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1

Temporal variability of soil gas composition in landfill covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the temporal variability of the conditions for the microbial oxidation of methane in landfill cover soils and their driving variables, gas composition at non-emissive and strongly emissive locations (hotspots) was monitored on a seasonal, daily and hourly time scale on an old, unlined landfill in northern Germany. Our study showed that the impact of the various

Julia Gebert; Ingke Rachor; Alexander Gröngröft; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

2

Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

1987-01-01

3

Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.  

PubMed

Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (?14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (?6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. PMID:24332193

Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

2014-05-01

4

Fines migration from soil daily covers in Hong Kong landfills.  

PubMed

Laboratory tests using 240 mm diameter columns were conducted to study fines migration in conditions that simulate daily soil covers in Hong Kong municipal solid waste landfills. Five factors suspected to affect fines migration were examined: moisture content at soil compaction, overburden pressure, pumping rate, cover thickness, and soil-waste interface condition. The results show that moisture content at compaction, cover thickness, and soil-waste interface are the most influential parameters on fines migration in completely decomposed granite daily covers. The measured equivalent sizes of migratory fines from the soil covers were in the range of 4-140 ?m. The majority of migratory fines migrated during first permeations, representing 64-86% of the total by mass. Larger particles tended to migrate from the soil mass during the saturation process. In a typical run, about 0.0018% of the total cover soil (by dry weight) was washed out during a typical 1h rainfall event. The results of the laboratory studies point to important engineering implications on the operation of local MSW landfills regarding the use of sandy daily covers. PMID:20359879

Ng, Kelvin T W; Lo, Irene M C

2010-11-01

5

[Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil].  

PubMed

Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96. PMID:25436252

Kallistova, A Iu; Montonen, L; Jurgens, G; Munster, U; Kevbrina, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

2014-01-01

6

[Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil].  

PubMed

Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96. PMID:25513020

2014-01-01

7

Temporal variability of soil gas composition in landfill covers.  

PubMed

In order to assess the temporal variability of the conditions for the microbial oxidation of methane in landfill cover soils and their driving variables, gas composition at non-emissive and strongly emissive locations (hotspots) was monitored on a seasonal, daily and hourly time scale on an old, unlined landfill in northern Germany. Our study showed that the impact of the various environmental factors varied with the mode of gas transport and with the time scale considered. At non-emissive sites, governed by diffusive gas transport, soil gas composition was subject to a pronounced seasonal variation. A high extent of aeration, low methane concentrations and a high ratio of CO(2) to CH(4) were found across the entire depth of the soil cover during the warm and dry period, whereas in the cool and moist period aeration was less and landfill gas migrated further upward. Statistically, variation in soil gas composition was best explained by the variation in soil temperature. At locations dominated by advective gas transport and showing considerable emissions of methane, this pattern was far less pronounced with only little increase in the extent of aeration during drier periods. Here, the change of barometric pressure was found to impact soil gas composition. On a daily scale under constant conditions of temperature, gas transport at both types of locations was strongly impacted by the change in soil moisture. On an hourly scale, under constant conditions of temperature and moisture, gas migration was impacted most by the change in barometric pressure. It was shown that at diffusion-dominated sites complete methane oxidation was achieved even under adverse wintry conditions, whereas at hotspots, even under favorable dry and warm conditions, aerobic biological activity can be limited to the upper crust of the soil. PMID:21074982

Gebert, Julia; Rachor, Ingke; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2011-05-01

8

Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils.  

PubMed

In order to understand the limits and dynamics of methane (CH(4)) oxidation in landfill cover soils, we investigated CH(4) oxidation in daily, intermediate, and final cover soils from two California landfills as a function of temperature, soil moisture and CO(2) concentration. The results indicate a significant difference between the observed soil CH(4) oxidation at field sampled conditions compared to optimum conditions achieved through pre-incubation (60 days) in the presence of CH(4) (50 ml l(-1)) and soil moisture optimization. This pre-incubation period normalized CH(4) oxidation rates to within the same order of magnitude (112-644 ?g CH(4) g(-1) day(-1)) for all the cover soils samples examined, as opposed to the four orders of magnitude variation in the soil CH(4) oxidation rates without this pre-incubation (0.9-277 ?g CH(4) g(-1) day(-1)). Using pre-incubated soils, a minimum soil moisture potential threshold for CH(4) oxidation activity was estimated at 1500 kPa, which is the soil wilting point. From the laboratory incubations, 50% of the oxidation capacity was inhibited at soil moisture potential drier than 700 kPa and optimum oxidation activity was typical observed at 50 kPa, which is just slightly drier than field capacity (33 kPa). At the extreme temperatures for CH(4) oxidation activity, this minimum moisture potential threshold decreased (300 kPa for temperatures <5°C and 50 kPa for temperatures >40°C), indicating the requirement for more easily available soil water. However, oxidation rates at these extreme temperatures were less than 10% of the rate observed at more optimum temperatures (? 30°C). For temperatures from 5 to 40°C, the rate of CH(4) oxidation was not limited by moisture potentials between 0 (saturated) and 50 kPa. The use of soil moisture potential normalizes soil variability (e.g. soil texture and organic matter content) with respect to the effect of soil moisture on methanotroph activity. The results of this study indicate that the wilting point is the lower moisture threshold for CH(4) oxidation activity and optimum moisture potential is close to field capacity. No inhibitory effects of elevated CO(2) soil gas concentrations were observed on CH(4) oxidation rates. However, significant differences were observed for diurnal temperature fluctuations compared to thermally equivalent daily isothermal incubations. PMID:20096554

Spokas, Kurt A; Bogner, Jean E

2011-05-01

9

Relevance of soil physical properties for the microbial oxidation of methane in landfill covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial oxidation of methane in landfill cover soils offers great potential to reduce methane emissions from landfills. High methane degradation rates can only be accomplished if the supply of atmospheric oxygen to the methanotrophic community is adequate. Thus, if environmental variables such as pH or nutrient status are not limiting, system performance is suggested to be governed by the

Julia Gebert; Alexander Groengroeft; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

