Science.gov

Sample records for lander mission measurement

  1. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    1999-01-01

    exposed at the site, together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). Observations from the APEX, MECA, and MIP Experiments, including use of the robotic arm robotic arm camera (RAC) and the Marie Curie rover, will be used to address these parameters in a synergistic way. Further, calibration targets on APEX will provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces, and magnet targets will allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates on MECA will be imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities.

  2. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    , together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). The calibration targets provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces. The magnets allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates are imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities. One focus has been to develop a scenario to use the arm to dig a soil trench to a depth of tens of centimeters. The activity will be monitored through use of Pancam and RAC to ensure nominal operations and to acquire data to determine subsurface physical properties (e.g., angle of repose of trench walls). Pancam and Mini-TES observations would also provide constraints on mineralogy and texture for the walls and bottom of the trench during excavation. If desired, soils excavated at depth could be deposited on the surface and Mossbauer and APXS measurements could be acquired for these materials. Soil samples from various depths would be delivered to MECA for characterization of aqueous geochemistry and physical properties of soil grains, particularly size, shape, and hardness. These physical properties would be determined by optical and atomic force microscopy. When completed, detailed information of soil properties as a function of depth would be obtained. These various data sets would constrain our understanding of whether or not there are systematic variations in soil characteristics as a function of depth. These variations might be related, for example, to evaporative moisture losses and formation of salt deposits, thereby indicating water transport processes occurred fairly recently. Many other value-added measurement scenarios are

  3. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    , together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). The calibration targets provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces. The magnets allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates are imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities. One focus has been to develop a scenario to use the arm to dig a soil trench to a depth of tens of centimeters. The activity will be monitored through use of Pancam and RAC to ensure nominal operations and to acquire data to determine subsurface physical properties (e.g., angle of repose of trench walls). Pancam and Mini-TES observations would also provide constraints on mineralogy and texture for the walls and bottom of the trench during excavation. If desired, soils excavated at depth could be deposited on the surface and Mossbauer and APXS measurements could be acquired for these materials. Soil samples from various depths would be delivered to MECA for characterization of aqueous geochemistry and physical properties of soil grains, particularly size, shape, and hardness. These physical properties would be determined by optical and atomic force microscopy. When completed, detailed information of soil properties as a function of depth would be obtained. These various data sets would constrain our understanding of whether or not there are systematic variations in soil characteristics as a function of depth. These variations might be related, for example, to evaporative moisture losses and formation of salt deposits, thereby indicating water transport processes occurred fairly recently. Many other value-added measurement scenarios are

  4. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-09-01

    , together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). The calibration targets provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces. The magnets allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates are imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities. One focus has been to develop a scenario to use the arm to dig a soil trench to a depth of tens of centimeters. The activity will be monitored through use of Pancam and RAC to ensure nominal operations and to acquire data to determine subsurface physical properties (e.g., angle of repose of trench walls). Pancam and Mini-TES observations would also provide constraints on mineralogy and texture for the walls and bottom of the trench during excavation. If desired, soils excavated at depth could be deposited on the surface and Mossbauer and APXS measurements could be acquired for these materials. Soil samples from various depths would be delivered to MECA for characterization of aqueous geochemistry and physical properties of soil grains, particularly size, shape, and hardness. These physical properties would be determined by optical and atomic force microscopy. When completed, detailed information of soil properties as a function of depth would be obtained. These various data sets would constrain our understanding of whether or not there are systematic variations in soil characteristics as a function of depth. These variations might be related, for example, to evaporative moisture losses and formation of salt deposits, thereby indicating water transport processes occurred fairly recently. Many other value-added measurement scenarios are

  5. Viking 75 project: Viking lander system primary mission performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Viking Lander hardware performance during launch, interplanetary cruise, Mars orbit insertion, preseparation, separation through landing, and the primary landed mission, with primary emphasis on Lander engineering and science hardware operations, the as-flown mission are described with respect to Lander system performance and anomalies during the various mission phases. The extended mission and predicted Lander performance is discussed along with a summary of Viking goals, mission plans, and description of the Lander, and its subsystem definitions.

  6. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy through Coordinated Operations Planning and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Science Operations Working Group, Mars 2001 Mission, has developed coordinated plans for scientific observations that treat the instruments as an integrated payload. This approach ensures maximum return of scientific information.

  7. Mars reconnaissance lander: Vehicle and mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Bridges, J. C.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Perkinson, M.-C.; Reed, J.; Peacocke, L.; Bannister, N. P.; Howe, S. D.; O'Brien, R. C.; Klein, A. C.

    2011-10-01

    There is enormous potential for more mobile planetary surface science. This is especially true in the case of Mars because the ability to cross challenge terrain, access areas of higher elevation, visit diverse geological features and perform long traverses of up to 200 km supports the search for past water and life. Vehicles capable of a ballistic ‘hop’ have been proposed on several occasions, but those proposals using in-situ acquired propellants are the most promising for significant planetary exploration. This paper considers a mission concept termed Mars Reconnaissance Lander using such a vehicle. We describe an approach where planetary science requirements that cannot be met by a conventional rover are used to derive vehicle and mission requirements. The performance of the hopper vehicle was assessed by adding estimates of gravity losses and mission mass constraints to recently developed methods. A baseline vehicle with a scientific payload of 16.5 kg and conservatively estimated sub-system masses is predicted to achieve a flight range of 0.97 km. Using a simple consideration of system reliability, the required cumulative range of 200 km could be achieved with a probability of around 80%. Such a range is sufficient to explore geologically diverse terrains. We therefore plot an illustrative traverse in Hypanis Valles/Xanthe Terra, which encounters crater wall sections, periglacial terrain, aqueous sedimentary deposits and a traverse up an ancient fluvial channel. Such a diversity of sites could not be considered with a conventional rover. The Mars Reconnaissance Lander mission and vehicle presents some very significant engineering challenges, but would represent a valuable complement to rovers, static landers and orbital observations.

  8. Europa Lander mission and the context of international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Europa Lander Team; Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Martynov, M.; Popov, G. A.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Pappalardo, R.; Clark, K.; Fedorova, A.; Akim, E. L.; Simonov, A. A.; Lomakin, I. V.; Sukhanov, A.; Eismont, N.

    2011-08-01

    From 2007 the Russian Academy of Sciences and Roscosmos consider to develop a Europa surface element, in coordination with the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) international project planned to study the Jupiter system. The main scientific objectives of the Europa Lander are to search for the signatures of possible present and extinct life, in situ studies of the Europa internal structure, the surface and the environment. The mission includes the lander, and the relay orbiter, to be launched by Proton and carried to Jupiter with electric propulsion. The mass of scientific instruments on the lander is ˜50 kg, and its planned lifetime is 60 days. A dedicated international Europa Lander Workshop (ELW) was held in Moscow in February 2009. Following the ELW materials and few recent developments, the paper describes the planned mission, including the science goals, technical design of the mission elements, the ballistic scheme, and the synergy between the Europa Lander and the EJSM.

  9. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Concepts are being investigated for exploratory missions to Mars based on Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES), which is a guiding principle of this effort to develop biomorphic explorers. The novelty lies in the use of a robust telecom architecture for mission data return, utilizing multiple local relays (including the lander itself as a local relay and the explorers in the dual role of a local relay) to enable ranges 10 to 1,000 km and downlink of color imagery. As illustrated in Figure 1, multiple microflyers that can be both surface or aerially launched are envisioned in shepherding, metamorphic, and imaging roles. These microflyers imbibe key bio-inspired principles in their flight control, navigation, and visual search operations. Honey-bee inspired algorithms utilizing visual cues to perform autonomous navigation operations such as terrain following will be utilized. The instrument suite will consist of a panoramic imager and polarization imager specifically optimized to detect ice and water. For microflyers, particularly at small sizes, bio-inspired solutions appear to offer better alternate solutions than conventional engineered approaches. This investigation addresses a wide range of interrelated issues, including desired scientific data, sizes, rates, and communication ranges that can be accomplished in alternative mission scenarios. The mission illustrated in Figure 1 offers the most robust telecom architecture and the longest range for exploration with two landers being available as main local relays in addition to an ephemeral aerial probe local relay. The shepherding or metamorphic plane are in their dual role as local relays and image data collection/storage nodes. Appropriate placement of the landing site for the scout lander with respect to the main mission lander can allow coverage of extremely large ranges and enable exhaustive survey of the area of interest. In particular, this mission could help with the path planning and risk

  10. Jovian Tour Design for Orbiter and Lander Missions to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Buffington, Brent B.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa is one of the most interesting targets for solar system exploration, as its ocean of liquid water could harbor life. Following the recommendation of the Planetary Decadal Survey, NASA commissioned a study for a flyby mission, an orbiter mission, and a lander mission. This paper presents the moon tours for the lander and orbiter concepts. The total delta v and radiation dose would be reduced by exploiting multi-body dynamics and avoiding phasing loops in the Ganymede-to- Europa transfer. Tour 11-O3, 12-L1 and 12-L4 are presented in details and their performaces compared to other tours from previous Europa mission studies.

  11. Comet sample acquisition for ROSETTA lander mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, M.; Campaci, R.; Magnani, P.; Mugnuolo, R.; Nista, A.; Olivier, A.; Re, E.

    2001-09-01

    ROSETTA/Lander is being developed with a combined effort of European countries, coordinated by German institutes. The commitment for such a challenging probe will provide a unique opportunity for in-situ analysis of a comet nucleus. The payload for coring, sampling and investigations of comet materials is called SD2 (Sampling Drilling and Distribution). The paper presents the drill/sampler tool and the sample transfer trough modeling, design and testing phases. Expected drilling parameters are then compared with experimental data; limited torque consumption and axial thrust on the tool constraint the operation and determine the success of tests. Qualification campaign involved the structural part and related vibration test, the auger/bit parts and drilling test, and the coring mechanism with related sampling test. Mechanical check of specimen volume is also reported, with emphasis on the measurement procedure and on the mechanical unit. The drill tool and all parts of the transfer chain were tested in the hypothetical comet environment, charcterized by frozen material at extreme low temperature and high vacuum (-160°C, 10-3 Pa).

  12. Europa Lander Mission: A Challenge to Find Traces of Alien Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Korablev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Elena; Martynov, Maxim; Akim, Efraim L.; Zakahrov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An international effort dedicated to science exploration of Jupiter system planned by ESA and NASA in the beginning of next decade includes in-depth science investigation of Europa. In parallel to EJSM (Europa-Jupiter System Mission) Russian Space Agency and the academy of Science plan Laplace-Europa Lander mission, which will include the small telecommunication and science orbiter and the surface element: Europa Lander. In-situ methods on the lander provide the only direct possibility to assess environmental conditions, and to perform the search for signatures of life. A critical advantage of such in situ analysis is the possibility to enhance concentration and detection limits and to provide ground truth for orbital measurements. The science mission of the lander is biological, geophysical, chemical, and environmental characterizations of the Europa surface. Remote investigations from the orbit around Europa would not be sufficient to address fully the astrobiology, geodesy, and geology goals. The science objectives of the planned mission, the synergy between the Europa Lander and EJSM mission elements, and a brief description of the Laplace-Europa Lander mission are presented.

  13. Orbiter, Flyby and Lander Mission Concepts for Investigating Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    . Each of the three mission options would address this goal in different and complementary ways, and each has high science value of its own, independent of the others. Each mission concept traces geophysical, compositional, and/or geological investigations that are best addressed by that specific platform. Investigations best addressed through near-continuous global data sets that are obtained under relatively uniform conditions could be undertaken by the orbiter; investigations that are more focused on characterization of local regions could be accomplished by a spacecraft making multiple flybys from Jupiter orbit; and measurements that are most effective from the surface could be addressed by a lander. Although there is overlap in the science objectives of these three mission concepts, each stands alone as a viable Europa mission concept.

  14. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    simplifies the integration into the transfer vehicle where besides the deployment mechanism only a power cable is needed to fully charge the batteries before separation. A bi-directional data link would be of advantage allowing besides a full system checkout also the last-minute adjustments of operational parameters once the most likely landing area is defined. The initial landing sites are selected in a latitude range of +/- 30 degrees and at low altitudes, thereby allowing the use of only solar panels as energy source and avoiding the political problems of including radioactive generators into the Lander. For high-latitude missions radioactive heaters will be necessary to make the systems survive the Martian winter. The MNL will be separated from the transfer vehicle either during the Mars-approaching trajectory or from the Martian orbit. The point of separation relative to the Martian orientation and the initial deployment angle define the final landing site, which additionally is influenced by atmospheric parameters during the descent phase. The behavior of the MNL's during its flight across the different layers of the Martian atmosphere is monitored by 3-axis accelerometers and 3-axis gyroscopes. This information is transmitted to the transfer vehicle via dedicated beacon antennas already during the descent phase. For the precursor missions this results in an initial velocity of 6080 m/s, a relative entry angle of -15° and a landing velocity of about 50 m/s. Later units will go also to higher latitudes and altitudes, using optimized payloads and power systems. The core payload contains the meteorological sensors for temperature, pressure and humidity measurements, a 4-lense panoramic camera and a 3-axis accelerometer for descent control. For the precursor missions this is extended to include also a 3-axis gyroscope device. Additionally a Solar Incident Sensor with a wide range of dedicated wavelength filters, an optical dust sensor, a 3-axis magnetometer and a

  15. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    simplifies the integration into the transfer vehicle where besides the deployment mechanism only a power cable is needed to fully charge the batteries before separation. A bi-directional data link would be of advantage allowing besides a full system checkout also the last-minute adjustments of operational parameters once the most likely landing area is defined. The initial landing sites are selected in a latitude range of +/- 30 degrees and at low altitudes, thereby allowing the use of only solar panels as energy source and avoiding the political problems of including radioactive generators into the Lander. For high-latitude missions radioactive heaters will be necessary to make the systems survive the Martian winter. The MNL will be separated from the transfer vehicle either during the Mars-approaching trajectory or from the Martian orbit. The point of separation relative to the Martian orientation and the initial deployment angle define the final landing site, which additionally is influenced by atmospheric parameters during the descent phase. The behavior of the MNL's during its flight across the different layers of the Martian atmosphere is monitored by 3-axis accelerometers and 3-axis gyroscopes. This information is transmitted to the transfer vehicle via dedicated beacon antennas already during the descent phase. For the precursor missions this results in an initial velocity of 6080 m/s, a relative entry angle of -15° and a landing velocity of about 50 m/s. Later units will go also to higher latitudes and altitudes, using optimized payloads and power systems. The core payload contains the meteorological sensors for temperature, pressure and humidity measurements, a 4-lense panoramic camera and a 3-axis accelerometer for descent control. For the precursor missions this is extended to include also a 3-axis gyroscope device. Additionally a Solar Incident Sensor with a wide range of dedicated wavelength filters, an optical dust sensor, a 3-axis magnetometer and a

  16. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  17. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  18. Preliminary assessment of a Ceres Polar Lander mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, Olivier; Martinot, V.; Gabriel, Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    The quest for water in all forms is a major challenge of planetary exploration. In the Inner System, beneath the Frost Line, H2O is relatively scarce: for it to survive in its solid form outside Earth's and Mars' atmospheres, H2O has to lie in areas exposed to little or no Sun. Three planetary bodies in the Inner System have a spin axis almost perpendicular to their orbital plane allowing temperatures below the sublimation limit in their polar areas: Mercury, our Moon and dwarf planet Ceres (fig. 1). Apart from the Moon's poles where the presence of water ice is not evidenced yet, the poles of Ceres are attractive and relatively easy targets for an in-situ mission. They will have been mapped by NASA's Dawn Orbiter by 2015. The successful landing of NASA's Phoenix on Mars has brought another evidence of the interest of modern precision landing techniques for planetary exploration. NASA's MSL and ESA's Moon-NEXT Lunar Lander missions will bring other examples of the relevance of such designs in the years to come. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary evaluation of a Ceres Polar Lander mission, so as to explore the possibilities offered by soft landing techniques on such a valuable and affordable scientific target. This poster presents this assessment. It illustrates the scientific interest of Ceres' poles and the challenges of this environment for a potential lander. It assesses the feasibility of the mission in a preliminary way, as well as the ability to benefit from previous lander designs.

  19. Mars 101: Linking Educational Content to Mission Purpose on the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. J.; Smith, P. H.; Lombardi, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander, scheduled to launch in August 2007, is the first mission in NASA's Scout Program. Phoenix has been specifically designed to measure volatiles (especially water) in the northern arctic plains of Mars, where the Mars Odyssey detected evidence of ice-rich soil near the surface. A fundamental part of the mission's goal-driven education and public outreach program is the Phoenix Mars Lander 2007 web site. Content for the site was designed not only to further the casual user's understanding of the Phoenix mission and its objectives, but also to meet the needs of the more science-attentive user who desires in-depth information. To this end, the web site's "Mars 101" module includes five distinct themes, all of which are directly connected to the mission's purpose: Mars Intro includes basic facts about Mars and how the planet differs from Earth; Polar Regions discusses the history of polar exploration on Earth and the similarities between these regions on Mars and Earth; Climate covers the effects that Earth's polar regions have on climate and how these same effects may occur on Mars; Water on Mars introduces the reader to the idea of liquid water and water ice on Mars; and Biology includes a discussion of the requirements of life and life in the universe to facilitate reader understanding of what Phoenix might find. Each of the five themes is described in simple language accompanied by relevant images and graphics, with hypertext links connecting the science-attentive user to more in-depth content. By presenting the "Mars 101" content in a manner that relates each subheading to a specific component of the mission's purpose, the Phoenix web site nurtures understanding of the mission and its relevance to NASA's Mars Exploration goals by the general lay public as well as the science-attentive user.

  20. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  1. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  2. Concept study for a Venus Lander Mission to Analyze Atmospheric and Surface Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K.; Banks, M. E.; Benecchi, S. D.; Bradley, B. K.; Budney, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Corbin, B. A.; James, P. B.; O'Brien, R. C.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Saltman, A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Seubert, C. R.; Siles, J. V.; Stickle, A. M.; Stockton, A. M.; Taylor, C.; Zanetti, M.; JPL Team X

    2011-12-01

    We present a concept-level study of a New Frontiers class, Venus lander mission that was developed during Session 1 of NASA's 2011 Planetary Science Summer School, hosted by Team X at JPL. Venus is often termed Earth's sister planet, yet they have evolved in strikingly different ways. Venus' surface and atmosphere dynamics, and their complex interaction are poorly constrained. A lander mission to Venus would enable us to address a multitude of outstanding questions regarding the geological evolution of the Venusian atmosphere and crust. Our proposed mission concept, VenUs Lander for Composition ANalysis (VULCAN), is a two-component mission, consisting of a lander and a carrier spacecraft functioning as relay to transmit data to Earth. The total mission duration is 150 days, with primary science obtained during a 1-hour descent through the atmosphere and a 2-hour residence on the Venusian surface. In the atmosphere, the lander will provide new data on atmospheric evolution by measuring dominant and trace gas abundances, light stable isotopes, and noble gas isotopes with a neutral mass spectrometer. It will make important meteorological observations of mid-lower atmospheric dynamics with pressure and temperature sensors and obtain unprecedented, detailed imagery of surface geomorphology and properties with a descent Near-IR/VIS camera. A nepholometer will provide new constraints on the sizes of suspended particulate matter within the lower atmosphere. On the surface, the lander will quantitatively investigate the chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Venusian crust with a LIBS-Raman spectrometer. Planetary differentiation processes recorded in heavy elements will be evaluated using a gamma-ray spectrometer. The lander will also provide the first stereo images for evaluating the geomorphologic/volcanic evolution of the Venusian surface, as well as panoramic views of the sample site using multiple filters, and detailed images of unconsolidated material and rock

  3. Planetary Protection for the Beagle2 Mars Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, J. A.; Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    Following ejection from the Mars Express orbiter on 19th December 2003, the Beagle 2 probe of mass 68kg headed for the martian surface. The fact that no communications were established with the Beagle 2 lander, and thus neither its location nor fate are currently known, heightens the relevance of the planetary protection aspects of the project. Payload configuration requirements and stringent mass constraints in the design did not allow the whole spacecraft to be terminally sterilised by a single processing method, due to material incompatibility issues. The lander was therefore integrated aseptically in a specially designed and constructed Class 10 cleanroom facility, following appropriate sterilisation processing at sub-assembly level utilising one of several different sterilisation technologies. Additional further cleanliness precautions were taken to ensure the integrity of the science package. The project demonstrates that the COSPAR requirements for a category IVA mission can be met or exceeded using this approach. The data show that, even in the event of a non-nominal landing, the martian environment is protected through the precautionary and conservative approach adopted in the planetary protection strategy.

