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Sample records for land brandenburg hinweis

  1. Evidence of (pre-) historic to modern landscape development and land use history in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolay, Alexander; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In the apron of three active lignite opencast pits in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany), archaeological survey trenches were investigated in areas where Quaternary aeolian sand deposits are widespread. The investigated palaeoenvironmental archives in Jänschwalde, Cottbus-Nord and Welzow contain evidence of fluvial and aeolian morphodynamics, soil formation and agricultural land use from (pre-)historic to modern times. To study the age and the causes of sand drifting and landform stabilization, standard soil physical and chemical laboratory analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C) were carried out. Two main sedimentological units were identified: Unit 1 consists of glacio-fluvial and Late Weichselian aeolian sands representing the parent material for the native Podsol-Braunerde and Podsol development, while Unit 2 represents the Late Holocene aeolian deposits. Four periods of Late glacial and Holocene aeolian activity and three phases of geomorphological stability have been identified: (i) Aeolian sedimentation during the Late glacial, (ii) Mesolithic reactivation of aeolian processes, (iii) soil formation until Late Roman Iron Age settlers intensified the agricultural land use, (iv) intensive drift sand formation during the High Middle Ages due to agricultural expansion, (v) stabilization of the drift sands and weak soil formation, (vi) reactivation of aeolian processes due to the increasing wood consumption and charcoal production from the early 16th until the mid-19th century, (vii) surface stabilization and formation of Regosols since the mid-19th century due to afforestation.

  2. Proxies of pre-industrial charcoal production and land use in lake sediments from South Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Frantiuc, Alexandru; Brademann, Brian; Ott, Florian; Hirsch, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, archaeological research has revealed that large-scale charcoal burning was carried out in Lower Lusatia (South Brandenburg) situated within the North Germany Lowland. From the 17th to the 19th century, charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork in Peitz. Within the framework of the ICLEA project lake sediments from two lakes, Byhleguhrer See and Großsee, are investigated to study the impact of pre-industrial charcoal production on the environment. The investigation area is situated c. 15 km ne of Cottbus in the Tauerscher Forst, an area mainly forested with pine. The climate is continental (mean annual air temperature: 8-9 °C, mean annual precipitation sum: 565 mm). The geology and geomorphology were formed by Quaternary glaciations. Two lakes, Großsee and Byhleguhrer See, were selected for our research. Großsee (51° 56,007' N, 14° 28,282' E, 63 m a.s.l., max. 9 m water depth) is c. 0.31 km2 large and lies in the central part of the Tauersche Forst. Byhleguhrer See (51° 55,41' N, 14° 9,922' E, 50 m a.s.l., max. 1 m water depth) is situated in c. 22 km linear distance W of Großsee at the western margin of the Tauersche Forst. This lake is c. 0.89 km2 large. During the last 50 years Byhleguhrer See and its surrounding was intensively used (fishing, wastewater discharge, agriculture). Three short sediment cores were gained from each lake. All cores were opened, described and photographed. Magnetic susceptibility (split-core logger) and total element contents (µXRF) were measured on selected cores. Based on the first data, two sediment cores were chosen for further analyses (CNS, 14C-dating, etc.). The sediment core from Großsee (GR13-SH-PO56) is 77 cm long. The sediments are quite homogenous and have a high organic content. S values are increased in the upper part (10-30 cm sediment depth) correlating with high magnetic susceptibility and iron values, which hint on the occurrence of pyrite in the sediment. 14C-dating of the

  3. Towards an inventory of historic charcoal production fields in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Bonhage, Alexander; Hirsch, Florian; Rösler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. Based on our results from this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field, we attempted to detect and map other large occurrences of charcoal kiln remains in the state of Brandenburg. For the mine forefield, archaeological excavations provide certain and exact information on kiln site location and geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield, using a manual digitization for thorough mapping in forest areas north of Cottbus, and an automated mapping approach for detection of kiln sites for additional areas in Brandenburg. Potential areas of large-scale production were identified in a GIS-based analysis of environmental and historic data. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield. First results of mapping for larger areas indicate similar densities, but smaller diameters of kiln sites in other charcoal production fields; and show that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  4. Comment on Mars as the Parent Body of the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites by J. E. Brandenburg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    Geological and chemical data refute a martian origin for the CI carbonaceous chondrites. Here, I will first consider Brandenburg's [1996] proposal that the CI's formed as water-deposited sediments on Mars, and that these sediments had limited chemical interactions with their martian environment. Finally, I will address oxygen isotope ratios, the strongest link between the CIs and the martian meteorites.

  5. The Transformation of East German Education--A Comparison between the Federal States of Berlin and Brandenburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambach, Jurgen

    1993-01-01

    Identifies issues related to educational reform in the former East Germany. Compares changes in the educational systems of the states of Berlin and Brandenburg and points out that the two entities are growing closer together. (CFR)

  6. Human-induced landscape dynamics in South Brandenburg - findings from different geoarchives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    South Brandenburg is the central part of the North European Lowland (NEL) extending as a plain landscape from the North and Baltic Sea to the foothills of the Central European Highlands and reaching from the Netherlands to Poland. Since many decades lignite opencast mines have been operating in this region which is known as the Lusatian mining district. The total land demand in Lusatia is about 852 square kilometres and mining will continue for many more years or even decades. Large-scale outcrops resulting from these mining activities are excellent archives to study the younger Earth's history. The scope of our research in open cast mines is to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development and to distinguishing natural from anthropogenic forcing and processes. In more detail, the aims are to identify and to quantify the impact of past land uses, i.e. changes of vegetation, landforms and soils induced by agriculture and/or forestry. Here, we are presenting latest results from our research and review important findings giving novel insights into man-induced environmental changes in Lusatia within the past thousands years and thus improving the general understanding of Late Quaternary landscape dynamics. Direct legacies of historical farming can be found in form of hook ploughs as well as ridge and furrow systems. Several sites have been documented within the last decades giving us nowadays a quite solid picture of the type and of the spatio-temporal dimension the former agricultural system. During years Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data help us to identify ridge and furrow systems under forest canopy and thus to support these findings. Sometimes hook ploughs and ridge and furrow systems are found buried under aeolian sediments proving a causal connection between farming and wind erosion. Obviously the well-drained, sandy and humus-poor soils are prone to dry out easily by agricultural overuse and thus can be eroded by wind. The flat landscape and missing

  7. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  8. [The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis)--no zoonotic risk for Brandenburg?].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sabine; Sutor, Astrid; Mattis, Roswitha; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of the raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris [B.] procyonis), a dangerous zoonotic pathogen for humans, in raccoons living in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. In the years 2008 to 2013, a total of 762 raccoons, dating from hunting bags, were examined for intestinal helminths. No raccoon roundworm specimen was detected, but 27 samples were positive for Mesocestoides spp. Earlier studies had proved the presence of B. procyonis in Hesse and since 2005 the parasite has also been found in the western part of Saxony-Anhalt. The migration ability of raccoons may promote a further distribution of this parasite and could increase the risk for zoonotic infections in humans. PMID:25876283

  9. Detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus (A.) vasorum is a nematode that causes angiostrongylosis in domestic and wild canids. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are suspected of providing a wildlife reservoir for A. vasorum infections in pet dogs. To obtain data on the occurrence of A. vasorum in wildlife, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of A. vasorum DNA by means of real-time PCR. A. vasorum DNA was detected in 11 out of 122 (9.0 %) lungs of red foxes and in none of the lung samples of raccoon dogs. These data suggest that red foxes are a reservoir of A. vasorum infections for pet dogs in this area. PMID:26152419

  10. Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastig, K.; Prochnow, A.; Kraatz, S.; Klauss, H.; Plöchl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The working group "Adaptation to Climate Change" at the Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB) is introduced. This group calculates the water footprint for agricultural processes and farms, distinguished into green water footprint, blue water footprint, and dilution water footprint. The green and blue water demand of a dairy farm plays a pivotal role in the regional water balance. Considering already existing and forthcoming climate change effects there is a need to determine the water cycle in the field and in housing for process chain optimisation for the adaptation to an expected increasing water scarcity. Resulting investments to boost water productivity and to improve water use efficiency in milk production are two pathways to adapt to climate change effects. In this paper the calculation of blue water demand for dairy farming in Brandenburg (Germany) is presented. The water used for feeding, milk processing, and servicing of cows over the time period of ten years was assessed in our study. The preliminary results of the calculation of the direct blue water footprint shows a decreasing water demand in the dairy production from the year 1999 with 5.98×109 L/yr to a water demand of 5.00×109 L/yr in the year 2008 in Brandenburg because of decreasing animal numbers and an improved average milk yield per cow. Improved feeding practices and shifted breeding to greater-volume producing Holstein-Friesian cow allow the production of milk in a more water sustainable way. The mean blue water consumption for the production of 1 kg milk in the time period between 1999 to 2008 was 3.94±0.29 L. The main part of the consumed water seems to stem from indirect used green water for the production of feed for the cows.

  11. Evaluating the applicability of the ECOSSE model to predict GHG emissions from managed organic soils in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Daniela; Gottschalk, Pia; Giebels, Michael; Richards, Mark; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Jo

    2010-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) balances associated with managed peatlands are not yet well understood. For instance, drainage of peatlands for agricultural use can cause a rise of CO2 and N2O fluxes whereas CH4 emissions decrease. A better understanding of the underlying processes will improve current estimates and predictions of GHG balances as well as soil carbon stocks under climate change. Furthermore, possible emission mitigating options for land-use may be identified. In Germany peatland represents four percent of the area and accounts for 2.3 to 4.5 percent of Germany's total GHG emissions, due to the fact that more than 95 % of German peatlands are currently managed or were cultivated in the past. To estimate and better understand GHG fluxes from peat soils soil organic matter (SOM) models can be employed. However, current state of the art SOM models do not account for specific peat soil conditions and very few modelling approaches specifically designed for organic soils have been developed as yet. We evaluate the applicability of a new SOM model - ECOSSE (Estimating Carbon in Organic Soils - Sequestration and Emissions). ECOSSE was constructed for peat soils in Scotland and Wales and developed from the SUNDIAL-model of carbon and nitrogen turnover in arable soils. The model is driven by commonly available meteorological data, soil parameters and management information. The main aim of ECOSSE is to predict the effect of land-use and climate change on GHG fluxes and therefore to assess the mitigation potential of C and N losses from organic soils by adapted land-use policy. We simulate GHG emissions for fen sites of the Rhin-Havelluch in Brandenburg, Germany, with different land-uses. Model results are evaluated against measured data of CH4 and N2O fluxes over three years, from 2007 to 2009. The measurements of these fluxes were obtained using the closed-chamber method and subsequent GC analysis within the project "Climate protection - fen-use-strategies" which was

  12. No evidence of Dirofilaria repens infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg. PMID:26566618

  13. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  14. Efficacy of selected anthelmintic drugs against cyathostomins in horses in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Juliane K; Hinney, Barbara; Denwood, Matthew J; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2015-12-01

    Cyathostomins are currently the most common internal parasites of horses. With the intensive use of anthelmintic drugs over the past decades, resistance of cyathostomins to anthelmintics is becoming a growing problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation on horse farms in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A pre-selected population of horses from 24 premises that had shown a prevalence of cyathostomins higher than the average in a previous study was examined for anthelmintic efficacy. Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were performed for ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR). For IVM, the egg reappearance period (ERP) was also examined, as a shortened ERP can be indicative of developing resistance. The efficacy of IVM on cyathostomins was high: 99.1 % of 224 horses had a zero egg count 14 days after treatment. No shortening of the ERP was detected. For the data of the FECRT for PYR, three different methods of calculation were employed: (a) the method as recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), (b) a bootstrapping method and (c) a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Two methods of interpretation for these data were used: Resistance was declared (a) when FECR was <90 % and the lower 95 % confidence interval (LCL) <80 % and (b) when additionally the upper 95 % confidence level (UCL) was <95 %. When applying the first interpretation, resistance against PYR was found on four yards, while, when considering the UCL, all three methods for calculation only detected resistance on one single yard. Twelve species of cyathostomins were detected in larval cultures derived from strongyle egg positive faecal samples collected 14 days after treatment with PYR by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). In order to generate comparable data, it is suggested to establish international standards for the calculation of FECRT data. PMID:26337266

