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Sample records for land security andplanetary

  1. Compact Neutron Generators for Medical Home Land Security andPlanetary Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.

    2005-05-11

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

  2. Land Ecological Security Evaluation of Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-01-01

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to −0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail. PMID:25321873

  3. Land ecological security evaluation of Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-01-01

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to -0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail. PMID:25321873

  4. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  5. Experiments in Globalisation, Food Security and Land Use Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  6. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    PubMed

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  7. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  8. Land take and Food Security at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardi, Ciro

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a limited, non-renewable natural resource, on which is based the 95the naturally fertile soils, suitable for a sustainable agriculture production, represent only a limited portion (13-18%) of the total land area of the Earth. On these areas are concentrated the majority of human presence and activities, leading to increasing pressures and degradation processes on soil. Land take and soil sealing, associated to urban expansion, is one of the most detrimental and irreversible degradation process, heavily affecting the food security at regional, national and global level. The current estimates of worldwide urban areas, with 1 km resolution, are ranging between 300,000 and 650,000 km2. In this research we present an estimate of urban area growth, between 2000 and 2010, of 160,000 km2. Urban growth was estimated by population and GDP, which represent the main drivers of the process. The global impact on food security was estimate in 59.9 millions of tons of cereals, corresponding at 2.49% of the cereals yearly world production.

  9. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-08-22

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  10. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  11. Water security, global change and land-atmosphere feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Dadson, Simon; Acreman, Michael; Harding, Richard

    2013-11-13

    Understanding the competing pressures on water resources requires a detailed knowledge of the future water balance under uncertain environmental change. The need for a robust, scientifically rigorous evidence base for effective policy planning and practice has never been greater. Environmental change includes, but is not limited to, climate change; it also includes land-use and land-cover change, including deforestation for agriculture, and occurs alongside changes in anthropogenic interventions that are used in natural resource management such as the regulation of river flows using dams, which can have impacts that frequently exceed those arising in the natural system. In this paper, we examine the role that land surface models can play in providing a robust scientific basis for making resource management decisions against a background of environmental change. We provide some perspectives on recent developments in modelling in land surface hydrology. Among the range of current land surface and hydrology models, there is a large range of variability, which indicates that the specification and parametrization of several basic processes in the models can be improved. Key areas that require improvement in order to address hydrological applications include (i) the representation of groundwater in models, particularly at the scales relevant to land surface modelling, (ii) the representation of human interventions such as dams and irrigation in the hydrological system, (iii) the quantification and communication of uncertainty, and (iv) improved understanding of the impact on water resources availability of multiple use through treatment, recycling and return flows (and the balance of consumptive and conservative uses). Through a series of examples, we demonstrate that changes in water use could have important reciprocal impacts on climate over a wide area. The effects of water management decisions on climate feedbacks are only beginning to be investigated-they are

  12. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone. PMID:26627206

  13. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

  14. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Alla A.; Henderson, Benjamin B.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Gerber, Pierre J.; Rose, Steven K.; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands. PMID:23019587

  15. [Assessment and early warning of land ecological security in rapidly urbanizing coastal area: A case study of Caofeidian new district, Hebei, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shu-tao; Men, Ming-xin; Xu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Assessment and early warning of land ecological security (LES) in rapidly urbanizing coastal area is an important issue to ensure sustainable land use and effective maintenance of land ecological security. In this study, an index system for the land ecological security of Caofeidian new district was established based on the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model. Initial assessment units of 1 km x 1 km created with the remote sensing data and GIS methods were spatially interpolated to a fine pixel size of 30 m x 30 m, which were combined with the early warning method (using classification tree method) to evaluate the land ecological security of Caofeidian in 2005 and 2013. The early warning level was classed into four categories: security with degradation potential, sub-security with slow degradation, sub-security with rapid degradation, and insecurity. Result indicated that, from 2005 to 2013, the average LES of Caofeidian dropped from 0.55 to 0.52, indicating a degradation of land ecological security from medium security level to medium-low security level. The areas at the levels of insecurity with rapid degradation were mainly located in the rapid urbanization areas, illustrating that rapid expansion of urban construction land was the key factor to the deterioration of the regional land ecological security. Industrial District, Shilihai town and Nanpu saltern, in which the lands at the levels of insecurity and sub-security with rapid degradation or slow degradation accounted for 58.3%, 98.9% and 81.2% of their respective districts, were at the stage of high early warning. Thus, land ecological security regulation for these districts should be strengthened in near future. The study could provide a reference for land use planning and ecological protection of Caofeidian new district. PMID:26685609

  16. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    population under hunger and poverty. In light of these threats and opportunities facing the global food system, the proposed study takes a long-term perspective and addresses the main medium and long- term drivers of agricultural markets using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade developed by the Environment and Production Technology Division of IFPRI to project future production, consumption, and trade of key agricultural commodities. The main objective of the study is to analyze the link between energy and agricultural markets, focusing on the "new" role of agriculture as a supplier of energy for transportation through biofuels, and the subsequent impact on land use and demand for water from the agricultural sector. In this context, this study incorporates various scenarios of future energy demand and energy price impacts on global agricultural markets (food prices and food security), water use implications (irrigation water consumption by agricultural sector), and land use implications (changes in national and global crop area). The scenarios are designed to understand the impact of energy prices on biofuel production, cost of production for agricultural crops, conversion of rainfed area to irrigated area, and necessary levels of crop productivity growth to counter these effects.

  17. Land Desertification-An Emerging Threat to Environment and Food Security of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Faridullah; Delower, Hossain K. M.; Tsunekawa, A.