  4. Navigation Strategy for the Mars 2001 Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mase, Robert A.; Spencer, David A.; Smith, John C.; Braun, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) is an ongoing series of missions designed to robotically study, map and search for signs of life on the planet Mars. The MSP 2001 project will advance the effort by sending an orbiter, a lander and a rover to the red planet in the 2001 opportunity. Each vehicle will carry a science payload that will Investigate the Martian environment on both a global and on a local scale. Although this mission will not directly search for signs of life, or cache samples to be returned to Earth, it will demonstrate certain enabling technologies that will be utilized by the future Mars Sample Return missions. One technology that is needed for the Sample Return mission is the capability to place a vehicle on the surface within several kilometers of the targeted landing site. The MSP'01 Lander will take the first major step towards this type of precision landing at Mars. Significant reduction of the landed footprint will be achieved through two technology advances. The first, and most dramatic, is hypersonic aeromaneuvering; the second is improved approach navigation. As a result, the guided entry will produce in a footprint that is only tens of kilometers, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander ballistic entries. This reduction will significantly enhance scientific return by enabling the potential selection of otherwise unreachable landing sites with unique geologic interest and public appeal. A landed footprint reduction from hundreds to tens of kilometers is also a milestone on the path towards human exploration of Mars, where the desire is to place multiple vehicles within several hundred meters of the planned landing site. Hypersonic aeromaneuvering is an extension of the atmospheric flight goals of the previous landed missions, Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander (MPL), that utilizes aerodynamic lift and an autonomous guidance algorithm while in the upper atmosphere. The onboard guidance algorithm will

  5. Navigation Strategy for the Mars 2001 Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mase, Robert A.; Spencer, David A.; Smith, John C.; Braun, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) is an ongoing series of missions designed to robotically study, map and search for signs of life on the planet Mars. The MSP 2001 project will advance the effort by sending an orbiter, a lander and a rover to the red planet in the 2001 opportunity. Each vehicle will carry a science payload that will Investigate the Martian environment on both a global and on a local scale. Although this mission will not directly search for signs of life, or cache samples to be returned to Earth, it will demonstrate certain enabling technologies that will be utilized by the future Mars Sample Return missions. One technology that is needed for the Sample Return mission is the capability to place a vehicle on the surface within several kilometers of the targeted landing site. The MSP'01 Lander will take the first major step towards this type of precision landing at Mars. Significant reduction of the landed footprint will be achieved through two technology advances. The first, and most dramatic, is hypersonic aeromaneuvering; the second is improved approach navigation. As a result, the guided entry will produce in a footprint that is only tens of kilometers, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander ballistic entries. This reduction will significantly enhance scientific return by enabling the potential selection of otherwise unreachable landing sites with unique geologic interest and public appeal. A landed footprint reduction from hundreds to tens of kilometers is also a milestone on the path towards human exploration of Mars, where the desire is to place multiple vehicles within several hundred meters of the planned landing site. Hypersonic aeromaneuvering is an extension of the atmospheric flight goals of the previous landed missions, Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander (MPL), that utilizes aerodynamic lift and an autonomous guidance algorithm while in the upper atmosphere. The onboard guidance algorithm will

  6. Micro-Mars: a low cost mission to planet Mars with scientific orbiter and lander applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, L.; Bischof, B.; Renken, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Apel, U.

    2003-11-01

    The proposed Micro-Mars Mission can contribute substantially to the international Mars exploration programme within the framework of a future low cost mission. The concept consists of an orbiter integrating a total scientific payload of 30 kg including a lightweight lander of 15 kg. The spacecraft will be launched as piggyback payload by an Ariane 5 ASAP with a total launch mass of 360 kg. It will use a bipropellant propulsion system with 210 kg of fuel and four thrusters of 22 N, and four of 10 N for orbit and attitude control. Further attitude actuation shall be performed by three reaction wheels and a gyropackage, a star sensor and a sun sensor for attitude sensing. Communication will be performed in S- and X-Band to earth and in UHF between orbiter and lander. From a highly elliptical orbit with a periapsis below 200 km, four instruments will perform high-resolution remote sensing observations and the payload consists of a camera system, a magnetometer, a dosimeter, and an ultrastable osciallator for radio science. The light-weight micro lander is a challenging technological experiment by itself. It is equiped with a suite of scientific instruments which will supplement the orbiter measurements and concentrate on the environment (temperature cycle, atmosphere, magnetosphere and radiation).

  7. Lunette: A Dual Lander Mission to the Moon to Explore Early Planetary Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, B.; Jones, M.; Elliott, J.; Alkalai, L.; Turyshev, S.; Lognonné, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Grimm, R. E.; Spohn, T.; Weber, R. C.; Lunette Science; Instrument Support Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon is critical for understanding fundamental aspects of how terrestrial planets formed and evolved. The Moon’s size means that a record of early planetary differentiation has been preserved. However, data from previous, current and planned missions are (will) not (be) of sufficient fidelity to provide definitive conclusions about its internal state, structure, and composition. Lunette rectifies this situation. Lunette is a solar-powered, 2 identical lander geophysical network mission that operates for at least 4 years on the surface of the Moon. Each Lunette lander carries an identical, powerful geophysical payload consisting of four instruments: 1) An extremely sensitive instrument combining a 3-axis triad of Short Period sensors and a 3-axis set of Long Period sensors, to be placed with its environmental shield on the surface; 2) A pair of self-penetrating “Moles,” each carrying thermal and physical sensors at least 3 m below the surface to measure the heat flow from the lunar interior; 3) Lunar Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: A high-precision, high-performance corner cube reflector for laser ranging between the Earth and the Moon; and 4) ElectroMagnetic Sounder: A set of directional magnetometers and electrometers that together probe the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the interior. The 2 landers are deployed to distinct lunar terranes: the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) and the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) on the lunar nearside. They are launched together on a single vehicle, then separate shortly after trans-lunar injection, making their way individually to an LL2 staging point. Each lander descends to the lunar surface at the beginning of consecutive lunar days; the operations team can concentrate on completing lander checkout and instrument deployments well before lunar night descends. Lunette has one primary goal: Understand the early stages of terrestrial planet differentiation. Lunette uses Apollo knowledge of deep

  8. Viking lander imaging investigation during extended and continuation automatic missions. Volume 1: Lander 1 picture catalog of experiment data record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, K. L.; Henshaw, M.; Mcmenomy, C.; Robles, A.; Scribner, P. C.; Wall, S. D.; Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    All images returned by Viking Lander 1 during the extended and continuation automatic phases of the Viking Mission are presented. Listings of supplemental information which describe the conditions under which the images were acquired are included together with skyline drawings which show where the images are positioned in the field of view of the cameras. Subsets of the images are listed in a variety of sequences to aid in locating images of interest. The format and organization of the digital magnetic tape storage of the images are described as well as the mission and the camera system.

  9. Viking lander imaging investigation during extended and continuation automatic missions. Volume 2: Lander 2 picture catalog of experiment data record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, K. L.; Henshaw, M.; Mcmenomy, C.; Robles, A.; Scribner, P. C.; Wall, S. D.; Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Images returned by the two Viking landers during the extended and continuation automatic phases of the Viking Mission are presented. Information describing the conditions under which the images were acquired is included with skyline drawings showing the images positioned in the field of view of the cameras. Subsets of the images are listed in a variety of sequences to aid in locating images of interest. The format and organization of the digital magnetic tape storage of the images are described. A brief description of the mission and the camera system is also included.

  10. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Yan, Jun; Li, Chun-Lai; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions.

  11. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  12. The DREAMS experiment on-board the Schiaparelli lander of ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.

    2015-10-01

    The DREAMS package is a suite of sensors for the characterization of the Martian basic state meteorology and of the atmospheric electric properties at the landing site of the Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module (EDM) of the ExoMars mission. The EDM will land on Meridiani Planum in October 2016, during the statistical dust storm season. This will allow DREAMS to investigate the status of the atmosphere of Mars during this particular season and also to understand the role of dust as a potential source of electrical phenomena on Mars. DREAMS will be the first instrument to perform a measurement of electric field on Mars. DREAMS FM has been completely developed and tested and it has been delivered to ESA for integration on the Schiaparelli lander of the ExoMars 2016 mission. Launch is foreseen for January 2016.

  13. Selecting a landing site of astrobiological interest for Mars landers and sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, D.; Monaghan, E.; Foing, B. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The landscape of Mars, despite its apparent hostility to life, is riddled with geological and mineralogical signs of past or present hydrological activity. As such, it is a key target for astrobiological exploration. There are, however, many factors that will need to be considered when planning in-situ and sample return missions, if these missions are indeed to adequately exploit the science potential of this intriguing world. These will not only take into account the environment of the landing site in terms of topography and ambient atmosphere etc., but also the geochemical make up of the surface regolith, evidence of hydrological processes and various other considerations. The knowledge base in all aspects of Martian science is being added to on an almost daily basis, and the aim of this work is to combine data and studies to nominate top priority landing locations for the search for evidence of life on Mars. We report in particular on science and technical criteria and our data analysis for sites of astrobiological interest. This includes information from previous missions (such as Mars Express, MGS, Odyssey, MRO and MER rovers) on mineralogical composition, geomorphology, evidence from past water history from imaging and spectroscopic data, and existence of in-situ prior information from landers and rovers (concerning evidences for volatiles, organics and habitability conditions). We discuss key mission objectives, and assess what sort of sites should be targeted in the light of these. We consider the accessibility of chosen locations, taking into account difficulties presented in accessing the polar regions and other regions of high altitude. We describe what additional measurements are needed, and outline the technical and scientific operations requirements of such in-situ landers and sample return missions. Approach In the first step of this study we focus on the science objectives of in-situ and sample return missions to Mars. We investigate the

  14. Performance characteristics of the PAW instrumentation on Beagle 2 (the astrobiology lander on ESA's Mars Express Mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, D.; Fraser, George W.; Whitehead, S.; Sykes, J.; Holt, J.; Butcher, Gillian I.; Nelms, Nick; Dowson, J.; Ross, D.; Bicknell, C.; Crocker, M.; Favill, B.; Wells, Alan A.; Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Hamacher, Hans; Ratke, L.; Griffiths, Andrew D.; Coates, A. J.; Phillips, N.; Senior, A.; Zarnecki, John C.; Towner, M. C.; Leese, M.; Patel, M.; Wilson, C.; Thomas, Nicolas; Hviid, S.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Klingelhoefer, G.; Bernhardt, B.; van Duijn, P.; Sims, G.; Yung, K. L.

    2003-02-01

    The performance of the PAW instrumentation on the 60kg Beagle 2 lander for ESA"s 2003 Mars Express mission will be described. Beagle 2 will search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars in addition to a study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will utilize acquisition and preparation tools to obtain samples from below the surface, and both under and inside rocks. In situ analysis will include examination of samples with an optical microscope, Mossbauer and fluorescent X-ray spectrometers. Extracted samples will be returned to the lander for analysis, in particular a search for organics and a measurement of their isotopic composition. The PAW experiment performance data will be described along with the status of the project.

  15. Surface Lander Missions to Mars: Support via Analysis of the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.; Bridger, Alison F.C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the near-surface martian wind environment as calculated with a set of numerical simulations carried out with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (Mars GCM). These wind environments are intended to offer future spacecraft missions to the martian surface a data base from which to choose those locations which meet the mission's criteria for minimal near surface winds to enable a successful landing. We also became involved in the development and testing of the wind sensor which is currently onboard the Mars-bound Pathfinder lander. We began this effort with a comparison of Mars GCM produced winds with those measured by the Viking landers during their descent through the martian atmosphere and their surface wind measurements during the 3+ martian year lifetime of the mission. Unexpected technical difficulties in implementing the sophisticated Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme of Haberle et al. (1993) within the Mars GCM precluded our carrying out this investigation with the desired improvement to the model's treatment of the PBL. Thus, our results from this effort are not as conclusive as we had anticipated. As it turns out, similar difficulties have been experienced by other Mars modelling groups in attempting to implement very similar PBL routines into their GCMs (Mars General Circulation Model Intercomparison Workshop, held at Oxford University, United Kingdom, July 22-24, 1996; organized by J. Murphy, J. Hollingsworth, M. Joshi). These problems, which arise due to the nature of the time stepping in each of the models, are near to being resolved at the present. The model discussions which follow herein are based upon results using the existing, less sophisticated PBL routine. We fully anticipate implementing the tools we have developed in the present effort to investigate GCM results with the new PBL scheme implemented, and thereafter producing the technical document detailing results from the analysis tools developed during this

  16. MetNet Mars Mission - New Lander Generation for Martian in situ Surface Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    MetNet Lander (MNL), a small semi-hard penetrator design with an innovative Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) with payload mass fraction of approximately 17 % has been developed. The MNL EDLS is based on inflatable structures capable of decelarating the lander from interplanetary transfer velocities down to 50-70 m/s at surface and surface impact deceleration of < 500 g during the period of less than 20 ms. The available payload mass is especially well suited for meteorological and atmospheric observations, but also for other environmental investigations — which both require modest energy, data storage & transmission resources. Due to the small size of a single lander, MNLs are highly suitable for piggy-backing on larger spacecraft. The small size and low cost make MNLs attractive for missions such as surface networks, landings to risky terrains and pathfinders for highvalue landed missions.

  17. Source and event selection for radio-planetary frame-tie measurements using the Phobos Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R.; Ulvestad, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Soviet Phobos Lander mission will place two spacecraft on the Martian moon Phobos in 1989. Measurements of the range from Earth-based stations to the landers will allow an accurate determination of the ephemerides of Phobos and Mars. Delta Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) between the landers and compact radio sources nearby on the sky will be used to obtain precise estimates of the angular offset between the radio and planetary reference frames. The accuracy of this frame-tie estimate is expected to be in the vicinity of 10 mrad, depending on how well several error sources can be controlled (calibrated or reduced). Many candidate radio sources for VLBI measurements were identified, but additional work is necessary to select those sources which have characteristics appropriate to the present application. Strategies for performing the source selection are described.

  18. Learning to Live on a Mars Day: Fatigue Countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Fiedler, Edna R.; McKenna, Laurence M.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Gilliland, Kirby; Sipes, Walter E.; Smith, Peter H.; Brainard, George C.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue. Design: Operational field study. Setting: PML Science Operations Center. Participants: Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission. Interventions: Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. Measurements and Results: Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P < 0.001). Self-reported levels of fatigue and sleepiness also significantly increased when work was scheduled at an inappropriate circadian phase (P < 0.001). Prolonged wakefulness (≥ 21 h) was associated with a decline in performance and alertness (P < 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The ability of the participants to adapt successfully to the Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions. Citation: Barger LK; Sullivan JP; Vincent AS; Fiedler ER; McKenna LM; Flynn-Evans EE

  19. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  20. Micro-Mars: A low-cost mission to planet Mars with scientific orbiter and lander applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, L.; Bischof, B.; Renken, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Apel, U.

    2006-10-01

    The proposed Micro-Mars mission can contribute substantially to the international Mars exploration programme within the framework of a future low-cost mission. The concept consists of an orbiter integrating a total scientific payload of 30 kg including a light-weight lander of 15 kg. The spacecraft will be launched as piggyback payload by an Ariane 5 ASAP with a total launch mass of 360 kg. It will use a bipropellant propulsion system with 210 kg of fuel and four thrusters of 22 N, and four of 10 N for orbit and attitude control. Further attitude actuation shall be performed by three reaction wheels and a gyropackage, a star sensor and a sun sensor for attitude sensing. Communication will be performed in S- and X-Band to Earth and in UHF between orbiter and lander. From a highly elliptical orbit with a periapsis below 200 km, four instruments will perform high-resolution remote sensing observations and the payload consists of a camera system, a magnetometer, a dosimeter, and an ultrastable oscillator for radio science. The light-weight micro lander is a challenging technological experiment by itself. It is equipped with a suite of scientific instruments which will supplement the orbiter measurements and concentrate on the environment (temperature cycle, atmosphere, magnetosphere, and radiation).

  1. Manned Mars lander launch-to-rendezvous analysis for a 1981 Venus-swingby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Murtagh, T. B.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the return of a manned Mars lander by a launch from the surface of Mars to some intermediate orbit, with subsequent maneuvers to rendezvous with a primary spacecraft (called the orbiter) in a Mars parking orbit. The type of Mars mission used to demonstrate the analytical technique includes a Venus swingby on the Mars-to-Earth portion of the trajectory in order to reduce the total mission velocity requirement. The total velocity requirement for the mission considered (if inplane launches are assumed) is approximately 17,500 ft/sec.

  2. A global view of lander-to-orbiter communications accessibility for a Mars Global Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.

    1990-06-01

    Given the mission objective to deploy a number of small landers to the surface of Mars at various latitude/longitude locations, it is of interest to obtain a global perspective of the communications link geometry between the landers and a data relay orbiter. Specifically, the question to be answered is what is the total time interval over one Martian day (1 sol) that a lander at any given latitude and longitude can communicate data to the orbiter. Results should be obtained for more than one elevation angle constraint (lander antenna design issue), and also for several time points into the mission since the orbiter's periapsis location moves under the influence of Mars' oblateness perturbation. Such information is presented in terms of global contour maps of available communications time per sol summed over all orbiter passes on that day. Global data of this type complements more detailed local site data such as communications range and elevation vs time per pass. Communications time contour maps are included here for sol grids of 180, 232, 318, 361, and 404 corresponding to orbiter periapsis latitudes of 35 S, 90 S, equatorial, 45 N, and 90 N. For each of these days, there is a map for both a 15 deg and 45 deg minimum elevation constraint on the lander-to-orbiter line of sight. The jagged appearance of the contour lines is due to computational resolution in interpolating between a finite number of latitude/longitude grid points. Although the contours should really be smooth, the general information content is represented by the lower resolution maps shown here. An example of the tabulated, finite-grid data points is also given. Communication with all sites is possible at the 15 deg elevation constraint, at times only for several minutes per sol but more generally for a much longer time up to 14 hours per sol. Significantly less time is available with a 45 deg elevation constraint, and at certain times in the mission some localized regions of the planet are

  3. A global view of lander-to-orbiter communications accessibility for a Mars Global Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.

    1990-01-01

    Given the mission objective to deploy a number of small landers to the surface of Mars at various latitude/longitude locations, it is of interest to obtain a global perspective of the communications link geometry between the landers and a data relay orbiter. Specifically, the question to be answered is what is the total time interval over one Martian day (1 sol) that a lander at any given latitude and longitude can communicate data to the orbiter. Results should be obtained for more than one elevation angle constraint (lander antenna design issue), and also for several time points into the mission since the orbiter's periapsis location moves under the influence of Mars' oblateness perturbation. Such information is presented in terms of global contour maps of available communications time per sol summed over all orbiter pases on that day. Global data of this type complements more detailed local site data such as communications range and elevation vs time per pass. Communications time contour maps are included here for sol grids of 180, 232, 318, 361, and 404 corresponding to orbiter periapsis latitudes of 35 S, 90 S, equatorial, 45 N, and 90 N. For each of these days, there is a map for both a 15 deg and 45 deg minimum elevation constraint on the lander-to-orbiter line of sight. The jagged appearance of the contour lines is due to computational resolution in interpolating between a finite number of latitude/longitude grid points. Although the contours should really be smooth, the general information content is represented by the lower resolution maps shown here. An example of the tabulated, finite-grid data points is also given. Communication with all sites is possible at the 15 deg elevation constraint, at times only for several minutes per sol but more generally for a much longer time up to 14 hours per sol. Significantly less time is available with a 45 deg elevation constraint, and at certain times in the mission some localized regions of the planet are

  4. A lander mission to probe subglacial water on Saturn's moon Enceladus for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Dachwald, Bernd; Ohndorf, Andreas; Dykta, Paul; Bowitz, Pascal; Rudolph, Martin; Digel, Ilya; Kowalski, Julia; Voigt, Konstantin; Förstner, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The plumes discovered by the Cassini mission emanating from the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus and the unique chemistry found in them have fueled speculations that Enceladus may harbor life. The presumed aquiferous fractures from which the plumes emanate would make a prime target in the search for extraterrestrial life and would be more easily accessible than the moon's subglacial ocean. A lander mission that is equipped with a subsurface maneuverable ice melting probe will be most suitable to assess the existence of life on Enceladus. A lander would have to land at a safe distance away from a plume source and melt its way to the inner wall of the fracture to analyze the plume subsurface liquids before potential biosignatures are degraded or destroyed by exposure to the vacuum of space. A possible approach for the in situ detection of biosignatures in such samples can be based on the hypothesis of universal evolutionary convergence, meaning that the independent and repeated emergence of life and certain adaptive traits is wide-spread throughout the cosmos. We thus present a hypothetical evolutionary trajectory leading towards the emergence of methanogenic chemoautotrophic microorganisms as the baseline for putative biological complexity on Enceladus. To detect their presence, several instruments are proposed that may be taken aboard a future subglacial melting probe. The "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project funded by the German Space Administration (DLR), aims to develop a terrestrial navigation system for a subglacial research probe and eventually test it under realistic conditions in Antarctica using the EnEx-IceMole, a novel maneuverable subsurface ice melting probe for clean sampling and in situ analysis of ice and subglacial liquids. As part of the EnEx project, an initial concept study is foreseen for a lander mission to Enceladus to deploy the IceMole near one of the active water plumes on the moon's South-Polar Terrain, where it will search for

  5. Instrument study of the Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) for a lunar lander mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf; Henkel, Hartmut; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Kempf, Sascha; Wu, Yiyong; Grün, Eberhard

    2014-11-01

    One of the highest-priority issues for a future human or robotic lunar exploration is the lunar dust. This problem should be studied in depth in order to develop an environment model for a future lunar exploration. A future ESA lunar lander mission requires the measurement of dust transport phenomena above the lunar surface. Here, we describe an instrument design concept to measure slow and fast moving charged lunar dust which is based on the principle of charge induction. LDX has a low mass and measures the speed and trajectory of individual dust particles with sizes below one micrometer. Furthermore, LDX has an impact ionization target to monitor the interplanetary dust background. The sensor consists of three planes of segmented grid electrodes and each electrode is connected to an individual charge sensitive amplifier. Numerical signals were computed using the Coulomb software package. The LDX sensitive area is approximately 400 cm2. Our simulations reveal trajectory uncertainties of better than 2° with an absolute position accuracy of better than 2 mm.

