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Sample records for lamp design atomic

  1. Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility Fabricated and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility was designed to produce an atomic oxygen plasma within a metal halide lamp to remove carbon-based contamination. It is believed that these contaminants contribute to the high failure rate realized during the production of these lamps. The facility is designed to evacuate a metal halide lamp and produce a radio frequency generated atomic oxygen plasma within it. Oxygen gas, with a purity of 0.9999 percent and in the pressure range of 150 to 250 mtorr, is used in the lamp for plasma generation while the lamp is being cleaned. After cleaning is complete, the lamp can be backfilled with 0.9999-percent pure nitrogen and torch sealed. The facility comprises various vacuum components connected to a radiation-shielded box that encloses the bulb during operation. Radiofrequency power is applied to the two parallel plates of a capacitor, which are on either side of the lamp. The vacuum pump used, a Leybold Trivac Type D4B, has a pumping speed of 4-m3/hr, has an ultimate pressure of <8x10-4, and is specially adapted for pure oxygen service. The electronic power supply, matching network, and controller (500-W, 13.56-MHz) used to supply the radiofrequency power were purchased from RF Power Products Inc. Initial test results revealed that this facility could remove the carbon-based contamination from within bulbs.

  2. Optimized design of LED plant lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-sheng; Cai, Ruhai; Zhao, Yunyun; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen

    2014-12-01

    In order to fabricate the optimized LED plant lamp we demonstrated an optical spectral exploration. According to the mechanism of higher plant photosynthesis process and the spectral analysis we demonstrate an optical design of the LED plant lamp. Furthermore we built two kins of prototypes of the LED plant lamps which are suitable for the photosynthesis of higher green vegetables. Based on the simulation of the lamp box of the different alignment of the plants we carried out the growing experiment of green vegetable and obtain the optimized light illumination as well as the spectral profile. The results show that only blue and red light are efficient for the green leave vegetables. Our work is undoubtedly helpful for the LED plant lamping design and manufacture.

  3. Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K

    2011-10-20

    Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

  4. Ray tracing software application in VIP lamp design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehn, Henning

    2002-08-01

    In our contribution we demonstrate a wide variety of ray tracing software applications for the design of VIP short-arc discharge video projection lamps. On the basis of simulations we derive design rules for the lamp itself and for its optical environment. Light Tools software acts as a means to understand the collection efficiency of a VIP lamp with an elliptical reflector and as an instrument to prove the conclusions.

  5. Optics designs for an innovative LED lamp family system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Herbert; Muschaweck, Julius; Hadrath, Stefan; Kudaev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    On the general lighting market of LED lamps for professional applications there are still mainly products for single purpose solutions existing. There is a lack of standardised lamp systems like they are common for conventional lighting technologies. Therefore, an LED lamp family system was studied using high power LED with the objective to entirely substitute standard conventional lamp families in general lighting applications in the professional market segment. This comprises the realization of sets of lamp types with compact and linear shapes as well as with light distribution characteristics ranging from diffuse to extreme collimation and exceptionally high candle power. Innovative secondary optics concepts are discussed which allow both, the design of lamps with non-bulky shape and to obtain sufficient colour mixing when using multicolour LED combinations in order to achieve a very high colour rendering quality.

  6. Interior view, law library (note one of aluminum lamps designed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, law library (note one of aluminum lamps designed by Jennwein is in the foreground; the murals were painted by Maurice Sterne) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Optical design of LED-based automotive tail lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Klinger, Karsten; Manz, Karl; Kooß, Dieter; Lemmer, Uli

    2007-09-01

    The application of ultra bright monochromatic and white High-Power-LEDs in the range of automotive lighting systems is now state of the art. These LEDs offer new possibilities in optical design and engineering within different fields of automotive lighting, e.g., tail lamps, signal lamps, headlamps and interior lighting. This contribution describes the process of the optical design of an automotive LED tail lamp based on a practical example. We will elaborate the principal geometric approach, the radiometric conditions and the optical design by using standard and advanced mathematical optimization methods. Special attention will be paid to the following topics: efficient light coupling from the LED into the optical device, adaptation of the illuminance and optimization with respect to the requirements from SAE/ECE regulations. It will be shown that the development of LED-lamps requires the complex interaction of several factors. The challenge for the optical designer is to fulfill the technical demands while also considering the appearance of the final product desired by the customer. Further design specifications emerge from the electrical and thermal layout of the lamp.

  8. Non-axisymmetrical freeform design for short LED street lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Ching-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lu, Ming-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Based on energy savings trend, LED has been developing as the main force of the future lighting, especially the road lighting. For controlling the intensity distribution of LED, the concept of freeform design has been proposed in many articles with transmission or reflection components but mainly focus on axial symmetrical types or dual axial symmetrical types. We, in this paper, design a non-axisymmetrical freeform system applying in a short LED street lamp whose dimension is 10cm (W) x 10cm (L) x 7cm (H) that has an advantage, easy maintaining. For coordinate transformation and simplifying the non- axisymmetrical system, we create two virtual surfaces and design the slope of each discrete point on the freeform surface to control the light path between the two virtual surfaces and avoid the total internal reflection. The short street lamp has four LEDs to light 3m square and each LED light a triangle area. According to the simulation results, the uniformity of illumination is 1:3 and the optical efficiency is more than 80% that meet the legal requirements of street lamp. In short, to reduce manufacturing and maintenance costs, the proposed design is appropriate to use in the actual lighting on the road and to replace the traditional street lamps.

  9. Design and investigation of a novel concentrator used in solar fiber lamp

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyan; Zheng, Hongfei; Taotao, Jing; Dai; Li, Zhengliang

    2009-11-15

    A novel concentrator used in solar fiber lamp has been designed and made. The method of the design has been introduced. The lamp has been tested under the real solar condition and the experiment curves have been given. The light transmission will be influenced by the structure of the lamp and the diameter of the fiber, which has been studied in this paper. The experimental results show that the brightness of this solar fiber lamp is about the brightness of a 6-W ordinary electrical energy-saving lamp. The computer simulation for the lamp has been presented and the improvement schemes are proposed. (author)

  10. 30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. 20.14 Section 20.14 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... LAMPS § 20.14 Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted...

  11. 30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. 19.13 Section 19.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.13 Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design....

  12. A versatile microcomputer interface and peripheral devices: An application in deuterium lamp background correction graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökmen, A.; Yalcin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A versatile interface card for Apple IIe computer and various peripheral devices are designed to control instruments which generates transient signals like in graphite furnace atomic spectrometer. The interface card consists of a multiplexed analog-to-digital converter, a digital-to-analog converter, and a timer/counter chip. The timer/counter chip with 16 built-in registers can be programmed in many modes which provides a time base for real-time measurements. A stepper motor runs under the control of timer/counter chip independent of computer. A light chopper connected to the stepper motor is controlled easily by computer. A dual high-voltage switch can modulate dc light sources under computer control. This system is applied to D2-lamp background correction graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The D2 lamp is chopped by a mechanical chopper driven by a stepper motor and a hollow cathode lamp is modulated electronically. The data acquisition program is written in machine language and synchronization between light sources and computer is provided by chopper position signal through the interrupts. A sampling rate of 16 during a signal period at 50-Hz chopping frequency is found to be the optimum value. A large number of data collected during atomization period is compressed in machine code. This saved storage space and analysis time.

  13. 30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. 20.14 Section 20.14 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.14 Instructions for handling...

  14. A novel optimization strategy for LED street lamp designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yun; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong; Pang, Wubin; Ruan, Wangchao

    2013-12-01

    In light-emitting diode (LED) street lamp design, it has always been an obsession that how to achieve an expected illumination distribution confined to a given region. To solve this problem, a new optimization strategy is proposed. In view of the practicability of actual production, we select the relatively mature approach that is based on both the Snell law and the energy conservation law which would obtain coordinate relations between the spaces the light source and target plane owned respectively and a set of equations to establish the initial construction of free-form lens. In addition, all the processes of simulation, analysis and optimization as well are accomplished in software. Generally speaking, for construction method which is in the light of the set of equations, the major improvement ideology focus on finding out the most suitable mapping relationship between the two coordinate systems. So does our work. In order to get better performance, the grid of control points must be modified. Then the core problem lies in determining the direction and distance of every point's movement contained in the grid. The rule of changing direction has a bearing on energy relations while migration length is gained by direct search algorithm.We apply the method in uniform illumination and get some effect. In short, the optimization strategy provides a practical and simple way for street lamp design of LED illumination.

  15. 30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. 19.13 Section 19.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that...

  16. Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

  17. Atomic-fluorescence analysis of materials using a lamp-pumped dye LZhI laser as an excitation source

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, L.K.; Loshin, A.F.; Nikiforov, V.G.; Sterlyadkina, E.A.

    1987-12-01

    The use of frequency-tunable dye lasers in atomic-fluorescence analysis has made it possible to lower significantly the limits of detection for most elements. In this work the commercially produced lamp-pumped dye lasers of the type LZhI were used as the excitation source, which made it possible, first of all, to simplify the design of the atomic-fluorescence spectrometer by eliminating the frequency doubling of the laser radiation and, second, to study the analytical possibilities of commercially produced dye lasers with microsecond lasing. The authors studied solutions of sodium, barium, potassium, calcium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and molybdenum salts. These elements were chosen based on the fact that they have absorption lines with different degrees of intensity in the region of generation of the most efficient rhodamine 6G dye laser.

  18. 30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... LAMPS § 20.14 Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with..., 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension of the original approval...

  19. 30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... LAMPS § 20.14 Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with..., 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension of the original approval...

  20. 30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... LAMPS § 20.14 Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with..., 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension of the original approval...

  1. The design of optical module of LED street lamp with non-axial symmetrical reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming-Jun; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2010-05-01

    In recently, many research focus on the LED applications for environmental protection so a number of LED street lamps are presented. Although LED has many advantages for environmental protection, its special optical characteristics, such as intensity distribution, always limit the advantages in many applications. Therefore, we always need to do the secondary optical design for LED street lamp to replace the traditional optical designs that are designed for high-pressure sodium lamps and mercury lamps. According to the situation, we design an optical module of LED street lamp with LEDs and secondary optical design. First, the LEDs are placed on freeform reflector for the specific illuminated conditions. We design the optical module of street lamp with the two conditions that include the uniformity and the ratio of length to width in the illuminated area and without any light pollution. According to the simulation with the designed optical module, the uniformity in the illuminated area is about 0.6 that is better than the general condition, 0.3, and the ratio of length to width in the illuminated area is 3:1 in which the length is 30 meters and the width is 10 meters. Therefore, the design could let LED street lamp fits the two conditions, uniformity and ratio in the illuminated area.

  2. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Pupat, N.B.M.

    2006-03-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of the atomic and ionic Dy and the atomic Hg. From these ASDFs several quantities are determined as functions of radial position, such as the (excitation) temperature, the ion ratio Hg{sup +}/Dy{sup +}, the electron density, the ground state, and the total density of Dy atoms and ions. Moreover, these ASDFs give us insight about the departure from equilibrium. The measurements show a hollow density profile for the atoms and the ionization of atoms in the center. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate.

  3. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A. J.; Stoffels, W. W.; Haverlag, M.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.; Pupat, N. B. M.

    2006-03-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of the atomic and ionic Dy and the atomic Hg. From these ASDFs several quantities are determined as functions of radial position, such as the (excitation) temperature, the ion ratio Hg+/Dy+, the electron density, the ground state, and the total density of Dy atoms and ions. Moreover, these ASDFs give us insight about the departure from equilibrium. The measurements show a hollow density profile for the atoms and the ionization of atoms in the center. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate.

  4. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rey-Raap, Natalia

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

  5. [Microsecond Pulsed Hollow Cathode Lamp as Enhanced Excitation Source of Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo

    2015-09-01

    The spectral, electrical and atomic fluorescence characteristics of As, Se, Sb and Pb hollow cathode lamps (HCLs) powered by a laboratory-built high current microsecond pulse (HCMP) power supply were studied, and the feasibility of using HCMP-HCLs as the excitation source of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was evaluated. Under the HCMP power supply mode, the As, Se, Sb, Pb HCLs can maintain stable glow discharge at frequency of 100~1000 Hz, pulse width of 4.0~20 μs and pulse current up to 4.0 A. Relationship between the intensity of characteristic emission lines and HCMP power supply parameters, such as pulse current, power supply voltage, pulse width and frequency, was studied in detail. Compared with the conventional pulsed (CP) HCLs used in commercial AFS instruments, HCMP-HCLs have a narrower pulse width and much stronger pulse current. Under the optimized HCMP power supply parameters, the intensity of atomic emission lines of As, Se, Sb HCLs had sharp enhancement and that indicated their capacity of being a novel HG-AFS excitation source. However, the attenuation of atomic lines and enhancement of ionic lines negated such feasibility of HCMP-Pb HCL. Then the HG-AFS analytical capability of using the HCMP-As/Se/Sb HCLs excitation source was established and results showed that the HCMP-HCL is a promising excitation source for HG-AFS. PMID:26669140

  6. Reliability characteristics of microfabricated Rb mini-lamps for optical pumping in miniature atomic clocks and magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatraman, Vinu; Pétremand, Yves; de Rooij, Nico; Shea, Herbert

    2013-03-01

    With the rising need for microfabricated chip-scale atomic clocks to enable high precision timekeeping in portable applications, there has been active interest in developing miniature (lamps, since vapor plasma discharge sources are currently the standard for optical pumping in double-resonance clocks. We reported in 2012 a first microfabricated chip-scale Rubidium dielectric barrier discharge lamp. The device's preliminary results indicated its high potential for optical pumping applications and wafer-scale batch fabrication. The chip-scale plasma light sources were observed to be robust with no obvious performance change after thousands of plasma ignitions, and with no electrode erosion from plasma discharges since the electrodes are external. However, as atomic clocks have strict lamp performance requirements including less than 0.1% sub-second optical power fluctuations, power consumption less than 20 mW and a device lifetime of at least several years, it is important to understand the long-term reliability of these Rb planar mini-lamps, and identify the operating conditions where these devices can be most reliable and stable. In this paper, we report on the reliability of such microfabricated lamps including a continuous several month run of the lamp where the optical power, electrical power consumption and temperature stability were continuously monitored. We also report on the effects of temperature, rf-power and the lamp-drive parasitics on the optical power stability and discuss steps that could be taken to further improve the device's performance and reliability.

  7. Measurements of atomic state distribution functions of the Philips QL-lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkers, J.; Bakker, M.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 Philips Lighting introduced the QL-lamp, an inductively coupled low pressure RF discharge containing a mixture of argon and mercury. Its main advantage is the absence of electrodes, which benefits the life-time. In order to improve the knowledge of this kind of plasmas a model has been developed and measurements have been performed. In every plasma the free electrons are an important species: they control the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to the heavy particles. Therefore, it is important to know the spatial distribution of the electron temperature and of the electron density. These parameters can be obtained from the Atomic State Distribution Function (ASDF), since the levels close the ionization limit are in partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). The densities of the excited states are obtained from absolute line intensity measurements. However, it appears that the highly excited, measurable, states are not in pLSE, indicating that the QL plasma is far from Saha equilibrium. In order to obtain the electron densities and temperatures the ASDF has to be combined with either measurements of continuum radiation or a Collisional Radiative Model (CRM). The results of both methods will be presented and compared with a third technique to obtain the electron density and temperature: Thomson scattering.