    The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation. There is a serious problem of desertification in many parts of Pakistan. Population pressure along with the demand for more food, fodder and fuelwood has generated a chain of interrelated economic, social and environmental issues associated with the land degradation inside Pakistan. A variety of natural and human factors are contributing to desertification and severely impairs the biological productivity of lands across the country, including dwindling vegetation cover, overgrazing, flooding, over exploitation of water and land resources, over cultivation of marginal lands, deforestation, soil erosion, salinization, sodication and the use of inappropriate technologies. Unsustainable agricultural activities including inadequate soil conservation, cultivation of steep slopes, cultivation without adequate fallow periods, unbalanced fertilizer use and improper irrigation management coupled with the misuse of prime agricultural land for urbanization/industrialization had a devastating impact on land resources. The increased pressure on land with low productivity and environmental pollution through industrial wastes has further exacerbated the prevailing condition. In spite of the concerted national efforts to mitigate the effects of drought, combating desertification is still one of the major challenges to the people of the country. The action necessary to help avert desertification is to educate people as to the value of precious land and water resources. The present deserted situation is directly related to the failures of the unrealistic resource management policies. Various approaches are being applied to arrest the menace of desertification. The institutional set-up for formulation and implementation of programs and policies is being strengthened in the country. Numbers of land reclamation projects have been launched. The

  18. How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals?

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Popp, Alexander; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lauk, Christian; Harper, Richard; Tubiello, Francesco N; de Siqueira Pinto, Alexandre; Jafari, Mostafa; Sohi, Saran; Masera, Omar; Böttcher, Hannes; Berndes, Göran; Bustamante, Mercedes; Ahammad, Helal; Clark, Harry; Dong, Hongmin; Elsiddig, Elnour A; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranath, Nijavalli H; Rice, Charles W; Robledo Abad, Carmenza; Romanovskaya, Anna; Sperling, Frank; Herrero, Mario; House, Joanna I; Rose, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Feeding 9-10 billion people by 2050 and preventing dangerous climate change are two of the greatest challenges facing humanity. Both challenges must be met while reducing the impact of land management on ecosystem services that deliver vital goods and services, and support human health and well-being. Few studies to date have considered the interactions between these challenges. In this study we briefly outline the challenges, review the supply- and demand-side climate mitigation potential available in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use AFOLU sector and options for delivering food security. We briefly outline some of the synergies and trade-offs afforded by mitigation practices, before presenting an assessment of the mitigation potential possible in the AFOLU sector under possible future scenarios in which demand-side measures codeliver to aid food security. We conclude that while supply-side mitigation measures, such as changes in land management, might either enhance or negatively impact food security, demand-side mitigation measures, such as reduced waste or demand for livestock products, should benefit both food security and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Demand-side measures offer a greater potential (1.5-15.6 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) ) in meeting both challenges than do supply-side measures (1.5-4.3 Gt CO2 -eq. yr(-1) at carbon prices between 20 and 100 US$ tCO2 -eq. yr(-1) ), but given the enormity of challenges, all options need to be considered. Supply-side measures should be implemented immediately, focussing on those that allow the production of more agricultural product per unit of input. For demand-side measures, given the difficulties in their implementation and lag in their effectiveness, policy should be introduced quickly, and should aim to codeliver to other policy agenda, such as improving environmental quality or improving dietary health. These problems facing humanity in the 21st Century are extremely challenging, and policy that

  19. Optimizing Land and Water Use at the Local Level to Enhance Global Food Security through Virtual Resources Trade in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.

  20. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  1. Secure land tenure as prerequisite towards sustainable living: a case study of native communities in Mantob village, Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lunkapis, Gaim James

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable livelihoods, once enjoyed by native communities, are often threatened and in danger of extinction when new regulations and other forms of restrictions are introduced. These restrictions are often promoted with intended purposes, such as protecting the environment or securing resources from encroachment. However, these acts are slowly replacing the traditional adat (customs and traditions), which are used to define the rights attached to the use of communal and ancestral land. This is especially true when comes to access to forest products and land, in which native communities have used for generations. What the natives see as legitimate and traditional use, the state sees as an encroachment of property; and it has now become illegal to utilise these resources. This paper presents how native communities have adapted to such restrictions and continued to live in a sustainable manner through an adaptive strategy that is in line with state policy changes. A combination of quantitative and qualitative method is used to understand the dynamics of the strategy used by the native communities to adapt to these policy changes. The findings reveal how the natives have employed an adaptive strategy in response to state policy changes. The lessons learned from this study can provide useful pointers as to how state policies, in relation to highland settlements in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, can be improved. PMID:26435895

  2. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  3. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    PubMed

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  4. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  5. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  6. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Transportation Planning and Land Use Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Transit planning, Travel demand modeling, Homeland Security evacuation planning, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  7. Global Monitoring for Food Security and Sustainable Land Management - Recent Advances of Remote Sensing Applications to African and Siberian Show Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komp, K. U.; Haub, C.

    2012-07-01

    After four decades of space borne remote sensing, the unmapped white patches have mostly disappeared. Those basic information give the foundations to the observation of changes and even the introduction of monitoring programmes for a various number of features in the natural and human landscape of our planet. Recent indicators for climatic change together with worrisome alterations in regional food production versus the constantly increase of human population demand the design and implementation of reliable land management tools which will serve the food security as well as the sustainable use of resources of the ecosystem in its respective regional context. The positive responses and convincing results of ESA service elements in the efforts towards food security in several African countries have been the basis for the transfer of the methods into another region, the Western Siberian corn-belt. The large extends of cropping schemes in West Siberia demand advanced remote sensing methods to be applied in order to compare the impacts of climatic change not only on the agricultural production but also on risks for the ecosystem. A multi scale approach of remote sensing methods is introduced in analogy to the African activities. An adopted monitoring concept is developed using a nearly daily product of medium resolution for wide areas, high resolution sensors for stratified sample areas and in-situ observations. Beyond methodological research, the ability of remote sensing is contributing to operational solutions that can ensure the nutritional and ecological future of our planet.