  6. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; Zarchi, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  7. Viking Lander imaging investigation: Picture catalog of primary mission experiment data record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    All the images returned by the two Viking Landers during the primary phase of the Viking Mission are presented. Listings of supplemental information which described the conditions under which the images were acquired are included together with skyline drawings which show where the images are positioned in the field of view of the cameras. Subsets of the images are listed in a variety of sequences to aid in locating images of interest. The format and organization of the digital magnetic tape storage of the images are described. The mission and the camera system are briefly described.

  8. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies. PMID:11543221

  9. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  10. Lunar Radio_phase Ranging in Chinese Lunar Lander Mission for Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jinsong; Meng, Qiao; Li, Wenxiao; Wang, Mingyuan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Tianyi; Han, Songtao

    2015-08-01

    The radio tracking data in lunar and planetary missions can be directly applied for scientific investigation. The variations of phase and of amplitude of the radio carrier wave signal linked between the spacecraft and the ground tracking antenna are used to deduce the planetary atmospheric and ionospheric structure, planetary gravity field, mass, ring, ephemeris, and even to test the general relativity. In the Chinese lunar missions, we developed the lunar and planetary radio science receiver to measure the distance variation between the tracking station-lander by means of open loop radio phase tracking. Using this method in Chang’E-3 landing mission, a lunar radio_phase ranging (LRR) technique was realized at Chinese deep space tracking stations and astronomical VLBI stations with H-maser clocks installed. Radio transponder and transmitter had been installed on the Chang’E-3/4. Transponder will receive the uplink S/X band radio wave transmitted from the two newly constructed Chinese deep space stations, where the high quality hydrogen maser atomic clocks have been used as local time and frequency standard. The clocks between VLBI stations and deep space stations can be synchronized to UTC standard within 20 nanoseconds using satellite common view methods. In the near future there will be a plan to improve this accuracy to 5 nanoseconds or better, as the level of other deep space network around world. In the preliminary LRR experiments of Chang'E-3, the obtained 1sps phase ranging observables have a resolution of 0.2 millimeter or better, with a fitting RMS about 2~3 millimeter, after the atmospheric and ionospheric errors removed. This method can be a new astrometric technique to measure the Earth tide and rotation, lunar orbit, tides and liberation, by means of solo observation or of working together with Lunar Laser Ranging. After differencing the ranging, we even obtained 1sps doppler series of 2-way observables with resolution of 0.07mm/second, which can

  11. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  12. Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden; Battel, Steven; Brace, Richard; Burdick, Garry; Casani, John; Lavell, Jeffrey; Leising, Charles; MacPherson, Duncan; Burr, Peter; Dipprey, Duane

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) began in 1994 with plans to send spacecraft to Mars every 26 months. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a global mapping mission, was launched in 1996 and is currently orbiting Mars. Mars Surveyor '98 consisted of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL). Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) was the prime contractor for Mars Surveyor '98. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Surveyor Program for NASA's Office of Space Science. MPL was developed under very tight funding constraints. The combined development cost of MPL and MCO, including the cost of the two launch vehicles, was approximately the same as the development cost of the Mars Pathfinder mission, including the cost of its single launch vehicle. The MPL project accepted the challenge to develop effective implementation methodologies consistent with programmatic requirements.

  13. The Deep Space 4/Champollion Comet Rendezvous and Lander Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, William D.; Weissman, Paul R.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Tan-Wang, Grace H.; Sabahi, Dara; Grimes, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Deep Space 4/Champollion mission is designed to test and validate technologies for landing on and anchoring to small bodies, and sample collection and transfer, in preparation for future sample return missions from comets, asteroids, and satellites. in addition, DS-4 will test technologies for advanced, multi-engine solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, inflatable-rigidizable solar arrays, autonomous navigation and precision guidance for landing, autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, and advanced integrated avionics and packaging concepts. Deep Space-4/Champollion consists of two spacecraft: an orbiter/carrier vehicle which includes the multi-engine SEP stage, and a lander, called Champollion, which will descend to the surface of the 46P/Tempel 1 cometary nucleus. The spacecraft will launch in April, 2003 and land on the comet in September, 2006 Deep Space 4/Champollion is a joint project between NASA and CNES, the French space agency.

  14. LAPIS - LAnder Package Impacting a Seismometer - A Proposal for a Semi-Hard Lander Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, C.

    2009-04-01

    With an increased interest on the moon within the last years, at least with several missions in orbit or under development (SELENE/Japan, Chang'e/China, Chandrayaan/India and others), there is a strong demand within the German science community to participate in this initiative, building-up a national competence regarding lunar exploration. For this purpose, a Phase-0 analysis for a small lunar semi-hard landing scenario has been performed at DLR to foster future lunar exploration missions. This study's scope was to work out a more detailed insight into the design drivers and challenges and their impact on mass and cost budgets for such a mission. LAPIS has been dedicated to the investigation of the seismic activities of the moon, additionally to some other geophysical in-situ measurements at the lunar surface. In fact, the current status of the knowledge and understanding of lunar seismic activities leads to a range of open questions which have not been answered so far by the various Apollo missions in the past and could now possibly be answered by the studied LAPIS mission. Among these are the properties of the lunar core, the origin of deep and shallow moonquakes and the occurrence of micro-meteoroids. Therefore, as proposed first for LAPIS on the LEO mission, a payload of a short period micro-seismometer, based on European and American predevelopments, has been suggested. A staged mission scenario will be described, using a 2-module spacecraft with a propulsion part and a landing part, the so called LAPIS-PROP and LAPIS-LAND. In this scenario, the LAPIS-PROP module will do the cruise, until the spacecraft reaches an altitude of 100 m above the moon, after which the landing module will separate and continue to the actual semi-hard landing, which is based on deformable structures. Further technical details, e.g. considering the subsystem technologies, have been addressed within the performed study. These especially critical and uniquely challenging issues, such

  15. NEXT Lunar Lander Mission - Overview and Challenges of the Lunar Rover Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, Elie

    Looking ahead at the 2015-2018 timeframe, the European Space Agency (ESA) has recently started the investigation of the Next Exploration Science and Technology missions (NEXT) to demonstrate a number of key technologies for future programmes such as the Mars Sample Return (MSR). This paper provides the first insights into the mobile rover concept investigated as part of the NEXT Lunar Lander Study. Operating at the South Pole of the Moon, the rover will face a very challenging environment. Subjected to 200-hours long cold lunar nights at -200C for an initial mission duration of 1 year, and a total traverse of 20km, the design and operation of the rover requires careful attention. Its design is initially based on the knowledge developed for the ESA ExoMars mission, but the major differences in the environment and operation of the rover, means that most of the systems need a thorough assessment of their capabilities under Lunar condition and, where required, the development of new solutions. From the locomotion system designed to cope with uncertain lunar terrain, the thermal system dealing with gradients of hundreds of degrees, to the navigation through dark shadows, this paper illustrates some of the challenges future missions will face when targeting location such as the south pole on the Moon, but it will also provide details of the enabling technologies leading to the Mars Sample Return Mission and beyond.

  16. Mars exploration with Viking. [orbiter and lander design and mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The Viking Mission is a scientific exploration of the planet Mars with particular emphasis on the search for life. Two unmanned spacecraft will be launched from Cape Kennedy in 1975 and will arrive at Mars in the summer of 1976. Each spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and lander. The landing sites will be preselected before launch and certified by orbital reconnaissance before landing. Soft landing on the surface will be accomplished by decelerating first on an aeroshell, then a deployed parachute and finally using terminal propulsion engines. Thirteen investigations will be performed, including mapping experiments from the orbiter, and analytical experiments on the surface which deal broadly with the biology, geosciences and atmospheric characteristics of the planet.

  17. Lunar Lander project: A study on future manned missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This project is based on designing a small lunar probe which will conduct research relating to future manned missions to the moon. The basic design calls for two experiments to be run. The first of these experiments is an enclosed environment section which will be exposed to solar radiation while on the moon. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of radiation on an enclosed environment and how different shielding materials can be used to moderate this effect. The eight compartments will have the following covering materials: glass, polarized glass, plexiglass, polyurethane, and boron impregnated versions of the polyurethane and plexiglass. The enclosed atmosphere will be sampled by a mass spectrometer to determine elemental breakdown of its primary constituents. This is needed so that an accurate atmospheric processing system can be designed for a manned mission. The second experiment is a seismic study of the moon. A small penetrating probe will be shot into the lunar surface and data will be collected onboard the lander by an electronic seismograph which will store the data in the data storage unit for retrieval and transmission once every twenty-three hours. The project is designed to last ten years with possible extended life for an additional nine years at which point power requirements prevent proper functioning of the various systems.

  18. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  19. Science Program of Lunar Landers of "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Tret'yakov, V. I.; Dolgopolov, V. P.

    2011-03-01

    Program of scientific investigations is presented for two Russian polar landers: Luna Resource and Luna Glob. This program has to address two tasks: studies of composition of lunar polar regolith and studies of lunar exosphere at both poles.

  20. The method of landing sites selection for Russian lunar lander missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Djachkova, Maya; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Russian space agency is planning to launch two lunar landers in the upcoming years - Luna-Glob (2018) and Luna-Resurs (2021). Instruments installed on board the landers are designed to study volatiles and water ice, lunar exosphere, dust particles and regolith composition. As primary scientific interest is concentrated in the south polar region, the landing sites for both landers will be selected there. Since rugged terrain, conditions of solar illumination at high altitudes and necessity of direct radio communication with the Earth, it is essential to select an optimal landing site for each lander. We present the method of landing sites selection, which is based on geographical information systems (GIS) technologies to perform analysis, based on the criteria of surface suitability for landing, such as slopes, illumination conditions and Earth visibility. In addition, the estimations of hydrogen concentration in regolith based on LEND/LRO data were used to evaluate landing site candidates on possible water ice presence. The method gave us 6 canditates to land. Four of them are located in the impact craters: Simpelius D, Simpelius E, Boguslawsky C, Boussingault, and the other two are located to the north of Schomberger crater and to the north-west of Boguslawsky C crater and associated with probable basin-related materials. The main parameters of these sites will be presented with possible prioritization based on both technical requirements and scientific interest.

  1. NASA's Robotic Lander Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Monday, June 13, the robotic lander mission team was poised and ready when the lander prototype in the adjacent building lifted itself off the ground and rose unrestrained higher and higher. App...

  2. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  3. Common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

  4. Evaluation of Viking Lander barometric pressure sensor. [performance related to Viking mission environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M.

    1977-01-01

    Variable reluctance type pressure sensors were evaluated to determine their performance characteristics related to Viking Mission environment levels. Static calibrations were performed throughout the evaluation over the full range of the sensors using two point contact manometer standards. From the beginning of the evaluation to the end of the evaluation, the zero shift in the two sensors was within 0.5 percent, and the sensitivity shift was 0.05 percent. The maximum thermal zero coefficient exhibited by the sensors was 0.032 percent over the temperature range of -28.89 C to 71.11 C. The evaluation results indicated that the sensors are capable of making high accuracy pressure measurements while being exposed to the conditions mentioned.

  5. Geomorphic and geologic settings of the Phoenix Lander mission landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heet, T. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cull, S. C.; Mellon, M. T.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-11-01

    The Phoenix Lander touched down on the northern distal flank of the shield volcano Alba Patera in a ˜150 km wide valley underlain by the Scandia region unit. The geomorphology and geology of the landing site is dominated by the ˜0.6 Ga, 11.5 km wide, bowl-shaped impact crater, Heimdal, and its areally extensive ejecta deposits. The Lander is located ˜20 km to the west of the crater and is sitting on a plains surface underlain by partially eroded Heimdal ejecta deposits. Heimdal was produced by a hypervelocity impact into fine-grained, ice-rich material and is inferred to have produced high velocity winds and a ground-hugging ejecta emplacement mode that destroyed or buried preexisting surfaces and rock fields out to ˜10 crater radii. Patterned ground is ubiquitous, with complex polygon patterns and rock rubble piles located on older plains (˜3.3 Ga) to the west of the ejecta deposits. Crater size frequency distributions are complex and represent equilibria between crater production and destruction processes (e.g., aeolian infill, cryoturbation, relaxation of icy substrate). Rock abundances increase near craters for the older plains and rocks with their dark shadows explain the reason for the few percent lower albedo for these plains as opposed to the Heimdal ejecta deposits. Many rocks at the landing site have been reworked by cryoturbation and moved to polygon troughs. The evidence for cryoturbation and the lack of aeolian features imply that the soils sampled by Phoenix are locally derived and mixed with a subordinate amount of windblown dust.

  6. Performance of the mission critical Electrical Support System (ESS) which handled communications and data transfer between the Rosetta Orbiter and its Lander Philae while en route to and at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Rusznyak, Peter; Balaz, Jan; Schmidt, Walter; Fantinati, Cinzia; Kuechemann, Oliver; Geurts, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The Electrical Support System (ESS), which was designed and built in Ireland, handled commands transmitted from the Rosetta spacecraft to the Command and Data Management System (CDMS) aboard its Lander Philae during a ten year Cruise Phase to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as well as at the comet itself. The busy Cruise Phase included three Earth flybys, a fly-by of Mars and visits to two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Data originating at the individual Lander experiments measured while en-route to and at the comet were also handled by the ESS which received and reformatted them prior to their transmission by Rosetta to Earth. Since the success of the Lander depended on the acquisition of scientific data, the ESS was defined by the European Space Agency to be Mission Critical Hardware. The electronic design of the ESS and its method of handling communications between the spacecraft and Philae are herein presented. The nominal performance of the ESS during the Cruise Phase and in the course of subsequent surface campaigns is described and the successful fulfilment of the brief of this subsystem to retrieve unique scientific data measured by the instruments of the Philae Lander demonstrated.

  7. Reconciling the Differences between the Measurements of CO2 Isotopes by the Phoenix and MSL Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Trainer, M.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. There have been several different measurements by landers and Earth based systems performed in recent years that have not been in agreement. In particular, measurements of the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are in stark disagreement. This work attempts to use measurements of mass 45 and mass 46 of martian atmospheric CO2 by the SAM and TEGA instruments to search for agreement as a first step towards reaching a consensus measurement that might be supported by data from both instruments.

  8. Molecular characterization of a cometary nucleus composition with the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer of the COSAC experiment onboard the Philae lander of the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Cyril; Gomes, Ricardo; Raulin, Francois; Sternberg, Robert; Coscia, David; Cabane, Michel; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Gautier, Thomas; Goesmann, Fred; Cosac Team

    2014-05-01

    One among the main goal of the Rosetta mission is to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the comet P46/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus. With this aim, the mission will offer for the first time the capability to achieve in situ measurements at the cometary surface with the Philae lander. This characterization is all the more important that the properties of cometary nuclei surfaces are almost unknown whereas it is the source of the processes taking place in the cometary comae and tails. In this frame, the determination of the cometary nucleus molecular composition is of primary importance as it would allow to : i. give clues on the relationship between the molecules present in the nucleus and those detected from observations ; ii. determine the importance of comets in the delivery of inorganic and organic molecules to planetary surfaces ; iii. improve our knowledge of the connection between comets and materials present in the interstellar medium. The COmetary SAmpling and Composition experiment will be the molecular analyzer onboard the Philae lander. It is constituted of a solid sampler, a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer, that allow to analyze volatile compounds coming from both the cometary atmosphere and samples collected in the cometary regolith. In order to prepare the analysis and interpretation of the data to be collected after the landing of Philae, a series of calibration and tests were done in laboratory with the COSAC spare model or spare components of the GC. These were done in order to evaluate the health state of the gas chromatograph after almost 10 years spent in the interplanetary environment, and also to estimate the analytical performances of the instrument under realistic operation conditions to be used at the cometary surface. This contribution presents the results of these tests that will be usefull for the COSAC data analysis.

  9. Three Dimensional Rover/Lander/Orbiter Mission-Planning (3D-ROMPS) System: A Modern Approach to Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfe, Nathan D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's current mission planning system is based on point design, two-dimensional display, spread sheets, and report technology. This technology does not enable engineers to analyze the results of parametric studies of missions plans. This technology will not support the increased observational complexity and data volume of missions like Cassini, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars Sample Return (MSR). The goal of the 3D-ROMPS task has been to establish a set of operational mission planning and analysis tools in the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) Mission Support Area (MSA) that will respond to engineering requirements for planning future Solar System Exploration (SSE) missions using a three-dimensional display.

  10. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  11. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  12. Viking Lander Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Viking Project found a place in history when it became the first mission to land a spacecraft successfully on the surface of another planet and return both imaging and non-imaging data over an extended time period. Two identical spacecraft, each consisting of a lander and an orbiter, were built. Each orbiter-lander pair flew together and entered Mars orbit; the landers then separated and descended to the planet's surface.

    The Viking 1 Lander touched down on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold) on July 20, 1976, while the Viking 2 lander settled down at Utopia Planitia on September 3, 1976.

    Besides taking photographs and collecting other science data on the Martian surface, the two landers conducted three biology experiments designed to look for possible signs of life. These experiments discovered unexpected and enigmatic chemical activity in the Martian soil, but provided no clear evidence for the presence of living microorganisms in soil near the landing sites. According to scientists, Mars is self-sterilizing. They believe the combination of solar ultraviolet radiation that saturates the surface, the extreme dryness of the soil and the oxidizing nature of the soil chemistry prevent the formation of living organisms in the Martian soil.

    The Viking mission was planned to continue for 90 days after landing. Each orbiter and lander operated far beyond its design lifetime. Viking Orbiter 1 functioned until July 25, 1978, while Viking Orbiter 2 continued for four years and 1,489 orbits of Mars, concluding its mission August 7, 1980. Because of the variations in available sunlight, both landers were powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators -- devices that create electricity from heat given off by the natural decay of plutonium. That power source allowed long-term science investigations that otherwise would not have been possible. The last data from Viking Lander 2 arrived at Earth on April 11, 1980. Viking Lander

  13. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  14. Lander Propulsion Overview and Technology Requirements Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar lander propulsion requirements. It includes discussion on: Lander Project Overview, Project Evolution/Design Cycles, Lunar Architecture & Lander Reference Missions, Lander Concept Configurations, Descent and Ascent propulsion reviews, and a review of the technology requirements.

  15. Deployment of a lander on the binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, potential target of the european MarcoPolo-R sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    The idea of deploying a lander on the secondary body of the binary primitive asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is investigated. 1996 FG3 is the backup target of the European sample return space mission MarcoPolo-R under assessment study at the European Space Agency in the framework of the M3 Medium-Class mission competition. The launch will take place in 2022-2024, depending on its selection at the end of 2013. A lander is indicated as an optional payload, depending on mass availability on the spacecraft. Obviously, the possible complexity of a lander deployment is also an important parameter to take into account. Here we demonstrate that, considering worst case scenarios and low requirements on the spacecraft GNC and deployment mechanism, the operations are easy to implement and safe for the main spacecraft. The concept of operations is to deploy a light lander from the L2 Lagrange point of the binary system, on a ballistic trajectory that will impact the secondary asteroid. The fundamental principles of this strategy are briefly presented and a detailed model of 1996 FG3 is considered, to which the strategy is applied. We show that the deployment is successful in 99.94% of cases.

  16. Europa Small Lander Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    Title: Europa Small Lander Design Concepts Authors: Wayne F. Zimmerman, James Shirley, Robert Carlson, Tom Rivellini, Mike Evans One of the primary goals of NASA's Outer Planets Program is to revisit the Jovian system. A new Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) Mission has been proposed and is under evaluation. There is in addition strong community interest in a surface science mission to Europa. A Europa Lander might be delivered to the Jovian system with the EGE orbiter. A Europa Astrobiology Lander (EAL) Mission has also been proposed; this would launch sometime after 2020. The primary science objectives for either of these would most likely include: Surface imaging (both microscopic and near-field), characterization of surface mechanical properties (temperature, hardness), assessment of surface and near-surface organic and inorganic chemistry (volatiles, mineralogy, and compounds), characterization of the radiation environment (total dose and particles), characterization of the planetary seismicity, and the measurement of Europa's magnetic field. The biggest challenges associated with getting to the surface and surviving to perform science investigations revolve around the difficulty of landing on an airless body, the ubiquitous extreme topography, the harsh radiation environment, and the extreme cold. This presentation reviews some the recent design work on drop-off probes, also called "hard landers". Hard lander designs have been developed for a range of science payload delivery systems spanning small impactors to multiple science pods tethered to a central hub. In addition to developing designs for these various payload delivery systems, significant work has been done in weighing the relative merits of standard power systems (i.e., batteries) against radioisotope power systems. A summary of the power option accommodation benefits and issues will be presented. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a

  17. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  18. Detection of crustal deformation from the Landers earthquake sequence using continuous geodetic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Yehuda; Agnew, Duncan C.; Fang, Peng; Genrich, Joachim F.; Hager, Bradford H.; Herring, Thomas A.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; King, Robert W.; Larsen, Shawn; Minster, J.-B.

    1993-01-01

    The first measurements are reported for a major earthquake by a continuously operating GPS network, the permanent GPS Genetic ARRY (PGGA) in southern California. The Landers and Big Bear earthquakes of June 28, 1992 were monitored by daily observations. Ten weeks of measurements indicate significant coseismic motion at all PGGA sites, significant postseismic motion at one site for two weeks after the earthquakes, and no significant preseismic motion. These measurements demonstrate the potential of GPS monitoring for precise detection of precursory and aftershock seismic deformation in the near and far field.