10

Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Final Cover Soil: Measurements and Model Modification by Dry Bulk Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill sites have been emerging in greenhouse warming scenarios as a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Until recently, landfill management strategies have mainly addressed the problem of preventing groundwater contamination and reduction of leachate generation. Being one of the largest sources of anthropogenic CH4 emission, the final cover system should also be designed for minimizing the greenhouse gases migration into the atmosphere or the areas surrounding the landfill while securing the hydraulic performance. Compared to the intensive research efforts on hydraulic performances of landfill final cover soil, few studies about gas transport characteristics of landfill cover soils have been done. However, recent soil-gas studies implied that the effects of soil physical properties such as bulk density (i.e., compaction level), soil particle size are key parameters to understand landfill gaseous performance. The gas exchange through the final cover soils is controlled by advective and diffusive gas transport. Air permeability (ka) governs the advective gas transport while the soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) governs diffusive gas transport. In this study, the effects of compaction level and particle size fraction effects on ka and Dp for landfill final cover soil was investigated. The disturbed soil samples were taken from landfill final cover in Japan. A compaction tests were performed for the soil samples with two different size fractions (< 35 mm and < 2.0 mm). In the compaction tests at field water content , the soil samples were repacked into soil cores (i.d. 15-cm, length 12-cm, 2120 cm3) at two different compaction levels [(MP):2700 kN/m2 and (SP):600 kN/m2]. After the compaction tests, ka and Dp were measured and then samples were saturated and subsequently drained at different soil-water matric potential of 0.98, 2.94, 9.81, 1235 kPa and with air-dried and oven-dried conditions. Results showed that measured Dp and ka values for the coarser (< 35 mm) fraction became larger than finer (< 2 mm) for the given soil-air content. Further, compaction effort was much significant for ka than Dp for both fractions. We suggest this is because of compaction effects caused to create well-aligned macropore networks that are available for gas transport through the porous material. Then, the famous predictive models, the water induced linear reduction (WLR) model for Dp and the reference point law (RPL) model for ka were modified with reference point measurements (dry conditions) and model parameters and they correlated linearly to dry bulk density values for both fractions of landfill final cover soil.

Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Nagamori, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2011-12-01

11

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2011-05-01

12

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-09-30

13

N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p < 0.01), 3.56 ( p < 0.01), and 2.12 ( p < 0.01) from the soil samples preincubated with 5% CH 4 for three months when compared with the control, respectively. Among the three selected landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p < 0.001). N 2O fluxes were also elevated by the increase of the CH 4 emissions with landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 ?g N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p < 0.01) from sandy soil-covered landfill site, which was 72% ( p < 0.05) and 173% ( p < 0.01) lower than the other two clay soil covered landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

14

Quantifying methane oxidation in a landfill-cover soil by gas push-pull tests.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)) oxidation by aerobic methanotrophs in landfill-cover soils decreases emissions of landfill-produced CH(4) to the atmosphere. To quantify in situ rates of CH(4) oxidation we performed five gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) at each of two locations in the cover soil of the Lindenstock landfill (Liestal, Switzerland) over a 4 week period. GPPTs consist of the injection of a gas mixture containing CH(4), O(2) and noble gas tracers followed by extraction from the same location. Quantification of first-order rate constants was based upon comparison of breakthrough curves of CH(4) with either Ar or CH(4) itself from a subsequent inactive GPPT containing acetylene as an inhibitor of CH(4) oxidation. The maximum calculated first-order rate constant was 24.8+/-0.8 h(-1) at location 1 and 18.9+/-0.6 h(-1) at location 2. In general, location 2 had higher background CH(4) concentrations in vertical profile samples than location 1. High background CH(4) concentrations in the cover soil during some experiments adversely affected GPPT breakthrough curves and data interpretation. Real-time PCR verified the presence of a large population of methanotrophs at the two GPPT locations and comparison of stable carbon isotope fractionation of CH(4) in an active GPPT and a subsequent inactive GPPT confirmed that microbial activity was responsible for the CH(4) oxidation. The GPPT was shown to be a useful tool to reproducibly estimate in situ rates of CH(4) oxidation in a landfill-cover soil when background CH(4) concentrations were low. PMID:19525106

Gómez, K E; Gonzalez-Gil, G; Lazzaro, A; Schroth, M H

2009-09-01

15

Attenuation of methane and volatile organic compounds in landfill soil covers.  

PubMed

The potential for natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in landfill covers was investigated in soil microcosms incubated with methane and air, simulating the gas composition in landfill soil covers. Soil was sampled at Skellingsted Landfill at a location emitting methane. In total, 26 VOCs were investigated, including chlorinated methanes, ethanes, ethenes, fluorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. The soil showed a high capacity for methane oxidation resulting in very high oxidation rates of between 24 and 112 microg CH4 g(-1) h(-1). All lower chlorinated compounds were shown degradable, and the degradation occurred in parallel with the oxidation of methane. In general, the degradation rates of the chlorinated aliphatics were inversely related to the chlorine to carbon ratios. For example, in batch experiments with chlorinated ethylenes, the highest rates were observed for vinyl chloride (VC) and lowest rates for trichloroethylene (TCE), while tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was not degraded. Maximal oxidation rates for the halogenated aliphatic compounds varied between 0.03 and 1.7 microg g(-1) h(-1). Fully halogenated hydrocarbons (PCE, tetrachloromethane [TeCM], chlorofluorocarbon [CFC]-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were not degraded in the presence of methane and oxygen. Aromatic hydrocarbons were rapidly degraded giving high maximal oxidation rates (0.17-1.4 microg g(-1) h(-1)). The capacity for methane oxidation was related to the depth of oxygen penetration. The methane oxidizers were very active in oxidizing methane and the selected trace components down to a depth of 50 cm below the surface. Maximal oxidation activity occurred in a zone between 15 and 20 cm below the surface, as this depth allowed sufficient supply of both methane and oxygen. Mass balance calculations using the maximal oxidation rates obtained demonstrated that landfill soil covers have a significant potential for not only methane oxidation but also cometabolic degradation of selected volatile organics, thereby reducing emissions to the atmosphere. PMID:14964359

Scheutz, Charlotte; Mosbaek, Hans; Kjeldsen, Peter

2004-01-01

16

Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces. PMID:18842283

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

2008-11-01

17

Estimation of mass transport parameters of gases for quantifying CH4 oxidation in landfill soil covers.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)), which is one of the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is produced from landfills. CH(4) is biologically oxidized to carbon dioxide, which has a lower global warming potential than methane, when it passes through a cover soil. In order to quantify the amount of CH(4) oxidized in a landfill cover soil, a soil column test, a diffusion cell test, and a mathematical model analysis were carried out. In the column test, maximum oxidation rates of CH(4) (V(max)) showed higher values in the upper part of the column than those in the lower part caused by the penetration of O(2) from the top. The organic matter content in the upper area was also higher due to the active microbial growth. The dispersion analysis results for O(2) and CH(4) in the column are counter-intuitive. As the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of CH(4) slightly increased, possibly due to the effect of mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, as the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of O(2) decreased. It is possible that the diffusion of gases in porous media is influenced by the counter-directional flow rate. Further analysis of other gases in the column, N(2) and CO(2), may be required to support this hypothesis, but in this paper we propose the possibility that the simulations using the diffusion coefficient of O(2) under the natural condition may overestimate the penetration of O(2) into the soil cover layer and consequently overestimate the oxidation of CH(4). PMID:18804363

Im, J; Moon, S; Nam, K; Kim, Y-J; Kim, J Y

2009-02-01

18

An analytical model for estimating the reduction of methane emission through landfill cover soils by methane oxidation.  