  8. 15 KJ FLASH LAMP, POWER CONDITIONING UNIT DESIGNED FOR SAFTY, RELIABILITY & MANUFACTURABILITY*

    SciTech Connect

    James, G; Merritt, B; Dreifuerst, G; Strickland, S

    2007-08-07

    A 15kJoule, Flash Lamp Power Conditioning Unit has been successfully designed, developed, and deployed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Preamplifier Modules (PAM). The primary design philosophy of this power conditioning unit (PCU) is safety, reliability, and manufacturability. Cost reduction over commercially equivalent systems was also achieved through an easily manufactured packaging design optimized to meet NIF requirements. While still maintaining low cost, the PCU design includes a robust control system, fault diagnostic system, and safety features. The pulsed power design includes 6 PFN modules, each including a dual series injection trigger transformer, that drive a total of 12 flash lamp loads. The lamps are individually triggered via a 20kV pulse produced by a 1kV, MCT switched capacitive discharge unit on the primary side of the trigger transformer. The remote control interface includes an embedded controller that captures flash lamp current wave forms and fault status for each shot. The embedded controller provides the flexibility of remotely adjusting both the main drive voltage from 1.6 to 2.5 kV and the trigger voltage from 0 to 20 kV.

  9. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power. PMID:26479667

  10. Computer synthesized filament images from reflectors and through lens elements for lamp design and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donohue, R J; Joseph, B W

    1975-10-01

    A mathematical model of the cylindrical, helical filament used in automotive forward and signal lighting can be easily written in computer language. By ray tracing the filament through reflections off surfaces, accurate pinhole images can be synthesized on a computer screen. The buildup of images from this basic program can simulate light patterns from reflector-plus-lens headlamps and signal lamps, as well as aid in the design of faceted-reflector lamps in which all the pattern controlling optics are in the reflector. PMID:20155029

  11. 30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the..., Approval and Certification Center, 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension...

  12. 30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the..., Approval and Certification Center, 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension...

  13. 30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Instructions for handling future changes in... handling future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the..., Approval and Certification Center, 765 Technology Drive, Triadelphia, WV 26059, requesting an extension...

  14. Minimization of lumen depreciation in LED lamps using thermal transient behavior analysis and design optimizations.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2016-02-10

    We expansively investigate thermal behaviors of various general-purpose light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and apply our measured results, validated by simulation, to establish lamp design rules for optimizing their optical and thermal properties. These design rules provide the means to minimize lumen depreciation over time by minimizing the periods for lamps to reach thermal steady-state while maintaining their high luminous efficacy and omnidirectional light distribution capability. While it is well known that minimizing the junction temperature of an LED leads to a longer lifetime and an increased lumen output, our study demonstrates, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that it is also important to minimize the time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium because doing so minimizes lumen depreciation and enhances light output and color stability during operation. Specifically, we have found that, in addition to inadequate heat-sink fin areas for a lamp configuration, LEDs mounted on multiple boards, as opposed to a single board, lead to longer periods for reaching thermal equilibrium contributing to larger lumen depreciation. PMID:26906393

  15. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  16. IODC 2014 Illumination design problem: the Cinderella Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassarly, William J.

    2014-12-01

    For the 3rd time, the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) included an Illumination Design contest. This year, the contest involved designing the illuminator to project the 1950 Walt Disney "Cinderella" movie using a box of optical knick-knacks. The goal of the problem was to provide the highest screen lumens with greater than 30% uniformity. There were 12 entries from 3 different countries. Three different commercial optical/illumination design packages were used. The winning solution, provided by Alois Herkommer, provided 371 screen lumens.

  17. Use of multiwavelength emission from hollow cathode lamp for measurement of state resolved atom density of metal vapor produced by electron beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, A; Dikshit, B; Bhatia, M S; Mago, V K

    2008-09-01

    State resolved atom population of metal vapor having low-lying metastable states departs from equilibrium value. It needs to be experimentally investigated. This paper reports the use of hollow cathode lamp based atomic absorption spectroscopy technique to measure online the state resolved atom density (ground and metastable) of metal vapor in an atomic beam produced by a high power electron gun. In particular, the advantage of availability of multiwavelength emission in hollow cathode lamp is used to determine the atom density in different states. Here, several transitions pertaining to a given state have also been invoked to obtain the mean value of atom density thereby providing an opportunity for in situ averaging. It is observed that at higher source temperatures the atoms from metastable state relax to the ground state. This is ascribed to competing processes of atom-atom and electron-atom collisions. The formation of collision induced virtual source is inferred from measurement of atom density distribution profile along the width of the atomic beam. The total line-of-sight average atom density measured by absorption technique using hollow cathode lamp is compared to that measured by atomic vapor deposition method. The presence of collisions is further supported by determination of beaming exponent by numerically fitting the data. PMID:19044405

  18. Use of multiwavelength emission from hollow cathode lamp for measurement of state resolved atom density of metal vapor produced by electron beam evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, A.; Dikshit, B.; Bhatia, M. S.; Mago, V. K.

    2008-09-15

    State resolved atom population of metal vapor having low-lying metastable states departs from equilibrium value. It needs to be experimentally investigated. This paper reports the use of hollow cathode lamp based atomic absorption spectroscopy technique to measure online the state resolved atom density (ground and metastable) of metal vapor in an atomic beam produced by a high power electron gun. In particular, the advantage of availability of multiwavelength emission in hollow cathode lamp is used to determine the atom density in different states. Here, several transitions pertaining to a given state have also been invoked to obtain the mean value of atom density thereby providing an opportunity for in situ averaging. It is observed that at higher source temperatures the atoms from metastable state relax to the ground state. This is ascribed to competing processes of atom-atom and electron-atom collisions. The formation of collision induced virtual source is inferred from measurement of atom density distribution profile along the width of the atomic beam. The total line-of-sight average atom density measured by absorption technique using hollow cathode lamp is compared to that measured by atomic vapor deposition method. The presence of collisions is further supported by determination of beaming exponent by numerically fitting the data.

  19. Optical design of a light-emitting diode lamp for a maritime lighthouse.

    PubMed

    Jafrancesco, D; Mercatelli, L; Sansoni, P; Fontani, D; Sani, E; Coraggia, S; Meucci, M; Francini, F

    2015-04-10

    Traffic signaling is an emerging field for light-emitting diode (LED) applications. This sustainable power-saving illumination technology can be used in maritime signaling thanks to the recently updated norms, where the possibility to utilize LED sources is explicitly cited, and to the availability of high-power white LEDs that, combined with suitable lenses, permit us to obtain well-collimated beams. This paper describes the optical design of a LED-based lamp that can replace a traditional lamp in an authentic marine lighthouse. This source recombines multiple separated LEDs realizing a quasi-punctual localized source. Advantages can be lower energy consumption, higher efficiency, longer life, fewer faults, slower aging, and minor maintenance costs. The proposed LED source allows us to keep and to utilize the old Fresnel lenses of the lighthouse, which very often have historical value. PMID:25967311

  20. Design, simulation, and measurement of LED reading lamp with non-axisymmetrical reflector and freeform lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lu, Ming-Jun

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid development of various types of digi-readers, such as i-Pad, Kindle, and so on, non-self-luminous type has an advantage, low power consumption. This type of digi-reader reflects the surrounding light to display so it is no good at all to read under dim environment. In this paper, we design a LED lamp for a square lighted range with low power consumption. The e-book is about 12cm x 9cm, the total flux of LED is 3 Lm, and the LED lamp is put on the upper brink of the panel with 6cm height and 45 degree tilted angle. For redistributing the energy, the LED lamp has a freeform lens to control the light of small view angle and a non-axisymmetrical reflector to control the light of large view angle and create a rectangular-like spot. In accordance with the measurement data, the proposed optical structure achieves that the power consumption of LED light source is only 90mW, the average illumination is about 200 Lux, the uniformity of illumination is over 0.7, and the spot is rectangular-like with precise light/dark cutting-off line. Our designed optical structure significantly increases the efficiency of light using and meets the environmental goal of low energy consumption.

  1. [Atomic/ionic fluorescence in microwave plasma torch discharge with excitation of high current and microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp: Ca atomic/ionic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhen-bin; Liang, Feng; Yang, Peng-yuan; Jin, Qin-han; Huang, Ben-li

    2002-02-01

    A system of atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch (MPT) discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL) has been developed. The operation conditions for Ca atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry have been optimized. Compared with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in argon microwave induced plasma (MIP) and MPT with the excitation of direct current and conventional pulsed HCL, the system with HCMP HCL excitation can improve AFS and ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) detection limits in MPT atomizer and ionizer. Detection limits (3 sigma) with HCMP HCL-MPT-AFS/IFS are 10.1 ng.mL-1 for Ca I 422.7 nm, 14.6 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 393.4 nm, and 37.4 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 396.8 nm, respectively. PMID:12940030

  2. Signal lights - designed light for rear lamps and new upcoming technologies: innovations in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mügge, Martin; Hohmann, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Signal functions have to fulfill statutory regulations such as ECE or FMVSS108 to provide a clear signal to other road users and satisfy the same standard definitions of lighting parameters. However, as rear combination lamps are very different from one another, and these days are an increasingly powerful design element of cars, automotive manufacturers want an innovative, superior, and contrasting design. Daytime appearances with a new and unusual look and nighttime appearances with unexpected illumination are strong drivers for developing amazing innovative signal functions. The combination of LED technology and different forms of light-guiding optics, new interpretations of common optical systems to develop various styling options, the use of new materials and components for lighting effects, the introduction of OLED technology on the automotive market, and amazing new optical systems, using diffractive or holographic optics in future rear lamps, are paving the way for further, exciting design possibilities. The challenge of new signal functions is to take these possibilities and to develop the appearance and illumination effects the designer wants to reinforce the image of the car manufacturer and to fit harmoniously into the vehicle design. Lighting systems with a three-dimensional design and appearance when unlit and lit, amazing 3D effects, and surprising lighting scenarios will gain in importance. But the signal lights on cars will, in the future, be not only lighting functions in rear lamps; new functions and stylistic illuminations for coming/leaving-home scenarios will support and complete the car's overall lighting appearance. This paper describes current lighting systems realizing the styling requirements and future lighting systems offering new design possibilities and developing further stylistic, visual effects and improved technologies.

  3. Turning on LAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-06-30

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  4. Turning on LAMP

    ScienceCinema

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-07-16

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  5. Thermal and optical design analyses, optimizations, and experimental verification for a novel glare-free LED lamp for household applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2015-07-20

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technologies are undergoing very fast developments to enable household lamp products with improved energy efficiency and lighting properties at lower cost. Although many LED replacement lamps are claimed to provide similar or better lighting quality at lower electrical wattage compared with general-purpose incumbent lamps, certain lighting characteristics important to human vision are neglected in this comparison, which include glare-free illumination and omnidirectional or sufficiently broad light distribution with adequate homogeneity. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the thermal and lighting performance and trade-offs for several commercial LED replacement lamps for the most popular Edison incandescent bulb. We present simulations and analyses for thermal and optical performance trade-offs for various LED lamps at the chip and module granularity levels. In addition, we present a novel, glare-free, and production-friendly LED lamp design optimized to produce very desirable light distribution properties as demonstrated by our simulation results, some of which are verified by experiments. PMID:26367844

  6. Simultaneous monitoring of multimetallic atom densities in plasma processes employing a multimicrohollow cathode lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Taneda, Satoshi; Takashima, Seigo; Hori, Masaru; Kano, Hiroyuki; Den, Shoji

    2007-06-18

    The authors have developed a simultaneous measurement technique of multimetallic atom densities in process plasmas using absorption spectroscopy employing a multimicrohollow cathode plasma as a light source. The optical emissions of four metallic atoms of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mo were simultaneously produced from the multimicrohollow cathode plasma of millimeter size. The absolute densities of Cu and Mo in the magnetron sputtering plasma were simultaneously measured using this technique. The simultaneous monitoring of multimetallic atoms is very useful for controlling the plasma processes precisely.

  7. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Drakakis, E.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2012-09-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  8. Design a light pattern of multiple concentric circles for LED fishing lamps using Fourier series and an energy mapping method.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Li, J S; Huang, M C

    2014-06-01

    Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. Energy mapping involves performing angular energy mapping based on the LIDCs of an LED light source and LPMCC to design a freeform lens. Type I and Type II LPMCC lenses were designed according to the phototaxis behavior of fish to create a LPMCC light pattern of interleaving light-dark zones that attracts fish shoals to stay in an area for a long period. The experimental results indicated that, in comparing the LIDCs of the Type I and II lenses with the respective simulation values, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) value reached 96%. According to a 24-hour observation of the phototaxis of Poecilia reticulata to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed light pattern to attract fish, when a fish shoal was habituated to a light source that emitted constant illumination light, it gradually moved away from the intense light zone and hovered around the junction of the light and dark zones. In the future, the design used in this study can be applied to LED fishing lamps to replace traditional fishing lamps. PMID:24921540

  9. Design of energy-saving control system for LED street lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiao; Jin, Wenguang

    2013-10-01

    Based on the energy-saving and safe-driving requirements of road lighting, a kind of energy-saving system is proposed for street lamps in this paper, which is handled by two controllers. At daybreak and dusk, the lamps are turned on or off according to local sunrise and sunset. And at night, it is controlled by a fuzzy controller. Traffic flow and its variation rate, the highest road speed limit are taken as the inputs of the controller, at the same time, the lighting comfort and the experience of driver are defined as the fuzzy sets and control rules. LED lamps are used in the system as illuminant. The numerical simulation in MATLAB and analysis on the practical measured data show that the system is effective in energy-saving for road lighting.

  10. Absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonant line from a lead hollow cathode lamp. An absolute number density calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W. ); Oldenborg, R.C.; Baughcum, S.L. )

    1989-10-19

    An accurate absolute number density calibration curve for absorption by gaseous lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonant line from a typical lead hollow cathode lamp is reported. This calibration shows the usual curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot for atomic absorption at moderate to high absorbances that is commonly attributed to self-absorption leading to line reversal in the source and/or preferential absorption at the line center when the absorber temperature is not much greater than the source Doppler temperature. A theoretical calculation utilizing a Doppler-limited Fourier transform spectrum of the 283.3-nm emission from the lamp and a tabulated value of the absorption cross section and accounting for the isotopic and nuclear hyperfine components in both the emission and absorption due to naturally occurring lead quantitatively reproduces the experimental calibration curve without any parameter adjustments. It is found that the curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot has more to do with the fact that the absorbing and emitting atoms are a mixture of isotopes giving several isotopic and nuclear hyperfine transitions at slightly different frequencies than it does with preferential absorption at line centers.