  19. Altair Lunar Lander Consumables Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Button, Robert; Linne, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander is scheduled to return humans to the moon in the year 2020. Keeping the crew of 4 and the vehicle functioning at their best while minimizing lander mass requires careful budgeting and management of consumables and cooperation with other constellation elements. Consumables discussed here include fluids, gasses, and energy. This paper presents the lander's missions and constraints as they relate to consumables and the design solutions that have been employed in recent Altair conceptual designs.

  20. Testing general relativity with Landers on the Martian satellite Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Borderies, N. J.; Campbell, J. K.; Dunne, J. A.; Ellis, J.

    1989-01-01

    A planned experiment to obtain range and Doppler data with the Phobos 2 Lander on the surface of the Martian satellite Phobos is described. With the successful insertion on January 29, 1989 of Phobos 2 into Mars orbit, it is anticipated that the Lander will be placed on the surface of Phobos in April 1989. Depending on the longevity of the Lander, range and Doppler data for a period of from one to several years are expected. Because these data are of value in performing solar-system tests of general relativity, the current accuracy of the relevant relativity tests using Deep Space Network data from the Mariner-9 orbiter of Mars in 1971 and from the Viking Landers in 1976-1982 is reviewed. The expected improvement from data anticipated during the Phobos 2 Lander Mission is also discussed; most important will be an improved sensitivity to any time variation in the gravitational 'constant' as measured in atomic units.

  1. First 3-Way Lunar Radio Phase Ranging and Doppler Experiment in Chang'E-3 Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PING, J.; Meng, Q.; Tang, G.; Jian, N.; Wang, Z.; Li, W.; Chen, C.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y.; Yu, Q.; Mao, Y.; Miao, C.; Lei, Y.; Shu, F.; Cao, J.

    2014-04-01

    Radio science experiments have been involved in all of the Chinese lunar missions with different research objectives. In Chang'E-3 landing mission, a 3-way open loop lunar radio phase ranging and Doppler technique was suggested and tested. This technique is modified and updated from early multi-channel oneway Doppler deep space tracking technique developed for Chinese Mars mission Yinghuo-1. In the 1st preliminary experiments, we obtained 1sps continuous phase ranging data before and after the successful landing period, with a resolution of 0.5 millimeter or better. This method, called Lunar Radio Phase Ranging (LRPR) can be a new space geodetic technique to measure the station position, earth tide and rotation, lunar orbit, tide and liberation, by means of independent observation, or to work together with Lunar Laser Ranging. Also, it can be used in future Mars mission.

  2. Instrument study of the Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) for a lunar lander mission II: Laboratory model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Strack, Heiko; Bugiel, Sebastian; Wu, Yiyong; Srama, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    A dust trajectory detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to extend people's knowledge on the dust environment above the lunar surface. The new design of Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) is well suited for lunar or asteroid landers with a broad range of particle charges (0.1-10 fC), speeds (few m s-1 to few km s-1) and sizes (0.1-10 μ m). The calibration of dust trajectory detector is important for the detector development. We do present experimental results to characterize the accuracy of the newly developed LDX laboratory model. Micron sized iron particles were accelerated to speed between 0.5 and 20 km s-1 with primary charges larger than 1 fC. The achieved accuracies of the detector are ± 5 % and ± 7 % for particle charge and speed, respectively. Dust trajectories can be determined with measurement accuracy better than ± 2°. A dust sensor of this type is suited for the exploration of the surface of small bodies without an atmosphere like the Earth's moon or asteroids in future, and the minisatellites are also suitable carriers for the study of interplanetary dust and manned debris on low Earth orbits.

  3. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Landing Project (RLLDP) team has developed lander concepts encompassing a range of mission types and payloads for science, exploration, and technology demonstration missions: (1) Developed experience and expertise in lander systems, (2) incorporated lessons learned from previous efforts to improve the fidelity of mission concepts, analysis tools, and test beds Mature small and medium lander designs concepts have been developed: (1) Share largely a common design architecture. (2) Flexible for a large number of mission and payload options. High risk development areas have been successfully addressed Landers could be selected for a mission with much of the concept formulation phase work already complete

  4. Planning and implementation of the on-comet operations of the instrument SD2 onboard the lander Philae of Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lizia, P.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli-Finzi, A.; Mottola, S.; Fantinati, C.; Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.

    2016-08-01

    The lander Philae of the Rosetta mission landed on the surface of the comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. Among the specific subsystems and instruments carried on Philae, the sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem had the role of providing in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, sample collection, and their distribution to three scientific instruments. After landing, a first sequence of scientific activities was carried out, relying mainly on the energy stored in the lander primary battery. Due to the limited duration and the communication delay, these activities had to be carried out automatically, with a limited possibility of developing and uploading commands from the ground. Philae's landing was not nominal and SD2 was operated in unexpected conditions: the lander was not anchored to the soil and leant on the comet surface shakily. Nevertheless, one sampling procedure was attempted. This paper provides an overview of SD2 operation planning and on-comet operations, and analyses SD2 achievements during the first science sequence of Philae's on-comet operations.

  5. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  6. Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric CO2 by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Boynton, W. V.; Hoffman, J. H.; Ming, D. W.; Hamara, D.

    2010-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars [1]. The isotopic composition of the martian atmosphere has been measured using a number of different methods (Table 1), however a precise value (<1%) has yet to be achieved. Given the elevated Delta(sup 13)C values measured in carbonates in martian meteorites [2-4] it has been proposed that the martian atmosphere was enriched in 13C [8]. This was supported by measurements of trapped CO2 gas in EETA 79001[2] which showed elevated Delta(sup 13)C values (Table 1). More recently, Earth-based spectroscopic measurements of the martian atmosphere have measured the martian CO2 to be depleted in C-13 relative to CO2 in the terrestrial atmosphere[ 7, 9-11]. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander [12] included a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (EGA) [13] which had the goal of measuring the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 to within 0.5%. The mass spectrometer is a miniature instrument intended to measure both the martian atmosphere as well as gases evolved from heating martian soils.

  7. A lunar L2-Farside exploration and science mission concept with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a teleoperated lander/rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David A.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Norris, Scott; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Kasper, Justin

    2013-07-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such a mission would serve as a first step beyond low Earth orbit and prove out operational spaceflight capabilities such as life support, communication, high speed re-entry, and radiation protection prior to more difficult human exploration missions. On this proposed mission, the crew would teleoperate landers/rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system, is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations at low radio frequencies to track the effects of the Universe's first stars/galaxies on the intergalactic medium are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions such as exploring Mars.

  8. Detection of crustal deformation from the Landers earthquake sequence using continuous geodetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bock, Y.; Agnew, D.C.; Fang, P.; Genrich, J.F.; Hager, B.H.; Herring, T.A.; Hudnut, K.W.; King, R.W.; Larsen, S.; Minster, J.-B.; Stark, K.; Wdowinski, S.; Wyatt, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    The measurement of crustal motions in technically active regions is being performed increasingly by the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS)1,2, which offers considerable advantages over conventional geodetic techniques3,4. Continuously operating GPS arrays with ground-based receivers spaced tens of kilometres apart have been established in central Japan5,6 and southern California to monitor the spatial and temporal details of crustal deformation. Here we report the first measurements for a major earthquake by a continuously operating GPS network, the Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA)7,9 in southern California. The Landers (magnitude Mw of 7.3) and Big Bear (Mw 6.2) earthquakes of 28 June 1992 were monitored by daily observations. Ten weeks of measurements, centred on the earthquake events, indicate significant coseismic motion at all PGGA sites, significant post-seismic motion at one site for two weeks after the earthquakes, and no significant preseismic motion. These measurements demonstrate the potential of GPS monitoring for precise detection of precursory and aftershock seismic deformation in the near and far field.

  9. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  10. Conceptual design of lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

  11. Luna-25 lander: science of the first lunar day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Litvak, Maxim; Prokhorov, Vasily; Kozyrev, Alexander; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Luna-25 lander is a Roscosmos mission to investigate the southern lunar pole to launch in 2018. The mission aims at testing the landing capability of the spacecraft as well as conducting a number of science experiments. The instrument suite consists of 10 scientific experiments to study both, the landing site and the moon as a whole. These include measurements of soil composition and volatiles in the vicinity of the lander, environmental conditions such as temperature variations, plasma and dust exosphere of Moon, measurements of Moon inner structure through seismic, radio and laser ranging sensors. Luna-25 will also provide a number of images of the lander surroundings and samples collected in its robotic arm. We present the details of the investigations program for the first lunar day for the entire instruments suite.

  12. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  13. Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Continuous measurements of regional crustal deformation between the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bock, Y.; Wdowinski, S.; Fang, P.; Zhang, Jiahua; Williams, S.; Johnson, H.; Behr, J.; Genrich, J.; Dean, J.; Van Domselaar, M.; Agnew, D.; Wyatt, F.; Stark, K.; Oral, B.; Hudnut, K.; King, R.; Herring, T.; Dinardo, S.; Young, W.; Jackson, D.; Gurtner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in 1990 across the Pacific-North America plate boundary to continuously monitor crustal deformation. We describe the development of the array and the time series of daily positions estimated for its first 10 sites in the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (Mw=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (Mw=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. We compare displacement rates at four site locations with those reported by Feigl et al. [1993], which were derived from an independent set of Global Positioning System (GPS) and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements collected over nearly a decade prior to the Landers earthquake. The velocity differences for three sites 65-100 km from the earthquake's epicenter are of order of 3-5 mm/yr and are systematically coupled with the corresponding directions of coseismic displacement. The fourth site, 300 km from the epicenter, shows no significant velocity difference. These observations suggest large-scale postseismic deformation with a relaxation time of at least 800 days. The statistical significance of our observations is complicated by our incomplete knowledge of the noise properties of the two data sets; two possible noise models fit the PGGA data equally well as described in the companion paper by Zhang et al. [this issue]; the pre-Landers data are too sparse and heterogeneous to derive a reliable noise model. Under a fractal white noise model for the PGGA data we find that the velocity differences for all three sites are statistically different at the 99% significance level. A white noise plus flicker noise model results in significance levels of only 94%, 43%, and 88%. Additional investigations of the pre-Landers data, and analysis of longer spans of PGGA data, could have an important effect on the significance of these results and will be addressed in future work. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Phoenix Lander Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm work area with an overlay. The pink area is available for digging, the green area is reserved for placing the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Soil can be dumped in the violet area.

    Images were displayed using NASA Ames 'Viz' visualization software.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. ESA's Comet Orbiter Rosetta and Lander Philae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Schwehm, G.; Schulz, R.; Ulamec, S.

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is the first mission designed to orbit, and deploy a Lander onto the surface of, a comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G). After an active Cruise Phase, which included three swingbys at the Earth, one at Mars and two flybys at Main Belt asteroids, the spacecraft is scheduled to orbit the comet nucleus and, after careful reconnaissance, deliver to the surface, while still at a distance of about 3 AU from the Sun, its Lander (Philae). The Lander payload, which comprises ten onboard experiments, will investigate the physical properties of the cometary surface/subsurface, measuring in particular their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. The lifetime of the Lander will depend on the prevailing cometary environment. The spacecraft will meanwhile continue to orbit and map the comet as it advances along its trajectory toward the Sun, utilizing eleven payload experiments to investigate how the comet becomes gradually more active and how its interactions with the solar wind develop. Post-perihelion Rosetta will continue to orbit, and make observations of the gradually declining comet environment out to a distance of ˜ 2 AU.

  16. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  17. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-05-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  18. Planning and Implementation of Pressure and Humidity Measurements on ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Komu, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander offers a platform for meteorological and electric field observations ranging from timescales of seconds to Martian days, or sols. In the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), this opportunity has been used to develop a new type of instrument controller unit for the already flight-proven FMI pressure and humidity instruments. The new controller allows for more flexible and autonomous data acquisition processes and planning than the previous FMI designs.

  19. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  20. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  1. Airbursts as a viable source of seismic and acoustic energy for the 2016 InSight geophysical lander mission to Mars: analysis using terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer; Wookey, James; Teanby, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The explosion of a bolide as a terminal airburst, before impact into a planetary surface, is a well-documented source of both seismic and acoustic energy[1]. Here we aim to define some diagnostic properties of a recorded airburst time-series and determine detectability criteria for such events for a single station seismo-acoustic station on the Martian surface. In 2016 NASA will launch the InSight geophysical monitoring system. This lander will carry in its SEIS payload two 3-component seismic instruments - the Short Period (SP) and Very Broadband (VBB) seismometers, as well as a micro-barometer for measurement of atmospheric pressure fluctuations. The SEIS and MB packages aboard InSight could potentially be used together for seismo-acoustic detection of impact or airburst events. In past studies, this technique has been used to analyse and model the Washington State Bolide[2] and, more recently, the Chelyabinsk fireball in 2013[3]. Using a multi-station array, it is possible to estimate total kinetic energy of a bolide, its line-of-sight direction and the approximate time of its terminal burst[4]. However, with only a single station, as would be the case on Mars, more creative methods must be employed to extract information from the event. We explore the diagnostic waveform properties of an airburst, including various arrivals from the event. We also show how dominant frequency changes with distance from the event, altitude and yield. Several terrestrial events are analysed, including the 2013 Chelyabinsk fireball. We present theoretical calculations of the likely proportion of bolide terminal bursts on Mars relative to impacts, based on differences in the structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere. We go on to predict the seismic arrivals that may be observed by InSight from the coupling of the acoustic blast into the Martian crust. It is hoped that these diagnostic tools will be useful to identify and quantify bolide terminal bursts on Mars over the

  2. The Mars Lander/Rover (MLR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Growing interest in a future manned mission to Mars illuminated a critical need for more information on the Martian environment, surface conditions, weather patterns, topography, etc. While the Viking landers provided valuable information of this type, the information came from fixed locations. There is a real need for Viking type of information from a number of locations on the Martian surface in order to adequately survey the planet for future landing and exploration sites. Current site survey mission discussions range from Mars orbiters to sample return missions. The limited data return from the former and the extreme expense of the latter suggest consideration of a 'middle ground' mission which provides needed survey information for an acceptable investment. Utah State University (USU) designed a Mars Lander/Rover (MLR) for use in gathering needed environmental and surface information from Mars. Philosophically, the MLR resembles a mobile Viking; that is, it moves from location to location on the Martian surface, measuring environmental conditions, analyzing soil samples, charting topographical features etc. Measured data is then telemetered to earth for further analysis. Conceptually, it was envisioned that MLR survey locations would be rather widely separated. In that sense the MLR was not a terrestrial vehicle limited to local movement about a fixed location. Rather, it would have the capability for movement over long distances to reach widely separated locations. The design focus, then, was upon a Mars Lander/Rover that leaves an orbit around Mars, reenters and soft lands on the Martian surface and moves sequentially to widely scattered locations to sample, measure, and analyze Martian environmental and surface conditions. Primary goals were payload mass and size definition, characterization of the Martian atmosphere, selection of sampling locations, identification of alternative design concepts, selection of a preferred concept, team organization, and

  3. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  4. Underneath the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this image on Oct. 18, 2008, during the 142nd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The flat patch in the center of the image has the informal name 'Holy Cow,' based on researchers' reaction when they saw the initial image of it only a few days after the May 25, 2008 landing. Researchers first saw this flat patch in an image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on May 30, the fifth Martian day of the mission.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Rosetta: Comet-Chaser, Comet-Lander, and Comet-Hopper All In One Mission! (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.

    2015-09-01

    Mission to Catch a Comet! Comets have inspired awe and wonder since the dawn of history. Many scientists today believe that comets crashed into Earth in its formative period spewing organic molecules that were crucial to the growth of life. Comets may have formed about the same time as the giant planets of our solar system (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) - about 4.6 billion years ago. Some scientists think that comets and planets were both made from the same clumps of dust and ice that spewed from our Sun's birth; others think that these roving time capsules are even older than that, and that they may contain grains of interstellar stuff that is even older than our solar system.

  6. On the possibility of lunar core phase detection using new seismometers for soft-landers in future lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryuhei; Garcia, Raphael F.; Lognonné, Philippe; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Nébut, Tanguy; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Calvet, Marie; Ganepain-Beyneix, J.

    2013-06-01

    Information on the lunar central core; size, current state and composition; are key parameters to understand the origin and evolution of the Moon. Recent studies have indicated that possible seismic energies of core-reflected phases can be identified from past Apollo seismic data, and core sizes are determined, but we have still uncertainties to establish the lunar core parameters. We, therefore, plan to detect seismic phases that pass through the interior of the core and/or those reflected from the core-mantle boundary to ensure the parameters using new seismometers for future lunar soft-landing missions such as SELENE-2 and Farside Explorer projects. As the new seismometers, we can apply two types of sensors already developed; they are the Very Broad Band (VBB) seismometer and Short Period (SP) seismometer. We first demonstrate through waveform simulations that the new seismometers are able to record the lunar seismic events with S/N much better than Apollo seismometers. Then, expected detection numbers of core-phases on the entire lunar surface for the two types of seismometers are evaluated for two models of seismic moment distributions of deep moonquakes using the recent interior model (VPREMOON). The evaluation indicates that the VBB has performance to detect reflected S phases (ScS) from the core-mantle boundary mainly on the lunar near-side, and the P phases (PKP) passing through the interior of the core on some areas of the lunar far-side. Then, the SP can also detect PKP phases as first arrival seismic phase on limited regions on the lunar far-side. If appropriate positions of the seismic stations are selected, core-phases can be detected, allowing us to constrain the origin and evolution of the Moon with future lunar soft-landing missions.

  7. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Viking Lander Atlas of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebes, S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Half size reproductions are presented of the extensive set of systematic map products generated for the two Mars Viking landing sites from stereo pairs of images radioed back to Earth. The maps span from the immediate foreground to the remote limits of ranging capability, several hundred meters from the spacecraft. The maps are of two kinds - elevation contour and vertical profile. Background and explanatory material important for understanding and utilizing the map collection included covers the Viking Mission, lander locations, lander cameras, the stereo mapping system and input images to this system.

  9. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Engineering Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results. The mission is to provide a delivery system to soft-land a 200 kg payload set at any given lunar latitude and longitude. Topics covered include the study schedule, mission goals and requirements, the CLL reference mission, costs, CLL options, and two stage performance analysis.

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  11. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Operation Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nio, Tomomi; Saito, Susumu; Stocker, Erich; Pawloski, James H.; Murayama, Yoshifumi; Ohata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe tropical rainfall, which was launched by H-II No. 6 from Tanegashima in Japan at 6:27 JST on November 28, 1997. After the two-month commissioning of TRMM satellite and instruments, the original nominal mission lifetime was three years. In fact, the operations has continued for approximately 17.5 years. This paper provides a summary of the long term operations of TRMM.

  12. Resource Prospector Lander: Architecture and Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek; Frady, Greg; Chavers, Greg; Wayne, Andrew; Hull, Patrick; Lowery, Eric; Farmer, Jeff; Trinh, Huu; Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Ess, Kim; Vitalpur, Sharada; Dunn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days. The RP vehicle comprises three elements: the Lander, the Rover, and the Payload. The Payload is housed on the Rover and the Rover is on top of the Lander. The focus of this paper is on the Lander element for the RP vehicle. The design of the Lander was requirements driven and focused on a low-cost approach. To arrive at the final configuration, several trade studies were conducted. Of those trade studies, there were six primary trade studies that were instrumental in determining the final design. This paper will discuss each of these trades in further detail and show how these trades led to the final architecture of the RP Lander.

  13. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, D. G.; Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Eng, D.; Ballard, B. W.; Kubota, S. D.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Holloway, T. A.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. This paper describes some of the lunar lander concepts derived from these studies conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project team. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander flight test vehicles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms.

  14. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  15. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  16. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  17. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  18. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hill, L. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Chavers, D. G.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as a Exploration Systems Mission Directorate precursor robotic lunar lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and definitively determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting NASA s Science Mission Directorate designing small lunar robotic landers for diverse science missions. The primary emphasis has been to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This network would consist of multiple landers carrying instruments to address the geophysical characteristics and evolution of the moon. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects. This paper describes the current status of the robotic lunar mission studies that have been conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development team, including the ILN Anchor Nodes mission. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander test articles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to

  19. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  20. First Results of Plasma And Magnetic Field Measurements Onboard The Rosetta Lander Philae at The Surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auster, H. U.; Apathy, I. N.; Remizov, A.; Berghofer, G.; Hilchenbach, M.; Haerendel, G.; Heinisch, P.; Richter, I.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ROMAP (Rosetta Lander Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor) suite of sensors onboard the Rosetta lander Philae consists of a fluxgate magnetometer and plasma ion and electron sensors. ROMAP will measure for the first time the magnetic field as well as electron and ion distributions on a cometary surface.
 First magnetic field measurements during the Philae descent and plasma investigations during the first science sequence on the cometary surfce will be presented together with concurrent magnetic field measurements of the Rosetta orbiter. Furthermore, we shall discuss the measurement operation strategy for the long term sequence, for observing the evolution of the plasma environment by measurements with both plasma packages, ROMAP on the surface and RPC onboard the Rosetta Orbiter.

  1. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  2. Phobos lander coding system: Software and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Pollara, F.