  8. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  9. Adapting to climate change for food security through supplementary irrigation and changing sowing dates in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh Bitew, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo; keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Studies on climate impacts and related adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming important to counteract the negative effects of climate change. In Ethiopia, climate change is likely to affect crop yields negatively. However, quantitative evidence is lacking about the ability of farm level adaptation options to offset negative impacts on food security. The MarkSimGCM weather generator was used to generate projected daily rainfall and temperature data originally taken from ECHAM5 general circulation model and ensemble mean of six models under A2 (high) and B1 (low) emission scenarios. We validated the FAO AquaCrop model and subsequently used it to predict maize yields and explore three adaptations options. Increasing plant density has the least effect on maize yield so that the density that is currently used by 'good' farmers (30,000) is recommended. The optimum level of supplemental irrigation (SI), in combination with this plant density, is application of SI when the percentage of soil water depletion reached 75% of the maximum available water in the root zone. In the future, dry spells during the Belg season increase and this has a negative effect on maize production. The predicted lower maize production due to the changing rainfall is only partly compensated by the expected increase in CO2 concentration. The shifting of sowing period of maize from the current Belg season (mostly April or May) to the first month of Kiremt season (June) can offset the predicted yield reduction caused by climate change. SI has a marginal effect in good rainfall years but using 94-111 mm of SI can avoid total crop failure in drought years. Hence, SI is an interesting option to improve food security in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia. Key words: Adaptation; Climate change; Central Rift Valley; Dry spell; Supplemental irrigation.

  10. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security zones. (a) A security zone is an area of land, water, or land and water which is so designated by... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 12 CFR 561.26 - Land loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land loan. 561.26 Section 561.26 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.26 Land loan. The term land loan means a loan: (a) Secured by real estate upon... purchase of land and the accomplishment of all improvements required to convert it to developed...

  12. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of water security and water quality: impacts of climate and land-use change on the River Thames system.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S

    2013-11-13

    The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames. PMID:24080622

  14. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section 1572.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT...

  15. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section 1572.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT...

  16. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail security coordinator. 1580.201 Section 1580.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger Rail...

  17. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail security coordinator. 1580.201 Section 1580.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger Rail...

  18. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  19. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  20. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail security coordinator. 1580.201 Section 1580.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger Rail...

  1. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  2. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  3. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  4. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  5. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  6. 7 CFR 770.7 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security requirements. 770.7 Section 770.7 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.7 Security requirements. (a) The applicant will take appropriate action to obtain and provide security for the loan. (b) A mortgage or deed...

  7. 7 CFR 770.7 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security requirements. 770.7 Section 770.7 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.7 Security requirements. (a) The applicant will take appropriate action to obtain and provide security for the loan. (b) A mortgage or deed...

  8. 33 CFR 6.01-5 - Security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Security zone as used in this part, means all areas of land, water, or land and water, which are so... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone. 6.01-5 Section 6.01-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL...

  9. 33 CFR 6.01-5 - Security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Security zone as used in this part, means all areas of land, water, or land and water, which are so... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security zone. 6.01-5 Section 6.01-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL...

  10. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  11. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  12. 7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to § 770.5(d) land acquired with loan funds, or other property serving as the security for a...

  13. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  14. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations. PMID:14602395

  15. 33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel landings. 143.105 Section 143.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.105 Personnel landings....

  16. Soil management for food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food security is determined by human and non-human factors (physical, biological, and chemical components of the environment). Management of agricultural lands often seeks to modify or control non-human environmental factors so as to support diverse (and often conflicting) objectives, such as extrac...

  17. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  18. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. [Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

    2010-12-01

    This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

  20. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  1. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  2. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  3. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone. PMID:27228612

  4. 33 CFR 211.4 - Acquisition of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquisition of land. 211.4... Estate; General § 211.4 Acquisition of land. (a) Real property and interests therein may be acquired by...) Purchase. It is the policy of the Department of the Army to secure title to lands, or the desired...

  5. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck...

  6. 19 CFR 122.33 - Place of first landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Place of first landing. 122.33 Section 122.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.33 Place of first landing. (a) The...

  7. 19 CFR 122.33 - Place of first landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Place of first landing. 122.33 Section 122.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.33 Place of first landing. (a) The...

  8. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  9. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  10. Namibian women and land.

    PubMed

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  11. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  12. Security in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jesse

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

  13. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement. PMID:27581899

  14. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  15. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  16. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that despite an Executive Order limiting the authority to make original classification decisions to government officials, DOE has delegated this authority to a number of contractor employees. Although the number of original classification decisions made by these contractors is small, this neither negates nor diminishes the significance of the improper delegation of authority. If misclassification were to occur, particularly at the Top Secret level, U.S. national security interests could potentially be seriously affected and threatened. DOE's argument that the delegation of such authority is a long-standing policy and done on a selective basis does not legitimize the practice and does not relieve DOE of its responsibility to meet the requirements of the Executive Order. DOE needs to independently assess all original classification determinations made by contractors; otherwise, it cannot be sure that U.S. national security interests have been or are being adequately protected.

  17. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  18. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  19. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  20. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  1. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  2. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

  3. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  4. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  5. Challenges and Responses to Asian Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Oliveros, Jurise A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Food security is a complex phenomenon made up of multiple dimensions — food availability, physical access to food, economic access to food, food utilization — each of which has a stability dimension which underpins it. This review provides details on these dimensions and links them to two published indices which provide assessments of the state of food security in a country. The paper further provides analyses of the main supply and demand factors in the food security equation. Food security faces natural and anthropogenic threats such as loss of productive land and water, climate change and declining crop productivity, all of which are potentially amenable to solutions provided by science and technology. Demographic and accompanying diet changes further exacerbate the demands made on the natural resource base for food production. Finally, possible responses to the challenges confronting a secured food future are discussed from technological, policy and system level perspectives.