  11. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Signature Identification Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-17

    This is an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis). LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs.

  12. The optical pumping of alkali atoms using coherent radiation from semi-conductor injection lasers and incoherent radiation from resonance lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, G.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study for creating population differences in the ground states of alkali atoms (Cesium 133) is presented. Studies made on GaAs-junction lasers and the achievement of population inversions among the hyperfine levels in the ground state of Cs 133 by optically pumping it with radiation from a GaAs diode laser. Laser output was used to monitor the populations in the ground state hyperfine levels as well as to perform the hyperfine pumping. A GaAs laser operated at about 77 K was used to scan the 8521 A line of Cs 133. Experiments were performed both with neon-filled and with paraflint-coated cells containing the cesium vapor. Investigations were also made for the development of the triple resonance coherent pulse technique and for the detection of microwave induced hyperfine trasistions by destroying the phase relationships produced by a radio frequency pulse. A pulsed cesium resonance lamp developed, and the lamp showed clean and reproducible switching characteristics.

  13. Flickering lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-05-01

    Many processes in electromagnetism vary with time. Some of them are well known, in particular those related to line frequencies of 50 Hz or 60 Hz such as fluctuating light output of discharge and incandescent lamps. The flickers of discharge and incandescent lamps have quite different physical principles involved, which are investigated experimentally using high-speed cameras and theoretically using simplified models. The topic is related to other phenomena such as the transient behaviour of phosphor layers covering the screen of oscilloscopes and the time-varying Lorentz force acting on the filament of light bulbs. All studies are well suited for teaching selected aspects of electromagnetism and light at undergraduate level at university.

  14. Lava Lamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leif, Todd R.

    2008-01-01

    This past semester I brought a Lava Lite[R] Lamp into my classroom. Why bring such a thing into class? Many of today's students are part of the "retro" movement. They buy clothes from the '60s, they wear their hair like people did in the '60s, and they look for the ideals and themes related to living in the 1960s. Physics education reform is also…

  15. Absolute number density calibration of the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp and the calculated effect of argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W.; McClean, R.E. ); Oldenborg, R.C. )

    1991-03-21

    The absolute number density calibration for the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp (Photron superlamp) is determined and found to be the same as that of a standard hollow cathode lamp. Comparisons of the calibrations to theoretical calculations are found to be quite satisfactory. The effects of argon pressures in the absorption cell on the calibration are examined theoretically by using a simple Lorentzian broadening and shifting model. These calculations show the expected reduction in sensitivity and increasing linearity of Beer-Lambert plots with increasing argon pressure.

  16. Design for a compact CW atom laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Erik; Raithel, Georg

    2011-05-01

    We present a design for a compact continuous-wave atom laser on a chip. A 2D spiral-shaped quadrupole guide is formed by two 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm wires carrying 5 A each embedded in a Si wafer; a 1.5 mm × 0.5 mm wire on the bottom layer carries -10 A, producing a horizontal B-field that pushes the guiding channel center above the chip surface. The center-to-center separation between the top wires is varied from 1.6 mm at the start of the guide to 1 mm at the end, decreasing the guide height from ~ 500 μm to ~ 25 μm above the surface as the atoms travel the 70 cm-long guide. The magnetic gradient of the guiding channel gradually increases from ~ 100 G /cm to ~ 930 G /cm . These features result in continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling and progressive magnetic compression. Spin flip losses are mitigated by a solenoid sewn around the guide to produce a longitudinal B-field. 87Rb atoms are gravitationally loaded into the guide. A far off-resonant light shift barrier at the end of the guide traps the atoms and allows formation of a BEC. Tuning the barrier height to create a non-zero tunneling rate equal to the loading rate completes the implementation of a CW atom laser. Two options for atom interferometry are implemented on the first-generation chip (matter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer and guide-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer). Current construction status and challenges will be discussed, along with preliminary results.

  17. TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    1995-08-01

    The total internal reflection lens has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent lamps and light-emitting diodes, and it is currently being marketed in several retail products. These circularly symmetric designs operated with relatively small sources. Two new forms of the TIR lens have been designed, and prototypes fabricated, for forming beams from fluorescent lamps. The toroidal fluorescent lamp is formed by circularly sweeping a faceted profile about its outer edge. A 5 inch diameter prototype lens has been diamond turned, and has 80% efficiency. When covering a 2.5 inch toroidal source of 0.25 inch minor diameter, it forms a smooth structureless beam of 40 degrees FWHM. The linear TIR lens has a faceted profile that is extended in cylindrical symmetry. In conjunction with a planar back mirror, a 6 inch diameter lens collects 85% of the light from a 5/8 inch lamp. The full width at half maximum is 30 degrees transversely and 120 degrees longitudinally, in a stripe pattern with twin peaks at +/- 47 degrees parallel to the lamp axis. These designs are applicable to other tubular light sources: discharge lamps, such as aircraft strobes and camera flashlamps, as well as neon lamps. They offer greater efficiency, narrower beamwidths, and much more compact profiles than conventional relfector designs.

  18. Aperture lamp

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  19. Lava Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Todd R.

    2008-04-01

    This past semester I brought a Lava Lite® Lamp into my classroom. Why bring such a thing into class? Many of today's students are part of the "retro" movement. They buy clothes from the '60s, they wear their hair like people did in the '60s, and they look for the ideals and themes related to living in the 1960s. Physics education reform is also examining ideas from the "retro" world of science. This was the post-Sputnik era, a time when science was done by actually doing it and not necessarily by lecturing about it. Cliff Swartz, former TPT editor, once mentioned during a presentation at a Texas AAPT meeting, "The world of physics teaching is cyclic, like a swinging pendulum. We as physics teachers jump from `new ideas' back to our old ones, each generation testing what works best for them."

  20. LED lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  1. Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jen-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Ma, Chi-Tang

    2011-10-01

    In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of the array of LED and the semi-cylindrical diffuser in which the intensity distribution of LED is based on Lambertian and the characteristics of diffuser are BTDF: 63%, transmission: 27%, and absorption: 10%. We design the triangular-prism structure at the both sides of the semi-circular diffuser to control the wide-angle light and use the Taguchi method to optimize the parameters of the structure that will control the 10.41% of total flux to light the area between 90 degree and 135 degree and to avoid the total internal reflection. According to the optical simulation results, the 89.59% of total flux is within 90 degree and the 10.41% of total flux is between 90 degree and 135 degree that match with the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Criteria V. 1.1 of ENERGY STAR.

  2. Driving lamps by induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, H. H.; Clough, L. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An electrodeless lamp circuit with a coil surrounding a krypton lamp is driven by an RF input source. A coil surrounding a mercury lamp is tapped across the connection of the input central to the krypton-lamp coil. Each coil is connected in parallel with separate capacitors which form resonant circuits at the input frequency.

  3. Effusive atomic oven nozzle design using an aligned microcapillary array

    SciTech Connect

    Senaratne, Ruwan Rajagopal, Shankari V.; Geiger, Zachary A.; Fujiwara, Kurt M.; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M.

    2015-02-15

    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design, we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525 °C, the collimated atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is 1.2 × 10{sup 14} atoms/s with a peak beam intensity greater than 5.0 × 10{sup 16} atoms/s/sr. This suggests an oven lifetime of several decades of continuous operation.

  4. Studying Atomic Dynamics with Designer Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, C.O.; Burgdorfer, J.; Frey, M.T.; Dunning, F.B.

    1997-09-01

    We present a brief review of recent experimental and theoretical progress on the dynamics of Rydberg atoms using short half cycle pulses. We discuss new possibilities in coherent control and non-linear dynamics of atoms which have lately become possible using various superpositions of such pulses.

  5. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: An alternative to mercury based UVC lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Masoud, N. M.; Murnick, D. E.

    2013-12-15

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.

  6. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: an alternative to mercury based UVC lamps.

    PubMed

    Masoud, N M; Murnick, D E

    2013-12-01

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers. PMID:24387421

  7. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  8. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  9. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  10. Halogen lamp experiment, HALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, G.; Stapelmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the Halogen Lamp Experiment (HALEX) was to investigate the operation of a halogen lamp during an extended period in a microgravity environment and to prove its behavior in space. The Mirror Heating Facilities for Crystal Growth and Material Science Experiments in space relies on one or two halogen lamps as a furnace to melt the specimens. The HALEX aim is to verify: full power operation of a halogen lamp for a period of about 60 hours; achievement of about 10% of its terrestrial life span; and operation of the halogen lamp under conditions similar to furnace operation.

  11. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection... glass is accidentally broken, and ignition by electric sparks or arcs from the battery or connections..., the maximum possible current flow through that part shall be limited by battery design, or by...

  12. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection... glass is accidentally broken, and ignition by electric sparks or arcs from the battery or connections..., the maximum possible current flow through that part shall be limited by battery design, or by...

  13. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection... glass is accidentally broken, and ignition by electric sparks or arcs from the battery or connections..., the maximum possible current flow through that part shall be limited by battery design, or by...

  14. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection... glass is accidentally broken, and ignition by electric sparks or arcs from the battery or connections..., the maximum possible current flow through that part shall be limited by battery design, or by...

  15. 30 CFR 20.8 - Class 1 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.8 Class 1 lamps. (a) Protection... glass is accidentally broken, and ignition by electric sparks or arcs from the battery or connections..., the maximum possible current flow through that part shall be limited by battery design, or by...

  16. Effects of airblast atomizer design upon spray quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The application of airblast atomization to gas turbine engines was investigated. The need to identify the effect of various design features on the spray quality to design atomizers of optimum performance with a minimum of cost and complexity is designed. The atomizer scale, configuration, the nature of fuel preparation before exposure to air, for the most commonly used prefilming and plain airblast atomizers are emphasized. The experimental mean drop size data was obtained through the use of laser light scattering techniques over a wide range of conditions. It is concluded that the plain jet airblast atomizer which features multiple, transversely injected liquid jets into a swirling airstream yield spray quality comparable to that achieved by their prefilming counterparts especially under high air pressure conditions.

  17. Lamp reliability studies for improved satellite rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frueholz, R. P.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Eckert, H. U.; Volk, C. H.; Jones, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    In response to the premature failure of Rb lamps used in Rb atomic clocks onboard NAVSTAR GPS satellites experimental and theoretical investigations into their failure mechanism were initiated. The primary goal of these studies is the development of an accelerated life test for future GPS lamps. The primary failure mechanism was identified as consumption of the lamp's Rb charge via direct interaction between Rb and the lamp's glass surface. The most effective parameters to accelerate the interaction between the Rb and the glass are felt to be RF excitation power and lamp temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to monitor the consumption of Rb within a lamp as a function of operation time. This technique yielded base line Rb consumption data for GPS lamps operating under normal conditions.

  18. Design of Janus Nanoparticles with Atomic Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Kawazoe, Yoshi

    2008-03-01

    Janus nanoparticles, characterized by their anisotropic structure and interactions have added a new dimension to nanoscience because of their potential applications in biomedicine, sensors, catalysis and assembled materials. The technological applications of these nanoparticles, however, have been limited as the current chemical, physical, and biosynthetic methods lack sufficient size and shape selectivity. We report a technique where gold clusters doped with tungsten can serve as a seed that facilitates the natural growth of anisotropic nanostructures whose size and shape can be controlled with atomic precision. Using ab initio simulated annealing and molecular dynamics calculations on AunW (n>12) clusters, we discovered that the W@Au12 cage cluster forms a very stable core with the remaining Au atoms forming patchy structures on its surface. The anisotropic geometry gives rise to anisotropies in vibrational spectra, charge distributions, electronic structures, and reactivity, thus making it useful to have dual functionalities. In particular, the core-patch structure is shown to possess a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. The W@Au12 clusters can also be used as building blocks of a nano-ring with novel properties.

  19. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  20. The Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Transparent Atom Chip

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Huang, Chia-Shiuan; Chen, Hung-Pin; Huang, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the design and fabrication of transparent atom chips for atomic physics experiments. A fabrication process was developed to define the wire patterns on a transparent glass substrate to create the desired magnetic field for atom trapping experiments. An area on the chip was reserved for the optical access, so that the laser light can penetrate directly through the glass substrate for the laser cooling process. Furthermore, since the thermal conductivity of the glass substrate is poorer than other common materials for atom chip substrate, for example silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride. Thus, heat dissipation copper blocks are designed on the front and back of the glass substrate to improve the electrical current conduction. The testing results showed that a maximum burnout current of 2 A was measured from the wire pattern (with a width of 100 μm and a height of 20 μm) without any heat dissipation design and it can increase to 2.5 A with a heat dissipation design on the front side of the atom chips. Therefore, heat dissipation copper blocks were designed and fabricated on the back of the glass substrate just under the wire patterns which increases the maximum burnout current to 4.5 A. Moreover, a maximum burnout current of 6 A was achieved when the entire backside glass substrate was recessed and a thicker copper block was electroplated, which meets most requirements of atomic physics experiments. PMID:24922456

  1. Discharge lamp technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  2. Energy-efficient compact screw-in fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, E. W.

    1982-11-01

    A compact fluorescent lamp has been designed and constructed which can replace an incandescent lamp. The lamp is slightly larger than a standard lamp (8 3/4 in. x 3 1/4 in.), but is designed to fit a majority of portable lamp applications. This version, with a core-coil ballast, results in a system efficacy of 54 lumens per watt, with a light output of more than 1800 lumens. This compares favorably with a 100-watt incandescent (17.5 lumens per watt and 1750 lumens light output). The color temperature of 30000K is compatible with an incandescent lamp (28000K). The color rendition index (CRI) is 84. With a solid-state ballast, the efficacy and light output could be increased by 20% (65 l/w, 2200 lumens) and could provide a direct replacement for a three-way, 150-watt incandescent lamp (15 l/w, 2200 lumens).

  3. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  4. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  5. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  6. Compact fluorescent lamp applications in luxury hotels

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleskie, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years, consumers, lighting designers, and energy conservationists have paid increasing attention to the special characteristics of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). CFLs can typically be used to replace incandescent lamps of three to four times their own wattage, and their color rendering indices (CRIs)-80 to 85-make them virtually indistinguishable from incandescents. The typical 10,0000-hour life of a CFL often makes savings in labor its most desirable feature when compared to a shorter-lived incandescent lamp.

  7. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  8. Rapid flash lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenonis, Thomas L.; Hewitt, William H.

    1989-06-06

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  9. Excimer lamp stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Saburoh; Tanaka, Takao; Ihara, Satoshi; Yamabe, Chobei

    2000-06-01

    For the laser stereo-lithography, a XeCl excimer lamp with cylindrical tube has been adopted to achieve a lower cost type UV light source. Because of excellent high output efficiency, it is possible to be down sizing of a power supplier and a lamp head and to be air-cooling. And moreover to extract the maximum output power and efficiency, we applied an optical fiber system for its lithography optics. With this excimer lamp the maximum UV emission per pulse 25 (mu) J at 100 Hz and the maximum average power 10 mW at 1000 Hz were obtained.