    1988-01-01

    The software developed for the decoding system used in the telemetry link of the Phobos Lander mission is described. Encoders and decoders are provided to cover the three possible telemetry configurations. The software can be used to decode actual data or to simulate the performance of the telemetry system. The theoretical properties of the codes chosen for this mission are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Miniature coherent velocimeter and altimeter (MCVA) for terminal descent control on lunar and planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Dan; Cardell, Greg; Szwaykowski, Piotr; Shaffat, Syed T.; Meras, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    While the overall architecture of an Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) system may vary depending on specific mission requirementsw, measurements of the rate vector with respect to the surface is a primary requirement for the Terminal Descent Control (TDC) phase of any controlled lander.

  4. NASA'S Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chavers, D. Gregory; Ballard, Benjamin W.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last 5 years, NASA has invested in development and risk-reduction activities for a new generation of planetary landers capable of carrying instruments and technology demonstrations to the lunar surface and other airless bodies. The Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project (RLLDP) is jointly implemented by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The RLLDP team has produced mission architecture designs for multiple airless body missions to meet both science and human precursor mission needs. The mission architecture concept studies encompass small, medium, and large landers, with payloads from a few tens of kilograms to over 1000 kg, to the Moon and other airless bodies. To mature these concepts, the project has made significant investments in technology risk reduction in focused subsystems. In addition, many lander technologies and algorithms have been tested and demonstrated in an integrated systems environment using free-flying test articles. These design and testing investments have significantly reduced development risk for airless body landers, thereby reducing overall risk and associated costs for future missions.

  5. Mars Relay Lander and Orbiter Overflight Profile Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Peterson, Corey L.

    2012-01-01

    This software allows science and mission operations to view graphs of geometric overflights of satellites and landers within the Mars (or other planetary) networks. It improves on the MaROS Web interface within any modern Web browser, in that it adds new capabilities to the MaROS suite. The profile for an overflight is an important element for selecting communication/ overflight opportunities between the landers and orbiters within the Mars network. Unfortunately, determining these estimates is very computationally expensive and difficult to compute by hand. This software allows the user to select different overflights (via the existing MaROS Web interface) and specify the smoothness of the estimation. Estimates for the geometric relationship between a lander and an orbiter are determined based upon the orbital conditions of the orbiter at the moment the orbiter rises above the horizon from the perspective of the lander. It utilizes 2-body orbital equations to propagate the trajectory through the duration of the view period, and returns profiles that represent the range between the two vehicles, and the elevation and azimuth angles of the orbiter as measured from the lander s position. The algorithms assume a 2-body relationship with an ideal, spherical planetary body, so therefore can see errors less than 2% at polar landing sites on Mars. These algorithms are being implemented to provide rough estimates rapidly for the geometry of a geometric view period where more complete data is unavailable, such as for planning purposes. While other software for this task exists, each at the time of this reporting has been contained within a much more complicated package. This tool allows science and mission operations to view the estimates with a few clicks of the mouse.

  6. The Philae Lander: Science planning and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussi, Aurélie; Fronton, Jean-François; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cédric; Lafaille, Vivian; Jurado, Eric; Durand, Joelle; Hallouard, Dominique; Mangeret, Maryse; Charpentier, Antoine; Ulamec, Stephan; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Salatti, Mario; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Boehnhardt, Hermann

    2016-08-01

    Rosetta is an ambitious mission launched in March 2004 to study comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It is composed of a space probe (Rosetta) and the Philae Lander. The mission is a series of premieres: among others, first probe to escort a comet, first time a landing site is selected with short turnaround time, first time a lander has landed on a comet nucleus. In November 2014, once stabilized on the comet, Philae has performed its "First Science Sequence". Philae's aim was to perform detailed and innovative in-situ experiments on the comet's surface to characterize the nucleus by performing mechanical, chemical and physical investigations on the comet surface. The main contribution to the Rosetta lander by the French space agency (CNES) is the Science Operation and Navigation Center (SONC) located in Toulouse. Among its tasks is the scheduling of the scientific activities of the 10 lander experiments and then to provide it to the Lander Control Center (LCC) located in DLR Cologne. The teams in charge of the Philae activity scheduling had to cope with considerable constraints in term of energy, data management, asynchronous processes and co-activities or exclusions between instruments. Moreover the comet itself, its environment and the landing conditions remained unknown until separation time. The landing site was selected once the operational sequence was already designed. This paper will explain the specific context of the Rosetta lander mission and all the constraints that the lander activity scheduling had to face to fulfill the scientific objectives specified for Philae. A specific tool was developed by CNES and used to design the complete sequence of activities on the comet with respect to all constraints. The baseline scenario for the lander operation will also be detailed as well as the sequence performed on the comet to highlight the difficulties and challenges that the operational team faced.

  7. Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

  8. Dust Storm Moving Near Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of images show the movement of several dust storms near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These images were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    These images were taken about 50 seconds apart, showing the formation and movement of dust storms for nearly an hour. Phoenix scientists are still figuring out the exact distances these dust storms occurred from the lander, but they estimate them to be about 1 to 2 kilometers (.6 or 1.2 miles) away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; Deweese, Keith; Vess, Missie; Welter, Gary; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) analysis team encountered four main on orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo-induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GNC engineers identified and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GNC on board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  10. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  11. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  12. A First Look at Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric C02 by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.; Ming, D.W.; Boynton, W.V.; Hamara, D.; Hoffman, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. The isotopic composition of the martian atmosphere has been measured using a number of different methods (Table 1), however a precise value (<1%) has yet to be achieved. Given the elevated 13C values measured in carbonates in martian meteorites it has been supposed that the martian atmosphere was enriched in delta(sup 13)C. This was supported by measurements of trapped CO2 gas in EETA 79001[2] which showed elevated delta(sup 13)C values (Table 1). More recently, Earth-based spectroscopic measurements of the martian atmosphere have measured the martian CO2 to be depleted in delta(sup 13)C relative to CO2 in the terrestrial atmosphere. The spectroscopic measurements performed by Krasnopolsky et al. were reported with approx.2% uncertainties which are much smaller than the Viking measurements, but still remain very large in comparison to the magnitude of carbon and oxygen isotope fractionations under martian surface conditions. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander included a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (EGA) which had the goal of measuring the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 to within 0.5%. The mass spectrometer is a miniature magnetic sector instrument intended to measure both the martian atmosphere as well as gases evolved from heating martian soils. Ions produced in the ion source are drawn out by a high voltage and focused by a magnetic field onto a set of collector slits. Four specific trajectories are selected to cover the mass ranges, 0.7 - 4, 7 - 35, 14 - 70, and 28 - 140 Da. Using four channels reduces the magnitude of the mass scan and provides simultaneous coverage of the mass ranges. Channel electron multiplier (CEM

  13. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This year's project, like the previous Aerospace Group's project, involves a lunar transportation system. The basic time line will be the years 2010-2030 and will be referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases would be present. The project design completed this year is referred to as the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS). The area chosen for analysis encompasses a great number of vehicles and personnel. The design of certain elements of the overall lunar mission are complete projects in themselves. For this reason the project chosen for the Senior Aerospace Design is the design of specific servicing vehicles and additions or modifications to existing vehicles for the area of concern involving servicing and maintenance of the lunar lander while on the surface.

  14. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  15. Robotic Lunar Landers For Science And Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as an ESMD precursor robotic lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting SMD designing small lunar robotic landers for science missions, primarily to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical nodes. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community. This paper describes the current status of the MSFC/APL robotic lunar mission studies and risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing, combined GN&C and avionics testing, and two autonomous lander test articles.

  16. The Mars NetLander panoramic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Hauber, Ernst; Oberst, Jürgen; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hoffmann, Harald; Soufflot, Alain; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Dimarellis, Emmanuel; Mottola, Stefano; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Neukum, Gerhard; Albertz, Jörg; Masson, Philippe; Pinet, Patrick; Lamy, Philippe; Formisano, Vittorio

    2000-10-01

    The panoramic camera (PanCam) imaging experiment is designed to obtain high-resolution multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images from each of the four Mars NetLander 2005 sites. The main scientific objectives to be addressed by the PanCam experiment are (1) to locate the landing sites and support the NetLander network sciences, (2) to geologically investigate and map the landing sites, and (3) to study the properties of the atmosphere and of variable phenomena. To place in situ measurements at a landing site into a proper regional context, it is necessary to determine the lander orientation on ground and to exactly locate the position of the landing site with respect to the available cartographic database. This is not possible by tracking alone due to the lack of on-ground orientation and the so-called map-tie problem. Images as provided by the PanCam allow to determine accurate tilt and north directions for each lander and to identify the lander locations based on landmarks, which can also be recognized in appropriate orbiter imagery. With this information, it will be further possible to improve the Mars-wide geodetic control point network and the resulting geometric precision of global map products. The major geoscientific objectives of the PanCam lander images are the recognition of surface features like ripples, ridges and troughs, and the identification and characterization of different rock and surface units based on their morphology, distribution, spectral characteristics, and physical properties. The analysis of the PanCam imagery will finally result in the generation of precise map products for each of the landing sites. So far comparative geologic studies of the Martian surface are restricted to the timely separated Mars Pathfinder and the two Viking Lander Missions. Further lander missions are in preparation (Beagle-2, Mars Surveyor 03). NetLander provides the unique opportunity to nearly double the number of accessible landing site data by providing

  17. Planetary seismology—Expectations for lander and wind noise with application to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2012-03-01

    The amplitudes of seismic signals on a planetary surface are discussed in the context of observable physical quantities - displacement, velocity and acceleration - in order to assess the number of events that a sensor with a given detection threshold may capture in a given period. Spacecraft engineers are generally unfamiliar with expected quantities or the language used to describe them, and seismologists are rarely presented with the challenges of accommodation of instrumentation on spacecraft. This paper attempts to bridge this gap, so that the feasibility of attaining seismology objectives on future missions - and in particular, a long-lived Venus lander - can be rationally assessed. For seismometers on planetary landers, the background noise due to wind or lander systems is likely to be a stronger limitation on the effective detection threshold than is the instrument sensitivity itself, and terrestrial data on vehicle noise is assessed in this context. We apply these considerations to investigate scenarios for a long-lived Venus lander mission, which may require a mechanical cooler powered by a Stirling generator. We also consider wind noise: the case for decoupling of a seismometer from a lander is strong on bodies with atmospheres, as is the case for shielding the instrument from wind loads. However, since the atmosphere acts on the elastic ground as well as directly on instruments, the case for deep burial is not strong, but it is important that windspeed and pressure be documented by adequate meteorology measurements.

  18. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Kummerow, Christian D.; Meneghini, Robert; Hou, Arthur; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Barkstrom, Bruce; Wielicki, Bruce; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of rain in the tropics and the accompanying latent heat release, NASA for the U.S. and NASDA for Japan have partnered in the design, construction and flight of an Earth Probe satellite to measure tropical rainfall and calculate the associated heating. Primary mission goals are: 1) the understanding of crucial links in climate variability by the hydrological cycle, 2) improvement in the large-scale models of weather and climate, and 3) improvement in understanding cloud ensembles and their impacts on larger scale circulations. The linkage with the tropical oceans and landmasses are also emphasized. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in November 1997 with fuel enough to obtain a four to five year data set of rainfall over the global tropics from 37 deg N to 37 deg S. This paper reports progress from launch date through the spring of 1999. The data system and its products and their access is described, as are the algorithms used to obtain the data. Some exciting early results from TRMM are described. Some important algorithm improvements are shown. These will be used in the first total data reprocessing, scheduled to be complete in early 2000. The reader is given information on how to access and use the data.

  19. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    much more reliable in comparison with MML of first and second options because their functional diagram is realized by operation of 3-4 (instead of 8-10 for MML of first and second concepts) executive devices. A distinctive moment for MML of last three concepts , namely for variants 3 and 5, is the final stage of landing stipulated by penetration of forebody into the soil. Such a profile of landing was taken into account during the development of one of the landing vehicles for the "MARS-96" SC. This will permit to implement simple technical decisions for putting the meteorological complex into operation and to carry out its further operations on the surface. After comparative analysis of 5 concepts for the more detailed development concepts with parachute system and with IBU and penetration unit have been chosen as most prospective. However, finally, on the next step the new modification of the lander (hybrid version of third and fifth option with inflatable braking device and penetrating unit) has been proposed and chosen for the next step of development. The several small stations should be transported to Mars in frameworks of Scout Mars mission, or Phobos Sample Return mission as piggyback payload.

  20. Statistical sampling analysis for stratospheric measurements from satellite missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drewry, J. W.; Harrison, E. F.; Brooks, D. R.; Robbins, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Earth orbiting satellite experiments can be designed to measure stratospheric constituents such as ozone by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Statistical analysis techniques, mission simulation and model development have been utilized to develop a method for analyzing various mission/sensor combinations. Existing and planned NASA satellite missions such as Nimbus-4 and G, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment-Application Explorer Mission (SAGE-AEM) have been analyzed to determine the ability of the missions to adequately sample the global field.

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; DeWeese, Keith; Vess, Melissa; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Welter, Gary

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) analysis team encountered four main on-orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GN&C engineers identified the anomalies and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GN&C on-board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  2. Lander and Mini Matterhorn rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the two forward cameras aboard the Sojourner rover took this image of the Sagan Memorial Station on Sol 26. The angular resolution of the camera is about three milliradians (.018 degrees) per pixel, which is why the image appears grainy. The field of view of each rover camera is about 127 degrees horizontally and 90 degrees vertically.

    Features seen on the lander include (from left to right): the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast with windsocks; the low-gain antenna mast, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on its mast at center; the disc-shaped high-gain antenna at right, and areas of deflated airbags. The dark circle on the lander body is a filtered vent that allowed air to escape during launch, and allowed the lander to repressurize upon landing. The high-gain antenna is pointed at Earth. The large rock Yogi, which Sojourner has approached and studied, as at the far right of the image. Mini Matterhorn is the large rock situated in front of the lander at left.

    The horizontal line at the center of the image is due to differences in light-metering for different portions of the image. The shadow of Sojourner and its antenna are visible at the lower section of the image. The antenna's shadow falls across a light-colored rock.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. Tracking Systems to Support the Common Lunar Lander (CLL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the tracking system for Artemis (the Common Lunar Lander) is presented. Among the topics presented are the following: major drivers for system definition, results of vendor survey, baseline system properties, program considerations, and mission phases requiring tracking.

  4. Exploring Europa with a Surface Lander Powered by a Small Radioisotope Power System (RPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Shirley, James H.

    2005-02-01

    Europa is a high-priority target for future exploration because of the possibility that it may possess a subsurface liquid ocean that could sustain life. Exploring the surface of this Galilean moon, however, represents a formidable technical challenge due to the great distances involved, the high ambient radiation, and the extremely low surface temperatures. A design concept is presented for a Europa Lander Mission (ELM) powered by a small radioisotope power system (RPS) that could fly aboard the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The ELM would perform in-situ science measurements for a minimum of 30 Earth days, equivalent to approximately 8.5 Europa days. The primary science goals for the Europa lander would include astrobiology and geophysics experiments and determination of surface composition. Science measurements would include visual imagery, microseismometry, Raman spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and measurements of surface temperature and radiation levels. The ELM spacecraft would be transported to Europa via the JIMO spacecraft as an auxiliary payload with an extended duration cruise phase (up to 13 years). After arriving at Europa, ELM would separate from JIMO and land on the moon's surface to conduct the nominal science mission. In addition to transportation, the JIMO mothership would be used to relay all lander data back to Earth, thus reducing the size and power requirement of the lander communications system. Conventional power sources were evaluated and found to be impractical for this mission due to the extended duration, low level of solar insolation (~3.7% of Earth's), the low surface temperatures (as low as 85K), and the 1.75 days of eclipse every Europa day. In contrast, a small-RPS would enable the ELM mission by powering the lander and keeping all key instrumentation and subsystems warm during the cruise and landed phases of the mission. The conceptual small-RPS is based on the existing General Purpose Heat

  5. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  6. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission): A satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is presented. TRMM is a satellite program being studied jointly by the United States and Japan which would carry out the systematic study of tropical rainfall required for major strides in weather and climate research. The scientific justification for TRMM is discussed. The implementation process for the scientific community, NASA management, and the other decision-makers and advisory personnel who are expected to evaluate the priority of the project is outlined.

  7. NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Since early 2005, NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development (RLLD) office at NASA MSFC, in partnership with the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), has developed mission concepts and preformed risk-reduction activities to address planetary science and exploration objectives uniquely met with landed missions. The RLLD team developed several concepts for lunar human-exploration precursor missions to demonstrate precision landing and in-situ resource utilization, a multi-node lunar geophysical network mission, either as a stand-alone mission, or as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer and a Mercury lander mission for the Planetary Science decadal survey, and an asteroid rendezvous and landing mission for the Exploration Precursor Robotics Mission (xPRM) office. The RLLD team has conducted an extensive number of risk-reduction activities in areas common to all lander concepts, including thruster testing, propulsion thermal control demonstration, composite deck design and fabrication, and landing leg stability and vibration. In parallel, the team has developed two robotic lander testbeds providing closed-loop, autonomous hover and descent activities for integration and testing of flight-like components and algorithms. A compressed-air test article had its first flight in September 2009 and completed over 150 successful flights. This small test article (107 kg dry/146 kg wet) uses a central throttleable thruster to offset gravity, plus 3 descent thrusters (37lbf ea) and 6 attitude-control thrusters (12lbf ea) to emulate the flight system with pulsed operation over approximately 10s of flight time. The test article uses carbon composite honeycomb decks, custom avionics (COTS components assembled in-house), and custom flight and ground software. A larger (206 kg dry/322 kg wet), hydrogen peroxide-propelled vehicle began flight tests in spring 2011 and fly over 30 successful flights to a maximum altitude of 30m. The monoprop testbed

  8. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  9. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers maneuver the Mars Polar Lander onto a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  10. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) lift the Mars Polar Lander to move it to a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. The Mars Polar Lander undergoes spin test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), the Mars Polar Lander is lowered toward a spin table for testing. The lander, which will be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  12. Photogrammetry of the Viking Lander imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of photogrammetric mapping which uses Viking Lander photography as its basis is solved in two ways: (1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture, using computerized rectification; and (2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the analytical plotter employed, so that all correction computations can be performed in real time during the model-orientation and map-compilation process. Both the efficiency of the Viking Lander cameras and the validity of the rectification method have been established by a series of pre-mission tests which compared the accuracy of terrestrial maps compiled by this method with maps made from aerial photographs. In addition, 1:10-scale topographic maps of Viking Lander sites 1 and 2 having a contour interval of 1.0 cm have been made to test the rectification method.

  13. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  14. NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Benjamin W.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Artis, David; Cole, Tim; Eng, Doug S.; Kubota, Sanae; Lafferty, Paul; McGee, Timothy; Morese, Brian J.; Chavers, Gregory; Moore, Joshua; Bassler, Julie A.; Cohen, D. Barbara; Farmer, Jeffrey; Freestone, Todd; Hammond, Monica S.; Hannan, Mike C.; Hill, Lawrence D.; Harris, Danny W.; Holloway, Todd A.; Lowery, John E.; Mulac, Brian D.; Stemple, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  15. The Philae/Rosetta Lander at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - First Result, on overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Boehnhardt, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Philae lander onboard ESA Rosetta mission is planned to land November 11, 2014 on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Before and during landing, descent, touch-down, then the days and weeks thereafter, campaigns of scientific measurements will be performed, involving the 10 instruments onboard, i.e. APXS, CIVA, CONSERT, COSAC, MUPUS, PTOLEMY, ROLIS, ROMAP, SD2 and SESAME. An overview of these activities will be provided and the first results from the Philae instruments presented and discussed.

  16. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  17. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Automatic Hazard Detection for Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned planetary landers to date have landed 'blind'; that is, without the benefit of onboard landing hazard detection and avoidance systems. This constrains landing site selection to very benign terrain,which in turn constrains the scientific agenda of missions. The state of the art Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) technology can land a spacecraft on Mars somewhere within a 20-100km landing ellipse.Landing ellipses are very likely to contain hazards such as craters, discontinuities, steep slopes, and large rocks, than can cause mission-fatal damage. We briefly review sensor options for landing hazard detection and identify a perception approach based on stereo vision and shadow analysis that addresses the broadest set of missions. Our approach fuses stereo vision and monocular shadow-based rock detection to maximize spacecraft safety. We summarize performance models for slope estimation and rock detection within this approach and validate those models experimentally. Instantiating our model of rock detection reliability for Mars predicts that this approach can reduce the probability of failed landing by at least a factor of 4 in any given terrain. We also describe a rock detector/mapper applied to large-high-resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for landing site characterization and selection for Mars missions.

  19. NASA's Robotic Lander Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Wednesday, June 8, the lander prototype managed by the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., hovered autonomously for 15 seconds at...

  20. A mobile planetary lander utilizing elastic loop suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1976-01-01

    Efforts to increase the cost effectiveness of future lunar and planetary rover missions have led to the mobile lander concept, which replaces the landing legs of a soft-lander craft with a compact mobility system of sufficient strength to withstand the landing impact. The results of a mobile lander conceptual design effort based on existing NASA-Viking '75 hardware are presented. The elastic loop concept, developed as a post-Apollo rover technology, is found to meet stringent stowage, traction, power and weight requirements.

  1. Experiments on asteroids using hard landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A.; Economou, T.

    1978-01-01

    Hard lander missions to asteroids are examined using the Westphal penetrator study as a basis. Imagery and chemical information are considered to be the most significant science to be obtained. The latter, particularly a detailed chemical analysis performed on an uncontaminated sample, may answer questions about the relationships of asteroids to meteorites and the place of asteroids in theories of the formation of the solar system.