  15. Landscape and soil development in Lower Lusatia - results from archaeological and soil-geomorphological investigations on a small dune field nearby Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolay, Alexander; Schulz, Deborah; Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Within the apron of the opencast mine Jänschwalde (SE Brandenburg, Germany) archaeological excavations on a multiple populated small dune were complemented with soil-geomorphological investigations in the vicinity. Archaeological findings in the dune stratigraphy (especially cremation graves) are intercalated within aeolian sediments and/or buried soils and thus give a record of the Late Quaternary geomorphodynamic and soil development. The archaeological results confirm the presence of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations at the study site. The Mesolithic to Neolithic factory sites are preferably located on slightly elevated places like the remnants of late glacial dunes. On these late glacial aeolian sediments subsequently a podzol formation took place, indicating stable environmental conditions. At the excavation site, this soil was buried by aeolian drift sands in which a cemetery was found. According to grave goods and grave type the excavated bi-ritual cemetery was created at the end of the 3rd and used until the early 5th century AD (Late Roman Iron Age to Migration Period). Within this period the aeolian activity, proven by about 1 m deep drift sands, increased and a small dune was formed wherein 4 inhumation and approx. 26 cremation graves (Schichtgräberfeld) were documented. The cremation graves were mainly recorded as small reddish/gray 5-20 cm thick sandy layers which were separated by the drift sand layers. Soil-geomorphological investigations, two kilometers north of the excavated cremation and settle-ment site corroborate the detected phases of morphological stability and aeolian activity in this time period. Our complementing investigations indicate that the Late Roman Iron Age to Migration Period population had affected the landscape due to deforestation and agricultural land use.

  16. Hydrochemical and isotope analysis of the natural salinisation processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Upward migration of saline fluids into freshwater aquifers has long been known in Eastern Brandenburg and resulted in certain regions in a contamination of drinking water resources. In this context it is important to understand the processes and interactions between deep saline and shallow freshwater aquifers as well as the migration pathways and the origin of the saline waters. The study area (50 x 50 km2) is located in the southeastern part of the intracontinental North East German Basin, the hydrogeology of which is characterised by large salinity gradients due to dissolution of great amounts of halites from evaporite-bearing Permian strata. About 100 new groundwater samples from depths down to 450 m and samples from deep geothermal aquifers with depths down to 1700 m were taken. A combination of field parameters, hydrochemical indicators (anions, cations, trace elements) and stable/ unstable isotopes (18O/2H(H2O), 34S/18O(SO4), 87Sr, 3T, 3He, 14C) were used to study the sources of salinisation, the ongoing processes and the interaquifer flow. Freshwater-saltwater dynamics in the investigation area are mainly controlled by the local recharge/discharge conditions and the presence of hydraulic pathways through the Rupelian clay which is the most important confining layer between deep saline and shallow freshwater aquifers. In discharge areas shallow aquifers may become salinised which seems to be confirmed by chloride concentrations up to 10000 mg/l. However, in recharge areas downward freshwater migration in deeper aquifers can be predominant resulting in decreased salinity. This is comprehensible for topographic highs in the investigation area where the chloride concentrations in the aquifer below the Rupelian clay are only up to 2500 mg/l. The Br-/Cl- ratio as well as the 2H- and Cl-- data were used to identify the origin of the saline waters. Brines originating from Permian and Mesozoic formations are considered as main sources, in situ brackish and marine

  17. Modeling Urban Air Quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg Region: Evaluation of a WRF-Chem Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, F.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Lauer, A.; Mar, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution is the number one environmental cause of premature deaths in Europe. Despite extensive regulations, air pollution remains a challenging issue, especially in urban areas. For studying air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is set up and evaluated against meteorological and air quality observations from monitoring stations as well as from a field campaign conducted in 2014 (incl. black carbon, VOCs as well as mobile measurements of particle size distribution and particle mass). The model setup includes 3 nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 15km, 3km, and 1km, online biogenic emissions using MEGAN 2.0, and anthropogenic emissions from the TNO-MACC-II inventory. This work serves as a basis for future studies on different aspects of air pollution in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, including how heat waves affect emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban vegetation (summer 2006) and the impact of selected traffic measures on air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg area (summer 2014). The model represents the meteorology as observed in the region well for both periods. An exception is the heat wave period in 2006, where the temperature simulated with 3km and 1km resolutions is biased low by around 2°C for urban built-up stations. First results of simulations with chemistry show that, on average, WRF-Chem simulates concentrations of O3 well. However, the 8 hr maxima are underestimated, and the minima are overestimated. While NOx daily means are modeled reasonably well for urban stations, they are overestimated for suburban stations. PM10 concentrations are underestimated by the model. The biases and correlation coefficients of simulated O3, NOx, and PM10 in comparison to surface observations do not show improvements for the 1km domain in comparison to the 3km domain. To improve the model performance of the 1km domain we will include an

  18. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  19. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  20. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  1. Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions

  2. Spatial distribution patterns of Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart 1863) (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) among red foxes in an endemic focus in Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Tackmann, K; Löschner, U; Mix, H; Staubach, C; Thulke, H H; Conraths, F J

    1998-02-01

    Over a period of 40 months, 4374 foxes were randomly sampled from an area located in northwestern Brandenburg, Germany, and examined parasitologically for infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. Spatial analysis of the origin of infected animals identified two (one central and one southeastern) high-endemic foci with an estimated prevalence of 23.8%. By contrast, a prevalence of 4.9% was found in the remaining (low-endemic) area. The prevalences among juvenile and adult foxes were compared in the high-endemic and the low-endemic areas. To analyse the central high-endemic focus further, the random sample was stratified by zones representing concentric circles with a radius of 13 km (zone 1) or x(n-1) + 7 km for the remaining three zones from the apparent centre of this focus (anchor point). Prevalences calculated for each zone showed a decrease from zone 1 (18.8%) to zone 4 (2.4%) with significant differences for all zones but zones 3 and 4. The relative risk of an infection decreased rapidly in a distance range of 26 km around the high-endemic focus, whereas the relative risk remained unchanged within a distance of 5 km around the anchor point. The importance of heterogeneous spatial distribution patterns for the diagnosis and epidemiology of the infection is discussed. PMID:9528824

  3. Spatial distribution patterns of Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart 1863) (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) among red foxes in an endemic focus in Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Tackmann, K.; Löschner, U.; Mix, H.; Staubach, C.; Thulke, H. H.; Conraths, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Over a period of 40 months, 4374 foxes were randomly sampled from an area located in northwestern Brandenburg, Germany, and examined parasitologically for infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. Spatial analysis of the origin of infected animals identified two (one central and one southeastern) high-endemic foci with an estimated prevalence of 23.8%. By contrast, a prevalence of 4.9% was found in the remaining (low-endemic) area. The prevalences among juvenile and adult foxes were compared in the high-endemic and the low-endemic areas. To analyse the central high-endemic focus further, the random sample was stratified by zones representing concentric circles with a radius of 13 km (zone 1) or x(n-1) + 7 km for the remaining three zones from the apparent centre of this focus (anchor point). Prevalences calculated for each zone showed a decrease from zone 1 (18.8%) to zone 4 (2.4%) with significant differences for all zones but zones 3 and 4. The relative risk of an infection decreased rapidly in a distance range of 26 km around the high-endemic focus, whereas the relative risk remained unchanged within a distance of 5 km around the anchor point. The importance of heterogeneous spatial distribution patterns for the diagnosis and epidemiology of the infection is discussed. PMID:9528824

  4. Forestry and charcoal burning in the vicinity of the ironwork Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) - What do we know from historical and archaeological data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takla, Melanie; Frank, Müller; Horst, Rösler; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The former royal forest districts around Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) were used to produce charcoal for the ironwork Peitz (1554 to 1856). More than 800 archaeologically excavated ground plans of charcoal kilns give evidence of the burning activity in the study area "Jänschwalde Heide" which is only a small part of the whole forest district. The study area in the apron of the active lignite mine Jänschwalde comprises the royal forest "Jänschwalder Heide" and the surrounding community forests. Our study approach combines archaeological research, a GIS-based approach (historical maps, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, etc.) and archival studies. The charcoal kilns have been registered since 1990 and since 2005 they are systematically excavated and documented. First dendrochronological data reach from the 17th to the 19th century confirming charcoal burning during the operation period of the iron work. Moreover 5000 additional kilns were identified and digitized from Shaded Relief Maps (SRM) created from ALS data (resolution 1p m-2; height accuracy +- 15 cm). A kiln field of such a dimension has not been documented and investigated for the North German Lowlands so far. It raises the question about the effects of charcoal burning on the forests and the landscape during the last three hundred years. Here we present the evaluation of the kiln data with regard to their size, frequency and spatial distribution. Besides the large number, the kilns have also large diameters (modal value 17 m, mean 12,5 m). Outside the boundaries of the royal forest the kilns are smaller and they were probably used to produce charcoal for local handcraft. These findings are compared to historical records from the first forest inventories (18th/19th century) like forest age and area, with historical forest laws and wood consumption data of the iron work. There is growing evidence that despite of the large extent of the kiln field the wood reserves in the forest districts about 1800

  5. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  7. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  8. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  9. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

  10. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William B.; Turner, B. L., II

    1994-10-01

    This book deals with the relationship between land use and land cover: between human activities and the transformation of the Earth's surface. It describes the recent changes in the world's farmland, forests, grasslands and settlements, and the impacts of these changes on soil, water resources and the atmosphere. It explores what is known about the importance of various underlying human sources of land transformation: population growth, technological change, political-economic institutions, political structure, and attitudes and beliefs. Three working group reports outline important avenues for future research: the construction of a global land model, the division of the world into regional situations of land transformation, and a wiring diagram to structure the division of research among fields of study.

  11. Women, land, and trees.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    This article discusses women's land rights in the context of the findings of the paper, "Women's Land Rights in the Transition to Individualized Ownership: Implications for Tree Resource Management in Western Ghana." The study showed that customary land tenure institutions have evolved toward individualized systems, which provide incentives to invest in tree planting. In effect, individualization of land tenure had strengthened women's land rights through inter vivos gifts. However, transferring of land ownership to women is unlikely to raise productivity if access to and use of other inputs remains unequal. This suggests that attempts to equalize land rights of men and women are unlikely to lead to gender equity and improved efficiency and productivity of women farmers unless other constraints faced by women are also addressed. The article also documents comments, suggestions, and recommendations in response to the summary of the paper. In addition, the different practices of guaranteeing land ownership for women in some countries of Africa are presented. PMID:12295514

  12. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  13. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  14. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  15. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  16. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  17. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  18. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  19. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  20. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  1. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  2. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  3. Landing-gear impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  4. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  5. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  6. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  7. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  8. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  9. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  10. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are about "strange…

  11. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  12. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  13. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  16. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  17. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  18. Space Shuttle night landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenstein, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The tracking and guidance requirements of the Indian National Satellite during its transition from the low-earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit dictated a night launch and subsequent night landing. The development of an Orbiter-independent external lighting system (ELS) that would work in conjunction with the Orbiter navigation, guidance, and control systems used for day approach and landing is described. The ELS includes the night landing visual aids; the heading alignment circle precision approach path indicator lights, as an aid for the outer glide slope; the runway floodlight, to accommodate for the transition area between preflare and intercepting inner glide slope (IGS) system; the ball/bar reference IGS system; and heads-up displays. The aspects of the lakebed dust problems are discussed. Diagrams illustrating the approach trajectory, final night-lighting configurations, and the approach and land symbology are included.