PubMed

Landfill is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical model for predicting the reduction of CH4 emission in landfill cover soils by CH4 oxidation. The model combines an analytic solution of a coupled oxygen (O2) and CH4 soil gas transport in landfill covers with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation, including the influences of environmental factors such as cover soil thickness, CH4 oxidation and CH4 production rate. Comparison of soil gas concentration profiles with a soil column experiment is provided for a partial validation, and then this model is applied to predict the reduction of CH4 emission through landfill covers in several other cases. A discussion is provided to illustrate the roles of soil layer thickness, reaction rate constant for CH4 oxidation and CH4 production rate in determining CH4 emissions. The results suggest that the increase of cover soil thickness cannot always increase CH4 oxidation rates or removal efficiency, which becomes constant if the thickness of landfill cover soil is larger than a limit. PMID:25464331

Yao, Yijun; Su, Yao; Wu, Yun; Liu, Weiping; He, Ruo

2015-02-11

19

Methane oxidation activity and bacterial community composition in a simulated landfill cover soil is influenced by the growth of Chenopodium album L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen availability in landfill cover soil is a major limitation to the growth and activity of methanotrophs as methane oxidation is an aerobic microbial process. Plants tolerant to high concentrations of landfill gas (LFG) may play an important role in improving methane oxidation within landfill cover soil and reducing emission of methane, a greenhouse gas, from it. In this study,

Yunlong Wang; Weixiang Wu; Ying Ding; Wei Liu; Anton Perera; Yingxu Chen; Medha Devare

2008-01-01

20

Structure and function of methanotrophic communities in a landfill-cover soil.  

PubMed

In landfill-cover soils, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) convert CH(4) to CO(2), mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas CH(4) to the atmosphere. We investigated overall MOB community structure and assessed spatial differences in MOB diversity, abundance and activity in a Swiss landfill-cover soil. Molecular cloning, terminal restriction-fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR of pmoA genes were applied to soil collected from 16 locations at three different depths to study MOB community structure, diversity and abundance; MOB activity was measured in the field using gas push-pull tests. The MOB community was highly diverse but dominated by Type Ia MOB, with novel pmoA sequences present. Type II MOB were detected mainly in deeper soil with lower nutrient and higher CH(4) concentrations. Substantial differences in MOB community structure were observed between one high- and one low-activity location. MOB abundance was highly variable across the site [4.0 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(7) (g soil dry weight)(-1)]. Potential CH(4) oxidation rates were high [1.8-58.2 mmol CH(4) (L soil air)(-1) day(-1) ] but showed significant lateral variation and were positively correlated with mean CH(4) concentrations (P < 0.01), MOB abundance (P < 0.05) and MOB diversity (weak correlation, P < 0.17). Our findings indicate that Methylosarcina and closely related MOB are key players and that MOB abundance and community structure are driving factors in CH(4) oxidation at this landfill. PMID:22172054

Henneberger, Ruth; Lüke, Claudia; Mosberger, Lona; Schroth, Martin H

2012-07-01

21

Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system.  

PubMed

A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill. PMID:17964132

Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung

2008-01-01

22

Spatial Variability of Soil Properties and Their Effect on Methane Generation, Oxidation, and Emission from Soils Covering Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils covering landfills mitigate gas emissions from degrading refuse, particularly emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To enhance the oxidative capacity of these soils, materials with high organic matter are proposed for landfill covers, e.g., compost and aged greenwaste. We report field tests of these materials in pilot-scale test cells. While moisture conditions and gas transport were initially uniform, after one year significant spatial variability of gas flow developed that was associated with spatially variable dry bulk density and volumetric water content. For a test cell with organic matter content of 38%, a single-domain porous medium model was adequate for describing water retention and continuum modeling was capable of describing spatially variable gas flow and methane oxidation. A second test cell with organic matter of 61% was best described as a dual-domain porous medium, and continuum modeling was inadequate for describing spatially variable gas flow. Here, the dual-domain medium resulted in significant subgrid scale variability in moisture conditions that affected gas transport and methane oxidation. The results from these field tests suggest that proposed one-dimensional models of gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils may be inadequate for soils composed of high organic matter that require dual-domain models for water retention.

Imhoff, P. T.; Mei, C.; Yazdani, R.; Han, B.; Mostafid, M.

2013-12-01

23

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

24

Effect of substrate interaction on oxidation of methane and benzene in enriched microbial consortia from landfill cover soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of methane and benzene during oxidation in enriched methane-oxidizing consortium (MOC) and in benzene-oxidizing consortium (BOC) from landfill cover soil was characterized. Oxidation of both methane and benzene occurred in the MOC due to the coexistence of bacteria responsible for benzene oxidation, as well as methanotrophs, whereas in the BOC, only benzene was oxidized, not methane. Methane oxidation

Eun-Hee Lee; Hyunjung Park; Kyung-Suk Cho

2011-01-01

25

Capacity for biodegradation of CFCs and HCFCs in a methane oxidative counter-gradient laboratory system simulating landfill soil covers.  

PubMed

The attenuation of methane and four chlorofluorocarbons was investigated in a dynamic methane and oxygen counter-gradient system simulating a landfill soil cover. Soil was sampled at Skellingsted Landfill, Denmark. The soil columns showed a high capacity of methane oxidation with oxidation rates of 210 g m(-2) d(-1) corresponding to a removal efficiency of 81%. CFC-11 and to a lesser extent also CFC-12 were degraded in the active soil columns. The average removal efficiency was 90% and 30% for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively. Soil gas concentration profiles indicated that the removal was due to anaerobic degradation, which was verified in anaerobic batch experiments where CFC-11 was rapidly degraded. HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 were also degraded in active soil columns (61% and 41%, respectively), but compared to the CFCs, the degradation was located in the upper oxic part of the column with overlapping gradients of methane and oxygen. High oxidation rates of methane and HCFCs were obtained in soil microcosms incubated with methane. When increasing the column inlet flow, the oxidation zone was moved upward in the column, and the removal efficiency of methane and HCFCs decreased. The removal of CFCs was, however, less affected since the anaerobic zone expanded with increasing inlet flow rates. This study demonstrates the complexity of landfill soil cover systems and shows that both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria may play a very important role in reducing the emission of not only methane but also trace components into the atmosphere. PMID:14655700

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

2003-11-15

26

CH4/CO2 ratios indicate highly efficient methane oxidation by a pumice landfill cover-soil.  