  6. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  7. 33 CFR 117.1021 - North Landing River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Landing River. 117.1021 Section 117.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1021 North Landing River. The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1021 - North Landing River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Landing River. 117.1021 Section 117.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1021 North Landing River. The draw...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1021 - North Landing River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Landing River. 117.1021 Section 117.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1021 North Landing River. The draw...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1021 - North Landing River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Landing River. 117.1021 Section 117.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1021 North Landing River. The draw...

  11. The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

  12. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency...

  13. Maui Community College Campus Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Kahului. Maui Community Coll.

    This document discusses campus safety at Maui Community College (MCC) (Hawaii). MCC is situated on 75 acres of land; the campus population is approximately 2,700 day and night students, with a faculty and staff of approximately 175. The report presents information on campus security services, procedures for reporting crimes and emergencies,…

  14. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  15. Sentinel-3 For Land Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Donlon, Craig; Bouvet, Marc; Buongiorno, Alessandra; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in a routine, long-term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The launch of Sentinel-3 was successful last February 2016. The Sentinel-3 missions are jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT on the marine products and the satellite monitoring and control. All facilities supporting the Sentinel-3 operations are in place. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products to the users. For a detailed description of the core data products please see https://earth.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-3/data-products. On request from the European Commission, ESA and EUMETSAT are presently assessing the possibility to include further core data products, in particular on aerosol optical depth, fire monitoring and synergistic products over land. This paper will provide an update on the status of the mission operations after the initial months in orbit and provide in particular an overview on the status of the Sentinel-3

  16. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  17. Computer security engineering management

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    For best results, computer security should be engineered into a system during its development rather than being appended later on. This paper addresses the implementation of computer security in eight stages through the life cycle of the system; starting with the definition of security policies and ending with continuing support for the security aspects of the system throughout its operational life cycle. Security policy is addressed relative to successive decomposition of security objectives (through policy, standard, and control stages) into system security requirements. This is followed by a discussion of computer security organization and responsibilities. Next the paper directs itself to analysis and management of security-related risks, followed by discussion of design and development of the system itself. Discussion of security test and evaluation preparations, and approval to operate (certification and accreditation), is followed by discussion of computer security training for users is followed by coverage of life cycle support for the security of the system.

  18. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  19. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184...

  20. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184...

  1. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184...

  2. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184...

  3. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184...

  4. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  5. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  6. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured area....

  7. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  8. Unix Security Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, S. C.

    This document has been written to help Site Managers secure their Unix hosts from being compromised by hackers. I have given brief introductions to the security tools along with downloading, configuring and running information. I have also included a section on my recommendations for installing these security tools starting from an absolute minimum security requirement.

  9. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  10. Helicopter acoustic alerting system for high-security facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Robert L.; Hansen, Scott; Park, Chris; Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Helicopters present a serious threat to high security facilities such as prisons, nuclear sites, armories, and VIP compounds. They have the ability to instantly bypass conventional security measures focused on ground threats such as fences, check-points, and intrusion sensors. Leveraging the strong acoustic signature inherent in all helicopters, this system would automatically detect, classify, and accurately track helicopters using multi-node acoustic sensor fusion. An alert would be generated once the threat entered a predefined 3-dimension security zone in time for security personnel to repel the assault. In addition the system can precisely identify the landing point on the facility grounds.

  11. Onboard pattern recognition for autonomous UAV landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chen-Ko; Segor, Florian

    2012-10-01

    The civil security and supervision system AMFIS was developed at the Fraunhofer IOSB as a mobile support system using multiple UAVs for rescue forces in accidents or disasters. To gain a higher level of autonomy for these UAVs, different onboard process chains of image exploitation for tracking landmarks and of control technologies for UAV navigation were implemented and examined to achieve a redundant and reliable UAV precision landing. First experiments have allowed to validate the process chains and to develop a demonstration system for the tracking of landmarks in order to prevent and to minimize any confusion on landing.

  12. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  13. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

  14. Spatial modeling of agricultural land use change at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiyappan, P.; Dalton, M.; O'Neill, B. C.; Jain, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Long-term modeling of agricultural land use is central in global scale assessments of climate change, food security, biodiversity, and climate adaptation and mitigation policies. We present a global-scale dynamic land use allocation model and show that it can reproduce the broad spatial features of the past 100 years of evolution of cropland and pastureland patterns. The modeling approach integrates economic theory, observed land use history, and data on both socioeconomic and biophysical determinants of land use change, and estimates relationships using long-term historical data, thereby making it suitable for long-term projections. The underlying economic motivation is maximization of expected profits by hypothesized landowners within each grid cell. The model predicts fractional land use for cropland and pastureland within each grid cell based on socioeconomic and biophysical driving factors that change with time. The model explicitly incorporates the following key features: (1) land use competition, (2) spatial heterogeneity in the nature of driving factors across geographic regions, (3) spatial heterogeneity in the relative importance of driving factors and previous land use patterns in determining land use allocation, and (4) spatial and temporal autocorrelation in land use patterns. We show that land use allocation approaches based solely on previous land use history (but disregarding the impact of driving factors), or those accounting for both land use history and driving factors by mechanistically fitting models for the spatial processes of land use change do not reproduce well long-term historical land use patterns. With an example application to the terrestrial carbon cycle, we show that such inaccuracies in land use allocation can translate into significant implications for global environmental assessments. The modeling approach and its evaluation provide an example that can be useful to the land use, Integrated Assessment, and the Earth system modeling

  15. EUTELTRACS: The European land mobile satellite service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcy, Jean-Noel; Steinhaeuser, Rafael; Mock, Kimberly

    1992-07-01

    EUTELTRACS is Europe's first commercially operated land mobile satellite service. EUTELTRACS provides an integrated message exchange and position reporting service for the European transportation industry with the aim of increasing cost effectiveness, radically improving efficiency and security and enhancing business flexibility. The architecture of the system is described, outlining the accuracy of the position determination, and an overview of the commercial deployment of EUTELTRACS is given.