  10. Rapid flash lamp

    DOEpatents

    Gavenonis, Thomas L.; Hewitt, William H.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  11. Design and evaluation of a Laval-type supersonic atomizer for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Chao-run; Zhang, Xian-jie; Wang, Jun-biao; Li, Yu-jun

    2014-06-01

    A Laval-type supersonic gas atomizer was designed for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals. The principal design objectives were to produce small-particle uniform powders at lower operating pressures by improving the gas inlet and outlet structures and optimizing structural parameters. A computational fluid flow model was developed to study the flow field characteristics of the designed atomizer. Simulation results show that the maximum gas velocity in the atomization zone can reach 440 m·s-1; this value is independent of the atomization gas pressure P 0 when P 0 > 0.7 MPa. When P 0 = 1.1 MPa, the aspiration pressure at the tip of the delivery tube reaches a minimum, indicating that the atomizer can attain the best atomization efficiency at a relatively low atomization pressure. In addition, atomization experiments with pure tin at P 0 = 1.0 MPa and with 7055Al alloy at P 0 = 0.8 and 0.4 MPa were conducted to evaluate the atomization capability of the designed atomizer. Nearly spherical powders were obtained with the mass median diameters of 28.6, 43.4, and 63.5 μm, respectively. Compared with commonly used atomizers, the designed Laval-type atomizer has a better low-pressure gas atomization capability.

  12. Modular L-design of hydride atomizers for atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řezáčová, Olga; Dědina, Jiří

    2009-07-01

    A novel modular L-shaped design of hydride atomizer for atomic absorption spectrometry is described. It makes it possible to replace the optical tube of the atomizer and, mainly, to employ optical tubes made also from other materials than fused quartz. The design is useful mainly for further improvement of hydride atomizers based on the multiatomizer concept. Employing selenium hydride as the analyte and arsine as the interferent, a preliminary evaluation of performance of three types of L-shaped multiatomizers based on various optical tubes in terms of sensitivity, linearity of calibration graph and resistance to atomization interferences is made. The "classical" T-shaped multiatomizer was employed as a reference. The L-shaped multiatomizer with the optical tube analogous to that employed in the "classical" T-shaped multiatomizer offers virtually the same performance as the reference multiatomizer. Optical tube made of fused quartz with holes with smaller diameters does not offer significantly better performance compared to the reference T-shaped multiatomizer. However, the L-shaped multiatomizer with optical tube fabricated from porous quartz glass overpowers all the other multiatomizers substantially in terms of the resistance against interferences: even the maximum As interferent concentration of 5 µg ml - 1 does not significantly influence the observed signal. This should be compared with multiatomizers based on plain fused quartz tubes with holes: tolerance limit around 0.5 µg ml - 1 ; interferent concentration of 1 µg ml - 1 causing 20% signal depression.

  13. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  14. Physics of Incandescent Lamp Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul; King, John

    2008-01-01

    Incandescent lamps with tungsten filaments have been in use for about a century while being gradually replaced by fluorescent lamps; in another generation both will quite probably be largely replaced by light-emitting diodes. Incandescent lamps (simply called "lamps" in what follows) burn out after a lifetime that depends mostly on the temperature…

  15. Design-atom approach for the QM/MM covalent boundary: A design-carbon atom with five valence electrons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chuanyun; Zhang, Yingkai

    2009-01-01

    A critical issue underlying the accuracy and applicability of the combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods is how to describe the QM/MM boundary across covalent bonds. Inspired by the ab initio pseudo-potential theory, here we introduce a novel design-atom approach for a more fundamental and transparent treatment of this QM/MM covalent boundary problem. The main idea is to replace the boundary atom of the active part with a design-atom, which has a different number of valence electrons but very similar atomic properties. By modifying the Troullier-Martins scheme, which has been widely employed to construct norm-conserving pseudo-potentials for density functional calculations, we have successfully developed a design-carbon atom with five valence electrons. Tests on a series of molecules yield very good structural and energetic results, and indicate its transferability in describing a variety of chemical bonds, including double and triple bonds. PMID:17902888

  16. Slit-lamp exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... to light for a few hours after the exam if dilating drops are used. ... The slit lamp exam may detect many diseases of the eye, including: Clouding of the lens of the eye ( cataract ) Injury to the ...

  17. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to look at the skin closely. ... Gebhard RE. Wood's light examination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  18. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOEpatents

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  19. Design of ductile bulk metallic glasses by adding ''soft'' atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, N.; Pauly, S.; Calin, M.; Gemming, T.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F.; Eckert, J.

    2012-04-02

    We propose a strategy for the design of ductile bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) through minor substitution using relatively large atoms, which make the bonding nature become more metallic and with it less shear resistant. Such a locally modified structure results in topological heterogeneity, which appears to be crucial for achieving enhanced plasticity. This strategy is verified for Ti-Zr-Cu-Pd glassy alloys, in which Cu was replaced by In, and seems to be extendable to other BMG systems. The atomic-scale heterogeneity in BMGs is somewhat analog to defects in crystalline alloys and helps to improve the overall plasticity of BMGs.

  20. Diagonal control design for atomic force microscope piezoelectric tube nanopositioners.

    PubMed

    Bhikkaji, B; Yong, Y K; Mahmood, I A; Moheimani, S O R

    2013-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are used for generating surface topography of samples at micro to atomic resolutions. Many commercial AFMs use piezoelectric tube nanopositioners for scanning. Scanning rates of these microscopes are hampered by the presence of low frequency resonant modes. When inadvertently excited, these modes lead to high amplitude mechanical vibrations causing the loss of accuracy, while scanning, and eventually to break down of the tube. Feedback control has been used to damp these resonant modes. Thereby, enabling higher scanning rates. Here, a multivariable controller is designed to damp the first resonant mode along both the x and y axis. Exploiting the inherent symmetry in the piezoelectric tube, the multivariable control design problem is recast as independent single-input single-output (SISO) designs. This in conjunction with integral resonant control is used for damping the first resonant mode. PMID:23464216

  1. Absorption spectroscopy measurements of argon metastable and resonant atom density in atmospheric pressure Ar-He surface-wave plasmas using a low pressure lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, J.; Margot, J.; Calzada, M. D.

    2012-01-15

    The densities of metastable and resonant atom were measured in atmospheric pressure Ar-He surface-wave plasmas. Measurements were performed using an absorption spectroscopy method taking into account the Voigt profiles of the plasma lines. The density values of the argon {sup 3}P{sub 2}, {sup 3}P{sub 0} (metastable atoms) and {sup 3}P{sub 1} (resonant atoms) levels measured in pure argon discharges are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. A drastic decrease of metastable and resonant densities is observed when introducing helium in amounts as low as 2%. The influence of electron density and gas temperature on the population mechanisms (direct electron excitation from the ground state and dissociative recombination) of metastable and resonant atoms is discussed using a simplified theoretical model.

  2. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively. ... lamps and front fog lamps. 393.24 Section 393.24 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front...

  3. Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

    This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the

  4. Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

  5. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  7. Reload design process at Yankee Atomic Electric Company

    SciTech Connect

    Weader, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) performs reload design and licensing for their nuclear power plants: Yankee Rowe, Maine Yankee, and Vermont Yankee. Significant savings in labor and computer costs have been achieved in the reload design process by the use of the SIMULATE nodal code using the CASMO assembly burnup code or LEOPARD pin cell burnup code inputs to replace the PDQ diffusion theory code in many required calculations for the Yankee Rowe and Maine Yankee pressurized water reactors (PWRs). An efficient process has evolved for the design of reloads for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). Due to the major differences in the core design of the three plants, different reload design processes have evolved for each plant.

  8. The National Energy Policy Act and lamp replacement options

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, C.

    1995-06-01

    The National Policy Act of 1992 involves the creation of energy efficiency standards for a wide range of products including fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Minimum efficacy (lumens per watt) and color rendering index (CRI) standards are mandated for the popular fluorescent lamps: four-foot medium bi-pin, two-foot U-bent, eight-foot slimline and eight-foot high output. Minimum efficacies are mandated for specific incandescent R and PAR reflector lamps. These standards will affect selected colors and designs of fluorescent lamps, the most significant being the standard lamps in the cool white and warm white colors. The incandescent reflector lamps will include the R-30, R-40, PAR-38 lamps above 40 watts, excluding the halogen types. These efficiency and color rendering standards will require end-users and specifiers to select replacement fluorescent lamps from a range of performance characteristics (lumen output, efficacy, CRI and price). The choice of replacement for the R and PAR incandescent lamps will include the halogen designs and compact fluorescent designs. In this paper, replacement options will be analyzed and discussed and the effect of these options on the performance of the lighting system will be explored in detail.

  9. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Schubert, Christian; Krutzik, Markus; Bote, Lluis Gesa; Gaaloul, Naceur; Hartwig, Jonas; Ahlers, Holger; Herr, Waldemar; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Rudolph, Jan; Seidel, Stephan; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Sven; Kubelka-Lange, André; Milke, Alexander; Rievers, Benny; Rocco, Emanuele; Hinton, Andrew; Bongs, Kai; Oswald, Markus; Franz, Matthias; Hauth, Matthias; Peters, Achim; Bawamia, Ahmad; Wicht, Andreas; Battelier, Baptiste; Bertoldi, Andrea; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Massonnet, Didier; Lévèque, Thomas; Wenzlawski, Andre; Hellmig, Ortwin; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; von Klitzing, Wolf; Chaloner, Chris; Summers, David; Ireland, Philip; Mateos, Ignacio; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Williams, Michael; Trenkel, Christian; Gerardi, Domenico; Chwalla, Michael; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Heske, Astrid; Wille, Eric; Gehler, Martin; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gürlebeck, Norman; Braxmaier, Claus; Rasel, Ernst

    2015-06-01

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species 85Rb/87Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for 10-11 mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (814 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  10. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  11. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  12. Fluorescent discharge lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.

    1982-01-01

    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  13. New rules of thumb maximizing energy efficiency in street lighting with discharge lamps: The general equations for lighting design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-García, A.; Gómez-Lorente, D.; Espín, A.; Rabaza, O.

    2016-06-01

    New relationships between energy efficiency, illuminance uniformity, spacing and mounting height in public lighting installations were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs generated with a widely used software application for lighting design. These new relationships greatly facilitate the calculation of basic lighting installation parameters. The results obtained are also based on maximal energy efficiency and illuminance uniformity as a premise, which are not included in more conventional methods. However, these factors are crucial since they ensure the sustainability of the installations. This research formulated, applied and analysed these new equations. The results of this study highlight their usefulness in rapid planning and urban planning in developing countries or areas affected by natural disasters where engineering facilities and computer applications for this purpose are often unavailable.

  14. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  15. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  16. Improved ultraviolet resonance lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Removal of the seal area from the path of the lamp discharge eliminates the gradual deterioration of lithium fluoride window surfaces from condensation of products formed by interaction of a resonant rare-gas discharge with window sealing materials. The discharge is confined to the inner tube.

  17. The fundus slit lamp.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Fundus biomicroscopy with the slit lamp as it is practiced widely nowadays was not established until the 1980-es with the introduction of the Volk lenses +90 and +60D. Thereafter little progress has been made in retinal imaging with the slit lamp. It is the aim of this paper to fully exploit the potential of a video slit lamp for fundus documentation by using easily accessible additions. Suitable still images are easily retrieved from videorecordings of slit lamp examinations. The effects of changements in the slit lamp itself (slit beam and apertures) and its examination equipment (converging lenses from +40 to +90D) on quality and spectrum of fundus images are demonstrated. Imaging software is applied for reconstruction of larger fundus areas in a mosaic pattern (Hugin®) and to perform the flicker test in order to visualize changes in the same fundus area at different points of time (Power Point®). The three lenses +90/+60/+40D are a good choice for imaging the whole spectrum of retinal diseases. Displacement of the oblique slit light can be used to assess changes in the surface profile of the inner retina which occurs e.g. in macular holes or pigment epithelial detachment. The mosaic function in its easiest form (one strip macula adapted to one strip with the optic disc) provides an overview of the posterior pole comparable to a fundus camera's image. A reconstruction of larger fundus areas is feasible for imaging in vitreoretinal surgery or occlusive vessel disease. The flicker test is a fine tool for monitoring progressive glaucoma by changes in the optic disc, and it is also a valuable diagnostic tool in macular disease. Nearly all retinal diseases can be imaged with the slit lamp - irrespective whether they affect the posterior pole, mainly the optic nerve or the macula, the whole retina or only its periphery. Even a basic fundus controlled perimetry is possible. Therefore fundus videography with the slit lamp is a worthwhile approach especially for the

  18. LED solution for E14 candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Ye; Boonekamp, Erik P.; Shi, Lei; Mei, Yi; Jiang, Tan; Guo, Qing; Wu, Huarong

    2009-08-01

    On a short to medium term, energy efficient retrofit LED products can offer an attractive solution for traditional lamps replacement in existing fixtures. To comply with user expectations, LED retrofit lamps should not only have the same mechanical interface to fit (socket and shape), but also have the similar light effect as the lamps they replace. The decorative lighting segment shows the best conditions to meet these requirements on short term. In 2008, Philips Lighting Shanghai started with the development of an LED candle lamp for the replacement of a 15W Candle shape (B35 E14) incandescent bulb, which is used in e.g. chandeliers. In this decorative application the main objective is not to generate as much light as possible, but the application requires the lamp to have a comparable look and, primarily, the same light effect as the incandescent candle lamp. This effect can be described as sparkling light, and it has to be directed sufficiently downwards (i.e., in the direction of the base of the lamp). These requirements leave very limited room for optics, electronics, mechanics and thermal design to play with in the small outline of this lamp. The main voltage AC LED concept is chosen to save the space for driver electronics. However the size of the AC LED is relatively big, which makes the optical design challenging. Several optical solutions to achieve the required light effect, to improve the optical efficiency, and to simplify the system are discussed. A novel prismatic lens has been developed which is capable of transforming the Lambertian light emission from typical high power LEDs into a butter-fly intensity distribution with the desired sparkling light effect. Thanks to this lens no reflecting chamber is needed, which improves the optical efficiency up to 70%, while maintaining the compact feature of the original optics. Together with advanced driver solution and thermal solution, the resulting LED candle lamp operates at 230V, consumes 1.8W, and

  19. [The design and evaluation of horizontal pipe mini-flame atomization and ionization synchronous detector in GC/AAS].