PubMed

Landfills that generate too little biogas for economic energy recovery can potentially offset methane (CH(4)) emissions through biological oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria in cover soils. This study reports on the CH(4) oxidation efficiency of a 10-year old landfill cap comprising a volcanic pumice soil. Surface CH(4) and CO(2) fluxes were measured using field chambers during three sampling intervals over winter and summer. Methane fluxes were temporally and spatially variable (-0.36 to 3044 mgCH(4)m(-2)h(-1)); but were at least 15 times lower than typical literature CH(4) fluxes reported for older landfills in 45 of the 46 chambers tested. Exposure of soil from this landfill cover to variable CH(4) fluxes in laboratory microcosms revealed a very strong correlation between CH(4) oxidation efficiency and CH(4)/CO(2) ratios, confirming the utility of this relationship for approximating CH(4) oxidation efficiency. CH(4)/CO(2) ratios were applied to gas concentrations from the surface flux chambers and indicated a mean CH(4) oxidation efficiency of 72%. To examine CH(4) oxidation with soil depth, we collected 10 soil depth profiles at random locations across the landfill. Seven profiles exhibited CH(4) removal rates of 70-100% at depths <60 cm, supporting the high oxidation rates observed in the chambers. Based on a conservative 70% CH(4) oxidation efficiency occurring at the site, this cover soil is clearly offsetting far greater CH(4) quantities than the 10% default value currently adopted by the IPCC. PMID:23186636

Pratt, Chris; Walcroft, Adrian S; Deslippe, Julie; Tate, Kevin R

2013-02-01

27

Atmospheric emissions and attenuation of non-methane organic compounds in cover soils at a French landfill.  

PubMed

In addition to methane (CH(4)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)), landfill gas may contain more than 200 non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) including C(2+)-alkanes, aromatics, and halogenated hydrocarbons. Although the trace components make up less than 1% v/v of typical landfill gas, they may exert a disproportionate environmental burden. The objective of this work was to study the dynamics of CH(4) and NMOCs in the landfill cover soils overlying two types of gas collection systems: a conventional gas collection system with vertical wells and an innovative horizontal gas collection layer consisting of permeable gravel with a geomembrane above it. The 47 NMOCs quantified in the landfill gas samples included primarily alkanes (C(2)-C(10)), alkenes (C(2)-C(4)), halogenated hydrocarbons (including (hydro)chlorofluorocarbons ((H)CFCs)), and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs). In general, both CH(4) and NMOC fluxes were all very small with positive and negative fluxes. The highest percentages of positive fluxes in this study (considering all quantified species) were observed at the hotspots, located mainly along cell perimeters of the conventional cell. The capacity of the cover soil for NMOC oxidation was investigated in microcosms incubated with CH(4) and oxygen (O(2)). The cover soil showed a relatively high capacity for CH(4) oxidation and simultaneous co-oxidation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds, especially at the conventional cell. Fully substituted carbons (TeCM, PCE, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, HFC-134a, and HCFC-141b) were not degraded in the presence of CH(4) and O(2). Benzene and toluene were also degraded with relative high rates. This study demonstrates that landfill soil covers show a significant potential for CH(4) oxidation and co-oxidation of NMOCs. PMID:18032020

Scheutz, C; Bogner, J; Chanton, J P; Blake, D; Morcet, M; Aran, C; Kjeldsen, P

2008-01-01

28

Selenium in tissues of rats fed rutabagas grown on soil covering a coal fly ash landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 80 million tons of fly ash are produced by coalburning power plants in the United States each year. Most is disposed in landfills which are capped with a layer of soil from about 0.5 toi meter thick. There has been concern that crops planted or voluntarily growing over such areas may absorb toxic elements which could be ingested by

Gilbert S. Stoewsand; Judy L. Anderson; Leonard H. Weinstein; Joseph F. Osmeloski; Walter H. Gutenmann; Donald J. Lisk

1990-01-01

29

Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates.  

PubMed

Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200 g m(-2) d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions. PMID:25475118

Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar

2015-02-01

30

Comparative oxidation and net emissions of methane and selected non-methane organic compounds in landfill cover soils.  

PubMed

The surface emissions of methane (CH4) and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) were determined at two different areas at a French landfill: a permanently covered and fully vegetated area (40 cm coarse sand + 80 cm of loam) and a temporarily covered area (40 cm of coarse sand). The 37 NMOCs quantified in the landfill gas samples included alkanes (C1-C10), alkenes (C1-C4), halogenated hydrocarbons (including (H)CFCs), and aromatic hydrocarbons. Both positive and negative CH4 fluxes ranging from -0.01 to 0.008 g m(-2) d(-1) were measured from the permanently covered cell. However, high spatial variation was observed, and a hot spot with a high flux (10 g m(-2) d(-1)) was identified. A higher CH4 emission occurred from the temporarily covered cell (CH4 flux of 49.9 g m(-2) d(-1)) as compared to the permanently covered cell. The NMOC fluxes from the permanently covered zone were all very small with both positive and negative fluxes in the order of 10(-7) to 10(-5) g m(-2) d(-1). Higher and mainly positive NMOC fluxes in the order of 10(-5) to 10(-4) g m(-2) d(-1) were obtained from the temporarily covered zone. The lower emission from the permanently covered and fully vegetated cell was attributable to the thicker soil layer, which functions as microbial habitat for methanotrophic bacteria. The NMOC oxidation capacity was investigated in soil microcosms incubated with CH4. Maximal oxidation rates for the halogenated aliphatic compounds varied between 0.06 and 8.56 microg (g of soil)(-1) d(-1). Fully substituted hydrocarbons (tetrachloromethane, perchloroethylene, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were not degraded in the presence of CH4 and O2. Benzene and toluene were rapidly degraded, giving very high maximal oxidation rates (28 and 39 microg (g of soil)(-1) d(-1)). On the basis of the emission measurements and the batch experiments conducted, a general pattern was observed between emissions and biodegradability of various NMOCs. The emissions mainly consisted of compounds that were not degradable or slowly degradable, while an uptake of easily degradable compounds was registered. As an example, perchloroethylene, trichloromethane, CFC-11, and CFC-12 were emitted, while atmospheric consumption of aromatic hydrocarbons and lower chlorinated hydrocarbons such as vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, and chloromethane was observed. This study demonstrates that landfill soil covers show a significant potential for CH4 oxidation and co-oxidation of NMOCs. Under certain conditions, landfills may even function as sinks for CH4 and selected NMOCs, like aromatic hydrocarbons and lower chlorinated compounds. PMID:14655701