  19. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  20. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  1. KamLAND Zen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  2. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  3. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  4. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  5. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  6. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  7. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  8. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  9. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  10. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  11. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  12. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  13. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  14. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  15. This Land is Your Land. The Problem of Land Utilization. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Carl; And Others

    This unit, written for seventh-grade school children, focuses on the variety of factors that are involved in land utilization. It specifically examines land use in St. Louis County, Missouri, and discusses such concepts as the variety of ways man has used this land, the influence surface features have on land use, the influence of socio-cultural…

  16. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  17. Namibian women and land.

    PubMed

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  18. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  19. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  20. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  1. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  2. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  3. Scofield Land Transfer Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2012-02-01

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. The Common Land Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2003-08-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

  5. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  6. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  7. STS-90 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 22 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the Space Center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission included Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Sapce Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  8. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  9. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  10. Living off the Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  11. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  12. Land-use Change: Deforestation by land grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Tom

    2015-10-01

    Leases of land concessions in Cambodia have accelerated in the last ten years. An analysis using high-resolution maps and official documents shows that deforestation rates in the land concessions are higher than in other areas.

  13. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power...

  14. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power...

  15. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power...

  16. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land and land rights. 367.55 Section 367.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... service company in land owned by others, such as leaseholds, easements, water and water power...

  17. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  18. Space Shuttle contingency landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Andrew M.; Fleming, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The sites and operations involved in emergency landings of the Space Shuttle are discussed. The role of international agreements in developing such sites is addressed. Rescue operations following emergency landings are examined.

  19. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  20. Adaptive management of grazing lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands, the mainland type used as grazing lands, occupy ~54% of the world’s ice-free land surface, and grasslands dominate ~ 16% of all rangelands. China is the third largest country for rangeland resources in the world and has approximately 400 million ha rangeland, about 40% of China’s land s...

  1. The Land-Grant Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

  2. STS-86 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter drag chute deploys after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis lands on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the conclusion of the nearly 11-day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT, Oct. 6, 1997, with an unofficial mission-elapsed time of 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two KSC landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS- 86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  3. STS-86 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter drag chute deploys after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis lands on runway 15 of the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the conclusion of the nearly 11-day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT, October 6, 1997, with an unofficial mission-elapsed time of 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two Kennedy Space Center landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at Kennedy Space Center. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS-86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than 3.5 tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies betweent the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  4. STS-86 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter drag chute deploys after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis lands on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at the conclusion of the nearly 11-day STS-86 mission. The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) can be seen in the background. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT, Oct. 6, 1997, with an unofficial mission-elapsed time of 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two KSC landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS- 86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  5. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  6. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  7. Land Use Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

  8. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  9. ERA-Interim/Land: A global land surface reanalysis dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Albergel, Clement; Beljaars, Anton; Boussetta, Souhail; Brun, Eric; Cloke, Hannah; Dee, Dick; Dutra, Emanuel; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín; Pappenberger, Florian; De Rosnay, Patricia; Stockdale, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    ERA-Interim/Land is a global land-surface reanalysis dataset covering the period 1979-2010 recently made publicly available from ECMWF. It describes the evolution of soil moisture, soil temperature and snowpack. ERA-Interim/Land is the result of a single 32-year simulation with the latest ECMWF land surface model driven by meteorological forcing from the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis and precipitation adjustments based on monthly GPCP v2.1 (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The horizontal resolution is about 80km and the time frequency is 3-hourly. ERA-Interim/Land includes a number of parameterization improvements in the land surface scheme with respect to the original ERA-Interim dataset, which makes it more suitable for climate studies involving land water resources. The quality of ERA-Interim/Land is assessed by comparing with ground-based and remote sensing observations. In particular, estimates of soil moisture, snow depth, surface albedo, turbulent latent and sensible fluxes, and river discharges are verified against a large number of site measurements. ERA-Interim/Land provides a global integrated and coherent estimate of soil moisture and snow water equivalent, which can also be used for the initialization of numerical weather prediction and climate models. Current plans for the extension and improvements of ERA-Interim/Land in the framework of future reanalyses will be briefly presented. References and dataset download information at: http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim/land

  10. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  11. Landing quality in artistic gymnastics is related to landing symmetry.

    PubMed

    Cuk, I; Marinšek, M

    2013-03-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  12. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  13. The Use of Urban Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing scientific information from the lunar and planetary missions now are being applied to land-resource management in and around cities. Two systems have been formalized by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and are being applied in the Los Angeles area. The first, called the 'Land Use Management Information System' incorporates maps, aerial photos, and other land data into routine city and county census records. The second system, 'multiple-input land use' combines satellite imagery with other data sources. Essentially a city street map in computer readable form, the system will help planners in traffic accident analysis, mapping, and land-record.

  14. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  15. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Analysis in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Giriraj, A.

    Information on land use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) scenario in India has undergone a radical change since the onset of economic revolution in early 1990s. These changes involve a series of complex interaction between biophysical and socioeconomic variables. LULC follows a set of scientific themes which includes detection and monitoring, carbon and biogeochemical cycle, ecosystems and biodiversity, water and energy cycle, predictive land use modeling and climate variability and change. With the changing times and increasing demand on the availability of information on land use/land cover, it becomes necessary to have a standard classification system, precise definition of land use/land cover and its categories, uniform procedures of data collection and mapping on different scales over Indian region. The current review thus attempts to focus on development of a national goal towards changes in LULC as a necessary step for an interdisciplinary research program involving climate, ecological and socioeconomic drives, the processes of change and the responses and consequences of change.

  17. Challenges in Global Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    For the purposes of projecting and anticipating human-induced land use change at the global scale, much work remains in the systematic mapping and modeling of world-wide land uses and their related dynamics. In particular, research has focused on tropical deforestation, loss of prime agricultural land, loss of wild land and open space, and the spread of urbanization. Fifteen years of experience in modeling land use and land cover change at the regional and city level with the cellular automata model SLEUTH, including cross city and regional comparisons, has led to an ability to comment on the challenges and constraints that apply to global level land use change modeling. Some issues are common to other modeling domains, such as scaling, earth geometry, and model coupling. Others relate to geographical scaling of human activity, while some are issues of data fusion and international interoperability. Grid computing now offers the prospect of global land use change simulation. This presentation summarizes what barriers face global scale land use modeling, but also highlights the benefits of such modeling activity on global change research. An approach to converting land use maps and forecasts into environmental impact measurements is proposed. Using such an approach means that multitemporal mapping, often using remotely sensed sources, and forecasting can also yield results showing the overall and disaggregated status of the environment.

  18. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  19. STS-86 Atlantis Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to complete the nearly 11- day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT on Oct. 6, 1997. The unofficial mission-elapsed time at main gear touchdown was 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS-86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a- half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  1. Landing impact of seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    The theory of landing impact is briefly stated and the applicability of a previously suggested formula is extended. Theoretical considerations regarding impact measurements on models and actual seaplanes are followed by a brief description of the instruments used in actual flight tests. The report contains a description of the strength conditions and deals exhaustively with force measurements on the float gear of an "HE 9a" with flat-bottom and with V-bottom floats. The experimental data are given and compared with the theoretical results.

  2. STS-64 landing view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The drag chute for the Space Shuttle Discovery is deployed as NASA's most-heavily flown spacecraft completes a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Discovery, with a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, fired its de-orbit engine at 1:14 p.m. (PDT), September 21, 1994. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

  3. Evaluating land application effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkis, K. )

    1987-01-01

    The Philadelphia, PA Water Department embarked on a land application program of its treated wastewater sludge in 1977. Initially, liquid sludge averaging from 1-5% solids was applied to approximately 400 acres of corn, soybeans, and sod at rates sufficient to supply crop nitrogen needs. During the 1978 through 1984 growing seasons, crops and soils were monitored for heavy metals (bioavailability of cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium, lead and zinc) and in 1984 for PCB accumulation. This report summarizes results of the monitoring program until 1984.

  4. To Land on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

    2005-01-01

    The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

  5. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  6. Arid Lands Biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  7. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and nonexcess land. If a landowner owns...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  9. Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

  10. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  11. Deserts and Arid Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Glen F.

    The exponential growth of global population and often concomitant degradation of the environment has forced human expansion into the more hostile and less well-known terrains of arid lands and deserts. Drought in the African Sahel, with recent wholesale movement of tribes seeking survival, has focused interest in such regions. However, geologic and geomorphic knowledge of deserts has expanded slowly until the last few decades. For instance, the arid cycle of erosion, as conceived by William Morse Davis (now deceased; formerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.), with modifications by W. Penck (now deceased; formerly, Leipzig University, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic), and L. C. King (University of Natal and Durban, South Africa), has dominated desert geomorphological deductions until recently. Since World War II and the verification of plate tectonics, the knowledge of arid lands has increased dramatically, especially in synoptic mapping from remote sensing data and space photography, which transcends political boundaries, thanks to the open skies policy of the U.S. space pioneers.

  12. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  13. The integrated urban land model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chunlei

    2015-06-01

    An integrated urban land model (IUM) was developed based on the Common Land Model (CoLM). A whole layer soil evaporation parameterization scheme was developed to improve soil evaporation simulation especially in arid areas. For the urban underlying surface, the energy and water balance model were modified; urban land parameters such as the anthropogenic heat (AH), albedo, surface roughness length, imperious surface evaporation etc. were also reparameterized. IUM was validated and compared with CoLM and the urbanized high-resolution land data assimilation system (u-HRLDAS) in single and regional scale. The validation results indicate that IUM can improve the simulation of land surface parameters and land-atmosphere interaction fluxes.

  14. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  15. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

  16. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  17. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  18. Apollo Lunar Module Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo lunar module landing-gear flight-performance results and three principal gear development problems are discussed. In evaluating the lunar module touchdown performance, strut stroking and toppling stability are the prime factors and are governed primarily by touchdown velocity and surface slope at the touchdown point. Flight results are shown to be well within design values, and the landing-gear has performed successfully in all landings.

  19. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  20. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  1. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  2. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  3. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  4. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  5. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...: Public Land Order No. 6881 (56 FR 47414 (1991)) which withdrew 95 acres of National Forest System lands... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  6. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  7. LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

  8. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: Comments on the proposed rule published May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32214) must be received by September 3, 2013... 25 CFR 151.12 (78 FR 32214). The proposed rule would remove procedural requirements that are no...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  9. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  10. Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  11. Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T.

    1937-01-01

    In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances.

  12. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  13. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  14. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  15. The Land-Grant Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of basic information about the history and current workings of the land-grant university system. The first section briefly describes the nature of land grant universities as institutions that have been designated by state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. Their…

  16. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  17. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  18. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  19. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  2. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  3. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  4. Land cover: national inventory of vegetation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) produces data and tools that help meet critical national challenges such as biodiversity conservation, renewable energy development, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure investment. The GAP national land cover includes data on the vegetation and land-use patterns of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. This national dataset combines land cover data generated by regional GAP projects with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) data. LANDFIRE is an interagency vegetation, fire, and fuel characteristics mapping program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

  5. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  6. Land reclamation research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

  7. The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

  8. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  9. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF... grading of land and rights-of-way and the damage costs associated with the construction and...

  10. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  11. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  12. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  13. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  14. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  15. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  16. 14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard... skill is not required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance...

