum, Alexandre; Smeets, Hubert J M; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R; Mulder, Monique; Stinissen, Piet; Hellings, Niels; Hendriks, Jerome J A

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing degenerated myelin, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent studies have described an altered macrophage phenotype after myelin internalization. However, it is unclear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype can influence lesion progression. Here we demonstrate, by using genome wide gene expression analysis, that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages have an enhanced expression of genes involved in migration, phagocytosis and inflammation. Interestingly, myelin internalization also induced the expression of genes involved in liver-X-