Schuetz, Charlotte; Bogner, Jean; Chanton, Jeffrey; Blake, Donald; Morcet, Muriel; Kjeldsen, Peter

2003-11-15

31

Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates calculated for different locations ranged from 0.2 to 52.8 mmol CH4 (L soil air)-1 d-1. PLFA analyses showed high levels of 13C incorporation into different 14C and 16C fatty acids (FA), typically found in Type I MOB, and 18C FAs, typical for Type II MOB. The amount of 13C incorporated into biomass clearly increased with increasing activity, and ?13C values of >1500 ‰ were observed for selected FAs at high-activity locations. In addition, the range of labeled FAs also changed with activity, and no Type II MOB specific FAs were labeled at the low-activity location. The novel SIP-GPPT approach was shown to be a valuable field-scale method to detect and identify active MOB over a wide range of activities.

Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.

2012-12-01

32

The effects of daily cover soils on shear strength of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills are operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. The major aspect of bioreactor landfill operation is the recirculation of collected leachate back through the refuse mass. Due to the accelerated decomposition and settlement of solid waste, bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity as an alternative to the conventional landfill. The addition or recirculation of leachate to

Mohamed A. Haque

2009-01-01

33

Methane oxidation in a neutral landfill cover soil: Influence of moisture content, temperature, and nitrogen-turnover  

SciTech Connect

Well-managed, aerated cover soils can have a mitigating effect on methane emission from landfills. The influence of moisture content, soil temperature, and N on the methane uptake capacity of a neutral landfill cover soil was examined. A soil moisture content of 15% w/w gave the maximum CH{sub 4} oxidation rate (2.36 ng CH{sub 4}{sup -1}g{sup -1} soil). When wetter, CH{sub 4} consumption was slower (e.g., 1.6 ng CH{sub 4} h{sup -1} g {sup -1} at 30% w/w) because of a limited gas diffusion. At lower soil moisture, microbial activity was reduced and consequently the oxidation capacity decreased (e.g., 0.84 ng CH{sub 4} {sup -1} g{sup -1} at 5% w/w). Optimum temperature was between 25 and 30{degrees}C. The calculated activation energy of the CH{sub 4} oxidation was 56.5 kj K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. After NH4{sub 4}{sup +} addition, a negative linear correlation was found between the methane oxidation rate and the nitrous oxide flux (R{sup 2} = 0.96 Y1 = 2.7 - 0.44 x Y2). Addition of NO{sub 3}{sup -} had no significant effect on CH{sub 4} oxidation. The effect of organic residue amendments depended on their C/N ratios. Crop residues with a high C/N ratio (wheat [Triticum sativum L.] and maize [Zea mays L.] straw) stimulated N-immobilization and did not affect the methane-oxidizing capacity. On the other hand, addition of crop residues with low C/N ratios (potato [Solanum tuberosum L.] and sugar beet [Beta vulgaris cv. Altissima] leaves) stimulated N-mineralization, resulting in a strong inhibition of the methane oxidation. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

1996-01-01

34

Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

Dwyer, S.F.

1998-12-23

35

TDR calibration for the alternative landfill cover demonstration (ALCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration is a large scale field test that compares the performance of various landfill cover designs in dry environments. An important component of the comparison is the change in the moisture content of the soils throughout the different cover test plots. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is the primary method for the measurement of the volumetric moisture

Jesus Lopez; Stephen F. Dwyer; James N. Swanson

1997-01-01

36

Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil.  

PubMed

Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, ?(b), and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D(p)/D(o), ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k(a)) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting ?(b) values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm(-3). Results showed that D(p) and k(a) values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content (?), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D(p) and k(a) was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D(p)/D(f), the ratio of measured D(p) to D(p) in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k(a)/k(a)(,pF4.1), the ratio of measured k(a) to k(a) at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content (?) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D(p)(?/f) and k(a)(?/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D(p) and P for k(a)). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to ?(b) values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D(p) and k(a) for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models. PMID:21813272

Wickramarachchi, Praneeth; Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nagamori, Masanao; Moldrup, Per; Komatsu, Toshiko

2011-12-01

37

Reduction of Methane Emission from Landfill through Microbial Activities in Cover Soil: A Brief Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientifically designed landfill and\\/or open dumpsites are used for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many developed and developing countries. These two systems pose two environmental challenges viz., generation of landfill leachate and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Since the GHG emission has been considered to be a global threat, various options have been tried to mitigate the emission

Chart Chiemchaisri; Wilai Chiemchaisri; Sunil Kumar; Praneeth Nishadi Wicramarachchi

2011-01-01

38

Field-scale tracking of active methane-oxidizing communities in a landfill cover soil reveals spatial and seasonal variability.  

PubMed

Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils mitigate methane (CH4 ) emissions. We assessed spatial and seasonal differences in active MOB communities in a landfill cover soil characterized by highly variable environmental conditions. Field-based measurements of CH4 oxidation activity and stable-isotope probing of polar lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA-SIP) were complemented by microarray analysis of pmoA genes and transcripts, linking diversity and function at the field scale. In situ?CH4 oxidation rates varied between sites and were generally one order of magnitude lower in winter compared with summer. Results from PLFA-SIP and pmoA transcripts were largely congruent, revealing distinct spatial and seasonal clustering. Overall, active MOB communities were highly diverse. Type Ia MOB, specifically Methylomonas and Methylobacter, were key drivers for CH4 oxidation, particularly at a high-activity site. Type II MOB were mainly active at a site showing substantial fluctuations in CH4 loading and soil moisture content. Notably, Upland Soil Cluster-gamma-related pmoA transcripts were also detected, indicating concurrent oxidation of atmospheric CH4 . Spatial separation was less distinct in winter, with Methylobacter and uncultured MOB mediating CH4 oxidation. We propose that high diversity of active MOB communities in this soil is promoted by high variability in environmental conditions, facilitating substantial removal of CH4 generated in the waste body. PMID:25186436

Henneberger, Ruth; Chiri, Eleonora; Bodelier, Paul E L; Frenzel, Peter; Lüke, Claudia; Schroth, Martin H