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Sun, J M; Qiao, Y Q; Sun, H W

    2001-01-01

    Gas chromatography/atomic absorption spectroscopy(GC/AAS) is a good method for the species analysis of organometallic compounds. But the traditional atomizers are not very suitable for this technology and all of them response only to one kind of signal--the concentration of the metallic atoms of the ground state. They can not give any information about the organic group of organometallic compounds and organic compounds which coexist with the former. For GC/AAS we want to design and manufacture a new kind of detector which is much more sensitive and has a much smaller dead volume and will sensitively and synchronously response to the atomization signal of organometallic compound and ionization signal of organic compound. The authors have noticed that the atomization of organometallic compound and ionization of organic compound have been existing in the same hydrogen flame. The question is how to gain and exchange and output the two signals which are completely different in characters. For this purpose we designed and manufactured a new type of horizontal pipe mini-flame atomization and ionization synchronous detector. The key part is a T type glass tube (80 mm x 13 mm x 10 mm i.d.) which covers horizontally on the jet of the mini-flame atomizer and a long pipe stainless steel collector (70 mm x 9.5 mm o.d. x 9 mm i.d.) is tightly inserted in the tube. The light beam of the hollow cathode lamp passes through the hydrogen flame along the axial center of the glass tube and the ground state metallic atoms in the flame diffuses to both ends of the tube along the axial center of the glass tube too. This process enriches the depth of the light absorption and then increases the sensitivity of atomization. At the same time the long pipe collector can enrich the collection efficiency of the ionization and increases the sensitivity and widens the linear range. So the detector can synchronously and sensitively detect the organometallic and organic compounds. The detection limit

  20. Online inspection of circular fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Beng-Hoe

    1998-10-01

    One step in the manufacture of circular fluorescent lamps is the mercury (Hg) injection process in which a small amount of mercury approximately 20 mg is injected into the fluorescent tube. An on-line detection of mercury is required to ensure that the amount of mercury residual inside the tube is within the acceptable tolerance. This critical operation is to reduce manufacturing overhead by controlling cost and reducing waste of materials. In view of this, an attempt has been made to design and develop an on- line mercury detection system with important benefits to the manufacturers, such as increased throughput, accuracy, reliability and consistency. This paper presents the configuration and development works of the on-line circular fluorescent lamp inspection system developed by Industrial Project Group--Machine Vision Center of Nanyang Polytechnic. The inspection system performs on-line detection of mercury particles (Hg) inside the circular fluorescent lamp. Taking the orientation and translation offsets of the lamp into consideration, it detects the presence/absence as well as the size of the injected mercury. The system has been successfully operating 15 hours per day and inspecting more than 22 thousands lamps in the production plant.

  1. Software Package Completed for Alloy Design at the Atomic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip B.; Good, Brian S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of a multidisciplinary effort involving solid-state physics, quantum mechanics, and materials and surface science, the first version of a software package dedicated to the atomistic analysis of multicomponent systems was recently completed. Based on the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of alloy and surface energetics, this package includes modules devoted to the analysis of many essential features that characterize any given alloy or surface system, including (1) surface structure analysis, (2) surface segregation, (3) surface alloying, (4) bulk crystalline material properties and atomic defect structures, and (5) thermal processes that allow us to perform phase diagram calculations. All the modules of this Alloy Design Workbench 1.0 (ADW 1.0) are designed to run in PC and workstation environments, and their operation and performance are substantially linked to the needs of the user and the specific application.

  2. Dimming of metal halide lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    We ran some tests on the effect of dimming of metal halide (MH) lamps upon the stability and the spectral quality of the light output. Lamps used were a new Philips lamp HPI-T 250W, a similar Philips lamp with a few thousand burning hours and a new Osram lamp HQI-T 250W/D. The ballast was a BBC type DJ 250/2KS, the starter a BAS TORGI type MZN 250 SE and the dimmer an Elstrom Control System type ERHQ-T 250. Power was derived from a Philips stabilizer, type PE 1602. Lamp output was monitored with a PAR meter. Spectra were taken at 100% and at 50% output as measured with the PAR meter. Lamps were allowed to stabilize at any setting for 30 minutes before measurements were made. Lamp manufacturers advise against dimming for fear of poor stability and intolerable changes of the spectrum. However, none of the lamps showed a decrease in stability, no flicker or wandering of the discharge, and the changes of the spectrum were not negligible, but certainly not dramatic. Lamps of either manufacture retain their white color, relative peak heights of spectral lines did shift, but no gaps in the spectrum occurred. Spectra taken at 50% with 30 minutes intervals coincided. Differences between the new and the older Philips lamp were noticeable, but not really significant.

  3. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  4. Illuminating the Mathematics of Lamp Shades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Michael E.; Gross, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The problem of creating lamp shades to specific design parameters allows rich and interesting explorations in the mathematics of circles and triangles. This interactive project helps students build their spatial reasoning and is especially appropriate during a unit on either the Pythagorean theorem or similar triangles. (Contains 7 figures and 1…

  5. Flight vehicle thermal testing with infrared lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The verification and certification of new structural material concepts for advanced high speed flight vehicles relies greatly on thermal testing with infrared quartz lamps. The basic quartz heater system characteristics and design considerations are presented. Specific applications are illustrated with tests that were conducted for the X-15, the Space Shuttle, and YF-12 flight programs.

  6. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that is designed, intended, or promoted for illumination purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that is designed, intended, or promoted for illumination purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. 1040...-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that is designed, intended, or promoted for illumination purposes...

  9. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  10. The orthoptic slit lamp.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Recently we presented our concept of "videography with the slit lamp," which provides an imaging solution for nearly every pathological finding in ophthalmology. This paper deals with the changes that must be made to prepare the slit lamp for documenting squint. To achieve this goal we propose: 1. Changes in the observation system: minus lenses in front of the objective of the slit lamp to achieve a sharp image of both eyes (eg, -8 diopters [dpt] if the patient sits at a distance of 50 cm). 2. Changes in the illumination system: minimizing the narrowed angle between illumination and observation axis by holding a "recentration" prism of 14 dpt horizontally in front of the slit light. This procedure creates equally sufficient illumination of the patient's face and central corneal reflexes. 3. Recording clinical findings with a digital recorder. This enables us to identify binocular eye positions, which sometimes last only part of a second, eg, in latent or intermittent strabism. 4. Visualizing clinical findings by using Microsoft PowerPoint® to build up 9-gaze composites or adjust corneal reflexes on subsequent foils. Changes in binocular eye positions (eg, after surgery, but also during diagnostic covering) can be made visible by flickering between the foils to compare. PMID:24090104

  11. New slim automotive taillight using HiPerVision lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haenen, Ludo; Ansems, Johan; Schuurmans, Jelle; de Montureux, Philippe

    2002-08-01

    HiPerVision is a new automotive signaling range of lamps (clear and colored) developed by Philips. These lamps offer car life service, reduced size and - consequently - new design opportunities. HiPerVision aims at progressively replacing P21W lamps and at being an economic alternative to LEDs. All lamp dimensions are significantly smaller than P21W's. The HiPerVision 16W lamp produces less heat than the P21W lamp (9 W less dissipation at 13.5 V), what enables a reduced reflector size, the use of low cost plastic or a combination of both. With a luminous flux of 300 lm (instead of 460 lm for P21W), the legal requirements can be easily fulfilled because of the smaller dimensions and tolerances. In order to illustrate the lamps benefits, a complete automotive taillight with 4 functions was designed and made. This paper describes the reflector design process for that taillight with HiPerVision. According to a current styling trend, the reflectors are based on Pillow Shaped Facets and on a clear front lens with no optical structure. With this design method, the whole reflector area is filled with sparkling light. The basic shape of the reflector was used to optimize heat management. By changing the shape and/or number of the pillows the desired light distribution was made. The HiPerVision lamp was measured with a Luminance Goniometer. The measurements were converted to ASAP ray sets as input for accurate simulations. The legal requirements were easily met which was confirmed by actual measurements. The total depth of the complete designed taillight was 53 mm, which is small compared to existing P21W based designs. If the lamp is placed transversal the requirements are still met and the depth of the complete taillight could be reduced to 33 mm, which is comparable with a taillight based on LEDs.

  12. A system for slit-lamp polaroid photography.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Taube, J; Miller, R; Gleason, W; Babyn, P; Moon, J; Weiss, J N

    1981-05-01

    A system is described in which a SX-70, Alpha Model II, Polaroid, single lens reflex camera, and photoflash unit can be quickly and sturdily mounted to a slit lamp. Such a system can take sharp anterior segment prints of the eye at all slit-lamp magnifications, with white light and in the flourescein mode. The heart of the unit is the modification of an assembly initially designed to attach the camera to a light microscope. The small flash unit and power supply were designed specifically for slit lamp usage. Examples of "instant" photos of the anterior segment at different magnifications are presented. PMID:7266974

  13. Physics of Incandescent Lamp Burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Paul; King, John

    2008-01-01

    Incandescent lamps with tungsten filaments have been in use for about a century while being gradually replaced by fluorescent lamps; in another generation both will quite probably be largely replaced by light-emitting diodes. Incandescent lamps (simply called lamps in what follows) burn out after a lifetime that depends mostly on the temperature of the filament and hence the applied voltage. A full-term project (about 100 hours) on lamp burnout was carried out by two students in 1965 and has been briefly described. Many aspects of the physics of lamps have been dealt with in articles that have appeared in this journal, in the American Journal of Physics, and in Physics Education.2,3

  14. LAMP Joining between Ceramic and Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Nishimoto, Kouji; Katayama, Seiji

    Joining of dissimilar materials is necessary and important from a manufacturing viewpoint. Therefore, the authors have developed a new laser direct joining method between a metal and a plastic which is named Laser Assisted Metal and Plastic (LAMP) joining method. In this research, LAMP joining was applied to join silicon nitride Si3N4 ceramic and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) engineering plastic, although metal was replaced by ceramic. The tensile shear strength of obtained joints was 3100 N at the maximum, which was strong enough to elongate a PET base plate of 2 mm in thickness and 30 mm in width. Moreover, transmission electron microscopes (TEM) observation demonstrates that the ceramic and the plastic are tightly bonded on atomic or molecular sized level.

  15. Design, fabrication and characterization of tunable external cavity diode laser and atom trapping chips for atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao

    External cavity diode laser systems (ECDLs) have been well documented for their suitability in the fields of laser cooling and atom trapping, and are now widely used in optical and atomic physics. A particularly simple implementation of this idea uses feedback from a diffraction grating mounted in the Littrow configuration and the typical size of this laser is quite large (120mmx90mmx90mm). For atom optics, the current atom trapping chips are not in a feedthrough configuration, which makes the chips to glass cell assembly process complicated and the wires and solder areas vulnerable, resulting in an unreliable vacuum seal. Recent experimental realizations of atom optical devices such as atomic waveguides, beam splitters, and on-chip Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) sources have opened a new field for the development of more complex devices such as, e.g., BEC-based atom transistor. This work focuses on micro/nano fabrication techniques to build three different devices for the miniature BEC system. The research work focuses on the development of new ECDLs, a novel fabrication process of feedthrough atom trapping chips for atomic optics and a fabrication process for atom transistor chips. In the ECDLs part, we describe a new method for constructing a smaller external-cavity diode laser by use of a micromachined silicon flexure and a VHG (Volume Holographic Grating). It is much smaller, inexpensive and easy to build because it is based on simple modifications of a few commercial optical and mechanical components but with a specific silicon flexure design enabled by micro-fabrication technology for the laser frequency tuning. In the feedthrough chips part, we present a novel fabrication process for feedthrough atom trapping chips in atomic condensate optics cells using the copper electroplating to seal the vias. The advantages of using feedthrough atom trapping chips are the simple microfabrication process and reduction of the overall chip area bonded on the glass atom

  16. Coatings for Energy Efficient Lamps with Cylindrical Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rancourt, James; Martin, Robert

    1986-09-01

    During the past several years, a high level of activity has been directed toward developing more efficient lighting products to meet consumer demand in the face of energy scarcity and its high cost. Without major redesign of lamps, manufacturers have been able to achieve modest gains of 5 to 10 percent in incandescent lamp efficacy by optimizing standard features such as filament design, gas fill, etc. What was desired for incandescent lamps was a major jump in efficacy of 30% or more. Much encouraging work, notably by Philips in the Netherlands, has already been accomplished in the laboratory using thin film reflectors to recycle the wasted infrared radiation from incandescent lamps. Indium tin oxide (ITO) films, which are transparent in the visible and reflect well at wavelengths greater than 2 micrometers, is a most attractive material for its simplicity and apparent high performance. It °has a serious drawback, however, in its inability to reflect adequately when its temperature exceeds 800 C. A separate outer jacket surrounding the lamp itself is required in order to keep the ITO coating cool and thereby take advantage of its properties. The use of this extra component makes this solution to the energy problem more expensive and complex. In the United States, the Duratest Corporation has developed a sophisticated silver coating which is deposited inside domestic type A-line lamps. About six years ago, the General Electric Co., a major U.S. lamp manufacturer, approached 0.C.L.I. and requested assistance in improving the quartz-halogen lamp. The G.E.-0.C.L.I. method that was developed for improving the efficacy of an incandescent lamp product consists of coating quartz-halogen lamps with infrared reflectors. These reflectors are interference reflector stacks made of refractory metal oxides using conventional thermal evaporation technology. These products have been available commercially for about three years.

  17. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  18. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lamps; school bus warning lamps; amber warning lamps or flashing warning lamps on tow trucks and... are not required to be steady burning while the turn signal is in use. Amber warning lamps must meet.... Amber flashing warning lamps must meet SAE J595—Directional Flashing Optical Warning Devices...

  19. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lamps; school bus warning lamps; amber warning lamps or flashing warning lamps on tow trucks and... are not required to be steady burning while the turn signal is in use. Amber warning lamps must meet.... Amber flashing warning lamps must meet SAE J595—Directional Flashing Optical Warning Devices...

  20. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  1. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2005-10-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here two-dimensional atomic dysprosium density profiles are measured by means of laser absorption spectroscopy; the order of magnitude of the density is 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}. The radially resolved atomic density measurements show a hollow density profile. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate, while the center is depleted of dysprosium atoms due to ionization. From the axial profiles the segregation parameter is determined. It is shown that the lamp operates on the right-hand side of the Fischer curve [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2954 (1976)], i.e., a larger convection leads to less segregation.

  2. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-11-02

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  3. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  4. LAMP Whys? LAMP Wise! A Practical Guide to the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; McDonald, Deanne; Johnson, Amy Bell

    This document profiles the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP), which is a model school-to-career initiative featuring an innovative integrated, employer-driven curriculum that was designed, developed, and implemented through the joint efforts of the Ingham Intermediate School District in Lansing, Michigan, the United Auto Workers (UAW),…

  5. Spin sensing and magnetic design at the single atom level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajetoorians, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Unraveling many of the current dilemmas in nanoscience hinges on the advancement of techniques which can probe the spin degrees of freedom with high spatial, energy, and ultimately high temporal resolution. With the development of sub-Kelvin high-magnetic field STM, two complementary methods, namely spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy (SP-STS) and inelastic STS (ISTS), can address single spins at the atomic scale with unprecedented precession. While SP-STS reads out the projection of the impurity magnetization, ISTS detects the excitations of this magnetization as a function of an external magnetic field. They are thus the analogs of magnetometry and spin resonance measurements pushed to the single atom limit. I have recently demonstrated that it is possible to reliably combine single atom magnetometry with an atom-by-atom bottom-up fabrication to realize complex atomic-scale magnets with tailored properties on metallic surfaces. I will discuss the current state of the art of this growing field as it pertains to single spin information storage, and how the functionality of coupled magnetic adatoms can be tailored on surfaces. Finally, I will present an outlook on future perspectives in the field of single atom magnetism and the promising application of single spin detection to broader scopes in nanoscience as a whole.