  2. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, G. V.; Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision-guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Moon to Mars vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long-term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In our lander design, science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design relies on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs for the lander's flight to the moon. The landing sequence begins with a solid motor burn to reduce the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. At this point the lander is about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability. This allows for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations closely mimics missile operational protocol used for decades: the vehicle remains inert, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design uses a propulsion system derived from heritage MDA programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. This approach leverages the billions of dollars DoD has invested in these technologies, to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  3. Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2007-01-01

    Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

  4. Expendable Cooling for a One-Day Venus Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauken, M. T.; Fernandez, C. J.; Jeter, S. M.

    2014-06-01

    A thermal architecture of a Venus lander mission using an expendable coolant system has been developed to enable a day-long surface mission. The system uses an aqua-ammonia mixture to provide cooling of the electronics and the pressure vessel.

  5. Long Awaited Fundamental Measurement of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from the Langmuir Probe and Waves Instrument on the MAVEN Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Laila; Andrews, David; Ergun, Bob; Delory, Greg; Morooka, Michiko; Fowler, Chris; McEnulty, Tess; Weber, Tristan; Eriksson, Anders; Malaspina, David; Crary, Frank; Mitchell, David; McFadden, Jim; Halekas, Jasper; Larson, Davin; Connerney, Jack; Espley, Jared; Eparvies, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Electron temperature and density are critical quantities in understanding an upper atmosphere. Approximately 40 years ago, the Viking landers reached the Martian surface, measuring the first (and only) two temperature profiles during it's descent. With the MAVEN mission arriving at Mars details of the Martian ionosphere can agin be studied by a complete plasma package. This paper investigates the first few months of data from the MAVEN mission when the orbit is below 500 km and around the northern hemisphere's terminator. The fo-cus of this presentation is on the different measure-ments that the Langmuir probe and Waves (LPW) in-strument is making on the MAVEN mission. Some of the LPW highlights that will be presented: (a) the long awaited new the electron temperature profiles; (b) the structures observed on the nightside ionosphere; (c) wave-particle insteractions observed below 500 km; and (d) the observed dusty environment at Mars. This presentation is supported by measurements from the other Particle and Fileds (PF) measurements on MAVEN.

  6. Thermal Control Technology Developments for a Venus Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauken, Mike; Emis, Nick; van Luvender, Marissa; Polk, Jay; Del Castillo, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The thermal control system for a Venus Lander is critical to mission success and the harsh operating environment presents significant thermal design and implementation challenges. A successful thermal architecture draws heavily from previous missions to the Venus surface such as Pioneer Venus and the Soviet Venera Landers. Future Venus missions will require more advanced thermal control strategies to allow greater science return than previous missions and will need to operate for more than one or two hours as previous missions have done. This paper describes a Venus Lander thermal architecture including the technology development of a phase change material system for absorbing the heat generated within the Lander itself and an insulation system for resisting the heat penetrating the Lander from the Venus environment. The phase change energy storage system uses lithium nitrate that can absorb twice the amount of energy per unit mass in comparison to paraffin based systems. The insulation system uses a porous silica material capable of handling a high temperature and high pressure gas environment while maintaining low thermal conductivity.

  7. Philae (Rosetta Lander): Experiment status after commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biele, J.; Willnecker, R.; Bibring, J. P.; Rosenbauer, H.

    Provided that the launch on 26 February 2004 was successful, ESA's cornerstone mission "ROSETTA" (originally planned to be launched in January 2003 to comet Wirtanen) is en route to bring the 100 kg Lander "PHILAE" with a scientific payload of about 27 kg to the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. After a first scientific sequence in 2014 it will operate for a considerable fraction of the cometary orbit around the sun (between 3 AU and 2 AU). The Lander is an autonomous spacecraft, powered with solar cells and using the ROSETTA Orbiter as a telemetry relais to Earth. The main scientific objectives are the in-situ investigation of the chemical, elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition of the comet, study of the physical properties of the surface material, analyze the internal structure of the nucleus, observe temporal variations (day/night cycle, approach to sun), study the relationship between the comet and the interplanetary matter and provide ground truth data for Orbiter instruments. Ten experiments with a number of sub-experiments are foreseen to fulfil these objectives. The Lander is operated (via ESOC) by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES. In this paper we present the flight status of the scientific instruments as it is known after the main part of in-orbit commissioning

  8. Mars pathfinder lander deployment mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Lander employs numerous mechanisms, as well as autonomous mechanical functions, during its Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Sequence. This is the first US lander of its kind, since it is unguided and airbag-protected for hard landing using airbags, instead of retro rockets, to soft land. The arrival condition, location, and orientation of the Lander will only be known by the computer on the Lander. The Lander will then autonomously perform the appropriate sequence to retract the airbags, right itself, and open, such that the Lander is nearly level with no airbag material covering the solar cells. This function uses two different types of mechanisms - the Airbag Retraction Actuators and the Lander Petal Actuators - which are designed for the high torque, low temperature, dirty environment and for limited life application. The development of these actuators involved investigating low temperature lubrication, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) to cut gears, and gear design for limited life use.

  9. Orbiter-orbiter and orbiter-lander tracking using same-beam interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.

    Two spacecraft orbiting Mars may be tracked simultaneously by a single earth-based antenna. Same-beam interferometric techniques, using two widely separated antennas, produce a spacecraft-spacecraft measurement in the plane of the sky, complementary to the line-of-sight Doppler information. This paper presents an overview of the same-beam interferometric measurement technique, a measurement error analysis, and examples of the application of same-beam interferometry to orbit determination. For the case of Mars Observer and the Soviet Mars '94 mission, orbit determination improvement up to an order of magnitude is found. Relative tracking between a Mars orbiter and a lander fixed on the surface of Mars is also studied. The lander location may be determined to a few meters, while the orbiter ephemeris may be determined with accuracy similar to the orbiter-orbiter case.

  10. Development of Mini-Landers for Very Small Lunar Surface Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, NASA has invested in development and risk-reduction activities for a new generation of planetary landers capable of carrying instruments and technology demonstrations to the lunar surface and other airless bodies. The Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project (RLLDP) is jointly implemented by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The RLLDP team has produced mission architecture designs for multiple airless body missions to meet both science and human precursor mission needs. The mission architecture concept studies encompass small, medium, and large landers, with payloads from a few kilograms to over 1000 kg, to the Moon and other airless bodies. The payload and concept of operations for the U.S. contribution to the ILN was guided by an independent Science Definition Team, which required each node to operate for 6 years continuously, including through lunar eclipse periods, and to carry a seismometer, heatflow probe, retroreflector, and electromagnetic sounding instrument. Some configuration trades using penetrators, hard landers, and soft landers are discussed in [1, 2]; the preferred concept became soft-landing propulsive landers discussed in [3]. The landers were sized primairly according to their power systems: an ASRG lander configuration is estimated at 155 kg dry mass, which includes a payload suite estimated at 23 kg including payload accommodation and deployment; a solar array-battery (SAB) lander configuration is somewhat larger at 265 kg of dry mass including a 19 kg payload suite with payload accommodation

  11. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector mission is to investigate the Moon's polar regions in search of volatiles. The government-version lander concept for the mission is composed of a braking stage and a liquid-propulsion lander stage. A propulsion trade study concluded with a solid rocket motor for the braking stage while using the 4th-stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components for the lander stage. The mechanical design of the liquid propulsion system was conducted in concert with the lander structure design. A propulsion cold-flow test article was fabricated and integrated into a lander development structure, and a series of cold flow tests were conducted to characterize the fluid transient behavior and to collect data for validating analytical models. In parallel, RS-34 PK thrusters to be used on the lander stage were hot-fire tested in vacuum conditions as part of risk reduction activities.

  12. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, J. M.; Petro, A. J.; Stump, W. R.; Adorjan, A. S.; Chambers, T. V.; Donofrio, M.; Hirasaki, J. K.; Morris, O. G.; Nudd, G.; Rawlings, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a first look at the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series of trade studies was performed to define the lander. The initial trades concerned choosing number of stages, payload mass, parking orbit altitude, and propellant type. Other important trades and issues included plane change capability, propellant loading and maintenance location, and reusability considerations. Given a rough baseline, the systems were then reviewed. A conceptual design was then produced. The process was carried through only one iteration. Many more iterations are needed. A transportation system using reusable, aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) is assumed. These OTV's are assumed to be based and maintained at a low Earth orbit (LEO) space station, optimized for transportation functions. Single- and two-stage OTV stacks are considered. The OTV's make the translunar injection (TLI), lunar orbit insertion (LOI), and trans-Earth injection (TEI) burns, as well as midcourse and perigee raise maneuvers.

  13. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers get ready to lift the heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander off the workstand before attaching it to the lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  14. Prototype of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Ground Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Morris, K. R.; Petersen, W. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a Ground Validation System (GVS) as one of its contributions to the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). The GPM GVS provides an independent means for evaluation, diagnosis, and ultimately improvement of GPM spaceborne measurements and precipitation products. NASA's GPM GVS consists of three elements: field campaigns/physical validation, direct network validation, and modeling and simulation. The GVS prototype of direct network validation compares Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite-borne radar data to similar measurements from the U.S. national network of operational weather radars. A prototype field campaign has also been conducted; modeling and simulation prototypes are under consideration.

  15. Mars Polar Lander: The Search Begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Science Systems. This model is illuminated in the same way that sunlight would illuminate the real lander at 2 p.m. local time in December 1999--in other words, the model is illuminated exactly the way it would be if it occurred in the MOC image shown above (left). This figure shows what the Mars Polar Lander would look like if viewed from above by cameras of different resolutions from 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) per pixel in the upper left to 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel in the lower right. The 1.5 meters per pixel view is the best resolution that can be achieved by MOC. Note that at MOC resolution, the lander is just a few pixels across.

    The problem of recognizing the lander in MOC images is obvious--all that might be seen is a pattern of a few bright and dark gray pixels. This means that it will be extremely difficult to identify the lander by looking at the relatively noisy MOC images that can be acquired at the landing site--like those shown in the top picture.

    How, then, is the MGS MOC team looking for the lander? Primarily, they are looking for associations of features that, together, would suggest whether or not the Mars landing was successful. For example, the parachute that was used to slow the lander from supersonic speeds to just under 300 km/hr (187 mph) was to have been jettisoned, along with part of the aeroshell that protected the lander from the extreme heat of entry, about 40 seconds before landing. The parachute and aeroshell are likely to be within a kilometer (6 tenths of a mile) of the lander. The parachute and aeroshell are nearly white, so they should stand out well against the red martian soil. The parachute, if lying on the ground in a fully open, flat position, would measure about 6 meters (20 feet)--thus it would cover three or four pixels (at most) in a MOC image. If the parachute can be found, the search for the lander can be narrowed to a small, nearby zone. If, as another example, the landing rockets kicked up a lot of dust and

  16. A Discovery-Class Lunette Mission Concept for a Lunar Geophysical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The Lunette mission concept for a network of small, inexpensive lunar landers has evolved over the last three years as the focus of space exploration activities in the US has changed. Originating in a concept for multiple landers launched as a secondary payload capable of regional science and site survey activities, Lunette has recently been developed into a Discovery-class mission concept that offers global lunar coverage enabling network science on a much broader scale. A particular mission concept has been refined by the Lunette team that would result in a low-cost global lunar geophysical network, comprised of two landers widely spaced on the near side of the moon. Each of the two identical landers would carry a suite of instruments that would make continuous measurements of seismic activity, heat flow, and the electromagnetic environment during the full lunar day/night cycle. Each lander would also deploy a next-generation laser retroreflector capable of improving on distance measurement accuracy by an order of magnitude over those emplaced by the previous Apollo and Lunokhod missions. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the Lunette geophysical network mission concept, including mission and flight system design, as well as the key requirements and constraints that guided them.

  17. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    John H. Glenn's historic return to space was a primary focus of the STS-95 mission. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Orbital Systems Test (HOST). an STS-95 payload, was an in-flight demonstration of HST components to be installed during the next HST servicing mission. One of the components under evaluation was the cryocooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Based on concerns about vibrations from the operation of the NICMOS cryocooler affecting the overall HST line-of-sight requirements, the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free-Flyers (SAMS-FF) was employed to measure the vibratory environment of the STS-95 mission, including any effects introduced by the NICMOS cryocooler. The STS-95 mission represents the first STS mission supported by SAMS-FF. Utilizing a Control and Data Acquisition Unit (CDU) and two triaxial sensor heads (TSH) mounted on the HOST support structure in Discovery's cargo bay, the SAMS-FF and the HOST project were able to make vibratory measurements both on-board the vibration-isolated NICMOS cryocooler and off-board the cryocooler mounting plate. By comparing the SAMS-FF measured vibrations on-board and off-board the NICMOS cryocooler, HST engineers could assess the cryocooler g-jitter effects on the HST line-of-sight requirements. The acceleration records from both SAMS-FF accelerometers were analyzed and significant features of the microgravity environment are detailed in this report.

  18. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  19. Status and Future of the Tropical Rainfall, Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) will have completed nine years in orbit in November 2006. This successful research mission, a joint U.S./Japan effort, has become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first meteorological radar in space, continues to function perfectly, and with the increase in orbital altitude (from 350 km to 400 km) in August 2001 and the mission extension approval in 2005, the satellite has sufficient station-keeping fuel to potentially last until 2012, or perhaps longer. The status of TRMM algorithms and products will be summarized, including the impact of the altitude boost in 2001, and the plans for the upcoming Version 7 of the products will be outlined. The role of TRMM as part of the constellation of rain-measuring satellites preceding GPM will be discussed, as well as its role in climate analysis using its unique radar/radiometer combination.

  20. Using Engineering Cameras on Mars Landers and Rovers to Retrieve Atmospheric Dust Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. A.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Dust in the Martian atmosphere influences energy deposition, dynamics, and the viability of solar powered exploration vehicles. The Viking, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix, and Curiosity landers and rovers each included the ability to image the Sun with a science camera that included a neutral density filter. Direct images of the Sun provide the ability to measure extinction by dust and ice in the atmosphere. These observations have been used to characterize dust storms, to provide ground truth sites for orbiter-based global measurements of dust loading, and to help monitor solar panel performance. In the cost-constrained environment of Mars exploration, future missions may omit such cameras, as the solar-powered InSight mission has. We seek to provide a robust capability of determining atmospheric opacity from sky images taken with cameras that have not been designed for solar imaging, such as lander and rover engineering cameras. Operational use requires the ability to retrieve optical depth on a timescale useful to mission planning, and with an accuracy and precision sufficient to support both mission planning and validating orbital measurements. We will present a simulation-based assessment of imaging strategies and their error budgets, as well as a validation based on archival engineering camera data.

  1. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Operations on 67P and attempts for Long Term Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Jansen, Sven; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; O'Rourke, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Philae is a comet Lander, part of Rosetta which is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. Philae successfully landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12th, 2014 and performed a First Scientific Sequence, based on the energy stored in it's on board batteries. All ten instruments of the Philae payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the final landing site (after several bounces) was poorly illuminated, Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, and the teams hoped for a wake-up at closer heliocentric distances. Signals from the Lander were indeed received on June 13th when 67P was at a distance of about 1.4 AU from the Sun. Housekeeping values showed that Philae had already been active earlier, but no RF contact with the mothership could be established. Seven more times, signals from Philae were received, the last ones on July 9th, 2015. Unfortunately, no reliable or predictable links could be achieved. The paper will give an overview of the activities with Philae after its hibernation, interpretation of the received housekeeping data and the various strategies to attempt more contacts and long term science measurements. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae Lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  2. Movable Lander for Manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of the workshop, participants split into three groups to develop a concensus on the following questions: (1) What are the current space drive resources and issues? (2) What are the future space drive technology needs and issues? and (3) Should we hold regular workshops on space mechanisms and space drives? The three groups considered these questions from the perspective of researchers working in (1) manned spacecraft; (2) unmanned spacecraft; and (3) planetary surface exploration vehicles.

  3. Robotic Lander Prototype Completes Initial Tests

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., completed an initial series of integrated tests on a new lander prototype. The prototype lander ...

  4. Aquarius Satellite Salinity Measurement Mission Status, and Science Results from the initial 3-Year Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Kao, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite microwave sensor, launched June 2011, as part of the US-Argentina joint Aquarius/SAC-D mission, and commenced observations on 25 Aug2011, and completed three years of ocean surface salinity measurements in late August 2014. The Aquarius measurement objectives are to describe unknown features in the sea surface salinity (SSS) field, and document seasonal and interannual variations on regional and basin scales. This presentation will first describe the structure of the mean annual global salinity field compared with the previous in situ climatology and contemporary in situ measurements , including small persistent biases of opposite sign in high latitudes versus low latitudes, currently under intense investigation, as well as global and regional error statistics. Then we summarize highlights of various studies and papers submitted to the JGR-Oceans special section on satellite salinity (2014). The most prominent seasonal variations, most notably the extant and variability of the SSS signature of the Atlantic and Pacific inter-tropical convergence zones, Amazon-Orinoco and other major rivers, and other important regional patterns of seasonal variability. Lastly we will examine the trends observed during the three Sep-Aug measurement years beginning Sep2011, Sep2012 and Sep2013, respectively, in relation to ENSO and other climate indices, as the first step in analyzing interannual SSS variability. An outline for extended mission operations beyond the initial three-year prime mission will be presented.

  5. In-Situ Environmental Measurements Needed for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Wilson, G. R.; Murphy, J. R.; Banfield, D.; Barnes, J. R.; Farrell, W. M.; Haberle, R. M.; Magalhaes, J.; Paige, D. A.; Tillman, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Existing measurements and modeling studies indicate that the climate and general circulation of the thin, predominately CO2 Martian atmosphere are characterized by large-amplitude variations with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Remote sensing observations from Earth-based telescopes and the Mariner 9, Viking, Phobos, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiters show that the prevailing climate includes large-scale seasonal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures (140 to 300 K), dust optical depth (0.15 to 1), and water vapor (10 to 100 precipitable microns). These observations also provided the first evidence for episodic regional and global dust storms that produce even larger perturbations in the atmospheric thermal structure and general circulation. In-situ measurements by the Viking and Mars Pathfinder Landers reinforced these conclusions, documenting changes in the atmospheric pressure on diurnal (5%) and seasonal (>20%) time scales, as well as large diurnal variations in the near-surface temperature (40 to 70 K), wind velocity (0 to 35 m/s), and dust optical depth (0.3 to 6). These in-situ measurements also reveal phenomena with temporal and spatial scales that cannot be resolved from orbit, including rapid changes in near-surface temperatures (+/- 10 K in 10 seconds), large near-surface vertical temperature gradients (+/- 15 K/meter), diurnally-varying slope winds, and dust devils . Modeling studies indicate that these changes are forced primarily by diurnal and seasonal variations in solar insolation, but they also include contributions from atmospheric thermal tides, baroclinic waves (fronts), Kelvin waves, slope winds, and monsoonal flows from the polar caps.

  6. Philae (Rosetta Lander): Experiment status after commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biele, J.; Willnecker, R.; Bibring, J. P.; Rosenbauer, H.; Philae Team

    2006-01-01

    Being successfully launched on March 2, 2004, ESA's cornerstone mission "ROSETTA" (originally planned to be launched in January 2003 to comet Wirtanen) is en route. It will also bring the 100 kg Lander "Philae" with a scientific payload of 26.7 kg to the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. After a first scientific sequence in 2014 it will operate for a considerable fraction of the cometary orbit around the sun (between 3 AU and at least 2 AU). The Lander, after separation, is an autonomous spacecraft powered with solar cells and using the ROSETTA Orbiter as a telemetry relais to Earth. The main scientific objectives are the in situ investigation of the chemical, elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition of the comet, study of the physical properties of the surface material, analyze the internal structure of the nucleus, observe temporal variations (day/night cycle, approach to sun), study the relationship between the comet and the interplanetary matter and provide ground truth data for the Orbiter instruments. Ten experiments with a number of sub-experiments are foreseen to fulfil these objectives. Philae is operated (via ESOC) by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES. In this paper we present the flight status of the scientific instruments as it is known after in-orbit commissioning.

  7. Science potential from a Europa lander.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, R T; Vance, S; Bagenal, F; Bills, B G; Blaney, D L; Blankenship, D D; Brinckerhoff, W B; Connerney, J E P; Hand, K P; Hoehler, T M; Leisner, J S; Kurth, W S; McGrath, M A; Mellon, M T; Moore, J M; Patterson, G W; Prockter, L M; Senske, D A; Schmidt, B E; Shock, E L; Smith, D E; Soderlund, K M

    2013-08-01

    The prospect of a future soft landing on the surface of Europa is enticing, as it would create science opportunities that could not be achieved through flyby or orbital remote sensing, with direct relevance to Europa's potential habitability. Here, we summarize the science of a Europa lander concept, as developed by our NASA-commissioned Science Definition Team. The science concept concentrates on observations that can best be achieved by in situ examination of Europa from its surface. We discuss the suggested science objectives and investigations for a Europa lander mission, along with a model planning payload of instruments that could address these objectives. The highest priority is active sampling of Europa's non-ice material from at least two different depths (0.5-2 cm and 5-10 cm) to understand its detailed composition and chemistry and the specific nature of salts, any organic materials, and other contaminants. A secondary focus is geophysical prospecting of Europa, through seismology and magnetometry, to probe the satellite's ice shell and ocean. Finally, the surface geology can be characterized in situ at a human scale. A Europa lander could take advantage of the complex radiation environment of the satellite, landing where modeling suggests that radiation is about an order of magnitude less intense than in other regions. However, to choose a landing site that is safe and would yield the maximum science return, thorough reconnaissance of Europa would be required prior to selecting a scientifically optimized landing site. PMID:23924246

  8. Earth Sensor Assembly for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Steven S.; Hoover, James M.

    1995-01-01

    EDO Corporation/Barnes Engineering Division (BED) has provided the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), a key element in the TRMM spacecraft's attitude control system. This report documents the history, design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the ESA.