2014-09-01

39

Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

2011-12-15

40

Long-term distribution, mobility and plant availability of compost-derived heavy metals in a landfill covering soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines and landfill sites among others. The long-term distribution, mobility and phytoavailability of heavy metals in such anthropogenic soils were studied

D. Businelli; L. Massaccesi; D. Said-Pullicino; G. Gigliotti

2009-01-01

41

Influence of Physical Parameters on Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soils  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................... 13 #12;3 1. Introduction 1.1 Relevant Gases for Global Warming The impacts of global warming an important contribution to the anthropogenic induced global warming, and it has been estimated that landfills and con- tribute to the mitigation of global warming. #12;2 Index Abstract

Fischlin, Andreas

42

Filth flies associated with municipal solid waste and impact of delay in cover soil application on adult filth fly emergence in a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule. PMID:23302698

Nurita, A T; Hassan, A Abu

2013-06-01

43

Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

44

Mitigating CH? emissions in semi-aerobic landfills: impacts of operating conditions on abundance and community structure of methanotrophs in cover soils.  

PubMed

Methanotrophs are the most important sink of CH?, which is a more highly potent greenhouse gas than CO?. Methanotrophic abundance and community diversity in cover soils from two typical semi-aerobic landfills (SALs) in China were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time-PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) based on 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Real time-PCR showed that Type I methanotrophs ranged from 1.07 × 10? to 2.34 × 10? copies/g soil and that of Type II methanotrophs from 1.51 × 10? to 1.83 × 10? copies/g soil. The ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers ranged from 5.61 to 21.89, indicating that Type II methanotrophs dominated in SAL. DGGE revealed that Type I methanotrophs responded more sensitively to the environment, changing as the community structure varied with different soil types and locations. Methylobacter, Methylosarcina, and Methylomicrobium for Type I, and Methylocystis for Type II were most prevalent in the SAL cover layer. Abundant interflow O? with high CH? concentration in SALs is the reason for the higher population density of methanotrophs and the higher enrichment of Type II methanotrophs compared with anaerobic landfills and other ecosystems, which proved a conclusion that increasing the oxygen supply in a landfill cover layer would greatly improve CH? mitigation. PMID:23711522

Li, Huai; Chi, Zi-Fang; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao

2013-01-01

45

Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

46

Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy  

E-print Network

, drainage, hydraulic conductivity, landfill, recycling, tires #12;3 Introduction Over 280 million used1 Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy of shredded scrap tire drainage layers in landfill covers. Laboratory clogging tests were conducted using soil

47

16S rRNA based T-RFLP analysis of methane oxidising bacteria—Assessment, critical evaluation of methodology performance and application for landfill site cover soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophic bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment and play an important role in global climate warming by lowering methane emission into the atmosphere. Globally, landfill sites produce about 10% of the methane entering the atmosphere, and soils above landfill sites have been shown to contain methanotrophic populations with the highest methane oxidation capacity measured.Landfill site simulating lysimeters were

Nancy Stralis-Pavese; Levente Bodrossy; Thomas G. Reichenauer; Alexandra Weilharter; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

48

TDR calibration for the alternative landfill cover demonstration (ALCD)  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration is a large scale field test that compares the performance of various landfill cover designs in dry environments. An important component of the comparison is the change in the moisture content of the soils throughout the different cover test plots. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is the primary method for the measurement of the volumetric moisture content. Each of the covers is composed of layers of varying types and densities of soils. The probes are therefore calibrated to calculate the volumetric moisture content in each of the different soils in order to gain the optimum performance of the TDR system. The demonstration plots are constructed in two phases; a different probe is used in each phase. The probe that is used in Phase 1 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, compacted native soil mixed with 6% sodium bentonite by weight, and sand. The probe that is used in Phase 2 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, and sand. In addition, the probes are calibrated for the varying cable lengths of the TDR probes. The resulting empirically derived equations allow for the calculation of in-situ volumetric moisture content of all of the varying soils throughout the cover test plots in the demonstration.

Lopez, J.; Dwyer, S.F.; Swanson, J.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

1997-09-01

49

Modeling of H2S migration through landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The emission of H2S from landfills in the United States is an emergent problem because measured concentrations within the waste mass and in ambient air have been observed at potentially unsafe levels for on-site workers and at levels that can cause a nuisance and potentially deleterious health impacts to surrounding communities. Though recent research has provided data on H2S concentrations that may be observed at landfills, facility operators and landfill engineers have limited predictive tools to anticipate and plan for potentially harmful H2S emissions. A one-dimensional gas migration model was developed to assist engineers and practitioners better evaluate and predict potential emission levels of H2S based on four factors: concentration of H2S below the landfill surface (C0), advection velocity (v), H2S effective diffusion coefficient (D), and H2S adsorption coefficient of landfill cover soil (?). Model simulations indicated that H2S migration into the atmosphere can be mitigated by reducing H2S diffusion and advection or using alternative cover soils with a high H2S adsorption coefficient. Laboratory column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the four parameters on H2S migration in cover soils and to calculate the adsorption coefficient of different cover materials. The model was validated by comparing results with laboratory column experiments. Based on the results, the laboratory column provides an effective way to estimate the H2S adsorption coefficient, which can then be incorporated into the developed model to predict the depth of cover soil required to reduce emitted H2S concentrations below a desired level. PMID:24316799

Xu, Qiyong; Powell, Jon; Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy

2014-01-15

50

Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.  

PubMed

Methane (CH?) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH? generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH? and carbon dioxide (CO?) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH? oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH? and CO? emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH? emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH? emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(?2) day(?1), respectively. The total CH? emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(?1). The mean of the CH? oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(?1). Special consideration must be given to the CH? oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH? emission reduction. PMID:23797636

Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

2013-12-01

51

Biotic landfill cover treatments for mitigating methane emissions.  