  6. Note: Design principles of a linear array multi-channel effusive metal-vapor atom source

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, B.; Majumder, A.; Thakur, K. B.; Das, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Atomic beams can easily be produced by allowing atoms to effuse through a channel. In an earlier investigation [A. Majumder et al., Vacuum 83, 989 (2009)], we had designed, fabricated, and characterized an effusive metal-vapor source using collinear-array of multi-channel. In this note, we describe the theoretical basis of designing the source. Atom density in atomic beam has been estimated using a set of analytical expressions for long-channel operated in transparent mode. Parametric studies on aspect ratio of channel, inter-channel separation, beam width, and vertical distance from the source are carried out. They are useful in providing physical picture and optimizing design parameters.

  7. Evaluation of GOES encoder lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Helmold, N.

    1983-01-01

    Aging characteristics and life expectancies of flight quality, tungsten filament, encoder lamps are similar to those of 'commercial' grade gas filled lamps of similar construction, filament material and filament temperature. The aging and final failure by filament burnout are caused by single crystal growth over large portions of the filament with the concomitant development of facets and notches resulting in reduction of cross section and mechanical weakening of the filament. The life expectancy of presently produced lamps is about one year at their nominal operating voltage of five volts dc. At 4.5 volts, it is about two years. These life times are considerably shorter, and the degradation rates of lamp current and light flux are considerably higher, than were observed in the laboratory and in orbit on lamps of the same type manufactured more than a decade ago. It is speculated that the filaments of these earlier lamps contained a crystallization retarding dopant, possibly thorium oxide. To obtain the desired life expectancy of or = to four years in present lamps, operating voltages of or = to four volts dc would be required.

  8. Spectroscopic imaging of metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvallet, Geoffrey A.

    The body of this work consists of three main research projects. An optical- and near-ultraviolet-wavelength absorption study sought to determine absolute densities of ground and excited level Sc atoms, ground level Sc + ions, and ground level Na atoms in a commercial 250 W metal halide high intensity discharge lamp during operation. These measurements also allowed the determination of the arc temperature and absolute electron density as functions of radius. Through infrared emission spectroscopy, relative densities of sodium and scandium were determined as functions of radius. Using the absolute densities gained from the optical experiment, these relative densities were calibrated. In addition, direct observation of the infrared emission allowed us to characterize the infrared power losses of the lamp. When considered as a fraction of the overall power consumption, the near-infrared spectral power losses were not substantial enough to warrant thorough investigation of their reduction in these lamps. The third project was an attempt to develop a portable x-ray diagnostic experiment. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the lamps were analyzed to determine absolute elemental mercury densities and the arc temperature as a function of radius. Two methods were used to improve the calibration of the density measurements and to correct for the spread in x-ray energy: known solutions of mercury in nitric acid, and an arc lamp which was uniformly heated to evaporate the mercury content. Although many complexities arose in this experiment, its goal was successfully completed.

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: UHP lamp systems for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derra, Guenther; Moench, Holger; Fischer, Ernst; Giese, Hermann; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Heusler, Gero; Koerber, Achim; Niemann, Ulrich; Noertemann, Folke-Charlotte; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Ritz, Arnd; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2005-09-01

    Projection systems have found widespread use in conference rooms and other professional applications during the last decade and are now entering the home TV market at a considerable pace. Projectors as small as about one litre are able to deliver several thousand screen lumens and are, with a system efficacy of over 10 lm W-1, the most efficient display systems realized today. Short arc lamps are a key component for projection systems of the highest efficiency for small-size projection displays. The introduction of the ultra high performance (UHP) lamp system by Philips in 1995 can be identified as one of the key enablers of the commercial success of projection systems. The UHP lamp concept features outstanding arc luminance, a well suited spectrum, long life and excellent lumen maintenance. For the first time it combines a very high pressure mercury discharge lamp with extremely short and stable arc gap with a regenerative chemical cycle keeping the discharge walls free from blackening, leading to lifetimes of over 10 000 h. Since the introduction of the UHP lamp system, many important new technology improvements have been realized: burner designs for higher lamp power, advanced ignition systems, miniaturized electronic drivers and innovative reflector concepts. These achievements enabled the impressive increase of projector light output, a remarkable reduction in projector size and even higher optical efficiency in projection systems during the last years. In this paper the concept of the UHP lamp system is described, followed by a discussion of the technological evolution the UHP lamp has undergone so far. Last, but not least, the important improvements of the UHP lamp system including the electronic driver and the reflector are discussed.

  10. Pulse modulated high-pressure caesium discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H.; Muzeroll, M. E.; Chamberlain, J. C.; Maya, J.

    2001-02-01

    The high-pressure caesium discharge has a favourable spectral distribution consisting of a smooth recombination continuum in the visible range. When operated on a continuous power source, the spectrum in the visible region is close to blackbody radiation; however, the lamp efficacy is restrained by the self-reversed resonance lines occurring at 825 nm and 894 nm. Pulse modulation significantly increases the core plasma temperature, suppresses the near-infrared segment of the spectrum, strongly enhances the continuous radiation in the visible region, and successfully avoids overloading (<40 W cm-2) the arc tubes. The spectrum in the visible appears to have the same shape as blackbody radiation when the lamp is operated on a multiple pulse modulated power source. The arc tube geometry, caesium/mercury compositions, and power supply waveforms were optimized for photometric performance through a series of comparison tests. The lamp efficacy increased with narrower diameter arc tubes, higher lamp currents, as well as higher current crest factors (ratio of current pulse peak to RMS current). The highest efficacy achieved for the lamp operated on the pulse modulated power supply was 46 lpw. The lamp exhibits excellent dimming characteristics and has a colour rendering index (CRI) very close to a thermal source such as a tungsten halogen lamp. This study provides a framework for the design of a new lamp/ballast system which features excellent dimming characteristics, a near-perfect CRI, an efficacy above 40 lpw, and long life. The application for this light source could be a replacement for a high-end tungsten halogen or a white high-pressure sodium lamp.

  11. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  12. Design of Transversal Phase Space Meter for Atomic Hydrogen Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    For optimization of polarized atomic beam sources apparatus it is important to have detailed information about characteristics of sources of hydrogen atoms, especially, taking into account present intensity limitations of polarized atomic beam sources. Usually, longitudinal velocity distribution of hydrogen atoms produced by RF dissociator is measured while transversal phase space of unpolarized atomic hydrogen beams was not measured up to now. In this work we report and discuss a design of transversal phase space meter for pulsed atomic hydrogen beam source. The meter design is based on “two slits” method which is well known from ion beam technique. Specific feature of the meter are movable sensitive detector of hydrogen atoms and molecules.

  13. Multi-lamp laser pumping cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppenheimer, J.D. Jr.

    1987-07-21

    An optically pumped laser comprises: A. a cylindrical laser rod having a longitudinal central rod axis; B. cylindrical lamps for optically pumping the laser rod. The lamps have longitudinal central lamp axes parallel to the rod axis. The lamps being so located with respect to each other and to the laser rod as to define in cross section a base line associated with each lamp and extending between the rod axis and the lamp axis of the associated lamp. The base lines being equal in length and equiangularly spaced; and C. a reflector wall consisting essentially of first and second wall sections associated with each lamp, the cross sections of the first and second wall sections associated with a given lamp essentially following first and second curves extending from a lamp cusp associated with the given lamp to second and first rod cusps, respectively, associated with the given lamp. The first and second curves consist of the loci of points to which the sums of the distances, exterior to the laser rod and the given lamp, from first and second rod starting points, respectively, associated with the given lamp and from first and second lamp starting points, respectively, on the given lamp equal a fixed quantity.

  14. Imaging of spin waves in atomically designed nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Anna; Bryant, Benjamin; Delgado, Fernando; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín; Otte, Alexander F.

    2015-03-01

    Exploring the transition from individual quantum spins to classical magnetism is crucial for the development of nanoscale magnetic memory storage solutions. Our aim is to search for signs of collective spin behavior in magnetic lattices built on a surface. Using the tip of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we position Fe atoms on a Cu2N/Cu(100) network with atomic precision, to build ferromagnetically coupled spin chains up to 6 atoms that exhibit bistable behavior. Using a combination of inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy and spin polarized STM, we are able to probe the spin dynamics during the magnetization reversal of the whole chain, after a local excitation. Our experiments allow us to observe the nodal structure of the standing spin waves confined inside the chain, and, through combination with theoretical calculations, we can understand their role in making the system switch from one metastable magnetic state to the other.

  15. LAMP Observes the LCROSS Plume

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows LAMP’s view of the LCROSS plume. The first half of the animation shows the LAMP viewport scanning across the horizon, passing through the plume, and moving on. The second half of...

  16. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for lamps other than head lamps. 393.25 Section 393.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Wiring § 393.25 Requirements for lamps other than head lamps. (a) Mounting. All lamps shall be...

  17. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for lamps other than head lamps. 393.25 Section 393.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Wiring § 393.25 Requirements for lamps other than head lamps. (a) Mounting. All lamps shall be...

  18. Advanced Research on the Electrode Area of a Low Pressure Hg-Ar Discharge Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianou

    The phenomenon of electrical discharge in low pressure Hg-Ar vapor has been under continuous investigation since it was first discovered. Because much work has been done in the positive column, it is, therefore, that the electrode area of the lamp is the main focus of this thesis. To simulate the interface phenomena on a electrode surface, samples, with optically smooth tungsten-barium interfaces were fired in a high vacuum furnace at different temperatures. Measurements were made using surface characterization techniques. It is found that no Ba_3WO _6 is formed on the surface as previously reported in the powder mixing experiments, and the interface consists mainly of BaWO_4. It was discovered in the early 1950's that vaporization of the barium from the cathode in a fluorescent lamp could be reduced tremendously with the addition of 5% of ZrO _2 to the coating mix. However, the reason for this is poorly understood. A possible explanation has been found, and number of tests have been completed to simulate the formation of BaZO_3 under different lamp operating conditions. The measurements and simulation of barium atom and ion number densities are presented. Barium emitted from the electrode surface has a strong interaction with the local plasma. The number density distributions depend mainly on the discharge conditions. A Monte Carlo computer simulation for the barium ion number density is described and the results from the simulation compared to the experimental results obtained by absorption method. It is clear that the ion distribution and phosphor contamination in the electrode area are two closely related issues. XPS is used to measure the chemical composition on the phosphor surface of the lamp. A discussion of calibration methods and the possible compounds forming on the phosphors is then presented. A number of questions have been raised concerning the safety of the lamp and its affects on health related to radiation generated in the electrode area. Typically

  19. Torchiere-style halogen floor lamps: a need for fire safety awareness.

    PubMed

    Bridges, P E; Palmieri, T; Greenhalgh, D G

    2000-01-01

    Torchiere-style halogen lamps pose a significant fire hazard. The 500-W halogen bulb in these lamps can generate temperatures as high as 1200 degrees F. Factors related to the design of the lamp also contribute to the fire risk. The Consumer Products Safety Commission has issued various warnings and recalls on these lamps because of a significant number of fire-related incidents and deaths. The impact of these recalls on a random sample of consumers was investigated. A survey of these participants revealed that 60% of lamp owners and nonowners were unaware of the recalls. The majority of respondents were also not aware of the risks of injury, the extreme bulb temperatures, or safety measures designed for these lamps. There is a need for increasing community awareness and education to reduce the fire hazards associated with this product. PMID:11020053

  20. Energy-efficient incandescent lamp. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The status of the Energy Efficient Light Bulb (EELB) development at the beginning of the subcontract was characterized by a newly introduced lamp construction based on an optimum optical quality envelope consisting of two hemispheres or hemi-ellipsoids bonded together. Considerable progress was made concerning the output of the continuous process heat mirror coating machine, the reproducibility of the film characteristics, and the durability of the coating over long periods of lamp operation. The bonding assembly processes were improved to the point where they are suitable for full mechanization and high speed production. A new concept for dimensioning the required compact and mechanically stable filaments was introduced by using diodes in series that reduce the effective operating voltage to 83 volts. This has led to filament designs of greater stability and greater compactness than any obtained before. The efficacy and energy saving data of the prototype lamps delivered at the end of the subcontract were close to the target values established at the beginning.

  1. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  2. Designing Frustrated Quantum Magnets with Laser-Dressed Rydberg Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaetzle, Alexander W.; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1 /2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1 /2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments.

  3. Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments. PMID:25978228

  4. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  5. A 400 kilowatt argon arc lamp for solar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.; Pollack, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A 400 kilowatt argon arc lamp for a solar simulator has been designed, operated, and evaluated. The lamp is designed to produce one solar constant on a test area 4.6 by 9.2 meters when used with a collimator. The divergence angle of the beam is about 1 deg. The lamp is designed to operate completely within a vacuum environment. Over 80 kilowatt of directed radiation was monitored and measured for a 25-hour period during a recent test. In another test, an arc was operated at 400 kilowatt for 110 hours without removal or refurbishing of the electrodes. These tests have proven the cleanliness and integrity of the radiation source.

  6. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Collier, M. R.; Chornay, D.; Roz, P.; Getty, S.; Cooper, J. F.; Smith, B.

    2007-12-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite, will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI- ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets, also including time variability of ENA fluxes and charge-exchange interactions in the upper atmosphere from the terrestrial ring current source.

  7. Guidelines for application of fluorescent lamps in high-performance avionic backlight systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syroid, Daniel D.

    1997-07-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be well suited for use in high performance avionic backlight systems as demonstrated by numerous production applications for both commercial and military cockpit displays. Cockpit display applications include: Boeing 777, new 737s, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-22, C- 130, Navy P3, NASA Space Shuttle and many others. Fluorescent lamp based backlights provide high luminance, high lumen efficiency, precision chromaticity and long life for avionic active matrix liquid crystal display applications. Lamps have been produced in many sizes and shapes. Lamp diameters range from 2.6 mm to over 20 mm and lengths for the larger diameter lamps range to over one meter. Highly convoluted serpentine lamp configurations are common as are both hot and cold cathode electrode designs. This paper will review fluorescent lamp operating principles, discuss typical requirements for avionic grade lamps, compare avionic and laptop backlight designs and provide guidelines for the proper application of lamps and performance choices that must be made to attain optimum system performance considering high luminance output, system efficiency, dimming range and cost.

  8. LAMP: Peering Into the Lunar Dark

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an instrument on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission to map and study the moon. LAMP is a spectrograph that images the ultraviolet region of the...