  17. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  18. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  19. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  20. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  1. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  2. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  3. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  4. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  5. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6857 (56 FR 20551 (1991... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  6. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6886 (56 FR 50661 (1991)), which withdrew 21,636.29 acres of... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  7. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... follows: Public Land Order No. 6960 (58 FR 16628 (1993)), as corrected by PLO No. 6980 (58 FR 33025 (1993... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7811; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6960; WY. AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the...

  8. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6865 (56 FR 32515 (1991)), which... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  9. X-15 landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

  10. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  11. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  12. Balanced future for public lands

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, R.F.

    1981-12-01

    A transcription of remarks made by Robert F. Burford to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission was presented. General policies of the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management under the direction of James Watt were discussed. The Bureau will attempt to streamline the process for management and use of public lands and delegate decision-making authority to state and district offices. The goal of the Bureau was to achieve an environmental and economic balance in the administration of public lands through the orderly development and enhancement of non-renewable resources.

  13. Minerals availability on Federal lands

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstone, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is continuing its effort to make procedures more efficient, and to see if there are areas where it can enhance the possibilities for mineral exploration and development on public lands. The BLM hopes to establish clear and concise policies that will not require constant regulation changes and that wil make needed paper work less burdensome. The goals of the BLM are to make public lands more available and to see more new mineral development take place on these grounds.

  14. Christmas in Physics Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage

  15. Biofuel on contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  16. 43 CFR 2547.3 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2547.3 Section 2547.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Omitted Lands: General § 2547.3 Price of land;...

  17. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-8 Land subject to disposition. (a) Land that may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered thereunder, lands...

  18. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-8 Land subject to disposition. (a) Land that may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered thereunder, lands...

  19. 43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-8 Land subject to disposition. (a) Land that may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered thereunder, lands...

  20. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management. PMID:17530333

  1. Land Use Change and Land Degradation in Southeastern Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall “recuperating” trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  2. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  3. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  4. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Video Gallery

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  5. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

  6. Minnesota Land Management Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstrand, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the Minnesota Land Management Information Center is given and the present operational status and plans for future development are described. The incorporation of LANDSAT data into the system, hardware and software capabilities, and funding are addressed.

  7. Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

  8. STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space C...

  9. Six Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The landing site chosen for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, at about 68 degrees north latitude, is much farther north than the sites where previous spacecraft have landed on Mars.

    Color coding on this map indicates relative elevations based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In longitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south).

  10. Mars Pathfinder Landing Ellipses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Ares Vallis showing different landing ellipses, with color inset of the Chryse Planitia region of Mars showing the outflow channels. The large blue ellipse (100 km by 200 km) to the northwest is an ellipse in the USGS cartographic reference frame designed to avoid streamlined hills to the south and east, craters to the north, and etched terrain to the west (this ellipse is shown in the color inset). The large yellow ellipse (100 km by 200 km) displaced toward the southeast (by 20 km in longitude and 8 km in latitude) is the navigation target ellipse in the revised local cartographic reference frame (which are the latitude and longitude shown in this figure). The elongate light blue ellipse (98 km by 19 km) is the navigation prediction as of late 3 July and early 4 July; it includes part of the streamlined island in the southwest. The gold ellipse (15 km by 8 km) is the prediction with tracking through atmospheric entry. The pink ellipse (41 km by 15 km), which encloses the smallest ellipse (and the location of the lander), is the navigation result with dispersions added for atmospheric entry and descent. The blue X is the location of the lander with respect to surface features identified in Viking orbiter images (located at 19.33 degrees N, 33.55 degrees W in the local reference frame). The location of the lander in inertial space (19.30 degrees N, 33.52 degrees W) from the two-way ranging and Doppler tracking of the lander is at the very northwest edge of the crater, just 2.2 km to the south-southeast of the X. If the location of the lander in inertial space is forced to coincide with its location with respect to surface features, then the resulting cartographic frame is actually 2 km to the south and 0.8 km to the east of the local network. Color mosaic is part of the Oxia Palus Quadrangle (MC 11) of Mars; black and white mosaic from Viking orbiter images of 38 m/pixel resolution; north is at the top.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science

  11. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  12. Studies of Land Atmosphere Coupling Using the Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Kumar, S. V.; Eastman, J. L.; Tao, W.

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies have examined aspects of land atmosphere coupling including the roles of soil moisture and vegetation, on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and initiation and evolution of clouds. However, due to limits in computational resources and/or theoretical knowledge, many of these studies have utilized highly parameterized representations of these components so that the true nature of land atmosphere coupling is still unknown. The NASA/GSFC Land Information System (LIS; http:lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) has now been successfully coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; http:www.wrfmodel.org) model, and now provides a testbed for conducting studies of land-atmosphere coupling at water and energy cycle process resolving horizontal spatial scales (1km or less). LIS is a high-performance Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS; http:ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov) that encapsulates the capabilities of the North American LDAS (NLDAS) and the Global LDAS (GLDAS) into a single software infrastructure. The original LIS consists of several land surface models (e.g., Noah, CLM, VIC, HySSiB, Catchment) that can be run in two modes: uncoupled or coupled. In uncoupled mode, the atmospheric boundary conditions are prescribed using observationally-based precipitation, radiation and meteorological inputs, while in coupled mode, these inputs are predicted by the WRF model. In both cases, LIS incorporates remotely sensed land surface parameters including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Leaf Area Index (LAI). In this talk, we will present results from various coupled case studies indicating a strong sensitivity of the water and energy cycles to several controls, including soil moisture, vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer. We will also demonstrate the value of remotely sensed observations of ecosystem properties on predicting the timing and location of convection.

  13. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  14. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  15. Determining Land Surface Temperature Relations with Land Use-Land Cover and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, Ceyhan; Bektas Balcik, Filiz; Burak Oztaner, Yasar; Guney, Burcu

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth in conjunction with unplanned urbanization, expansion, and encroachment into the limited agricultural fields and green areas have negative impacts on vegetated areas. Land Surface Temperature (LST), Urban Heat Islands (UHI) and air pollution are the most important environmental problems that the extensive part of the world suffers from. The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between LST, air pollution and Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) in Istanbul, using Landsat 8 OLI satellite image. Mono-window algorithm is used to compute LST from Landsat 8 TIR data. In order to determine the air pollution, in-situ measurements of particulate matter (PM10) of the same day as the Landsat 8 OLI satellite image are obtained. The results of this data are interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method and LULC categories of Istanbul were determined by using remote sensing indices. Error matrix was created for accuracy assessment. The relationship between LST, air pollution and LULC categories are determined by using regression analysis method. Keywords: Land Surface Temperature (LST), air pollution, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC), Istanbul

  16. ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

  17. You Can Accurately Predict Land Acquisition Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigan, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Land acquisition costs were tested for predictability based upon the 1962 assessed valuations of privately held land acquired for campus expansion by the University of Wisconsin from 1963-1965. By correlating the land acquisition costs of 108 properties acquired during the 3 year period with--(1) the assessed value of the land, (2) the assessed…

  18. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  19. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  20. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position, except... wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23.73(b). (c...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  11. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence is a global problem, but a global land subsidence map is not available yet. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence, as land subsidence causes extensive damage (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). With the global land subsidence map relative sea level rise predictions may be improved, contributing to global flood risk calculations. In this paper, we discuss the approach and progress we have made so far in making a global land subsidence map. Initial results will be presented and discussed, and we give an outlook on the work needed to derive a global land subsidence map.

  12. Summary of NASA landing-gear research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Sleeper, R. K.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary of the airplane landing gear research underway at NASA. The technology areas include: ground handling simulator, antiskid braking systems, space shuttle nose-gear shimmy, active control landing gear, wire brush skid landing gear, air cushion landing systems, tire/surface friction characteristics, tire mechanical properties, tire-tread materials, powered wheels for taxiing, and crosswind landing gear. This paper deals mainly with the programs on tire-tread materials, powered wheel taxiing, air cushion landing systems, and crosswind landing gear research with particular emphasis on previously unreported results of recently completed flight tests. Work in the remaining areas is only mentioned.

  13. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  14. Enabling Pinpoint Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Phil; George, Sean; Wolf, Aron A.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a pinpoint landing (PPL) on Mars. These PPL missions will be required to deliver about 1000 kg of useful payload to the surface of Mars, therefore soft landings are of primary interest. The landing sites will be in a mid to to high latitude with possible sites about 2.5 km above the martian mean surface altitude. The applicable EDL is described and reviewed in phases. The evaluation approach is reviewed and the requirements for an accurate landing are reviewed. The descent of the unguided aeroshell entry phase dispersion due to trajectory and ballistic coefficient variations are shown in charts. These charts view the dispersions from three entries, Entry from orbit, and two types of direct entry. There is discussion of the differences in steerable subsonic parachute control vs dispersions, and the propulsive phase delta velocity vs dispersions. Data is presented for the three trajectory phases (i.e., Aeroshell, supersonic and subsonic chute) for Direct entry and low orbit entry. The results of the analysis is presented, including possibilities for mitigation of dispersions. The analysis of the navigation error is summarized, and the trajectory biasing for martian winds is assessed.

  15. Land use classification in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  16. Sentinel-3 For Land Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Donlon, Craig; Bouvet, Marc; Buongiorno, Alessandra; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in a routine, long-term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The launch of Sentinel-3 was successful last February 2016. The Sentinel-3 missions are jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT on the marine products and the satellite monitoring and control. All facilities supporting the Sentinel-3 operations are in place. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products to the users. For a detailed description of the core data products please see https://earth.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-3/data-products. On request from the European Commission, ESA and EUMETSAT are presently assessing the possibility to include further core data products, in particular on aerosol optical depth, fire monitoring and synergistic products over land. This paper will provide an update on the status of the mission operations after the initial months in orbit and provide in particular an overview on the status of the Sentinel-3

  17. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Secretary acquired title to land in trust. See 61 FR 18082 (Apr. 24, 1996). The Department had determined... for issuing trust acquisition decisions. 78 FR 32214. BIA then extended the original comment deadline of July 29, 2013 to September 3, 2013. See 78 FR 49990 (Aug. 16, 2013). Following tribal...

  18. Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

  19. Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Andrew Scott

    2015-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of Building M7-505 of institutional controls that have been implemented at the site. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with Building M7-505, institutional land use controls (LUCs) are necessary to prohibit the use of groundwater from the site. LUCs are also necessary to prevent access to soil under electrical equipment in the northwest portion of the site. Controls necessary to prevent human exposure will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  20. The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

  1. FEDERAL MINERAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.

  2. Future Landing Capabilities of the Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipp, K. A.; Hines, E. K.; Chen, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines landing site elevation capability as a function of landing season, for a future mission using the heritage MSL/Mars 2020 EDL system. Results are presented for a 1200kg landed mass with different parachute technology assumptions.

  3. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  4. This Land Is Our Land? This Land Is Your Land: The Decolonizing Journeys of White Outdoor Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Across Canada, many Aboriginal peoples and communities are actively resisting environmental destruction and communicating to settler-Canadians traditions of respect for the land. Moreover, some Indigenous scholars and educators are calling for a foregrounding of Indigenous ways of knowing in environmental education for all students. However,…

  5. Fruit Heights Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Rob [R-UT-1

    2013-03-06

    07/30/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  7. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  8. MAINE LANDS OVER 2700 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON2700 contains areas in Maine with elevations greater than 2700 feet, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Areas above 2700 feet are regulated by the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission (MELURC). Areas were generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using A...

  9. Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.

    PubMed

    Owen, D F

    1966-04-01

    Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

  10. Carbon sequestration and land degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

  11. Oregon Coastal Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-07-31

    11/20/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-342. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  13. Second generation Mars landed missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, J.; Rivellini, T.; Sabahi, D.; Thurman, S.; Eisen, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the candidate missions being considered for the next generation projects, discusses the new approaches being developed to implement safe and accurate entry, descent and landing to the Martian surface, and describes the rover technology that enables the long distance and duration surface mission.