PubMed

Landfill methane (CH4) emissions have been cited as one of the anthropogenic gas releases that can and should be controlled to reduce global climate change. This article reviews recent research that identifies ways to enhance microbial consumption of the gas in the aerobic portion of a landfill cover. Use of these methods can augment CH4 emission reductions achieved by gas collection or provide a sole means to consume CH4 at small landfills that do not have active gas collection systems. Field studies indicate that high levels of CH4 removal can be achieved by optimizing natural soil microbial processes. Further, during biotic conversion, not all of the CH4 carbon is converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and released to the atmosphere; some of it will be sequestered in microbial biomass. Because biotic covers can employ residuals from other municipal processes, financial benefits can also accrue from avoided costs for residuals disposal. PMID:12733810

Hilgeri, Helene; Humer, Marion

2003-05-01

52

Degradation of landfill gas constituents in soil  

SciTech Connect

Landfill gas (LFG) contains high concentrations of methane which contributes to the greenhouse effect. LFG also contains aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatics which by emission to ambient air can be a local health threat. In addition, chlorinated aliphatics may also influence the earths ozone layer. The objectives of the study were to investigate the degradation of landfill gas constituents in LFG affected soils, and to evaluate the importance of the degradation processes to the emission. High methane oxidation potentials were found in laboratory experiments at 25{degrees}C. The degradation seemed to follow a zero order reaction kinetics, and was 3-4 times slower at 10{degrees}C as compared to 25{degrees}C. Also high degradation rates for benzene and toluene were observed. In soils sampled away from the landfill where almost no LFG contamination had been observed, longer lag phases and lower degradation rates of the two aromatic hydrocarbons were observed. Slow cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) was observed when methane was present in the batch experiments. The rates were much lower than the rates for the aromatic hydrocarbons. In the field at Skellingsted Landfill, Denmark high methane emissions were observed in an area just outside the landfill area, probably as a result of the clay landfill covering, which has led to significant lateral migration of LFG. Indications of active methane oxidation in the field were observed by measuring soil gas profiles. By comparison of the results obtained in the laboratory with the field results it is shown, that degradation processes may have a significant effect on the emission of all the compounds studied. However the subject needs much more attention.

Kjeldsen, P.; Dalager, A.; Broholm, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-11-01

53

GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS) IN LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Low permeability, compacted clay linters are commonly required as a barrier to water infiltration in landfill covers. elatively new material, known as geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), has been proposed as an alternative to a compacted clay liner. CL has the practical advantages of ...

54

METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

55

EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL COVER DESIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) Model was used to evaluate the hydrologic behavior of a series of one-, two-, and three-layer cover designs for municipal solid waste landfill cover designs were chosen to isolate the effects of features such as surface veg...

56

Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill  

E-print Network

Industries, Inc. OII Landfill, now a Superfund site. The analyses documented herein led to the first ET coverAnalysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill Jorge G. Zornberg, M.ASCE1 ; Lester LaFountain2 ; and Jack A. Caldwell, M.ASCE3 Abstract: A site-specific unsaturated flow

Zornberg, Jorge G.

57

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

58

SETTLEMENT AND COVER SUBSIDENCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerical models using equations for linearly elastic deformation were developed to predict the maximum expected amount of settlement and cover subsidence and potential cracking of the cover by differential settlement in uniformly, horizontally layered hazardous waste landfills. ...

59

Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.  

PubMed

Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. PMID:21354776

Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

2011-05-01

60

Influence of landfill factors on plants and soil fauna—An ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological study was conducted on two landfill sites in Hong Kong. Both sites were contaminated by landfill gas and leachate, as indicated by the high concentrations of CH4 and CO2 and the presence of high concentration of NH4-N in the cover soil layer. Their plant diversity and performance, as well as the soil and litter animals, were compared with

Y. S. G. Chan; L. M. Chu; M. H. Wong

1997-01-01

61

On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

62

Evaluation of simultaneous biodegradation of methane and toluene in landfill covers.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of CH4 and toluene in landfill cover soil (LCS) and waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated with a serial toluene concentration in the headspace of landfill cover microcosms in this study. Compared with the LCS sample, the higher CH4 oxidation activity and toluene-degrading capacity occurred in the WBS sample. The co-existence of toluene in landfill gas would positively or negatively affect CH4 oxidation, mainly depending on the toluene concentrations and exposure time. The nearly complete inhibition of toluene on CH4 oxidation was observed in the WBS sample at the toluene concentration of ? 80,000 mg m(-3), which was about 10 times higher than that in the LCS sample. The toluene degradation rates in both landfill covers fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten model. These findings showed that WBS was a good alternative landfill cover material to simultaneously mitigate emissions of CH4 and toluene from landfills to the atmosphere. PMID:24801894

Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Li, Wei; He, Ruo

2014-06-15

63

75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for...approve an alternative final cover for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake County, Montana on the Confederated...

2010-02-10

64

Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany).  

PubMed

A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design. PMID:20937619

Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas

2011-01-01

65

Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-03-01

66

Hydrologic studies of multilayered landfill covers for closure of waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing engineered barriers. These field experiments were performed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15 and 25%. Field measurements of seepage, precipitation, interflow, runoff, and soil water content were collected in each of the 16 plots representing four slopes each with four cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier. A seepage collection system was installed beneath each cover design to evaluate the influence of slope length on seepage using a series of four metal pans filled with medium gravel that were placed end-to-end in the bottom of each field plot. An automated waterflow datalogging system was used to collect hourly seepage, interflow and runoff data and consisted of 100 100-liter tanks, each of which was equipped with an ultrasonic liquid-level sensor and a motor-operated ball valve used to drain the tank. Soil water content was routinely monitored every six hours at each of 212 locations throughout the 16 plots with time domain reflectrometry (TDR) techniques using an automated and multiplexed measurement system.

Nyhan, J.W.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martin, C.E.; Martinez, J.L.; Schofield, T.G.

1993-06-01

67

Analysis of Vegetative on Six Different Landfill Cover Profiles in an Arid Environment.  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs was constructed and monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle 'D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle 'C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for arid environments. The demonstration was intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. A portion of this project involves the characterization of vegetation establishment and growth on the landfill covers. The various prototype landfill covers were expected to have varying flux rates (Dwyer et al 2000). The landfill covers were further expected to influence vegetation establishment and growth, which may impact site erosion potential and long-term site integrity. Objectives of this phase were to quantify the types of plants occupying each site, the percentage of ground covered by these plants, the density (number of plants per unit area) of plants, and the plant biomass production. The results of this vegetation analysis are presented in this report.3 DRAFT07/06/14AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all technical and support staff from Sandia and the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Station not included in the authors' list of this document for their valuable contributions to this research. We would also like to acknowledge the Department of Energy's Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area for funding this work.4

Dwyer, Stephen F.; McClellan, Yvonne; Reavis, Bruce A.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Newman, Gretchen; Wolters, Gale

2005-05-01

68

Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

69

Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

Dwyer, S.F.