  9. Thermal analysis of a linear infrared lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of an infrared lamp is presented based on radiant heat transfer theory. The analysis is performed on a specific type of linear lamp which has a coiled tungsten filament surrounded by a fused quartz envelope. The purpose of the study was to model the lamp thermally, not electrically, to arrive at a better understanding of the operation of the lamp.

  10. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  11. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  12. Vibration-Resistant Support for Halide Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J.

    1987-01-01

    Lamp envelope protected against breakage. Old and new mounts for halide arc lamp sealed in housing with parabolic refector and quartz window. New version supports lamp with compliant garters instead of rigid brazed joint at top and dimensionally unstable finger stock at bottom.

  13. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  18. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  19. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  20. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  1. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  2. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  3. Optimal experimental design for nano-particle atom-counting from high-resolution STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; De Wael, A; Gonnissen, J; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for atom-counting from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. Binary and multiple hypothesis testing have been investigated in order to determine the limits to the precision with which the number of atoms in a projected atomic column can be estimated. The probability of error has been calculated when using STEM images, scattering cross-sections or peak intensities as a criterion to count atoms. Based on this analysis, we conclude that scattering cross-sections perform almost equally well as images and perform better than peak intensities. Furthermore, the optimal STEM detector design can be derived for atom-counting using the expression for the probability of error. We show that for very thin objects LAADF is optimal and that for thicker objects the optimal inner detector angle increases. PMID:25499018

  4. Detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2010-06-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. Because equine rotavirus of the single P genotype, P[12], is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an RT-LAMP primer set was designed to target the genotype P[12] sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 10(3) copies of viral RNA, whereas that of semi-nested RT-PCR for genotype P[12] was 10(5) copies. The RT-LAMP assay specifically amplified genotype P[12] but did not amplify the other P genotype strains. The RT-LAMP assay did not amplify any pathogens related to equine intestinal disorder other than rotavirus. Using 96 diarrheal stools, the RT-LAMP assay detected equine rotavirus in 58 samples, whereas semi-nested RT-PCR only detected equine rotavirus in 25 samples. The RT-LAMP assay did not detect equine rotavirus with fecal samples collected from nine healthy foals. These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is specific for equine rotavirus and more sensitive than semi-nested RT-PCR. Because it is easy to manipulate without the need for a thermal cycler or gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay should be applicable to diagnosis of equine rotavirus infections in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:20160420

  5. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor. PMID:27191576

  6. Comparison Between X-rays Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Measurements on a Ceramic Envelop Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafitte, Bruno; Aubes, Michel; Zissis, Georges

    2007-12-01

    Burners of metal halide lamps used for illumination are generally made of polycrystalline alumina ceramic (PCA) which is translucent to visible light. We show that the difficulty of selecting a line of sight through the lamp prevents the use of optical emission diagnostic. X-rays photons are mainly absorbed and not scattered by PCA. Absorption by mercury atoms contributing to the discharge allowed us to determine the density of mercury in the lamp. By comparing diagnostic methods, we put in evidence the difficulty of taking into account the scattering of light mathematically.

  7. Design and fabrication of diffractive atom chips for laser cooling and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, J. P.; McGilligan, J. P.; Griffin, P. F.; Rabey, I. M.; Docherty, K.; Riis, E.; Arnold, A. S.; Hinds, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that optical reflection gratings fabricated directly into an atom chip provide a simple and effective way to trap and cool substantial clouds of atoms (Nshii et al. in Nat Nanotechnol 8:321-324, 2013; McGilligan et al. in Opt Express 23(7):8948-8959, 2015). In this article, we describe how the gratings are designed and microfabricated and we characterise their optical properties, which determine their effectiveness as a cold atom source. We use simple scalar diffraction theory to understand how the morphology of the gratings determines the power in the diffracted beams.

  8. Invited review article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales.

    PubMed

    Levine, Judah; Ibarra-Manzano, O

    2012-02-01

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed. PMID:22380071

  9. Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Judah

    2012-02-15

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  10. Alpha LAMP Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshiro, Richard; Sowers, Dennis; Gargiulo, Joe; Mcgahey, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the activity recently completed to meet the simulated space environment requirements for the ground-based testing of an integrated Space Based Laser (SBL) system experiment. The need to maintain optical alignment in the challenging dynamic environment of the pressure recovery system required to simulate space dominated the design requirements. A robust system design was established which minimized the total program costs, most notably by reducing the cost of integrating the components of the experiment. The components of the experiment are integrated on an optical bench in a clean area adjacent to the vacuum chamber and moved on air bearings into the chamber for testing.

  11. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively. ... § 393.11(a). The headlamps shall provide an upper and lower beam distribution of light, selectable at... of the required headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps shall meet SAE Standard J581 Auxiliary Upper...

  12. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively. ... § 393.11(a). The headlamps shall provide an upper and lower beam distribution of light, selectable at... of the required headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps shall meet SAE Standard J581 Auxiliary Upper...

  13. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively. ... § 393.11(a). The headlamps shall provide an upper and lower beam distribution of light, selectable at... of the required headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps shall meet SAE Standard J581 Auxiliary Upper...

  14. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively. ... § 393.11(a). The headlamps shall provide an upper and lower beam distribution of light, selectable at... of the required headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps shall meet SAE Standard J581 Auxiliary Upper...

  15. Direct-current converter for gas-discharge lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutus, P.

    1980-01-01

    Metal/halide and similar gas-discharge lamps are powered from low-voltage dc source using small efficient converter. Converter is useful whenever 60-cycle ac power is not available or where space and weight allocations are limited. Possible applications are offshore platforms, mobile homes, and emergency lighting. Design innovations give supply high reliability and efficiency up to 75 percent.

  16. Evaluating fluorescent lamp options under EPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Palko, E.

    1994-02-01

    The National Energy Policy Act (EPACT) sweeps the full spectrum of energy use in all forms, prescribing minimum efficiency standards for energy-consuming products. Notable among the products covered under EPACT are general-purpose fluorescent lamps commonly used to illuminate manufacturing, storage, laboratory, and office areas of industrial plants. Some specialty fluorescent lamp categories are exempt from the provisions of EPACT. Included in this specialty group are plant-growth, reflectorized or aperture, colored, reprographic, cold-temperature, and impact-resistant lamps. EPACT decrees moratorium dates on the manufacture of many types of lamps in common use in plants today. Lamps proscribed by EPACT, and their effective manufacturing cutoff dates, are given in the accompanying section, Fluorescent Lamps Outlawed Under EPACT. Noncomplying lamps, however, are permitted to remain in service, and can continue to be sold until stock is depleted. This paper explains the provisions of the Act.

  17. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Geun; Jang, Hong-Lae; Cho, Seonho

    2013-05-01

    An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity.

  18. Design of laser system for absolute gravimeter based on 87Rb atom interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Shaokai; Zhuang, Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Tianchu

    2015-08-01

    We present a laser system design for an absolute gravimeter based on 87Rb atom interferometer. By skillful design, lasers with 9 different frequencies are based on two diode lasers including tapered amplifier. Two electrical feedback systems are used for laser frequency stabilization and the Raman lasers generation respectively. All other lasers are based on two Raman lasers and realized with frequency shift by acoustic optical modulators. This laser system not only has the compact and simple construction, but meets all requirements for laser power and frequency controlling for the atom interferometer. It has the characteristic of reliability and integrity.

  19. Interaction between Atoms and Slow Light: A Study in Waveguide Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaorun; Yang, Jianji; Faggiani, Rémi; Gill, Christopher; Petrov, Plamen G.; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Vynck, Kevin; Bernon, Simon; Bouyer, Philippe; Boyer, Vincent; Lalanne, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The emerging field of on-chip integration of nanophotonic devices and cold atoms offers extremely strong and pure light-matter interaction schemes, which may have a profound impact on quantum information science. In this context, a long-standing obstacle is to achieve a strong interaction between single atoms and single photons and at the same time trap atoms in a vacuum at large separation distances from dielectric surfaces. In this work, we study waveguide geometries that challenge these conflicting objectives. The designed photonic-crystal waveguide is expected to offer a good compromise, which additionally allows for easy manipulation of atomic clouds around the structure, while being tolerant to fabrication imperfections.

  20. Flash lamp light slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, A. J.; Abdel-Wahab, T.; Georgallis, M.

    A light slicing system using a short-arc-length high-power flashlamp as the source is discussed, with application to the observation of fluid phenomena such as gas discharge and fuel injection into engines. The geometrical optics of the method, in addition to the attenuation of luminous intensity in the system, is considered, and varying the relative radius of curvature of the cylindrical lens with respect to the width of the laser beam is shown to change the extension of the light sheet lamina. Light slice system generation using CAD is discussed, and experimental results of the observation of pulsed gas discharges in a small scale valve system designed to simulate large-scale dispersion and mixing of gases in air are reported.

  1. Designing and building a permanent magnet Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using a 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsagian, Alexandria; Kleinert, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    We present the design of a Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using permanent magnets instead of more traditional electromagnets and the novel technique of 3D printing to create a very robust and flexible structure for these magnets. Zeeman slowers are ideal tools to slow atoms from several hundreds of meters per second to just a few tens of meters per second. These slower atoms can then easily be trapped in a magneto-optical trap, making Zeeman slowers a very valuable tool in many cold atom labs. The use of permanent magnets and 3D printing results in a highly stable and robust slower that is suitable for undergraduate laboratories. In our design, we arranged 28 magnet pairs, 2.0 cm apart along the axis of the slower and at varying radial distances from the axis. We determined the radial position of the magnets by simulating the combined field of all magnet pairs using Mathematica and comparing it to the ideal theoretical field for a Zeeman slower. Finally, we designed a stable, robust, compact, and easy-to-align mounting structure for the magnets in Google Sketchup, which we then printed using a commercially available 3D printer by Solidoodle. The resulting magnetic field is well suited to slow calcium atoms from the 770 m/s rms velocity at a temperature of 950 K, down to the capture velocity of the magneto-optical trap.

  2. Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.

  3. New generation of medium wattage metal halide lamps and spectroscopic tools for their diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Tu, J.; Gibson, R.; Steere, T.; Graham, K.; van der Eyden, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new generation of ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps has achieved high efficiencies by implementing new design concepts. The shape of the ceramic burner is optimized to withstand high temperatures with minimal thermal stress. Corrosion processes with the ceramic walls are slowed down via adoption of non-aggressive metal halide chemistry. Light losses over life due to tungsten deposition on the walls are minimized by maintaining a self-cleaning chemical process, known as tungsten cycle. All these advancements have made the new ceramic metal halide lamps comparable to high pressure sodium lamps for luminous efficacy, life, and maintenance while providing white light with high color rendering. Direct replacement of quartz metal halide lamps and systems results in the energy saving from 18 up to 50%. High resolution spectroscopy remains the major non-destructive tool for the ceramic metal halide lamps. Approaches to reliable measurements of relative partial pressures of the arc species are discussed.

  4. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of common genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu

    2015-03-01

    Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs. PMID:25582179

  5. Design of a single-stage single-switch PFC circuit with a small output current ripple for an LED lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Han, Gyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jun

    2014-07-01

    A new single-stage power factor correction (PFC) circuit for driving a light-emitting diode (LED) is proposed in this paper. This circuit makes it possible to have a low output ripple due to the energy storage capacitor on the primary side. The proposed circuit is compatible with a primaryside regulation (PSR) chip. The operating principle of the proposed circuit is analyzed, design guidelines for the proposed circuit are presented, and prototype of the proposed circuit was built. The results of the experiment showed that this proposed circuit could achieve a significant reduction in the LED current ripple and could maintain a reasonable efficiency and power factor.

  6. Giant Atomic and Molecular Models and Other Lecture Demonstration Devices Designed for Concrete Operational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)

  7. Generation of ion-acoustic waves in an inductively coupled, low-pressure discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J. C.; Klimcak, C. M.

    2006-04-15

    For a number of years it has been known that the alkali rf-discharge lamps used in atomic clocks can exhibit large amplitude intensity oscillations. These oscillations arise from ion-acoustic plasma waves and have typically been associated with erratic clock behavior. Though large amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves are clearly deleterious for atomic clock operation, it does not follow that small amplitude oscillations have no utility. Here, we demonstrate two easily implemented methods for generating small amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves in alkali rf-discharge lamps. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of these waves is proportional to the square root of the rf power driving the lamp and therefore that their examination can provide an easily accessible parameter for monitoring and controlling the lamp's plasma conditions. This has important consequences for precise timekeeping, since the atomic ground-state hyperfine transition, which is the heart of the atomic clock signal, can be significantly perturbed by changes in the lamp's output via the ac-Stark shift.

  8. A study on the ignition characteristics of inductively coupled electrode-less lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuki, Tadao; Fujita, Masao; Saimi, Motohiro; Kakehashi, Hidenori

    2009-10-01

    Almost twenty years have passed since the first electrode-less lamp operated at 13.56MHz was put on the market. Since then, it has come to be expected that the lumen output and the efficiency of these lamp systems would be improved. The present electrode-less lamp system operated at 135kHz has higher efficiency and output than the high pressure mercury lamp system which is very popular in the market. However, the ignition mechanism of the electrode-less lamp has not yet been completely worked out. To grasp the ignition voltage and time is very important for designing this lamp system, because these influence the cost of the system. The authors investigated how to reduce the ignition time. With regard to the ignition for magnetic coupled electrode-less lamp, it was reported that there are theoretically two types of ignition, E-discharge and H-discharge. However, the definition of the ignition actually is regarded as the time when the H-discharge occurs. The authors observed the starting state of the electrode-less lamp and found that the performance of the circuit influenced the transition from E- discharge to H- discharge. The large current is necessary for the smooth transition from E- discharge to H- discharge right after the E- discharge occurs.