  9. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Neeck, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core SpacecraR in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65 deg. inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperaturethumidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approximately 40 deg.) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near-realtime monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global watertenergy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 2013, followed by the launch of the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory in 2014

  10. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65' inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperaturelhumidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approx.40deg) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near real-time monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global waterlenergy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 201 3, followed by the launch of the GPM Low- Inclination Observatory in 2014. An

  11. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65 degrees inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperature/humidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approximately 40 deg.) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near real-time monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 2013, followed by the launch of the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory in

  12. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location.

    'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team.

    The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape.

    The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been.

    This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Lunar lander stage requirements based on the Civil Needs Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, John A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the lunar lander stages that will be necessary for the future exploration and development of the Moon. Lunar lander stage sizing is discussed based on the projected lunar payloads listed in the Civil Needs Data Base. Factors that will influence the lander stage design are identified and discussed. Some of these factors are (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of direct landing trajectories and landing from a parking orbit; (3) implications of landing site and parking orbit; (4) implications of landing site and parking orbit selection; (5) the use of expendable and reusable lander stages; and (6) the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander stage design requirements to each of the above factors and others are presented in parametric form. These data will provide useful design data that will be applicable to future mission model modifications and design studies.

  14. MarsLab: A HEDS Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; McKay, C.; Connolly, J.

    2000-01-01

    Recognizing that the human exploration of Mars will be a science-focused enterprise, the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program set out three years ago to develop a mix of science and technology Lander payloads as a first step toward a human mission. With three experiments ready for flight and four more in development, the HEDS Mars program has the capability to stage missions with considerable impact. This presentation describes one such mission design by no means unique. Ambitious in scope, it encompasses elements of all seven HEDS payloads in a configuration with a uniquely HEDS character. Pragmatically, a subset of these elements could be selected for existing small Lander platforms. Bristling with scientific experiments, technology demonstrations, and outreach elements, MarsLab represents a prototype of a manned science station or scientific outpost. A cartoon overview of MarsLab defines its major elements, explained more fully in the sections that follow. The concept is endorsed by PI's of the various HEDS payloads, details of which are presented elsewhere at this workshop.

  15. Neutral Gas and Ion Measurements by the CONTOUR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Niemann, Hasso B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) Mission will measure the chemical and isotopic composition of neutral and ion species in the coma of comet Encke and the subsequent targets of this mission. Currently the second target of this mission is comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3. This neutral gas and ion data together with complementary data from the dust analyzer and the imaging spectrometer is designed to allow a broad characterization of the molecular and elemental composition of each cometary nucleus. These experiments enable the study of the of the likely variations in chemical conditions present in different regions of the early solar nebula where the comets formed. With these experiments we will also test ideas about cometary contributions of organics, water, and other volatiles to the inner planets. The CONTOUR NGIMS data set from multiple comets is expected to provide an important extension of to the only other detailed in situ data set from a close flyby of a nucleus, that from Halley. CONTOUR will extend this measurement of an Oort cloud comet to the class of short period comets thought to originate in the Kuiper belt. This data will complement the detailed measurements to be carried out at a single nucleus by the Rosetta Mission.

  16. The ROSETTA PHILAE Lander damping mechanism as probe for the Comet soil strength.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, R.

    2015-10-01

    The ROSETTA Lander is equipped with an one axis damping mechanism to dissipate kinetic energy during the touch down. This damping is necessary to avoid damages to the Lander by a hard landing shock and more important to avoid re-bouncing from ground with high velocity. The damping mechanism works best for perpendicular impact, which means the velocity vector is parallel to the damper axis and all three feet touch the ground at the same time. That is usually not the case. Part of the impact energy can be transferred into rotational energy at ground contact if the impact is not perpendicular. This energy will lift up the Lander from the ground if the harpoons and the hold down thruster fail, as happen in mission. The damping mechanism itself is an electrical generator, driven by a spindle inside a telescopic tube. This tube was extended in mission for landing by 200mm. A maximum damping length of 140mm would be usually required to compensate a landing velocity of 1m/s, if the impact happens perpendicular on hard ground. After landing the potentiometer of the telescopic tube reading shows a total damping length of only 42,5mm. The damping mechanism and the overall mechanical behavior of the Lander at touch down are well tested and characterized and transferred to a multi-body computer model. The incoming and outgoing flightpath of PHILAE allow via computer-simulation the reconstruction of the touch down. It turns out, that the outgoing flight direction is dominated by the local ground slope and that the damping length is strongly dependent on the soil strength. Damping of soft comet ground must be included to fit the damping length measured. Scenario variations of the various feet contact with different local surface features (stone or regolith) and of different soil models finally lead to a restricted range for the soil strength at the touch down area.

  17. Tropospheric Wind Measurements from Space: The SPARCLE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  18. In-Situ Propellant Supplied Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Benjamin; Maulsby, Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA and commercial Lunar missions will require innovative spacecraft configurations incorporating reliable, sustainable propulsion, propellant storage, power and crew life support technologies that can evolve into long duration, partially autonomous systems that can be used to emplace and sustain the massive supplies required for a permanently occupied lunar base. Ambitious surface science missions will require efficient Lunar transfer systems to provide the consumables, science equipment, energy generation systems, habitation systems and crew provisions necessary for lengthy tours on the surface. Lunar lander descent and ascent stages become significantly more efficient when they can be refueled on the Lunar surface and operated numerous times. Landers enabled by Lunar In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) facilities will greatly ease constraints on spacecraft mass and payload delivery capability, and may operate much more affordably (in the long term) then landers that are dependant on Earth supplied propellants. In this paper, a Lander concept that leverages ISPP is described and its performance is quantified. Landers, operating as sortie vehicles from Low Lunar Orbit, with efficiencies facilitated by ISPP will enable economical utilization and enhancements that will provide increasingly valuable science yields from Lunar Bases.

  19. Technology development for long-lived Venus landers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekonomov, 1.; Korablev, O.; Zasova, L.

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneously with many successful lander missions on Venus in 1972-1985 Soviet Union began develop long-lived lander on surface of Venus. The basic problem were extreme conditions on a surface: P=10MPa, T=500 C . Then operations have been stopped and have renewed in 2006 already in new Russia. Mission "VENERA (VENUS) - D" is included into the Federal space program of Russia on 2006 - 2015 with launch in 2016. To this date Russia alone can't create a reliable electronics for 500 C, but we have got examples GaN electronics for 350 C. Cooling technology with boiling water is offered for interior devices of lander at pressure 10 MPa and temperature 310 C. As the power source of an electronics we use high-temperature galvanic cells on the base of Li4Si [LiCl, KCl, LiF] FeS2 which are released in Russia as reserve power sources. They are capable to work directly on a surface of Venus without any thermal protection. At lander two kinds of vacuum technology can be used: 1) in multilayer (MLI ) thermal blanket for lander, 2) in electro-vacuum devices, for example transmitter . For creation and maintenance of vacuum at temperature 400-500 C: chemical gas absorbers ( getter materials ) are used, they actively absorb both carbon dioxide and nitrogen .

  20. Rosetta Lander - Philae: First Landing and Operations on a Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Soffys, Aurélie; Salatti, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Philae is a comet Lander, part of Rosetta which is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. In August 2014 Rosetta did rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) after a 10 year cruise. Both its nucleus and coma have been studied allowing the selection of a landing site for Philae. Philae was separated from the Rosetta main spacecraft on November 12, 2014 and touched the comet surface after seven hours of descent. After several bounces it came to rest and continued to send scientific data to Earth. All ten instruments of its payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the Lander could not be anchored, the originally planned first scientific sequence had to be modified. Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, after its primary battery ran out of energy. Re-activation of the Lander is expected in spring/summer 2015 when CG is closer to the sun and the solar generator of Philae will provide more power. The paper will give an overview of separation, descent and landing, the search for the final landing spot as well as Lander operations after separation. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  1. The ExoMars 2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency (ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, Schiaparelli, and the Exomars 2018 mission which carries a lander and a rover.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments.After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and lander through its UHF communication system. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in January 2016 and will arrive at Mars in October the same year. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft, its payload and science and the related plans for scientific operations and measurements.

  2. Attitude reconstruction of ROSETTA's Lander PHILAE using two-point magnetic field observations by ROMAP and RPC-MAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinisch, Philip; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Richter, Ingo; Hercik, David; Jurado, Eric; Garmier, Romain; Güttler, Carsten; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    As part of the European Space Agency's ROSETTA Mission the Lander PHILAE touched down on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. The magnetic field has been measured onboard the orbiter and the lander. The orbiter's tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer RPC-MAG is one of five sensors of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium. The lander is also equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer as part of the ROSETTA Lander Magnetometer and Plasma-Monitor package (ROMAP). This unique setup makes a two point measurement between the two spacecrafts in a relatively small distance of less than 50 km possible. Both magnetometers were switched on during the entire descent, the initial touchdown, the bouncing between the touchdowns and after the final touchdown. We describe a method for attitude determination by correlating magnetic low-frequency waves, which was tested under different conditions and finally used to reconstruct PHILAE's attitude during descent and after landing. In these cases the attitude could be determined with an accuracy of better than ± 5 °. These results were essential not only for PHILAE operations planning but also for the analysis of the obtained scientific data, because nominal sources for this information, like solar panel currents and camera pictures could not provide sufficient information due to the unexpected landing position.

  3. ARIM-1: The Atmospheric Refractive Index Measurements Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, B. Ian (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the ARIM-1 sounding rocket mission, whose goal is to study atmospheric turbulence in the tropopause region of the atmosphere, is presented. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks who were enrolled in a Space Systems Engineering course. The implementation of the ARIM-1 mission will be carried out by students participating in the Alaska Student Rocket Program (ASRP), with a projected launch date of August 1997. The ARIM-1 vehicle is a single stage sounding rocket with a 3:1 ogive nose cone, a payload diameter of 8 in., a motor diameter of 7.6 in., and an overall height of 17.0 ft including the four fins. Emphasis is placed on standardization of payload support systems. The thermosonde payload will measure the atmospheric turbulence by direct measurement of the temperature difference over a distance of one meter using two 3.45-micron 'hot-wire' probes. The recovery system consists of a 6 ft. diameter ribless guide surface drogue chute and a 33 ft. diameter main cross parachute designed to recover a payload of 31 pounds and slow its descent rate to 5 m/s through an altitude of 15 km. This document discusses the science objectives, mission analysis, payload mechanical configuration and structural design, recovery system, payload electronics, ground station, testing plans, and mission implementation.

  4. ATMOS: Long term atmospheric measurements for mission to planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A long-term, space-based measurement program, together with continued balloon and aircraft-borne investigations, is essential to monitor the predicted effects in the atmosphere, to determine to what extent the concentration measurements agree with current models of stratospheric chemistry, and to determine the condition of the ozone layer. The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment is currently making comprehensive, global measurements of Earth's atmosphere as part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) program on the Space Shuttle. Part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS is a continuing series of missions to study Earth and the Sun and provide a more fundamental understanding of the solar influences on Earth's atmosphere. The ATMOS program, instruments, and science results are presented.

  5. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  6. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: NASA Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, G.; Petersen, W.; Kidd, Chris

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission’s Core satellite, launched 27 February 2014, is well-designed to estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth’s water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. GPM is a joint NASA-JAXA mission. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s highly successful rain-sensing package. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 (°) non-Sun-synchronous orbit serving as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR provides measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements places greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM mission science objectives and instrument

  7. Measuring the permittivity of the surface of the Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus: the PP-SESAME experiment on board the Philae/ROSETTA lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hamelin, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.

    2014-12-01

    Within Philae, the lander of the Rosetta spacecraft, the Permittivity Probe (PP) experiment as part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME) package was designed to measure the low frequency (Hz-kHz) electrical properties of the close subsurface of the nucleus.At frequencies below 10 kHz, the electrical signature of the matter is especially sensitive to the presence of water ice and its temperature. PP-SESAME will thus allow to determine the water ice content in the near-surface and to monitor its diurnal and orbital variations thus providing essential insight on the activity and evolution of the cometary nucleus.The PP-SESAME instrument is derived from the quadrupole array technique. A sinusoidal electrical current is sent into the ground through a first dipole, and the induced electrical voltage is measured with a second dipole. The complex permittivity of the material is inferred from the mutual impedance derived from the measurements. In practice, the influence of both the electronic circuit of the instrument and the conducting elements in its close environment must be accounted for in order to best estimate the dielectric constant and electric conductivity of the ground. To do this we have developed a method called the "capacity-influence matrix method".A replica of the instrument was recently built in LATMOS (France) and was tested in the frame of a field campaign in the giant ice cave system of Dachstein, Austria. In the caves, the ground is covered with a thick layer of ice, which temperature is rather constant throughout the year. This measurement campaign allowed us to test the "capacity influence matrix method" in a natural icy environment.The first measurements of the PP-SESAME/Philae experiment should be available in mid-November. In this paper we will present the "capacity-influence matrix method", the measurements and results from the Austrian field campaign and the preliminary analysis of the PP-SESAME/Philae data.

  8. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Ballard, Benjamin; Chavers, Greg; Eng, Doug S.; Hammond, Monica S.; Hill, Larry A.; Harris, Danny W.; Hollaway, Todd A.; Kubota, Sanae; Morse, Brian J.; Mulac, Brian D.; Reed, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA's robotic lunar lander flight projects. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science and exploration community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects.

  9. Command and data management system (CDMS) of the Philae lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, A.; Baksa, A.; Bitterlich, H.; Hernyes, I.; Küchemann, O.; Pálos, Z.; Rustenbach, J.; Schmidt, W.; Spányi, P.; Sulyán, J.; Szalai, S.; Várhalmi, L.

    2016-08-01

    The paper covers the principal requirements, design concepts and implementation of the hardware and software for the central on-board computer (CDMS) of the Philae lander in the context of the ESA Rosetta space mission, including some technical details. The focus is on the implementation of fault tolerance, autonomous operation and operational flexibility by means of specific linked data structures and code execution mechanisms that can be interpreted as a kind of object oriented model for mission sequencing.

  10. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  12. Development of an Audio Microphone for the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Curtis, D. W.; Friedman, L. D.; Primbsch, J. H.; Mozer, F. S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1999, the next Mars Surveyor Lander will bring the first microphone to the surface of Mars. The Mars Microphone represents a joint effort between the Planetary Society and the University of California at Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and is riding on the lander as part of the LIDAR instrument package provided by the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. The inclusion of a microphone on the Mars Surveyor Lander represents a unique opportunity to sample for the first time the acoustic environment on the surface, including both natural and lander-generated sounds. Sounds produced by martian meteorology are among the signals to be recorded, including wind and impacts of sand particles on the instrument. Photographs from the Viking orbiters as well as Pathfinder images show evidence of small tornado-like vortices that may be acoustically detected, along with noise generated by static discharges possible during sandstorms. Lander-generated sounds that will be measured include the motion and digging of the lander arm as it gathers soil samples for analysis. Along with these scientific objectives, the Mars Microphone represents a powerful tool for public outreach by providing sound samples on the Internet recorded during the mission. The addition of audio capability to the lander brings us one step closer to a true virtual presence on the Mars surface by complementing the visual capabilities of the Mars Surveyor cameras. The Mars Microphone is contained in a 5 x 5 x 1 cm box, weighs less than 50 g, and uses 0.1 W of power during its most active times. The microphone used is a standard hearing-aid electret. The sound sampling and processing system relies on an RSC-164 speech processor chip, which performs 8-bit A/ D sampling and sound compression. An onboard flight program enables several modes for the instrument, including varying sample ranges of 5 kHz and 20 kHz, and a selectable gain setting with 64x dynamic range. The device automatically triggers on

  13. The Chang'e 3 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Zuo, Wei; Tan, Xu; Wen, Weibin; Li, Han; Mu, Lingli; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    2015-07-01

    The Chang'e 3 (CE-3) mission was implemented as the first lander/rover mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP). After its successful launch at 01:30 local time on December 2, 2013, CE-3 was inserted into an eccentric polar lunar orbit on December 6, and landed to the east of a 430 m crater in northwestern Mare Imbrium (19.51°W, 44.12°N) at 21:11 on December 14, 2013. The Yutu rover separated from the lander at 04:35, December 15, and traversed for a total of 0.114 km. Acquisition of science data began during the descent of the lander and will continue for 12 months during the nominal mission. The CE-3 lander and rover each carry four science instruments. Instruments on the lander are: Landing Camera (LCAM), Terrain Camera (TCAM), Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC), and Moon-based Ultraviolet Telescope (MUVT). The four instruments on the rover are: Panoramic Camera (PCAM), VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), Active Particle induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), and Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). The science objectives of the CE-3 mission include: (1) investigation of the morphological features and geological structures of and near the landing area; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of mineral and chemical composition of and near the landing area; and (3) exploration of the terrestrial-lunar space environment and lunar-based astronomical observations. This paper describes the CE-3 objectives and measurements that address the science objectives outlined by the Comprehensive Demonstration Report of Phase II of CLEP. The CE-3 team has archived the initial science data, and we describe data accessibility by the science community.

  14. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  15. Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Angerer, O.; Durante, M.; Linnarson, D.; Pike, W. T.

    2010-12-01

    Preparing for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond is an interdisciplinary exercise, requiring new technologies and the pooling of knowledge and expertise from many scientific areas. The European Space Agency is working to develop a Lunar Lander, as a precursor to future human exploration activities. The mission will demonstrate new technologies and perform important preparatory investigations. In the biological sciences the two major areas requiring investigation in advance of human exploration are radiation and its effects on human physiology and the potential toxicity of lunar dust. This paper summarises the issues associated with these areas and the investigations planned for the Lunar Lander to address them.

  16. Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

  17. Status of Validation Program for Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is in its sixth year of operation. This successful research mission, a joint U.S./Japan effort, has become-a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first meteorological radar in space, continues to function perfectly, and with the increase in orbital altitude (from 350 km to 400 km) the mission will hopefully continue for a number of years. The validation effort has been a combination of routine use of 1) ground-based radar and raingauge measurements for comparison with the satellite-based estimates, 2) the use of field experiment data for evaluation of the satellite data products and investigation of some of the assumptions in the satellite retrievals, and 3) use of other comparison data sets, including atoll and buoy gauges over ocean and research and operational gauge data sets over land. The status of the program will be described along with "lessons learned". Near term plans for improved validation products and new thrusts related to validation of TRMM-based multi-satellite products that extend into middle latitudes will be outlined.

  18. Solar oblateness as measured with the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Djelloul, D.; Cisse, M.

    2013-12-01

    PICARD is a space mission launched in June 2010. One of its scientific objectives is to study the geometry of the Sun including measurements of the solar oblateness at several wavelengths. This physical parameter is however difficult to achieve since all image defaults due to the whole system telescope-CCD affect its measurement. Rolling the satellite as already done with previous space missions allows discriminating from the telescope-CCD contribution when considering the Sun as constant during the observations. This supposes however that the telescope optical response is time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD where an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius obtained from its images. We have taken advantage of this effect and developed a new method to process the PICARD images to deduce the solar oblateness. This method supposes that there are both a time and an angular modulation of the solar limb due to the satellite moving on its orbit and when it is rotated around the line of sight during the specific observations. We will first give in this work an overview of the PICARD mission and present after the solar observations recorded for the oblateness measurements. The new method developed to process the data is then detailed and some results are given and discussed.

  19. Morpheus Lander Hot Fire Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a successful "hot fire" test of the Morpheus lander on February 27, 2012, at the VTB Flight Complex at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The engine burns for an extended period of time ...

  20. Testing Phoenix Mars Lander Parachute in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will parachute for nearly three minutes as it descends through the Martian atmosphere on May 25, 2008. Extensive preparations for that crucial period included this drop test near Boise, Idaho, in October 2006.

    The parachute used for the Phoenix mission is similar to ones used by NASA's Viking landers in 1976. It is a 'disk-gap-band' type of parachute, referring to two fabric components -- a central disk and a cylindrical band -- separated by a gap.

    Although the Phoenix parachute has a smaller diameter (11.8 meters or 39 feet) than the parachute for the 2007 Mars Pathfinder landing (12.7 meters or 42 feet), its Viking configuration results in slightly larger drag area. The smaller physical size allows for a stronger system because, given the same mass and volume restrictions, a smaller parachute can be built using higher strength components. The Phoenix parachute is approximately 1.5 times stronger than Pathfinder's. Testing shows that it is nearly two times stronger than the maximum opening force expected during its use at Mars.

    Engineers used a dart-like weight for the drop testing in Idaho. On the Phoenix spacecraft, the parachute is attached the the backshell. The backshell is the upper portion of a capsule around the lander during the flight from Earth to Mars and protects Phoenix during the initial portion of the descent through Mars' atmosphere.