  16. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William B.; Turner, B. L., II

    1994-10-01

    This book deals with the relationship between land use and land cover: between human activities and the transformation of the Earth's surface. It describes the recent changes in the world's farmland, forests, grasslands and settlements, and the impacts of these changes on soil, water resources and the atmosphere. It explores what is known about the importance of various underlying human sources of land transformation: population growth, technological change, political-economic institutions, political structure, and attitudes and beliefs. Three working group reports outline important avenues for future research: the construction of a global land model, the division of the world into regional situations of land transformation, and a wiring diagram to structure the division of research among fields of study.

  17. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

  18. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  19. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  20. Women, land, and trees.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    This article discusses women's land rights in the context of the findings of the paper, "Women's Land Rights in the Transition to Individualized Ownership: Implications for Tree Resource Management in Western Ghana." The study showed that customary land tenure institutions have evolved toward individualized systems, which provide incentives to invest in tree planting. In effect, individualization of land tenure had strengthened women's land rights through inter vivos gifts. However, transferring of land ownership to women is unlikely to raise productivity if access to and use of other inputs remains unequal. This suggests that attempts to equalize land rights of men and women are unlikely to lead to gender equity and improved efficiency and productivity of women farmers unless other constraints faced by women are also addressed. The article also documents comments, suggestions, and recommendations in response to the summary of the paper. In addition, the different practices of guaranteeing land ownership for women in some countries of Africa are presented. PMID:12295514

  1. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  2. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Contact Us Quick Links Site Map A-Z ... Requested Pages TSA Pre✓® Active Shooter Preparedness Hometown Security Countering Violent Extremism Forms Combating Human Trafficking Taking ...

  3. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  4. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  5. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  6. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  7. The water footprint of land grabbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  8. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  9. Making Schools More Secure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grealy, Joseph I.

    The president of the National Association of School Security Directors, citing many specific incidents of school vandalism and personal assault and battery, states that the safety and security of school personnel and facilities are necessary requirements for effective education. The author's approach to a school security program is to determine…

  10. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  11. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  12. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  13. School Violence: Physical Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial…

  14. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  15. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  16. Federal Lands Jobs and Energy Security Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lamborn, Doug [R-CO-5

    2013-05-14

    12/09/2013 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 254. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  18. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  19. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  20. Balancing Security and Learning. School Security Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ways to provide vital safety to schools without inhibiting the learning environment for students. Describes security efforts at Orange County, Florida schools, such as using video cameras, school police officers, and access-control systems. (EV)

  1. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  2. What is Security? A perspective on achieving security

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation provides a perspective on achieving security in an organization. It touches upon security as a mindset, ability to adhere to rules, cultivating awareness of the reason for a security mindset, the quality of a security program, willingness to admit fault or acknowledge failure, peer review in security, science as a model that can be applied to the security profession, the security vision, security partnering, staleness in the security program, security responsibilities, and achievement of success over time despite the impossibility of perfection.

  3. PACS image security server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    Medical image security in a PACS environment has become a pressing issue as communications of images increasingly extends over open networks, and hospitals are currently hard-pushed by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to be HIPPA complaint for ensuring health data security. Other security-related guidelines and technical standards continue bringing to the public attention in healthcare. However, there is not an infrastructure or systematic method to implement and deploy these standards in a PACS. In this paper, we first review DICOM Part15 standard for secure communications of medical images and the HIPAA impacts on PACS security, as well as our previous works on image security. Then we outline a security infrastructure in a HIPAA mandated PACS environment using a dedicated PACS image security server. The server manages its own database of all image security information. It acts as an image Authority for checking and certificating the image origin and integrity upon request by a user, as a secure DICOM gateway to the outside connections and meanwhile also as a PACS operation monitor for HIPAA supporting information.

  4. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  5. Landing-gear impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  7. Food Security: A Climatological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is leading the WeatCliFS consortium of international scientific unions to examine weather, climate and food security as well as to look at the interaction of food security and geophysical phenomena. The following fundamental question underpins WeatCliFS: What technologies and methodologies are required to assess the vulnerability of people and places to hazards [such as famine] - and how might these be used at a variety of spatial scales? This talk will review the historical link between climate, drought and food supplies; examine the Australian and international situation; summarise the response of the scientific community and point out the direction for future research.

  8. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  9. The strategic security officer.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security. PMID:24707753

  10. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  11. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  12. Conceiving Land Grant University Community Engagement as Adaptive Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Max, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article asks land grant university leaders and faculty to think of their role in community engagement not simply as the provision of technical assistance or of research and development prowess, but as an opportunity for social leadership. It explores the case of Virginia Tech's effort to develop a regionally based model to secure long-term…

  13. Land Ownership and Women's Power in a Midwestern Farming Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Sonya; Keim, Ann Mackey

    1979-01-01

    Control over land, a scarce resource for farmers, is found to be the source of women's power in a community of Illinois farm families. Women appear to make a trade-off of lower status and less power for male management of the family enterprise, which assures them a financially secure widowhood. (Author)

  14. 44 CFR 80.19 - Land use and oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use and oversight. 80.19 Section 80.19 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROPERTY ACQUISITION AND RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE...

  15. 78 FR 53666 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 27336... Acronyms CFR Code of Federal Regulations DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  16. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  17. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is...