  9. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Hong, Sung-Jong; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and other foodborne trematode infections are major health problem in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. We therefore established a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detecting O. viverrini infection from the stool samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. A total of five primers from seven regions were designed to target the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) in ribosomal DNA for specific amplification. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) was more effective to detect the LAMP product compared to the Real-time LAMP and turbidity assay for its simple and distinct detection. The LAMP assay specifically amplified O. viverrini ITS1 but not C. sinensis and minute intestinal flukes with the limit of detection around 10(-3)ng DNA/μL. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 100% compared to egg positive samples. While all microscopically positive samples were positive by LAMP, additionally 5 of 13 (38.5%) microscopically negative samples were also LAMP positive. The technique has great potential for differential diagnosis in endemic areas with mixed O. viverrini and intestinal fluke infections. As it is an easy and simple method, the LAMP is potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:21871581

  10. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  11. Quadrichromatic white solid state lamp with digital feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukauskas, Arturas; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Ivanauskas, Felikas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Krupic, Jevgenij; Rupsys, Andrius; Novickovas, Algirdas; Vitta, Pranciskus; Navickas, Alvydas; Raskauskas, Vytautas; Shur, Michael S.; Gaska, Remis

    2004-01-01

    White light with high color rendering indices can be produced by additive color mixing of emissions from several light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having different primary colors. White Versatile Solid-State Lamps (VSSLs) with variable color temperature, constant-chromaticity dimming, and efficiency/color-rendering trade-off can be developed using pulse-width modulation (PWM) driving technique. However, such lamps exhibit chromaticity shifts caused by different temperature and aging coefficients of the optical output for primary LEDs of different colors. To overcome this drawback, we developed a polychromatic white solid-state lamp with an internal digital feedback. The lamp features a quadrichromatic (red-amber-green-blue) design based on commercially available high-power LEDs. The design is optimized to achieve high values of the general color rendering index (69 to 79 points) in the color-temperature range of 2856 to 6504 K. A computer-controlled driving circuit contains a pulse-width modulator and a photodiode-based meter. The software performs periodical measurement of the radiant flux from primary LEDs of each color and adjusts the widths of the driving pulses. These VSSLs with feedback found application in phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

  12. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    PubMed

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry. PMID:24387477

  13. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  14. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  15. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  16. Design of a laser-assisted tomographic atom probe at Muenster University

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesiger, Ralf; Oberdorfer, Christian; Greiwe, Gerd; Stender, Patrick; Artmeier, Michael; Pelka, Patrick; Spaleck, Frank; Schmitz, Guido; Wuerz, Roland

    2010-04-15

    To benefit from the latest technical improvements in atom probe analysis, a new tomographic atom probe has been built at the University of Muenster, Germany. The instrument utilizes a femtosecond laser system with a high repetition rate combined with the ability of using a micrometer-sized extraction electrode and a wide angle configuration. Since field evaporation is triggered by laser pulses instead of high-voltage pulses, the instrument offers the ability to expand the range of analyzed materials to poorly conducting or insulating materials such as oxides, glasses, ceramics, and polymeric materials. The article describes the design of the instrument and presents characterizing measurements on metals, semiconductors, and oxide ceramic.

  17. The low-pressure sodium lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    For many years before the introduction of the sodium vapor lamp, scientists had been aware of the remarkably high luminous efficacy of the sodium discharge. However, many technical problems had to be overcome before these lamps could be marketed. The first commercial low pressure sodium lamps were introduced in the early 1930s and to this day they remain the most efficient light sources available. The high efficacy is due partly to the fact that these lamps emit nearly monochromatic yellow light, which is very close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Sodium lamps have come a long way since their introduction, and efficacies are now approaching 200 lumens per watt. Despite increasing competition from other types of discharge lamp, low pressure sodium lamps of the SOX type find widespread use in road and security lighting, particularly in Great Britain and many other parts of Europe. This paper reviews the operation and development of the low pressure sodium lamp, and shows what makes it different from the many other types of discharge lamp available.

  18. 30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 2 lamps. 20.9 Section 20.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.9 Class 2 lamps. (a) Safety. (1) Unless special features of the lamp...

  19. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Izrail; Shanks, Bruce; Sumner, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  20. 10 CFR 429.27 - General service fluorescent lamps, general service incandescent lamps, and incandescent reflector...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General service fluorescent lamps, general service incandescent lamps, and incandescent reflector lamps. 429.27 Section 429.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification §...

  1. An Electronic Flash Lamp System to Replace the Traditional, Explosively-Driven Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stigman, W L; Kihara, R; Scarpetti, R D

    2002-09-25

    Electronic flash lamps are being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These lamps are intended to replace the traditional explosively driven Argon-gas filled light sources (Argon candles) that are currently used to provide illumination for high speed rotating mirror-framing cameras. At Livermore, we are developing an electronic flash lamp system that can match or exceed the light output of a traditional Argon candle. These systems utilize a Plasma Arc Lamp developed by PRISM Science Inc of Chatham, MA, USA. In the past, high-speed photography requiring explosively driven light sources were a one-time-only event that destroyed fixtures and optical alignment. The electronic flash lamp system, utilizing the Plasma Arc Lamp, will replace the explosively driven lighting systems and provide the capability to dry run experimental setups and repeat tests without damage to the experimental set-up. The electronic flash lamp system eliminates the problem of collateral damage to the experiment and does not add to the overall amount of explosives needed for a single test. Since the Pulsed-Power driver is remotely located, only the flash lamp itself is destroyed when the explosive shot is fired. The flexible geometry of this light source also enables the user to create complex light patterns as well as photograph very large areas with a single lighting system. This electronic flash lamp system will provide an extremely bright, stable, and repeatable light source for rotating-mirror framing cameras operating at one million frames per second, using both black & white or color films. The design of the Pulsed-Power driver and the flash lamp, along with experimental data and results will be discussed.

  2. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  3. Miniature Bose–Einstein condensate system design based on a transparent atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingfang; Xu, Xinping; Jiang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new miniature Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) system based on a transparent atom chip with a compact external coil structure. A standard six-beam macroscopic magneto-optical trap (MOT) is able to be created near the chip surface due to the chip’s transparency. A novel wire pattern consisting of a double-z wire and a z-shaped wire is designed on the transparent atom chip. With a vertical bias magnetic field, the double-z wire can create the quadrupole magnetic field of an intermediate chip MOT, which is suitable for transporting atoms from the macroscopic MOT to the chip z-wire trap efficiently. The compact external coil structure is designed with a rectangular frameless geometry consisting of only four coil pairs and its volume is less than 0.3 liters. The maximum system power consumption during the BEC generation procedure is about 45 W. The miniature system is evaluated, and about 3 × 106 atoms can be loaded into the chip z-wire trap. The miniature chip BEC system has the advantages of small volume and low power consumption, and it has great potential for practical applications of BEC.

  4. General service incandescent lamp with improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Berlec, I.

    1985-06-18

    A high efficiency general service incandescent lamp is disclosed. The disclosed improved general service incandescent lamp has an outer and an inner envelope. The inner envelope has a relatively small housing containing a halogen gas and a relatively high pressure efficient fill-gas and in which a low voltage filament is spatially disposed therein.

  5. Temperature and Color of Incandescent Lamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Two different methods of measuring the temperature of an incandescent lamp at various voltage levels are described. By observing the color produced at a particular voltage levels, the lamp's color as a function of temperature can be determined. Needed equipment include a variac, a voltmeter, and an ammeter. (KR)

  6. Lamp modulator provides signal magnitude indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Lamp modulator provides visible indication of presence and magnitude of an audio signal carrying voice or data. It can be made to reflect signal variations of up to 32 decibels. Lamp life is increased by use of a bypass resistor to prevent filament failure.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4580 - Surgical lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical lamp. 878.4580 Section 878.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4580 Surgical lamp. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 878.4580 - Surgical lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical lamp. 878.4580 Section 878.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4580 Surgical lamp. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 878.4580 - Surgical lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical lamp. 878.4580 Section 878.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4580 Surgical lamp. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 878.4580 - Surgical lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical lamp. 878.4580 Section 878.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4580 Surgical lamp. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 878.4580 - Surgical lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical lamp. 878.4580 Section 878.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4580 Surgical lamp. (a) Identification....

  12. Primer of School Lighting Lamps and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allphin, Willard

    The basic principles of the most commonly used lamp types and the circuitry which makes them operate are discussed. The two objectives of this book are to serve as a--(1) guide to economical lighting, and (2) a permanent reference source for troubleshooting. Areas dealt with include--(1) lighting fundamentals, (2) incandescent lamps, (3)…

  13. Measurements of UV-A radiation and hazard limits from some types of outdoor lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moghazy, Essam; Abd-Elmageed, Alaa-Eldin; Reda, Sameh

    2015-05-01

    Illumination using artificial light sources is common in these days. Many manufactures are paying for the design of lamps depending on high efficacy and low UV hazards. This research is focusing on the most useable lamps in the Egyptian markets; High Pressure Mercury (HPM), Metal Halide (MH), and High Pressure Sodium (HPS). A set up for relative spectral power distribution based on single monochromator and UVA silicon detector for absolute irradiance measurements are used. The absolute irradiance in (W/m2) in UVA region of the lamps and their accompanied standard uncertainty are evaluated.

  14. Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Ivanauskas, F.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    A stochastic method of optimization of a white-light source that relies on additive color mixing of the emissions from colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was developed. The method allows for finding the optimal wavelengths of LEDs in order to obtain the best possible trade off between luminous efficacy and the general color rendering index (CRI) of the white source for an arbitrary number of primary LEDs. Optimal solid-state lamps composed of two, three, four, and five different LEDs were analyzed. We show that a dichromatic LED lamp can only provide high efficacy with a general CRI close to zero, whereas trichromatic and quadrichromatic lamps are able to cover the entire range of reasonable general CRI values. The optimization of quintichromatic LED lamps and lamps with a higher number of primary color LEDs yields a negligible benefit in improving CRI but provides for quasicontinuous spectra that might be required for special lighting needs.

  15. Iodine atoms: a new molecular feature for the design of potent transthyretin fibrillogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Teresa; Nieto, Joan; Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J; Vázquez, Jesús T; Centeno, Nuria B; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  16. Iodine Atoms: A New Molecular Feature for the Design of Potent Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J.; Vázquez, Jesús T.; Centeno, Nuria B.; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M.; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  17. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  18. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  19. Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.

    2013-11-01

    A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.

  20. Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.

    2013-11-15

    A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.

  1. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  2. Design of multilamp nonimaging laser pump cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppenheimer, J.D. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    A technique has been developed to design single laser rod, multiple flash lamp pump cavities that allow all of the energy generated by the lamp to pass through the laser rod before entering another lamp cavity. The effective lamp and rod perimeters are matched, guaranteeing maximal concentration and uniformity of pumping.

  3. [Study on spectral emission characteristics of infrared lamps].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Chen, Z; Gu, B; Luo, Y; Wang, T

    1999-04-01

    The spectral characteristics at wavelength ranges of 0.35-0.85 microm and 1.72-16.7 microm (5800-600 cm(-1)) for both domestic and imported infrared lamps used in scientific research, industry, medical service, home electrical appliance etc. have heen studied and compared. This paper has provided the theoreical and experimental bases for their applications and improvement in designs, technology of manufacture, quality and performance. PMID:15819000

  4. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiandong; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe's characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude's sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement. PMID:26724066

  5. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-12-15

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe’s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude’s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  6. Intensified phototherapy using daylight fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; De Carvalho, D; Trzmielina, S; Lopes, J M; Hansen, T W

    1999-07-01

    Jaundice is a common reason for therapeutic intervention in newborn infants and phototherapy is effective treatment if enough light energy is delivered to a skin surface area of sufficient size. Narrow spectrum blue light is superior to white light, but in developing countries fluorescent blue lamps often have to be imported and are much more expensive than white lamps. We developed a phototherapy unit in which seven daylight fluorescent tubes are placed immediately under the floor of a transparent plexiglass crib. The efficacy of this unit, delivering approximately 19 microW/cm2/nm, was compared with that of two conventional phototherapy units using overhead lamps placed 35 cm above the infants. One unit used daylight fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 4 microW/cm2/nm, the other unit used special blue fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 22 microW/cm2/nm. Fifty-one infants were included in the analyses, all of them breastfed on demand. Serum bilirubin levels were determined spectrophotometrically at 0, 12 and 24 h. The decrement in serum bilirubin concentrations was significantly greater in infants undergoing phototherapy with the new device or with special blue lamps compared to conventional overhead daylight lamps (p < 0.001 both at 12 and at 24 h). We conclude that highly efficient phototherapy may be delivered with daylight fluorescent lamps placed in very close proximity to the patient. Thus, lack of access to expensive imported special blue lamps does not preclude delivery of effective phototherapy in developing countries. PMID:10447138

  7. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  8. Design and implementation of an integral wall-mounted quartz crystal microbalance for atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Riha, Shannon C; Libera, Joseph A; Elam, Jeffrey W; Martinson, Alex B F

    2012-09-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements have played a vital role in understanding and expediting new atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes; however, significant barriers remain to their routine use and accurate execution. In order to turn this exclusively in situ technique into a routine characterization method, an integral QCM fixture was developed. This new design is easily implemented on a variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools, allows rapid sample exchange, prevents backside deposition, and minimizes both the footprint and flow disturbance. Unlike previous QCM designs, the fast thermal equilibration enables tasks such as temperature-dependent studies and ex situ sample exchange, further highlighting the utility of this QCM design for day-to-day use. Finally, the in situ mapping of thin film growth rates across the ALD reactor was demonstrated in a popular commercial tool operating in both continuous and quasi-static ALD modes. PMID:23020393

  9. LRO-LAMP Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, Cesare; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cook, Jason C.; Stern, Alan; Pryor, Wayne R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kaufmann, David E.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (LRO) UV spectrograph LAMP (Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) campaign to study the lunar atmosphere. Two kinds of off-nadir maneuvers (lateral rolls and pitches towards and opposite the direction of motion of LRO) were performed to search for resonantly scattering species, increasing the illuminated line-of-sight (and hence the signal from atoms resonantly scattering the solar photons) compared to previously reported LAMP “twilight observations” [Cook & Stern, 2014]. Helium was the only element distinguishable on a daily basis, and we present latitudinal profiles of its line-of-sight column density in December 2013. We compared the helium line-of-sight column densities with solar wind alpha particle fluxes measured from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) twin spacecraft. Our data show a correlation with the solar wind alpha particle flux, confirming that the solar wind is the main source of the lunar helium, but not with a 1:1 relationship. Assuming that the lunar soil is saturated with helium atoms, our results suggest that not all of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium, allowing for a non-negligible fraction (~50 %) to escape as suprathermal helium or simply backscattered from the lunar surface. We also support the finding by Benna et al. [2015] and Hurley et al. [2015], that a non-zero contribution from endogenic helium, coming from radioactive decay of 232Th and 238U within the mantle, is present, and is estimated to be (4.5±1.2) x 106 He atoms cm-2 s-1. Finally, we compare LAMP-derived helium surface density with the one recorded by the mass spectrometer LACE (Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment) deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission, finding good agreement between the two measurements. These LRO off-nadir maneuvers allow LAMP to provide unique coverage of local solar time and

  10. Spectral response of photopic instruments with traceability to lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Romero, J. G.; Salas-Zuñiga, R.; Hurtado-Ramos, J. B.

    2010-08-01

    The spectral responsivity of detectors is commonly measured through the comparison with a reference detector and an optical system that provides monochromatic radiation. Such systems are designed to provide narrow bandwidth monochromatic radiation whose optical flux is generally low. These levels of optical flux are not enough to excite photopic instruments whose spectral response has to be measured. In this work we propose an optical arrangement with enough optical flux to realize such measurements. The system consists of a color temperature calibrated lamp which is the reference. The monochromatic separation is realized with a transmittance grating. The spectral distribution at the plane of the instrument is calculated, it is practically the same that the lamp except for the level of irradiance. The spectral response measured is corrected by the bandwidth of the system. Experimental results are presented and the noise-to-signal level reached in the system is discussed.