    Phoenix will deploy its parachute at about 12.6 kilometers (7.8 miles) in altitude and at a velocity of 1.7 times the speed of sound. A mortar on the spacecraft fires to deploy the parachute, propelling it away from the backshell into the supersonic flow. The mortar design for Phoenix is essentially the same as Pathfinder's. The parachute and mortar are collectively called the 'parachute decelerator system.' Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Conn., produced this system for Phoenix. The same company provided the parachute decelerator systems for Pathfinder, Mars Polar

  1. Connecting the Dots: Lander, Heat Shield, Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This enhanced-color image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera shows the Phoenix landing area viewed from orbit. The spacecraft appears more blue than it would in reality. From top to bottom are the Phoenix lander with its solar panels deployed on the Martian surface, the heat shield and bounce mark the heat shield made on the Martian surface, and the top of the Phoenix parachute attached to the bottom of the back shell.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In the DOD world, such technologies are used routinely and reliably. Hence, it is timely to generate a point design for a precise planetary lander useful for lunar exploration. In this design science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design flies the lander in an inert configuration to the moon, relying on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs. The lander activates about a minute before impact. A solid booster reduces the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. The lander is now about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability, allowing for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations is chosen because it closely mimics missile operational timelines used for decades: the vehicle remains inert in a challenging environment, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design consists of a re-plumbed propulsion system, using propellant tanks and thrusters from exoatmospheric programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC

  3. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers mate the Mars Polar Lander (top) to the Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is scheduled to launch Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  4. Mars Polar Lander arrives at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Polar Landerspacecraft is lifted off the trailer of that transported it to the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander, which will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999, is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  5. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the protective wrapping on the Mars Polar Lander to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  6. Mars Polar Lander is mated with Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the gantry at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft is lowered to mate it with the Boeing Delta II rocket that will launch it on Jan. 3, 1999. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor'98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  7. The heat shield for the Mars Polar Lander is attached

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), workers lower the heat shield onto the Mars Polar Lander. Scheduled to be launched on Jan. 3, 1999, the lander is a solar- powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. It is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which is due to be launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  8. Analysis of plasma measurements for the Geotail mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Louis A.

    1995-01-01

    The first phase of the Geotail mission, an exploration of the distant magnetotail, was successfully concluded in October 1994. Geotail is currently engaged in a survey of plasmas at distances from Earth approximately 10 to 30 R(sub E). Throughout the mission the Comprehensive Plasma Instrumentation has functioned well with successful return of data. The analysis of the CPI measurements has resulted in a series of publications, and research efforts are ongoing. Research topics include interaction of the magnetotail with the fields and plasmas of the solar wind, steady-state magnetic reconnection in the distant magnetotail at a neutral line bounded by a pair of slow-mode magnetohydrodynamic shocks, development and evolution of plasmoids in magnetotail and magnetospheric substorms, and cold ion beams coexisting as distinct components in the presence of hot plasma-sheet plasmas.

  9. Atmospheric Measurements by the 2002 Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program is a multiple platform NASA initiative for the study of global change. As part of the EOS project, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was selected as a laser sensor filling complementary requirements for several earth science disciplines including atmospheric and surface applications. Late in 2002, the GaAs instrument is to be launched for a three to five year observational mission. For the atmosphere, the instrument is designed to full fill comprehensive requirements for profiling of radiatively significant cloud and aerosol. Algorithms have been developed to process the cloud and aerosol data and provide standard data products. After launch there will be a three-month project to analyze and understand the system performance and accuracy of the data products. As an EOS mission, the GaAs measurements and data products will be openly available to all investigators. An overview of the instrument, data products and evaluation plan is given.

  10. Mars 2001 Orbiter, Lander and Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars 2001 mission is well equipped to analyze the surface of Mars. The mission: 1) completes MO objectives with gamma ray spectrometer elemental mapping, 2) explores a new region of the Martian surface, and 3) is the first in the combined Mars strategy of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) and Space Science Enterprises of NASA. The mission demonstrates technologies and collects environmental data that provide the basis for permanent outposts or a decision to send humans to Mars. Potential sites include ancient crust and ancient aqueous environments. The orbiter carries the gamma ray spectrometer, a thermal emission spectrometer (THEMIS) and imager that will map the mineral abundance at selected sites and a radiation experiment, Marie, to assess radiation hazards. The lander carries a suite of Space Science and HEDS instruments including a robotic arm with camera. The arm will deploy a Moessbauer spectrometer to determine the state of iron in the soil. The arm will deploy the rover and dig up to 0.5 m to deliver soil to MECA, the soil and dust characterization experiments. The Mars In Situ Propellant Precursor Experiment (MIP) will assess in situ propellant production technology and produce oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The landed Marie radiation experiment will assess radiation hazards on the surface. The lander carries a panoramic camera bore-sighted with a thermal emission spectrometer (PanCam/MiniTES) to allow comparison between mineralogical data and elemental data. The descent imaging system (MARDI) will image from parachute deployment to the surface. The rover is Sojourner class, with an upgraded Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) experiment carefully calibrated on Earth and on Mars. The instruments will be operated in an integrated mode to provide maximum capability to explore and characterize a new region on Mars. MSP-01 is a NASA/JPL Mission.

  11. Rosetta Lander - Philae: preparations for landing on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Jurado, E.; Gaudon, P.; Geurts, K.

    2013-12-01

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a ten year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft as well as with a Lander, Philae, that has been designed to land softly on the comet nucleus. Aboard Philae, a payload consisting of ten scientific instruments will perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Philae will be separated from the mother spacecraft from a dedicated delivery trajectory. It then descends, ballistically, to the surface of the comet, stabilized with an internal flywheel. At touch-down anchoring harpoons will be fired and a damping mechanism within the landing gear will provide the lander from re-bouncing. Currently the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet are hardly known. Mapping with the orbiter cameras (shape, slopes, surface roughness) and essential measurements like gravity field, state of rotation or outgassing parameters can only be performed after arrival of the main spacecraft, between May and October 2014. These data will be used for selecting a landing site and defining the detailed landing strategy. Landing is foreseen for November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. The paper describes the Rosetta Lander system and its payload, but emphasizes on the preparations for landing, the landing site selection process and the planned operational timeline.

  12. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  13. Lunar Lander Structural Design Studies at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Antol, Jeffrey; Watson, Judith J.; Flick, John J.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; North, David D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing mission architectures, vehicle concepts and flight hardware to support the planned human return to the Moon. During Phase II of the 2006 Lunar Lander Preparatory Study, a team from the Langley Research Center was tasked with developing and refining two proposed Lander concepts. The Descent-Assisted, Split Habitat Lander concept uses a disposable braking stage to perform the lunar orbit insertion maneuver and most of the descent from lunar orbit to the surface. The second concept, the Cargo Star Horizontal Lander, carries ascent loads along its longitudinal axis, and is then rotated in flight so that its main engines (mounted perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal axis) are correctly oriented for lunar orbit insertion and a horizontal landing. Both Landers have separate crew transport volumes and habitats for surface operations, and allow placement of large cargo elements very close to the lunar surface. As part of this study, lightweight, efficient structural configurations for these spacecraft were proposed and evaluated. Vehicle structural configurations were first developed, and preliminary structural sizing was then performed using finite element-based methods. Results of selected structural design and trade studies performed during this activity are presented and discussed.

  14. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  15. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite to unify precipitation measurements from the constellation of sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder

  16. Radioscience and seismic measurements for the INSIGHT mission about interior of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Véronique; Asmar, Sami; Folkner, William; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, Bruce; Smrekar, Suzanne; Rivoldini, Attilio; Christensen, Ulrich; Giardini, Domenico; Pike, Tom; Clinton, John; Garcia, Raphael; Johnson, Catherine; Kobayashi, Naoki; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Mimoun, David; Mocquet, Antoine; Panning, Mark; Tromp, Jeroen; Weber, Renee

    2015-04-01

    We shall use the X-band radio link of the future 2016 InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) lander on the surface of Mars with the objective to better determine the rotation and interior structure of Mars. This X-band radio link consists in two-way Doppler measurements from a direct radio-link between the Martian lander and deep space tracking stations on the Earth. On the basis of these measurements, it will be possible to monitor the lander position relative to the Earth and in turn to improve the determination of the Mars' orientation and rotation parameters (MOP), i.e. the rotation rate variations (or Length of Days LOD), the precession rate and the nutations of the rotation axis. As these MOP parameters are related to the interior of the planet, we further discuss the expected improvement in our knowledge of Mars' interior in synergy with the seismic data, which include the tidal data. We will show in particular how to determine the state, size, and composition of the Martian core. These parameters are very important for understanding the evolution of Mars.

  17. Ion Flow Measurements from the JOULE Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangalli, L.; Knudsen, D.; Pfaff, R.; Burchil, J.; Larsen, M.; Clemmons, J.; Steigies, C.

    2006-12-01

    The JOULE sounding rocket mission was designed to investigate structured Joule dissipation in the auroral ionosphere. JOULE was launched March 27, 2003 from Poker Flat, Alaska, during a substorm. The mission included two instrumented rockets and two chemical release (TMA) rockets. One of the instrumented payloads carried a Suprathermal Ion Imager (SII) that measured 2-D (energy/angle) distributions of the core (0- 8 eV) ion population at a rate of 125 per second. SII measured one component of the ion drift velocitiy perpendicular to the magnetic field and the field-aligned component of the ion drift velocity. We present results showing good agreement between ion drifts measured perpendicular to the geomagnetic field and those inferred from an ěc E×ěc B measurement, with signs of ion demagnetization as the payload reached the upper E region. Also, the SII shows evidence of downward field-aligned ion flows at altitudes of 140-170 km within a region of enhanced auroral precipitation.

  18. Earthquake-Lightning Signature Probed by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hao; Liu, Jann-Yenq Tiger

    2016-04-01

    The lightning activity is one of the key parameters to understand the atmospheric electric fields near the Earth's surface and the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling during the earthquake preparation period. A statistical study shows more lightning before magnitude M>=5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during 1993-2004. In this paper, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is used to statistically exam the lightning activity 30 days before and after 198 M>=7.0 earthquakes in the tropical area of the globe during the 17-year period of 1988-2014. The statistical results show that lightning activities over epicenter significantly enhance before the earthquakes.

  19. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  20. A proposed tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Adler, Robert F.; North, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite (presently in its third year of planning), is described. The TRMM satellite, planned for an operational duration of at least three years beginning in the mid-1990s, is intended to obtain high-quality measurements of tropical precipitation by means of information derived from a quantitative spaceborne radar, a multichannel passive microwave radiometer, and an AVHRR. The satellite's orbit will be low-altitude (320 km), for high resolution, and low-inclination (30 to 35 deg), for making it possible to visit each sampling area twice a day. Radar and passive microwave algorithms and rain-retrieval algorithms to be used in precipitation measurements are discussed together with cloud dynamical models designed to test these algorithms.

  1. Analysis of TRMM Microphysical Measurements: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    SPEC Incorporated participated in three of the four TRMM field campaigns (TEFLUN-A, TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX), installing and operating a cloud particle imager (CPI) and a high volume precipitation spectrometer (HVPS) on the SPEC Learjet in TEFLUN-A, the University of North Dakota Citation in TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX, and a CPI on the NASA DC-8 in KWAJEX. This report presents and discusses new software tools and algorithms that were developed to analyze microphysical data collected during these field campaigns, as well as scientific interpretations of the data themselves. Software algorithms were developed to improve the analysis of microphysical measurements collected by the TRMM aircraft during the field campaigns. Particular attention was paid to developing and/or improving algorithms used to compute particle size distributions and ice water content. Software was also developed in support of production of the TRMM Common Microphysical Product (CMP) data files. CMP data files for TEFLUN-A field campaign were produced and submitted to the DAAC. Typical microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions from TEFLUN-A and KWAJEX clouds were produced. In general, it was found that in the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, stratiform clouds contain very high (greater than 1 per cubic centimeter) concentrations of small ice particles, which are suspected to be a residual from homogeneous freezing and sedimentation of small drops in a convective updraft. In the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, convective clouds contain aggregates, which are not found lower in the cloud. Stratiform clouds contain aggregates at all levels, with the majority in the lowest levels. Convective cloud regions contain much higher LWC and drop concentrations than stratiform regions at all levels, and higher LWC in the middle and upper regions. Stratiform clouds contain higher IWC than convective clouds only at the lowest level. Irregular shaped ice particles are found in very high

  2. The Rosetta Lander (``Philae'') Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibring, J.-P.; Rosenbauer, H.; Boehnhardt, H.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Espinasse, S.; Feuerbacher, B.; Gaudon, P.; Hemmerich, P.; Kletzkine, P.; Moura, D.; Mugnuolo, R.; Nietner, G.; Pätz, B.; Roll, R.; Scheuerle, H.; Szegö, K.; Wittmann, K.

    2007-02-01

    The paper describes the Rosetta Lander named Philae and introduces its complement of scientific instruments. Philae was launched aboard the European Space Agency Rosetta spacecraft on 02 March 2004 and is expected to land and operate on the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a distance of about 3 AU from the Sun. Its overall mass is ~98 kg (plus the support systems remaining on the Orbiter), including its scientific payload of ~27 kg. It will operate autonomously, using the Rosetta Orbiter as a communication relay to Earth. The scientific goals of its experiments focus on elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogical composition of the cometary material, the characterization of physical properties of the surface and subsurface material, the large-scale structure and the magnetic and plasma environment of the nucleus. In particular, surface and sub-surface samples will be acquired and sequentially analyzed by a suite of instruments. Measurements will be performed primarily during descent and along the first five days following touch-down. Philae is designed to also operate on a long time-scale, to monitor the evolution of the nucleus properties. Philae is a very integrated project at system, science and management levels, provided by an international consortium. The Philae experiments have the potential of providing unique scientific outcomes, complementing by in situ ground truth the Rosetta Orbiter investigations.

  3. New method for astrometric measurements in Space Mission, JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Gouda, N.; Yamada, Y.

    We present a new method for measuring positions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy by astrometric satellite, JASMINE, which is in progress at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. JASMINE is the acronym of the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared (z-band : 0.9 micron) Exploration, and is planned to be launched around 2015 The main objective of JASMINE is to study the fundamental structure and evolution of the bulge components of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to accomplish these objectives, JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes, positions and proper motions of about a few million stars during the observational program, with the precision of 10 microarcsec at z =14mag. The telescope of JASMINE has just one field of view, which is different from other astrometric satellites like Hipparcos and GAIA, that have two fields of view with large angle. These satellites, Hipparcos and GAIA, scan along the great circle with the spin axis perpendicular to both two fields of view to estimate the relative positions of stars on the great circle. They scan many different great circles to observe all the sky. On the other hand, JASMINE will take overlapping fields of view without any gaps to survey an area of about 20deg×10deg. Accordingly survey area covers the region of about 20deg×10deg in the bulge component. JASMINE will continue the above procedure for observing the area during the mission life. As a consequence, JASMINE will observe the restricted regions around the Galactic bulge and sweep repeatedly. The mission life is planned to be 5 years.

  4. New Method for Astrometric Measurements in Space Mission, JASMINE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Gouda, N.; Yamada, Y.

    2006-08-01

    We present a new method for measuring positions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy by astrometric satellite, JASMINE, which is in progress at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. JASMINE is the acronym of the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared (z-band : 0.9 micron) Exploration, and is planned to be launched around 2015 The main objective of JASMINE is to study the fundamental structure and evolution of the bulge components of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to accomplish these objectives, JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes, positions and proper motions of about a few million stars during the observational program, with the precision of 10 microarcsec at z =14mag. The telescope of JASMINE has just one field of view, which is different from other astrometric satellites like Hipparcos and GAIA, that have two fields of view with large angle. These satellites, Hipparcos and GAIA, scan along the great circle with the spin axis perpendicular to both two fields of view to estimate the relative positions of stars on the great circle. They scan many different great circles to observe all the sky. On the other hand, JASMINE will take overlapping fields of view without any gaps to survey an area of about 20deg*10deg. Accordingly survey area covers the region of about 20deg*10deg in the bulge component. JASMINE will continue the above procedure for observing the area during the mission life. As a consequence, JASMINE will observe the restricted regions around the Galactic bulge and sweep repeatedly. The mission life is planned to be 5 years.

  5. SRAG Measurements Performed During the Orion EFT-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaza, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) was the first flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The flight was launched on December 5, 2014, by a Delta IV Heavy rocket and lasted 4.5 hours. The EFT-1 trajectory involved one low altitude orbit and one high altitude orbit with an apogee of almost 6000 km. As a result of this particular flight profile, the Orion MPCV passed through intense regions of trapped protons and electron belts. In support of the radiation measurements aboard the EFT-1, the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) provided a Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector (BIRD) based on Timepix radiation monitoring technology similar to that employed by the ISS Radiation Environmental Monitors (REM). In addition, SRAG provided a suite of optically and thermally stimulated luminescence detectors, with 2 Radiation Area Monitor (RAM) units collocated with the BIRD instrument for comparison purposes, and 6 RAM units distributed at different shielding configurations within the Orion MPCV. A summary of the EFT-1 Radiation Area Monitors (RAM) mission dose results obtained from measurements performed in the Space Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center will be presented. Each RAM included LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100), (6)LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-600), (7)LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700), Al2O3:C (Luxel trademark), and CaF2:Tm (TLD-300). The RAM mission dose values will be compared with the BIRD instrument total mission dose. In addition, a similar comparison will be shown for the ISS environment by comparing the ISS RAM data with data from the six Timepix-based REM units deployed on ISS as part of the NASA REM Technology Demonstration.

  6. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  7. The Philae Science Mission - A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    The PHILAE Science Mission is based on measurements from 10 scientific instruments, i.e. the α-particle and X-ray spectrometer APXS, the visible camera and near-infrared spectrometer CIVA, the radio sounding experiment CONSERT, the molecule mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph COSAC, the accelerometer and thermal probe MUPUS, the light elements and isotope mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph PTOLEMY, the down-looking camera ROLIS, the magnetometer and plasma package ROMAP, the drill system SD2, and the acoustic and electric probe and dust impact sensor SESAME. The measurements are performed during 4 mission phase, i.e. during the pre-landing phase (PDCS) while the lander is still attached to the ROSETTA orbiter, during the separation, descent and landing phase (SDL), during the First Science Sequence (FSS) within about 3 days after landing and during a Long-Term Science phase (LTS) which follows the FSS immediately or after a short hibernation period depending on the landing site and the related power situation of the lander. The PDCS and SDL phase only a subset of the lander instruments will be active with scientific measurements, i.e. CIVA, CONSERT, PTOLEMY, ROMAP and SESAME during PDCS and CIVA, CONSERT, ROLIS, and ROMAP during SDL. The FSS and LTS phases will utilize all 10 PHILAE instruments for science. The presentations provides an overview of the PHILAE observations during the various mission phases, outlines the expected results and comments on the impact of the landing sites for the PHILAE science.

  8. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program has been developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface by 2020. The Constellation Program includes several different project offices including Altair, which is the next generation Lunar Lander. The planned Altair missions are very different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences have resulted in a significantly different thermal control system architecture. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases. In addition, the derived thermal requirements will be presented. The paper will conclude with a brief description of the thermal control system designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements.

  9. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Meneghini, Robert; Kummerow, Christian D.; Meneghini, Robert; Hou, Arthur; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Barkstrom, Bruce; Wielicki, Bruce; Goodman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of rain in the tropics and the accompanying latent heat release, NASA for the U.S. and NASDA for Japan have partnered in the design, construction and flight of an Earth Probe satellite to measure tropical rainfall and calculate the associated heating. Primary mission goals are 1) the understanding of crucial links in climate variability by the hydrological cycle, 2) improvement in the large-scale models of weather and climate 3) Improvement in understanding cloud ensembles and their impacts on larger scale circulations. The linkage with the tropical oceans and landmasses are also emphasized. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in November 1997 with fuel enough to obtain a four to five year data set of rainfall over the global tropics from 37'N to 37'S. This paper reports progress from launch date through the spring of 1999. The data system and its products and their access is described, as are the algorithms used to obtain the data. Some exciting early results from TRMM are described. Some important algorithm improvements are shown. These will be used in the first total data reprocessing, scheduled to be complete in early 2000. The reader is given information on how to access and use the data.

  10. Ground-based solar astrometric measurements during the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Corbard, T.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Assus, P.; Fodil, M.; Lin, M.; Ducourt, E.; Lesueur, P.; Poiet, G.; Renaud, C.; Rouze, M.

    2011-11-01

    PICARD is a space mission developed mainly to study the geometry of the Sun. The satellite was launched in June 2010. The PICARD mission has a ground program which is based at the Calern Observatory (Observatoire de la C^ote d'Azur). It will allow recording simultaneous solar images from ground. Astrometric observations of the Sun using ground-based telescopes need however an accurate modelling of optical e®ects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Previous works have revealed a dependence of the Sun radius measurements with the observation conditions (Fried's parameter, atmospheric correlation time(s) ...). The ground instruments consist mainly in SODISM II, replica of the PICARD space instrument and MISOLFA, a generalized daytime seeing monitor. They are complemented by standard sun-photometers and a pyranometer for estimating a global sky quality index. MISOLFA is founded on the observation of Angle-of-Arrival (AA) °uctuations and allows us to analyze atmospheric turbulence optical e®ects on measurements performed by SODISM II. It gives estimations of the coherence parameters characterizing wave-fronts degraded by the atmospheric turbulence (Fried's parameter, size of the isoplanatic patch, the spatial coherence outer scale and atmospheric correlation times). This paper presents an overview of the ground based instruments of PICARD and some results obtained from observations performed at Calern observatory in 2011.