  14. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

  15. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  16. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  17. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  18. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  19. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  20. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Its drag chute deployed, Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop after touchdown on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  1. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis stirs up dust as it touches down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  2. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A fire rescue truck stands by for safety reasons as Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  3. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  4. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  5. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  6. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  7. 43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to sale. 2710.0-8 Section 2710.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions §...

  8. 43 CFR 2622.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to selection. 2622.0-8 Section 2622.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Quantity and Special Grant Selections § 2622.0-8 Lands subject...

  9. 43 CFR 2610.0-8 - Lands subject to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to application. 2610.0-8 Section 2610.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CAREY ACT GRANTS Carey Act Grants, General § 2610.0-8 Lands subject...

  10. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  12. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  13. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  14. 43 CFR 3422.3-3 - Unsurveyed lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unsurveyed lands. 3422.3-3 Section 3422.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... lands. If the land is unsurveyed, the successful bidder shall not be given notice to comply with...

  15. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...) If the lands applied for do not conform to the rectangular system of public land surveys, but...

  16. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  17. 43 CFR 2911.0-8 - Lands available for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands available for leasing. 2911.0-8 Section 2911.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-8 Lands available for leasing. Any...

  18. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  19. Doppler Lidar Descent Sensor for Planetary Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, F.; Pierrottet, D. F.; Petway, L. B.; Hines, G. D.; Barnes, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    Future robotic and manned missions to Mars demand accurate knowledge of ground velocity and altitude to ensure soft landing at the designated landing location. To meet this requirement, a prototype Doppler lidar has been developed and demonstrated.

  20. 14 CFR 27.75 - Landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approach. (b) Multiengine rotorcraft must be able to be landed safely after complete power failure under... applicant; (2) The approach and landing made with— (i) Power off, for single engine rotorcraft and...

  1. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  2. Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

  3. Mars Rover/Sample Return landing strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; German, Darla J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and results of an investigation of the Mars Rover/Sample Return mission's landing strategy, together with the trade-offs of different landing strategies. The percentile points and the descriptive statistics of the probability distribution of traverse distances are calculated using a simple model formulated on the basis of landing error characteristics. The results show that variations in the landing stratgegy can significantly affect the traverse distance requirements, which range from 20 to 200 km.

  4. Accurate Inventories Of Irrigated Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.; Thomas, R.; Brown, C.

    1992-01-01

    System for taking land-use inventories overcomes two problems in estimating extent of irrigated land: only small portion of large state surveyed in given year, and aerial photographs made on 1 day out of year do not provide adequate picture of areas growing more than one crop per year. Developed for state of California as guide to controlling, protecting, conserving, and distributing water within state. Adapted to any large area in which large amounts of irrigation water needed for agriculture. Combination of satellite images, aerial photography, and ground surveys yields data for computer analysis. Analyst also consults agricultural statistics, current farm reports, weather reports, and maps. These information sources aid in interpreting patterns, colors, textures, and shapes on Landsat-images.

  5. Global Consequences of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

    2005-07-01

    Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

  6. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  7. Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

  8. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  9. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  10. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  11. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and purchase. The Act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 36), provides that “any mineral lands in any forest reservation which have been or which may be shown to be such.... This makes mineral lands in the forest reserves in the public land states, subject to location...

  12. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and purchase. The Act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 36), provides that “any mineral lands in any forest reservation which have been or which may be shown to be such.... This makes mineral lands in the forest reserves in the public land states, subject to location...

  13. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and purchase. The Act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 36), provides that “any mineral lands in any forest reservation which have been or which may be shown to be such.... This makes mineral lands in the forest reserves in the public land states, subject to location...

  14. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and purchase. The Act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 36), provides that “any mineral lands in any forest reservation which have been or which may be shown to be such.... This makes mineral lands in the forest reserves in the public land states, subject to location...

  15. Black Rural Land Decline in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

  16. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  17. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  18. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  19. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Annual or more frequent payments for use of land shall be recorded in the rent subsidiary record... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall...

  1. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  2. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing... initiation of movement of the power controls from minimum flight-idle position; (2) The landing gear extended... initiation of movement of the power controls from the minimum flight idle position; (2) Landing gear...

  3. Revitalizing the Land Grant University: An Abridgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, G. Edward

    The institutional mission orientation of land grant universities and problems faced by these institutions are discussed, along with five tasks involved in redefining and revitalizing the land grant university. A traditional responsibility of land grant universities was to apply science and technology to solve societal problems. Faculty were…

  4. Mars exobiology landing sites for future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landheim, Ragnhild; Greeley, Ronald; Desmarais, David; Farmer, Jack D.; Klein, Harold

    1993-01-01

    The selection of landing sites for Exobiology is an important issue for planning for future Mars missions. Results of a recent site selection study which focused on potential landing sites described in the Mars Landing Site Catalog are presented. In addition, basic Exobiology science objectives in Mars exploration are reviewed, and the procedures used in site evaluation and prioritization are outlined.

  5. USGS releases comprehensive land surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released the latest edition of its National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2011), the nation's most comprehensive look at land surface conditions. The database divides the lower 48 states into 9 billion geographic cells, providing consistent information about land conditions on regional and nationwide scales.

  6. GEWEX-RFA Land-Ocean Mask

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-20

    GEWEX RFA Land-Ocean Mask A 2.5° resolution land-ocean mask has been developed for the Radiative Flux Assessment. It can be used ... creating global, regional, or zonal time series for land or ocean. Format - Pixels are arranged as in global map standard . ...

  7. Forming Weld Lands On Metal Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Forming shoe pounds edge of newly inserted plate workpiece. After many passes of shoe and advances of plate, thick land builds up at edge. Workpiece heated to enable metal to flow without strain hardening. Proposed upset-forming process replaces relatively expensive, time-consuming, and wasteful process in which integral weld lands created by machining metal away from plates everywhere except at lands.

  8. Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

  9. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  10. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  11. 77 FR 39724 - Land Acquisitions: 19 Pueblos

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions: 19 Pueblos AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of final agency determination to take land into trust. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 8.43 acres of land into trust for...

  12. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  13. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  14. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips of land or...

  15. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of...

  16. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23...; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in §...

  17. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23... gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as...

  18. 14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... least 3.3 percent with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing...; (3) The wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as defined in § 23... gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the landing position; and (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as...

  19. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.2 Landing requirements. (a) Place of landing. Aircraft... must land only at airports that have been authorized by CBP pursuant to 19 CFR 122.153 as an airport of... from the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in the case of aircraft operated...

  20. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  1. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  2. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  3. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  8. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency landing: (i) Is not charged a landing fee. (ii) Pays all costs for labor, material, parts, use of... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  10. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  11. STS-53 Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

  12. Fruit Heights Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2013-03-07

    07/30/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-85. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Land use of northern megalopolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The major objective is to map and digitize the land use of northern megalopolis, the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and to evaluate ERTS as a planning tool for megalopolitan areas. The southern New England region provides a good test ERTS's capabilities because of its complex landscape. Not only are there great differences in the degree of urban development, but in relief and vegetative cover as well.

  14. Lunar Landing Re-enactment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The re-enactment of astronaut Neil Armstrong's first steps off the lunar lander provided quite the occasion for many of the on-lookers at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, during the celebration of the 30th arniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The celebration in Huntsville lasted over the weekend with visitors including Buzz Aldrin and other Apollo astronauts.

  15. Zooming in on Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

    This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  16. [Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

    2010-12-01

    This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

  17. 18 CFR 367.3890 - Account 389, Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 389, Land and land rights. 367.3890 Section 367.3890 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3890 Account 389, Land and land rights....

  18. 76 FR 18244 - Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... No. 6839 (56 FR 13413 (1991)), which modified Public Land Order No. 2344 (26 FR 3701 (1961... No. 6839 (56 FR 13413 (1991)). Authority: 43 CFR 2310.4. Dated: March 23, 2011. Wilma A. Lewis... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839;...

  19. Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmudov, Zafar; Ergashev, Murod

    2015-04-01

    Tackling Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan "Project approach" Khayrullo Ibodzoda, Zafar Mahmoudov, Murod Ergashev, Kamoliddin Abdulloev Among 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia, Tajikistan is estimated to be the most vulnerable to the climate change impacts depending on its high exposure and sensitivity combined with a very low adaptive capacity. The agricultural sector of Tajikistan is subject to lower and more erratic rainfalls, as well as dryness of water resources due to the possible temperature rising in the region, high evaporation, reducing the accumulation of snow in the mountain glaciers and increased frequency of extreme events. Climate change and variability are likely to pose certain risks, especially for those who prefer natural agriculture or pasture management that just reinforces the need for sound, adapted to new climatic conditions and improved principles of land management. Adoption of new strategies and best practices on sustainable land and water management for agricultural ecosystems will help the farmers and communities in addressing the abovementioned problems, adapt and become more resilient to changing climate by increasing wellbeing of local population, and contributing to food security and restoring productive natural resources. The Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihoods Project is being financed by the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and Global Environment Facility (GEF). The Project goal is to enable the rural population to increase their productive assets by improving management of natural resources and building resilience to climate change in selected climate vulnerable sites. The project will facilitate introduction of innovative measures on land use and agricultural production by providing small grants at the village level and grants for the Pasture User Groups (PUGs) at jamoat level in order to implement joint plans of pasture management and wellbred livestock, also for the Water User

  20. Land use map, Finney County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A. (Principal Investigator); Williams, D. L.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Methods for the mapping of land use in agricultural regions are developed and applied to preparation of a land use map of Finney County, Kanas. Six land use categories were identified from an MSS-5 image. These categories are: (1) large field irrigation; (2) small field irrigation; (3) dryland cultivation; (4) rangeland; (5) cultural features; and (6) riverine land. The map is composed of basically homogeneous regions with definable mixtures of the six categories. Each region is bounded by an ocularly evident change in land use.

  1. Vertical motion requirements for landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the significance of vertical acceleration cues in the simulation of the visual approach and landing maneuver. Landing performance measures were obtained for four subject pilots operating a visual landing simulation device which provides up to plus or minus 40 feet of vertical motion. Test results indicate that vertical motion cues are utilized in the landing task, and that they are particularly important in the simulation of aircraft with marginal longitudinal handling qualities. To assure vertical motion cues of the desired fidelity in the landing tasks, it appears that a simulator must have excursion capabilities of at least plus or minus 20 feet.

  2. The ExoMars 2016 Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Aboudan, A.; Pacifici, A.; Cannarsa, F.; Murana, A.; Portigliotti, S.; Marcer, A.; Lorenzoni, L.

    2015-10-01

    We present the analysis of the engineering constraints of the ExoMars 2016 landing site in order to assess the EDM landing safety The landing ellipse of ExoMars 2016 is located at Meridiani Planum. The EXM2016 ellipse is 100 km long and 15 km large, with a characterization of 110 km long and 25 km large; it covers a flat area to the west of the Opportunity landing site. The EDL operations require such landing area in line with its ballistic approach. A large number of data sets have been used for this analysis and the final outputs have been a set of maps and the final hazard assessment.

  3. Offshore investigations on Wilkes land-Victoria land margin, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Eittreim, S.L.