  18. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being...

  19. Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmudov, Zafar; Ergashev, Murod

    2015-04-01

    Tackling Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan "Project approach" Khayrullo Ibodzoda, Zafar Mahmoudov, Murod Ergashev, Kamoliddin Abdulloev Among 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia, Tajikistan is estimated to be the most vulnerable to the climate change impacts depending on its high exposure and sensitivity combined with a very low adaptive capacity. The agricultural sector of Tajikistan is subject to lower and more erratic rainfalls, as well as dryness of water resources due to the possible temperature rising in the region, high evaporation, reducing the accumulation of snow in the mountain glaciers and increased frequency of extreme events. Climate change and variability are likely to pose certain risks, especially for those who prefer natural agriculture or pasture management that just reinforces the need for sound, adapted to new climatic conditions and improved principles of land management. Adoption of new strategies and best practices on sustainable land and water management for agricultural ecosystems will help the farmers and communities in addressing the abovementioned problems, adapt and become more resilient to changing climate by increasing wellbeing of local population, and contributing to food security and restoring productive natural resources. The Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihoods Project is being financed by the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and Global Environment Facility (GEF). The Project goal is to enable the rural population to increase their productive assets by improving management of natural resources and building resilience to climate change in selected climate vulnerable sites. The project will facilitate introduction of innovative measures on land use and agricultural production by providing small grants at the village level and grants for the Pasture User Groups (PUGs) at jamoat level in order to implement joint plans of pasture management and wellbred livestock, also for the Water User

  20. PRODUCER PERSPECTIVES ON THE CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM IN ALABAMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Security Program (CSP), the latest U.S. conservation program introduced by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) in 2004, provides an innovative mechanism for rewarding farmers for conservation efforts and environmental stewardship on their lands. The program was implemen...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  5. Center for computer security: Computer Security Group conference. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Topics covered include: computer security management; detection and prevention of computer misuse; certification and accreditation; protection of computer security, perspective from a program office; risk analysis; secure accreditation systems; data base security; implementing R and D; key notarization system; DOD computer security center; the Sandia experience; inspector general's report; and backup and contingency planning. (GHT)

  6. 33 CFR 165.720 - Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 165.720 Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (a) Location. The water and the land... zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 and 165.33 of this part, entry into any portion of the described zone... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: St....

  7. 33 CFR 165.720 - Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 165.720 Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (a) Location. The water and the land... zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 and 165.33 of this part, entry into any portion of the described zone... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: St....

  8. 33 CFR 165.720 - Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 165.720 Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (a) Location. The water and the land... zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 and 165.33 of this part, entry into any portion of the described zone... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: St....

  9. 33 CFR 165.720 - Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 165.720 Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (a) Location. The water and the land... zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 and 165.33 of this part, entry into any portion of the described zone... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: St....

  10. 33 CFR 165.701 - Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Merritt Island, Florida-security zone. 165.701 Section 165.701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.701 Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land... Island. From this position, the line proceeds irregularly to the eastern shoreline of the Indian River...

  11. 33 CFR 165.701 - Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Merritt Island, Florida-security zone. 165.701 Section 165.701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.701 Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land... Island. From this position, the line proceeds irregularly to the eastern shoreline of the Indian River...

  12. 33 CFR 165.701 - Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Merritt Island, Florida-security zone. 165.701 Section 165.701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.701 Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land... Island. From this position, the line proceeds irregularly to the eastern shoreline of the Indian River...

  13. 33 CFR 165.701 - Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Merritt Island, Florida-security zone. 165.701 Section 165.701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.701 Vicinity, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land... Island. From this position, the line proceeds irregularly to the eastern shoreline of the Indian River...

  14. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  15. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are about "strange…

  16. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  17. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  18. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  19. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  20. 77 FR 47091 - Notice of Re-Establishment of the Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Re-Establishment of the Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory... the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) has re-established the Bureau of Land ] Management's (BLM... 112-557, Division F (2012). Certification Statement I hereby certify that the re-establishment of...

  1. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  2. Technology's Role in Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of technology to bolster the school security system, tips on selecting a security consultant, and several basic strategies to make buildings and grounds safer. Technological ideas discussed include the use of telephones in classrooms to expedite care in emergency situations, surveillance cameras to reduce crime, and metal…

  3. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  4. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  5. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  6. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  7. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  8. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  9. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  10. School Security Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade electronic security technology has evolved from an exotic possibility into an essential safety consideration. Before resorting to high-tech security solutions, school officials should think carefully about the potential for unintended consequences. Technological fixes may be mismatched to the problems being addressed. They can…

  11. CIOs Uncensored: Security Smarts.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gerald R.

    2008-02-25

    This commentary for the CIOs Uncensored section of InformationWeek will discuss PNNL’s “defense in depth” approach to cyber security. It will cover external and internal safeguards, as well as the all-important role of employees in the cyber security equation. For employees are your greatest vulnerability – and your last line of defense.

  12. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  13. School Security, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    This supplement, a collaboration of "American School & University" and "Access Control & Security Systems Integration" magazines, presents four articles examining equipment and management strategies to ensure school safety. "School Security by the Numbers" (Joe Agron; Larry Anderson) defines the parameters and quantifies the trend in the school…

  14. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  15. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  16. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  17. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  18. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The Secretary of Homeland Security has determined that the re- establishment of ASAC...

  19. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  20. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  1. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  2. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant land management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    On October 30, 1992, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act became law. This Act transferred the responsibility for the management of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WILWA) from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Energy. In accordance with sections 3(a)(1) and (3) of the Act, these lands {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}are withdrawn from all forms of entry, appropriation, and disposal under the public land laws{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}and are reserved for the use of the Secretary of Energy {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}for the construction, experimentation, operation, repair and maintenance, disposal, shutdown, monitoring, decommissioning, and other activities, associated with the purposes of WIPP as set forth in the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Act of 1980 and this Act.{close_quotes}. As a complement to this LMP, a MOU has been executed between the DOE and the BLM, as required by section 4(d) of the Act. The state of New Mexico was consulted in the development of the MOU and the associated Statement of Work (SOW).