    1984-04-01

    In January 1984, the US Geological Survey research vessel S. P. Lee carried out investigations of the Antarctic continental margin in the Wilkes Land Victoria Land areas, using 24-channel and high-resolution seismic, sonobuoy refraction, gravity, magnetic, and bottom-sampling methods. This investigation augmented previous surveys of the Dumont d'Urville area by the French Petroleum Institute and explored new areas west and east to the boundary between the onshore Wilkes basin and the Victoria Land highlands. These surveys defined sediment thickness distribution and seismic stratigraphy in this frontier area. The tectonic style of the boundary between the East Antarctic craton and the younger crust of West Antarctica in the Ross Sea is revealed by one multichannel seismic line across this important boundary. The initial breakup of Antarctical from Australia occurred as a slowly spreading phase during the middle Cretaceous. According to Deep Sea Drilling Project results on the Tasman Rise, conditions of restricted circulation existed in the growing basin between the continents before the late Eocene. After the late Eocene, the major oceanic circulation pattern was established. Before that time, conditions were favorable for preservation of organic-carbon deposits on the sea floor. Among the questions to be addressed with this data are the following. How do apparent subsidence rates of this passive margin compare with others around the world. Does the onshore subglacial Wilkes basins to the Otway and Ceduna basins of Australia exists. What is the effect of the ice cap on the stratigraphy of this margin. Do the two major Tertiary ice advances have conspicuous seismic-stratigraphic signatures.

  4. Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

  5. Dynamic Land Surface Classifcations using Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, H.; Tian, Y.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Harrison, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface emissivity in microwave frequencies is critical to the remote sensing of soil moisture, precipitation, and vegetation. Different land surfaces have different spectral signatures in the microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Their spatial and temporal behaviors are also highly variable. These properties are yet not well understood in microwave frequencies, despite their capability in detecting water-related variables in the atmosphere and land surface. A classification scheme was developed to stratify the Earth's land surfaces based on their seasonally dynamic microwave signatures. An unsupervised clustering approach was used identify and distinguish data groupings along two microwave based indicies. Land surface data clusters were mapped to determine their spatial relationships to known land cover groupings. Differences in land surface clusters were analyzed in their spatial consistency and their direction and magnitude of land surface change. It was found that vegetation and topography were the predominant contributors to change between seasons. Land surface extremes of sandy desert and closed canopy tropical forest displayed minimal intra-annual variability while transitional zones, such as the Sahel and North American temperate forests, exhibited the most variability. Distinct microwave signatures varied between seasons along a latittudinal gradient. Overall variability in land surface types increased at high lattitudes. This classification will help inform research studies maniputlating the microwave frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to better characterize land surface dynamics, and will be very useful in the validation of radiative transfer models and quantification of uncertainty in global precipitation monitoring.

  6. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  7. Landsafe: Landing Site Risk Analysis Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Bostelmann, J.; Cornet, Y.; Heipke, C.; Philippe, C.; Poncelet, N.; de Rosa, D.; Vandeloise, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe) is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  8. Effects land surface type, land use, and land use change on aquatic-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from tropical forests and peat lands of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Abelleira Martínez, O.; Anshari, G.; Ikawa, H.; Lawrence, W. T.; Metz, M.; Neteler, M.; Nuriman, M.; Rocchini, D.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical peat lands appear to be loosing huge amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to patterns of land use and land use change including conversion of tropical forest peat lands to palm oil production and other agricultural endeavors and forest exploitation. Here, we look at the effect of land use patterns on the export of carbon to tropical river systems and the efflux from tropical rivers to the atmosphere. Levels of pcarbon dioxide, DOC and POC were measured in the Kapuas River, the longest river in Borneo. Patterns of land use and land use change were correlated with export rates of organic matter to the river as well as the vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river and delta to the atmosphere. Land conversion of tropical forests on peat land soils to agriculture, including palm oil production, had some of the highest rates of lateral fluxes of organic carbon to the river system, and among the highest fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river to the atmosphere. This approach illustrates the utility of using a combination of methods: pcarbon dioxide measurement, water chemistry, temporal remote sensing, and modeling to understand and quantify the impact of land use change on GHG emissions from tropical peat lands. Boat based eddy covariance, developed and tested in the coastal zones of the Pacific Ocean, promises to provide a powerful addition to these approaches.

  9. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. ); Loureiro, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  10. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.; Loureiro, F.

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  11. Improving Hydrology in Land Ice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen; Flowers, Gwenn; Schoof, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Community Earth System Model Land Ice Working Group Meeting; Boulder, Colorado, 13 January 2011 ; Recent observations indicate that mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets (“land ice”) is increasing. The drivers of these changes are not well understood, and modeling the land ice response to them remains challenging. As a result, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change explicitly avoided speculating on 21st-century sea level rise from ice dynamical processes in its fourth assessment report. The mismatch between observations of land ice change and model skill at mimicking those changes is behind recent efforts to develop next-generation land ice models. Necessary improvements to existing models include improved dynamics, coupling to climate models, and better representations of important boundary conditions and physical processes. Basal sliding, the primary control on the rate of land ice delivery to the oceans, is one such boundary condition that is largely controlled by land ice hydrology.

  12. Hotspots of land use change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Erb, Karlheinz; Estel, Stephan; Jepsen, Martin R.; Müller, Daniel; Plutzar, Christoph; Stürck, Julia; Verkerk, Pieter J.; Verburg, Peter H.; Reenberg, Anette

    2016-06-01

    Assessing changes in the extent and management intensity of land use is crucial to understanding land-system dynamics and their environmental and social outcomes. Yet, changes in the spatial patterns of land management intensity, and thus how they might relate to changes in the extent of land uses, remains unclear for many world regions. We compiled and analyzed high-resolution, spatially-explicit land-use change indicators capturing changes in both the extent and management intensity of cropland, grazing land, forests, and urban areas for all of Europe for the period 1990–2006. Based on these indicators, we identified hotspots of change and explored the spatial concordance of area versus intensity changes. We found a clear East–West divide with regard to agriculture, with stronger cropland declines and lower management intensity in the East compared to the West. Yet, these patterns were not uniform and diverging patterns of intensification in areas highly suitable for farming, and disintensification and cropland contraction in more marginal areas emerged. Despite the moderate overall rates of change, many regions in Europe fell into at least one land-use change hotspot during 1990–2006, often related to a spatial reorganization of land use (i.e., co-occurring area decline and intensification or co-occurring area increase and disintensification). Our analyses highlighted the diverse spatial patterns and heterogeneity of land-use changes in Europe, and the importance of jointly considering changes in the extent and management intensity of land use, as well as feedbacks among land-use sectors. Given this spatial differentiation of land-use change, and thus its environmental impacts, spatially-explicit assessments of land-use dynamics are important for context-specific, regionalized land-use policy making.

  13. Global Land Use History: A New Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Human use of land has transformed the terrestrial biosphere, causing global changes in ecosystems, landscapes, biogeochemistry, climate, and biodiversity. This global transformation is commonly described as recent in human-environment history. Interdisciplinary paleo and historical data reconstructions and global land use and land cover modeling challenge this view, indicating that human use of land has been extensive and sustained for millennia, and may represent more of a recovery than an acceleration of land use in this century and beyond. Here we present a new global synthesis of recent scientific work on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a global force transforming the Earth system. Central to this synthesis is early human use of fire to engineer ecosystems and other systemic changes in land use dynamics, which together explain how relatively small human populations may have caused widespread and profound ecological changes early in the Holocene, while the largest human populations in history are associated with forests recovery across large regions. While quantitative global models of Holocene and even contemporary land use are still at early stage of development, improved land use histories and models that incorporate land change processes offer a more spatially detailed and accurate view of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. The implicit view from the Anthropocene that humans have reached a historical moment in which "wild nature" is threatened is thus challenged by a view that humans are ancestral shapers and permanent stewards of Earth's terrestrial surface. Land use intensification processes have long sustained human interactions with the terrestrial biosphere, and they continue to evolve as populations grow and urbanize. While these processes are rapidly shifting from their historic patterns in both scale and type, integrative land use and land cover models that incorporate

  14. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  15. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  16. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-07-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist, but generally they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, the characteristic phenological behaviour of different crops affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for Central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for Central Europe using statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types, taking a multiseasonal series of MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) into account. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops. The hydrological impact of the improved land cover map was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment.

  17. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-10-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist but generally, they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, arable land comprises a huge variety of different crops with characteristic phenological behaviour, demonstrated in this paper with Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurements exemplarily for maize and winter wheat. This affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for central Europe using multiseasonal MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops due to their different phenological behaviour. Subsequently, the generated phenological classes were subdivided following statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types. The impact of the improved land use/cover map on evapotranspiration was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment with the hydrological model PROMET. Simulations based on the newly developed land cover approach showed a more detailed evapotranspiration pattern compared to model results using the traditional CLC map, which is ignorant of most arable subdivisions. Due to the improved temporal behaviour and spatial allocation of evapotranspiration processes in the new land cover approach, the simulated water balance more closely matches the measured gauge.

  18. Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew Rescue Vehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving non-deployment of landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was to develop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. The initial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10 ft/s vertical and 57 ft/s longitudinal velocity. An MSC/NASTRAN structural model was supplied by JSC and was converted to a dynamic MSC/DYTRAN model. The MSC/NASTRAN model did not include seats or floor structure; thus, the acceleration of a lumped-mass attached to the bulkhead near each assumed occupant location was used to determine injury risk for each occupant. The worst case for injury was nondeployment of all gears. The mildest case was nondeployment of one main gear. Although a probability for minor injury was predicted for all cases, it is expected that the addition of energy-absorbing floor structure and seats would greatly diminish the probability of injury.

  19. 43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title Act § 2541.4 Price of land; payment....

  20. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  1. Land mobile satellite propagation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    During the Fall of 1987 a land mobile satellite demonstration using the MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W was performed. While all the data have not been digested, some observations are in order. First, the system worked remarkably well for the margins indicated. Second, when the system worked poorly, the experimenters could almost always identify terrain or other obstacles causing blockage. Third, the forward link seems relatively more reliable than the return link, and occasional return link problems occured which have not been entirely explained.

  2. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breguet, Louis

    1929-01-01

    In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

  3. The Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.

    1991-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.

  4. The X-34 Demonstrator Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the X-34 Demonstrator landing in a dessert. Part of the Pathfinder Program, the X-34 was a reusable technology testbed vehicle that was designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center to demonstrate technologies that were essential to lowering the cost of access to space. Powered by a LOX and RP-1 liquid Fastrac engine, the X-34 would be capable of speeds up to Mach 8 and altitudes of 250,000-feet. The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  5. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  6. 43 CFR 5511.2-4 - Timber on withdrawn lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber on withdrawn lands. 5511.2-4 Section 5511.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 5511.2-4 Timber on withdrawn lands. Sections 5511.2-1 to 5511.2-5 are inapplicable to timber...

  7. 43 CFR 2545.4 - Price of land; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price of land; other conditions. 2545.4 Section 2545.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED...

  8. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  9. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  10. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  11. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  12. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  13. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  14. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  15. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  16. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... within a particular area. Sole and complete jurisdiction over such lands for wildlife conservation... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal...

  17. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section 3101.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... within a particular area. Sole and complete jurisdiction over such lands for wildlife conservation... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal...

  19. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... within a particular area. Sole and complete jurisdiction over such lands for wildlife conservation... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal...

  20. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  1. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  2. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  3. 43 CFR 2911.0-8 - Lands available for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands available for leasing. 2911.0-8 Section 2911.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... available for leasing. Any contiguous unreserved and unappropriated public lands, surveyed or...

  4. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  5. 43 CFR 7.35 - Permitting procedures for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permitting procedures for Indian lands. 7.35 Section 7.35 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF... Indian lands. (a) If the lands involved in a permit application are Indian lands, the consent of...

  6. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  7. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  9. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  10. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  12. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  13. 43 CFR 9239.7-1 - Public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public lands. 9239.7-1 Section 9239.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.7-1 Public lands....

  14. 43 CFR 9239.7-1 - Public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public lands. 9239.7-1 Section 9239.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.7-1 Public lands....

  15. 43 CFR 9239.7-1 - Public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public lands. 9239.7-1 Section 9239.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.7-1 Public lands....

  16. 43 CFR 9239.7-1 - Public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public lands. 9239.7-1 Section 9239.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.7-1 Public lands....

  17. 43 CFR 8365.1 - Public lands-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public lands-general. 8365.1 Section 8365.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. Additional rules for developed sites and areas are found...

  18. 43 CFR 8365.1 - Public lands-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public lands-general. 8365.1 Section 8365.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. Additional rules for developed sites and areas are found...

  19. 43 CFR 2911.0-8 - Lands available for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands available for leasing. 2911.0-8 Section 2911.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-8...

  20. 43 CFR 2201.1-1 - Assembled land exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assembled land exchanges. 2201.1-1 Section 2201.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-1 Assembled land exchanges. (a) Whenever the authorized...

  1. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of Land... of acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, and are not subject to the requirements of § 4110.1....

  2. 43 CFR 2201.1-1 - Assembled land exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assembled land exchanges. 2201.1-1 Section 2201.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-1 Assembled land exchanges. (a) Whenever the authorized...

  3. 43 CFR 2201.1-1 - Assembled land exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assembled land exchanges. 2201.1-1 Section 2201.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-1 Assembled land exchanges. (a) Whenever the authorized...

  4. 43 CFR 3471.2 - Effect of land transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of land transactions. 3471.2 Section 3471.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.2 Effect of land transactions....

  5. Determination of land degradation causes in Tongyu County, Northeast China via land cover change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jay; Liu, Yansui

    2010-02-01

    Tongyu County in Northeast China is highly prone to land degradation due to its fragile physical settings characterized by a flat topography, a semi-arid climate, and a shallow groundwater table. This study aims to determine the causes of land degradation through detecting the long-term trend of land cover changes. Degraded lands were mapped from satellite images recorded in 1992 and 2002. These land cover maps revealed that the area subject to land degradation in the form of soil salinization, waterlogging and desertification increased from 2400 to 4214 km 2, in sharp contrast to most severely degraded land that decreased by 122.5 km 2. Newly degraded land stems from productive farmland (263 km 2), harvested farmland (551 km 2), and grassland (468 km 2). Therefore, the worsened degradation situation is attributed to excessive reclamation of grassland for farming, over cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation. Mechanical, biological, ecological and engineering means should be adopted to rehabilitate the degraded land.

  6. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing May 16 on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their

  7. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their

  8. Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, C.

    2012-04-01

    A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible

  9. Beagle-2 landing site atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, G.; Chicarro, A.; Rodionova, J.; Shevchenko, V.; Ilukhina, J.; Kozlova, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Beagle-2 lander of the Mars Express mission will come to rest on the surface of Isidis Planitia in late December 2003 to carry out a range of geochemistry and exobiology experi-ments. We are compiling an atlas of the presently available data products pertinent to the landing site at 11.6N 90.75E, which is intended for distribution both as a printed and an electronic resource. The atlas will include Viking and MOC-WA image mosaics, and a catalogue of high-resolution im-ages from MOC and THEMIS with location maps. There will be various MOLA topography-based products: colour-scaled, contoured, and shaded maps, slope, and detrended relief. Simulated camera panoramas from various potential landing locations may assist in determining the spacecraft’s position. Other maps, both raw, and in composites with image mosa-ics, will cover TES thermal inertia and spectroscopy, and Odyssey gamma and neutron spectroscopy. Maps at the scale of the Isidis context will additionally cover geology, tem-perature cycles, and atmospheric circulation. Sample are shown below.

  10. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  11. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour glides to a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of October 10, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker, making his third flight, and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt, on his first mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  12. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The shuttle Endeavour comes in for a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker making his third flight and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt on his first mission. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload commander making his second flight; Steven L. Smith on his first flight; Daniel W. Bursch making his second flight; and Peter J.K. Wisoff making his second flight. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only

  13. Lacustrine Environments and Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Marinangeli, L.

    1999-01-01

    The most promising sites for landing exploration on Mars are lacustrine deposits because on Earth these environments bear a wealth of life varying form benthic to plantonic organisms. Based on the state-of-the-art geology, several areas are thought to be covered by standing bodies of water and, among them, the ones contained in impact craters are the most recognisable. Craters provide a pre-formed basin with well defined rims and the body of water inside could form more evident morphological features than in lakes with broader and less defined margins. The undoubt identification of lacustrine environments will rise from the availability of mineralogical data and high resolution imaging from the future missions. However, the current data of MGS mission do provide enough compelling evidence strongly suggesting the presence of these bodies of water. Lacustrine deposits are quite good landing sites even in term of safety. Usually the floor is remarkably flat and, apart from coarse-grained basin margins, the sediment of the lake bottom is fine-grained. Moreover, the possible rough topography of the substratum can be buried by the lacustrine sedimentation that tends to smooth rough surfaces and relief.

  14. STS-55 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles

  15. Land-use planning: One geologist's viewpoint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zen, E.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Planning for the best use of land and its resources should take fully into consideration the long-term consequences of each type of use in order to stretch out most beneficially the well-being of society in the future, and to protect the integrity of the land and its biota. Three kinds of land-use can be distinguished for planning purposes. Reversible land-use leaves the land, after use, essentially as it was before; little or no man-induced modification remains. An example of reversible use in the United States is the designation of certain public lands as Wilderness. Terminal land-use commits the land to a chosen particular use, and any attempt at reversal requires either time-scales that are long compared with the expected lifespan of the social and political institution, or a commitment of resources that is too high for society to consider worth bearing. Examples of terminal land-use are location of metropolises and sites of toxic and/or radioactive waste disposals; by its nature the list grows monotonically. A current source of some social tension arises from the fact that Wilderness designation appears to assign a terminal-use status by legislative fiat, whereas in fact the land is being used reversibly. In between these two extremes of reversible and terminal land-use, the bulk of land-use is sequential, in which each use of land changes its potentials and configurations, and these changes are mainly irreversible. One goal of geologic input to land-use planning is to identify the various pathways along which a given land may be used, in order to extract the greatest benefit to society with the least harm to the land and its life. The proposed planning format consists of identification of (1) types of land, (2) types of use, (3) nature of consumption of resources when (2) acts upon (1), (4) identification of alternative pathways of land recovery to the original or some new state, and (5) due consideration of potentials for future use. Some consumptions are

  16. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on

  17. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  18. 77 FR 46112 - Public Land Order No. 7793; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 1535; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7793; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 1535; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order partially revokes the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 1535 insofar as it affects 14.43 acres...

  19. 76 FR 21914 - Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Order No. 6845 (56 FR 14865 (1991)), which withdrew 200 acres of public land from settlement, sale... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  20. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  1. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  2. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  3. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  4. Access to Land Data Products Through the Land Processes DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaassen, A. L.; Gacke, C. K.

    2004-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The LP DAAC is responsible for archiving, product development, distribution, and user support of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land products derived from data acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites and processing and distribution of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. These data are applied in scientific research, management of natural resources, emergency response to natural disaster, and Earth Science Education. There are several web interfaces by which the inventory may be searched and the products ordered. The LP DAAC web site (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/) provides product-specific information and links to data access tools. The primary search and order tool is the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) (http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/) that allows users to search data holdings, retrieve descriptions of data sets, view browse images, and place orders. The EDG is the only tool to search the entire inventory of ASTER and MODIS products available from the LP DAAC. The Data Pool (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/datapool/datapool.asp) is an online archive that provides immediate FTP access to selected LP DAAC data products. The data can be downloaded by going directly to the FTP site, where you can navigate to the desired granule, metadata file or browse image. It includes the ability to convert files from the standard HDF-EOS data format into GeoTIFF, to change the data projections, or perform spatial subsetting by using the HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF Converter (HEG) for selected data types. The Browse Tool also known as the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http

  5. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing May 16 on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their

  6. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their

  7. Space Shuttle longitudinal landing flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program took on the challenge of providing a manual landing capability for an operational vehicle returning from orbit. Some complex challenges were encountered in developing the longitudinal flying qualities required to land the Orbiter manually in an operational environment. Approach and landing test flights indicated a tendency of pilot-induced oscillation near landing. Changes in the operational procedures reduced the difficulty of the landing task, and an adaptive stick filter was incorporated to reduce the severity of any pilot-induced oscillatory motions. Fixed-base, moving-base, and in-flight simulations were used for the evaluations. Overall, the Orbiter control system and operational procedures produced a good capability to perform routinely precise landings with a large, unpowered vehicle that has a low lift-to-drag ratio.

  8. Environmental health consequences of land mines.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Mercer, M A

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the environmental effects of anti-personnel land mines globally. Land mines represent an immediate environmental health problem. Between 60 and 70 million land mines are currently in place in over 70 countries. Designed to kill or main humans, including civilians, they injure an estimated 1, 200 persons and kill another 800 every week. Land-mine injuries tend to be serious; an estimated 300,000 persons worldwide have been disabled by them. The problem, politically very controversial, can be resolved only by preventing the further placement of mines, by demining of areas already mined, and by coping with the personal and environmental devastation that they have already caused. Environmental health personnel should be involved in promoting awareness of the problem, in improving services for land-mine victims, and in promoting political efforts to ban further use of land mines. PMID:10926729

  9. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  10. LSD (Landing System Development) Impact Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullio, R.; Riva, N.; Pellegrino, P.; Deloo, P.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of the Exploration Programs, a soft landing on the planet surface is foreseen. To ensure a successful final landing phase, a landing system by using leg tripod design landing legs with adequate crushable damping system was selected, capable of absorbing the residual velocities (vertical, horizontal and angular) at touch- down, insuring stability. TAS-I developed a numerical non linear dynamic methodology for the landing impact simulation of the Lander system by using a commercial explicit finite element analysis code (i.e. Altair RADIOSS). In this paper the most significant FE modeling approaches and results of the analytical simulation of landing impact are reported, especially with respect to the definition of leg dimensioning loads and the design update of selected parts (if necessary).

  11. Monitoring land use on military installations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, K.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends is a research projects aimed to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary US land use and land-cover change. The project is using the EPA Level III eco-regions as a geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The results are expected to be used for collaborative environmental change consequences research with various partners including the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The Land Cover project can provide geographic understanding of the state of the nation's ecosystems. The project is scheduled to be completed by 2010 and expected to provide an unbiased, national synthesis of land-cover changes.

  12. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  13. The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

  14. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  15. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  16. Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  17. Implications of constant land unit boundaries for land use projection in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of changing climate on human systems and decision making is complicated by differences in spatial scales among economic and biophysical models. Earth System Models (ESMs) operate on gridded representations of the globe while Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) generally operate on coarser, geographically delineated land units. This study is a first step toward addressing the uncertainties associated with this mismatch in spatial scale by comparing the effects of different spatial initial conditions for the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) on land use projections. Three initial conditions--agricultural production, harvested area, and land rent--have different global distributions when calculated for two different sets of land units: one based on current climate (151 land units) and one based on year 2100 climate (184 land units). This results in different land use trajectories through 2100, mainly due to changes in within-land unit climate heterogeneity over time. The current climate land units become more heterogeneous and the future climate land units become less heterogeneous as time progresses. Ongoing work in a coupled model framework examines how these two land use trajectories differentially affect climate and vegetation productivity estimates in the Community ESM (CESM) and the associated feedbacks to GCAM energy and land use projections. As different land use trajectories may generate significant differences in global carbon cycling and climate, the presented results have broader implications for understanding policy scenarios and potential impacts and also for evaluating and inter-comparing IAMs and ESMs.