  4. The Sand Land Soil System and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoory, R. A.

    Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated

  5. Water security-National and global issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  6. Security of medical multimedia.

    PubMed

    Tzelepi, S; Pangalos, G; Nikolacopoulou, G

    2002-09-01

    The application of information technology to health care has generated growing concern about the privacy and security of medical information. Furthermore, data and communication security requirements in the field of multimedia are higher. In this paper we describe firstly the most important security requirements that must be fulfilled by multimedia medical data, and the security measures used to satisfy these requirements. These security measures are based mainly on modern cryptographic and watermarking mechanisms as well as on security infrastructures. The objective of our work is to complete this picture, exploiting the capabilities of multimedia medical data to define and implement an authorization model for regulating access to the data. In this paper we describe an extended role-based access control model by considering, within the specification of the role-permission relationship phase, the constraints that must be satisfied in order for the holders of the permission to use those permissions. The use of constraints allows role-based access control to be tailored to specifiy very fine-grained and flexible content-, context- and time-based access control policies. Other restrictions, such as role entry restriction also can be captured. Finally, the description of system architecture for a secure DBMS is presented. PMID:12507263

  7. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  8. Land-use and land-cover dynamics in the central rift valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Söderberg, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the complexity of land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes and their driving forces and impacts on human and environmental security is important for the planning of natural resource management and associated decision making. This study combines and compares participatory field point sampling (pfps) and remote sensing to explore local LULC dynamics. The study was conducted in two peasant associations located in the central Ethiopian Rift Valley, which is a dry-land mixed farming area exposed to rapid deforestation. From 1973-2006, the area of cropland doubled at the expense of woodland and wooded-grassland in both of the study sites. Major deforestation and forest degradation took place from 1973-1986; woodland cover declined from 40% to 9% in one of the study sites, while the other lost all of its original 54% woodland cover. Our study concludes that assessing LULC dynamics using a combination of remote sensing and pfps is a valuable approach. The two methods revealed similar LULC trends, while the pfps provided additional details on how farmers view the changes. This study documents dramatic trends in LULC over time, associated with rapid population growth, recurrent drought, rainfall variability and declining crop productivity. The alarming nature of these trends is reflected in a decrease in the livelihood security of local communities and in environmental degradation. Given these dry-land conditions, there are few opportunities to improve livelihoods and environmental security without external support. If negative changes are to be halted, action must be taken, including building asset bases, instituting family planning services, and creating opportunities outside these marginal environments. PMID:19688359

  9. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  10. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  11. Space Shuttle night landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenstein, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The tracking and guidance requirements of the Indian National Satellite during its transition from the low-earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit dictated a night launch and subsequent night landing. The development of an Orbiter-independent external lighting system (ELS) that would work in conjunction with the Orbiter navigation, guidance, and control systems used for day approach and landing is described. The ELS includes the night landing visual aids; the heading alignment circle precision approach path indicator lights, as an aid for the outer glide slope; the runway floodlight, to accommodate for the transition area between preflare and intercepting inner glide slope (IGS) system; the ball/bar reference IGS system; and heads-up displays. The aspects of the lakebed dust problems are discussed. Diagrams illustrating the approach trajectory, final night-lighting configurations, and the approach and land symbology are included.

  12. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  13. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  14. KamLAND Zen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  15. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  16. Estimation of Croplands in West Africa using Global Land Cover and Land Use Datasets: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    Africa is vulnerable to the effects of global climate change resulting in reduced agricultural production and worsening food security. Studies show that Africa has the lowest cereal yield compared to other regions of the world. The situation is particularly dire in East, Central and West Africa. Despite their low cereal yield, the population of East, Central and West Africa has doubled between 1980 and 2007. Furthermore, West Africa has a history of severe and long droughts which have occasionally caused widespread famine. To understand how global climate change and land cover change have impacted crop production (yield) it is important to estimate croplands in the region. The objective of this study is to compare ten publicly available land cover and land use datasets, covering different time periods, to estimate croplands in West Africa. The land cover and land use data sets used cover the period from early 1990s to 2010. Preliminary results show a high variability in cropland estimates. For example, in Benin, the estimated cropland area varies from 2.5 to 21% of the total area, while it varies from 3 to 8% in Niger. Datasets with a finer resolution (≤ 1,000 m) have consistently estimated comparable cropland areas across all countries. Several categorical verification statistics such as probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR) and critical success index are also used to analyze the correspondence between estimated and observed cropland pixels at the scales of 1 Km and 10 Km.

  17. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  18. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  19. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  20. Secure Chemical Facilities Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2013-01-23

    01/23/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Secure Chemical Facilities Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2011-03-31

    03/31/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Teaching Secure Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Matt; Frincke, Deb A.

    2005-09-01

    This article discusses issues in teaching secure coding in the context of both academic institutions and training organizations. The emphasis is on the importance of assurance. There is also some discussion of the role of checklists.

  3. Securing Cabin Baggage Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lipinski, Daniel [D-IL-3

    2009-06-15

    06/17/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Portable appliance security apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the opening and thereby secure the computer within the case. An opening formed in the top wall of the case exposes the keyboard and display of the computer. The back plate is locked in the closed position by a key-operated plug type lock. The lock is attached to one end of a hold down cable, the opposite end thereof being secured to a desk top or other stationary object. Thus, the lock simultaneously secures the back plate to the case and retains the case to the stationary object.