  18. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  19. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  20. Resolution on land tenure, June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In June 1988, a Resolution on land tenure was adopted at the sixth plenum of the Communist Party Central Committee of Laos, also attended by the Government's Council of Ministers. The Resolution states that, although land still belongs to the Government, actions are to be taken to distribute lands and forests to each village and assign plots to individual families, rather than to cooperatives. Farmers are to be allowed to sell or use what they produce as they choose and can pass land on to their children or transfer it to other farmers by charging for their investments for improving the soil. PMID:12289460

  1. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  2. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  3. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  4. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  5. The global land rush and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Climate change poses a serious global challenge in the face of rapidly increasing human demand for energy and food. A recent phenomenon in which climate change may play an important role is the acquisition of large tracts of land in the developing world by governments and corporations. In the target countries, where land is relatively inexpensive, the potential to increase crop yields is generally high and property rights are often poorly defined. By acquiring land, investors can realize large profits and countries can substantially alter the land and water resources under their control, thereby changing their outlook for meeting future demand. While the drivers, actors, and impacts involved with land deals have received substantial attention in the literature, we propose that climate change plays an important yet underappreciated role, both through its direct effects on agricultural production and through its influence on mitigative or adaptive policy decisions. Drawing from various literature sources as well as a new global database on reported land deals, we trace the evolution of the global land rush and highlight prominent examples in which the role of climate change is evident. We find that climate change—both historical and anticipated—interacts substantially with drivers of land acquisitions, having important implications for the resilience of communities in targeted areas. As a result of this synthesis, we ultimately contend that considerations of climate change should be integrated into future policy decisions relating to the large-scale land acquisitions.

  6. STS-77 crew examine tires after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-77 Mission Specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Andrew S. W. Thomas and Marc Garneau (who represents the Canadian Space Agency) examine the orbiter Endeavour's tires after an end-of-mission landing at 7:09:18 a.m. EDT, May 29, on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Assisting them at left is Lockheed Martin Space Operations mechanical technician Mark Seawright, who as a member of the Orbiter Recovery Convoy team is involved with post-landing safety assessments and landing gear checkout.

  7. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  8. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Loyd. L.

    1960-01-01

    The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact.

  9. Land mobile services of Inmarsat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J.-C.

    1991-04-01

    Inmarsat is the sole satellite organization with global L-band capacity uniquely placed to serve all areas of the world and quickly develop potential markets for land mobile services. The Standard-A system is currently in use, with terminals mounted either in vehicles or moved from one site to another in transportable configurations. Attention is given to the way these terminals provide fax, telex, voice and voice-band data connections with the international public switched networks. An enhanced Standard-C system for messaging and data communications, having a small omnidirectional antenna that can be mounted in any ground vehicle to provide general two-way messaging or automatic position reporting, is presented.

  10. Shallow land burial technology: Humid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

    Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

  11. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  12. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  13. Healthy land--healthy people.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    1990-01-01

    3 factors, population, consumption levels per person, and technology, have an impact on the environmental damage. Population is a major contributor to environmental degradation; population growth results in increased waste and pollution. Carbon dioxide emission levels increased 3.1%/year from 1950-1985; a population growth of 1.9%/year contributed more than technology advances or consumption to this emission increase. Other consequences of increased population include deforestation, soil erosion, species loss, and soil fertility loss. A reduction of 125 million hectares in forests was observed in developing countries between 1971-1986. During this time, farmland rose by 58.7 million hectares, land for other purposes increased by 58.7 million hectares, and pasture grew by 7.9 million hectares. The increase in farmland was responsible for 80% of the deforestation. Population growth contributed to about 80% of the increased farmland; thus, 64% of deforestation was contributed by the population factor. Population control measures could be effective in halting additional environmental degradation; however, the impact of consumption and technology changes should not be overlooked. Reducing fossil fuel consumption, promoting technology advancement, encouraging soil conservation, and advocating land reform would have a more immediate effect on slowing environmental damage. Although some may consider integrating environmental education with population education, environmental concerns are directly related to agriculture and forestry. However, employing women to promote awareness of the environment could be effective. Furthermore, promoting the association of environment and health could have an impact on environmental awareness to prevent continual degradation. PMID:12283383

  14. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6928 (57 FR 22659, (1992)), which... Schurman, Bureau Land Management, Wyoming State Office, 5353 Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82009,...

  15. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6965 (58 FR 19612 (1993)) which... withdrawal created by Public Land Order (PLO) No. 6965 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  16. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on

  17. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour glides to a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of October 10, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker, making his third flight, and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt, on his first mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  18. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down at 3:35 p.m. PST on 6 December 1988 at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at the conclusion of the STS-27 Department of Defense mission. Landing took place on runway 17 of the Rogers Dry Lake, concluding the 4-day, 9-hour, 6-minute mission. The five-man crew was led by Commander Robert L. Gibson and included Pilot Guy S. Gardner; Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross, William M. Sheperd, and Richard M. Mullane. Atlantis was launched on December 2 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab

  19. Leave No Trace! Land Ethics [and] Tread Lightly! On Public and Private Land. A National Land Use Ethics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of two brochures that provide land ethics guidelines for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide techniques that visitors can use to help reduce evidence of their presence in the back country, designated "Wilderness" areas. The first brochure, titled "Leave no Trace! Land Ethics," provides guidelines for planning back…

  20. 43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sale of the land. 2565.5 Section 2565.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale...

  1. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have intensified large and growing global groundwater depletion problems. Groundwater depletion under cities in delta regions or river valleys is in many cases leading to significant land subsidence, causing damage to infrastructure and increases in the risk of flooding. Yet, a global land subsidence map is not available. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence. Land subsidence is costly (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). One of the most prominent causes for land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. For instance, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta sinks on average 1.6 cm/yr, attributed to groundwater extraction. Crucially, in many coastal mega-cities, land subsidence is accelerated by ongoing urbanization. In Jakarta land subsidence is up to 20 cm/yr. With ongoing economic development and related increased demands for water, the expectation is that land subsidence rates and areas affected will accelerate and expand in the near future. A global land subsidence map would not only locate current land subsidence hotspots but also help to identify future sinking areas under different socio-economic development scenarios. A global hydrological model, PCR-GLOBWB, serves as the starting point. The hydrological model includes a global simulation of spatio-temporal groundwater head dynamics under abstractions for the period 1960-2100. The hydrological model is coupled to a land subsidence module, iMOD-SUB-CR, which is an extension of the MOD-FLOW SUB-WT module developed by the USGS. The required subsurface information is unavailable at this time, but will be approached by using different scenarios of subsurface build-up. The outcomes will be compared to measured or modeled land level lowering in well-known damaging case study areas, such as Jakarta and the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, as well as in well-known recovering areas, such as Venice and Tokyo, which have

  2. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  3. Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

  4. The Effect of Land Use Change on Land Surface Temperature in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youneszadeh, S.; Amiri, N.; Pilesjo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2) Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST) could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST) for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST). Furthermore, the Zued (South)-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  5. Land surface hydrology in the cloud land surface interaction campaign (CLASIC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental objective of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) was to contribute to our understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface. It has been observed that land surface characteristics influence the timing and evolution of cumulus convection. The...

  6. 75 FR 63856 - Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... extended once by Public Land Order No. 7643 (70 FR 49944 (2005)). Order By virtue of the authority vested..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: 1. Public Land Order No. 7464 (65 FR 59463 (2000)), as extended by Public Land Order No. 7643 (70 FR 49944 (2005)), which withdrew 3,530.62 acres of public...

  7. Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

  8. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  9. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  10. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A drag chute slows the shuttle Endeavour after landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload; Steven L. Smith; Daniel W. Bursch; and Peter J.K. Wisoff. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific

  11. STS-55 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles

  12. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The shuttle Endeavour comes in for a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker making his third flight and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt on his first mission. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload commander making his second flight; Steven L. Smith on his first flight; Daniel W. Bursch making his second flight; and Peter J.K. Wisoff making his second flight. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only

  13. Sinte Gleska University Reclaims Land from Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    Sinte Gleska University's (SGU) model for community development includes transformation of an old boarding school site, community-based collaborations in gardening and nutrition, and a bison restoration project. Tribal members learn to work with the land in harmony with tribal stewardship models as well as Western land use and agricultural…

  14. Land Use Systems Model. Technical Report. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Burnet

    Since the service requirements of a utility depend on the distribution of population and land use in the service area, the planning for future requirements depends on accurate projections of future distributions. This systems approach model organizes land use data as an aid to facility planning. Included as variables are residential, commercial,…

  15. Agricultural land use change in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/) provides county-level estimates of farm numbers, land use area and livestock and crop production every five years. In 2007, only eight of the 299 counties that make up the twelve Northeastern states had no agricultural land use. About 20...

  16. 33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel landings. 143.105 Section 143.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.105 Personnel landings....

  17. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the heirship... necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area Director will report the facts to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and ask for instructions. Minor heirs can lease or joint adult heirs in...

  18. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the heirship... necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area Director will report the facts to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and ask for instructions. Minor heirs can lease or joint adult heirs in...

  19. [Spatial analysis on land use in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Song, Guobao; Li, Zhenghai; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Haimei

    2006-06-01

    Based on remote image and GIS technology, this paper analyzed the relationships between land use system and natural topographic factors such as elevation, slope, and river system in Xishuangbanna. The results showed that the land use system in the study region was dominated by forestland, cropland and grassland. The area of forestland was 13 420 km, accounting for 74% of the total, and that of cropland and grassland was 3 251 km2 and 2 332 km2, accounting for 13% and 18% of the total, respectively. The areas of these three land use types varied with elevation in single-peaked curve. Forestland mainly distributed around the elevation of 1 000 - 1 200 m, while cropland and grassland centralized at the elevation of 900 m. Urban land and cropland, which were greatly influenced by human activity, had lower slope index than forestland and grassland. Besides elevation and slope, river system in valley had effects on land use condition. With increasing buffer distance in valley, a strong spatial pattern of land use type was presented, i. e. , cropland, urban land and unused land concentrated greatly adjacent to water, while forestland and grassland were far away from valley. A landscape with relatively primary status, which was comprised of forestland as matrix, river as corridor, and cropland as patch, would come into being. PMID:16964932

  20. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  1. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  2. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  3. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  4. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  5. PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

  6. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  7. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible land. 623.5 Section 623.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible land. Notwithstanding...

  8. DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

  9. 14 CFR 29.75 - Landing: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing: General. 29.75 Section 29.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.75 Landing: General. (a) For...

  10. 14 CFR 29.75 - Landing: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing: General. 29.75 Section 29.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.75 Landing: General. (a) For...

  11. 14 CFR 29.75 - Landing: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing: General. 29.75 Section 29.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.75 Landing: General. (a) For...

  12. 14 CFR 29.75 - Landing: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing: General. 29.75 Section 29.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.75 Landing: General. (a) For...

  13. 14 CFR 29.75 - Landing: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing: General. 29.75 Section 29.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.75 Landing: General. (a) For...

  14. 76 FR 5397 - Bureau of Land Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa... Management, Interior; and Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with... Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and...

  15. 14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing distance. 23.75 Section 23.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.75 Landing distance. The horizontal...

  16. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

  17. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must land only at airports that have been authorized by CBP pursuant to 19 CFR 122.153 as an airport of... any passenger or crewman without permission from an immigration officer. (d) Emergency or forced... and Nationality Act make a forced landing in the United States, the commanding officer or person...

  18. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must land only at airports that have been authorized by CBP pursuant to 19 CFR 122.153 as an airport of... any passenger or crewman without permission from an immigration officer. (d) Emergency or forced... and Nationality Act make a forced landing in the United States, the commanding officer or person...

  19. Land Ethics--Who Needs Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, B.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies land degradation as Australia's most urgent environmental problem and recommends the development of a land ethic for soil conservation. Presents a 15-point conservation education plan that encourages a sustainable ecological basis for rural production and also cultivates ecologically sound habits toward nature. (ML)

  20. Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.