  5. Intelligent Sensors Security

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  6. Requirements for security signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.; Tarman, T.D.

    1995-02-05

    There has been some interest lately in the need for ``authenticated signalling``, and the development of signalling specifications by the ATM Forum that support this need. The purpose of this contribution is to show that if authenticated signalling is required, then supporting signalling facilities for directory services (i.e. key management) are also required. Furthermore, this contribution identifies other security related mechanisms that may also benefit from ATM-level signalling accommodations. For each of these mechanisms outlined here, an overview of the signalling issues and a rough cut at the required fields for supporting Information Elements are provided. Finally, since each of these security mechanisms are specified by a number of different standards, issues pertaining to the selection of a particular security mechanism at connection setup time (i.e. specification of a required ``Security Quality of Service``) are also discussed.

  7. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Keep America Secure Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Slaughter, Louise McIntosh [D-NY-28

    2012-08-02

    09/05/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedictis, Erik; Rothganger, Fredrick; Aimone, James Bradley; Marinella, Matthew; Evans, Brian Robert; Warrender, Christina E.; Mickel, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  10. Secure Visas Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2010-03-04

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  12. Research the Mechanism of Land Subsidence in Typical Area, Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.; Gu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In recently years, the subsidence develop rapidly in Beijing. It can not be ignored the influence of the security of major project. Beijing Singapore city is located at the junction of Daxing and Hebei. The per captia water resources is 190m3.,far below the internationally safety limit 1000m3. The region is the dryland water resource and continued extraction groundwater caused land subsidence issue become increasingly prominent. With the Beijing Singapore city put into use, the amount of water shortages must further seriously and land subsidence subsidence area must be further increased. Therefore, monitor the land subsidence of Beijing Singapore city area and research its settlement mechanism, it is so important to ensure the safe operation of Beijing Singapore city . Explore the soil and water coupling mechanism of Beijing Singapore citya during land subsidence process, and optimize groundwater extraction program to ensure the safe operation of Beijing's second largest airport.

  13. Secure Sensor Platform

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  14. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  15. Variable contour securing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebus, P. P.; Packer, P. N.; Haynie, C. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A variable contour securing system has a retaining structure for a member whose surface contains a variable contour. The retaining mechanism includes a spaced array of adjustable spindles mounted on a housing. Each spindle has a base member support cup at one end. A vacuum source is applied to the cups for seating the member adjacent to the cups. A locking mechanism sets the spindles in a predetermined position once the member has been secured to the spindle support cups.

  16. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  17. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  18. Data port security lock

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Joseph D.; Hall, Clarence S.

    2008-06-24

    In a security apparatus for securing an electrical connector, a plug may be fitted for insertion into a connector receptacle compliant with a connector standard. The plug has at least one aperture adapted to engage at least one latch in the connector receptacle. An engagement member is adapted to partially extend through at least one aperture and lock to at least one structure within the connector receptacle.

  19. Electro-optic precision approach and landing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, David

    1995-06-01

    The ASIST (Aircraft Ship Integrated Secure and Traverse) system is a second generation shipborne helicopter handling system developed by Indal Technologies Inc. (ITI). The first generation of the RAST (Recovery Assist, Securing and Traversing) system has established itself as the most successful shipborne helicopter handling system in the world, with more than 150 shipsets delivered or on order to naval forces sailing all the world's oceans. ASIST completed sea trials by July 31, 1992 and production units are in operation with the Chilean Navy. A significant feature of ASIST is the incorporation of a Helicopter Position Sensing Subsystem (HPSS) which is based on an automatic target detection technique developed at ITI. The HPSS will detect a laser beacon equipped helicopter within one second (usually 0.25 second) of it appearing in the field of view of the system cameras. The system then will track the helicopter and provide real time helicopter position relative to the landing area updated every 1/30 second until it is landed. A Rapid Securing Device (RSD) will also be driven by the position data to track the helicopter at low hover. Once the system has detected that the helicopter has landed on the deck, the RSD automatically approaches the helicopter and secures it. This occurs within two seconds. The RSD and traversing system are then used to align the helicopter with the deck tracks and manoeuvre it into a hanger, all without the need for manned intervention.

  20. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  1. Security extensions to DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Schaaf, Thorsten; Bellaire, Gunter; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1999-07-01

    To ensure the acceptance of telemedical applications several obstacles must be overcome: the transfer of huge amounts of data over heterogeneous hard- and software platforms must be optimized; extended data post-processing is often required; and data security must be taken into consideration; post- processing based on secured data exchange must retain the relationship between original and post-processed images. To analyze and solve these problems, applications of distributed medical services were integrated. Data transfer and management was based on the Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM) standard. To account for platform- independence of remote users, a novel DICOM server and viewer as implemented in JAVA. Different DICOM-conform data security concepts were analyzed. Encryption of the complete data stream using secure socket layers as well as a partial encryption concepts were tested. The best result was attained by a DICOM-conform encryption of patient-relevant data. The implementation medical services, which used newly develop techniques of magnetic resonance imaging, allowed a much earlier diagnosis of the human brain infarct. The integrated data security enabled remote segmentation within the unsecured internet, followed by storing the data back into the secured network.

  2. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  3. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  4. Roadmap on optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  5. A Portable Computer Security Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul J.; Phillips, Andrew T.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a computer security workshop designed to instruct post-secondary instructors who want to start a course or laboratory exercise sequence in computer security. This workshop has also been used to provide computer security education to IT professionals and students. It is effective in communicating basic computer security principles…

  6. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  7. Building a Secure Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for building a secure library system to guard against threats like hackers, viruses, and theft. Topics include: determining what is at risk; recovering from disasters; developing security policies; developing front-end security; securing menu systems; accessing control programs; protecting against damage from viruses; developing…

  8. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  9. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  10. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.