1998-09-01

70

11. GEOELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COVERED LANDFILL SITES: A PROCESS-ORIENTED MODEL AND  

E-print Network

11. GEOELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COVERED LANDFILL SITES: A PROCESS-ORIENTED MODEL AND INVESTIGATIVE APPROACH Maxwell Meju 11.1. Introduction Landfill sites commonly use the space available old covered landfill sites. Even in controlled sites, the final form and depth extent of the landfill

Meju, Max

71

Field performance of alternative landfill covers vegetated with cottonwood and eucalyptus trees.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid Waste management facility in Tallahassee, Florida. Additional unlined test sections were also constructed and monitored in order to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, and tree growth inside lysimeters and in unlined test sections. The unlined test sections were in direct contact with landfill gas. Surface runoff on the ET covers was a small proportion of the water balance (1% of precipitation) as compared to 13% in the conventional cover. Percolation in the ET covers averaged 17% and 24% of precipitation as compared to 33% in the conventional cover. On average, soil water storage was higher in the lined lysimeters (429 mm) compared to unlined test sections (408 mm). The average soil temperature in the lysimeters was lower than in the unlined test sections. The average tree height inside the lysimeters was not significantly lower (8.04 mfor eucalyptus and 7.11 mfor cottonwood) than outside (8.82 m for eucalyptus and 8.01 m for cottonwood). ET tree covers vegetated with cottonwood or eucalyptus are feasible for North Florida climate as an alternative to GCL covers. PMID:22574380

Abichou, Tarek; Musagasa, Jubily; Yuan, Lei; Chanton, Jeff; Tawfiq, Kamal; Rockwood, Donald; Licht, Louis

2012-01-01

72

MONITORING LANDFILL COVER BY ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY1 TOMOGRAPHY ON AN EXPERIMENTAL SITE2  

E-print Network

1 MONITORING LANDFILL COVER BY ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY1 TOMOGRAPHY ON AN EXPERIMENTAL SITE2 3 4 Abstract15 In France, the monitoring of landfill cover after closure of the site is a local problem, since36 Landfills (MSW). These sites consist of several cells which are covered once they are full of37

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

LANDFILL LEACHATE CLOGGING OF GEOTEXTILE (AND SOIL) FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary leachate collection system of most solid waste landfills contains a filter layer which has historically been a granular soil. ecently, however, various types of geotextile filters have been used to replace the natural soil filters. roject using six different landfill ...

74

75 FR 50930 - Final Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill AGENCY: Environmental...approve an alternative final cover for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake County, Montana on the Confederated...

2010-08-18

75

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF COVERS FOR SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidelines in selection, design, and construction of cover for management of municipal, industrial, and hazardous solid wastes (with the exception of radioactive waste). Natural soils as cover are the principal subject; however, synthetic membranes, chemicals,...

76

Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover.  

PubMed

Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa+grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa+grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content. PMID:20888746

Reichenauer, Thomas G; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H

2011-05-01

77

Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system  

E-print Network

site consists of about 113 300 m2 2with a closed landfill area of about 89300 m The landfill siteGeosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system T. D. Stark) publishcd values of interface strength/friction angle should not be used for final design, instead site

78

Impact of using high-density polyethylene geomembrane layer as landfill intermediate cover on landfill gas extraction.  

PubMed

Clay is widely used as a traditional cover material for landfills. As clay becomes increasingly costly and scarce, and it also reduces the storage capacity of landfills, alternative materials with low hydraulic conductivity are employed. In developing countries such as China, landfill gas (LFG) is usually extracted for utilization during filling stage, therefore, the intermediate covering system is an important part in a landfill. In this study, a field test of LFG extraction was implemented under the condition of using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane layer as the only intermediate cover on the landfill. Results showed that after welding the HDPE geomembranes together to form a whole airtight layer upon a larger area of landfill, the gas flow in the general pipe increased 25% comparing with the design that the HDPE geomembranes were not welded together, which means that the gas extraction ability improved. However as the heat isolation capacity of the HDPE geomembrane layer is low, the gas generation ability of a shallow landfill is likely to be weakened in cold weather. Although using HDPE geomembrane layer as intermediate cover is acceptable in practice, the management and maintenance of it needs to be investigated in order to guarantee its effective operation for a long term. PMID:21232931

Chen, Zezhi; Gong, Huijuan; Zhang, Mengqun; Wu, Weili; Liu, Yu; Feng, Jin

2011-05-01

79

Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.  

PubMed

In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices. PMID:22574381

Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

2012-01-01

80

Successive development of soil ecosystems at abandoned coal-ash landfills.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present study was to determine the effect of the native vegetation on the successive development of the soil ecosystem at abandoned coal-ash landfills of the Angren coal-fired power plant in Uzbekistan. Two different landfills (one not in use for 3 years, termed newer, and the other not in use for 10 years, termed older) with different degrees of vegetation cover were chosen to assess the time and vegetation effects on soil biota and habitat development. The soil biotic structure, including soil microorganisms and soil free-living nematode communities, was investigated both at open plots and under different native plants at the coal-ash landfill area. The observed soil microorganisms were found to be the most important component of the observed ecosystems. Total abundance, biomass, species, trophic and sexual diversity of soil free-living nematodes, along with fungi and organic-matter content, were found to be correlated with trace metals. The nematode trophic and species abundance and diversity increased from the newer toward the older coal-ash landfills. The sex ratio of the nematode communities was found to be dependent on the environmental conditions of the study area, with the males being the most sensitive nematode group. All applied ecological indices confirmed that open landfill plots distant from plants are the most unfavorable areas for soil biota. In that respect, the native plants Alhagi maurorum Desv. and Tamarix sp. were found to be important environmental components for the natural remediation of a soil ecosystem in the coal-ash landfill area. PMID:24676936

Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Yu, Jun; Rakhmonkulova, Shakhnoza; Kodirov, Obidjon; Barness, Gineta; Kersten, Michael; Steinberger, Yosef

2014-07-01

81

Keep your soil covered  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn residue is being considered as a possible feedstock for biofuels production. The long-term impacts on soil health of removing this residue are not well understood. Plant material is one of the soil’s main sources of organic materials. Organic matter is a very important component of soil. It su...

82

Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

2012-12-15

83

Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction  

SciTech Connect

Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

Diener, S., E-mail: Silvia.Diener@ltu.s [Division of Waste Science and Technology, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Andreas, L.; Herrmann, I. [Division of Waste Science and Technology, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Ecke, H. [Civil and Materials Engineering, Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Alvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerkvist, A. [Division of Waste Science and Technology, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

2010-01-15

84

Observations on the methane oxidation capacity of landfill soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field data and two independent models indicate that landfill cover methane (CH4) oxidation should not be considered as a constant 10% or any other single value. Percent oxidation is a decreasing exponential function of the total methane flux rate into the cover and is also dependent on climate and c...

85

Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills--an experimental simulation in lysimeters.  

PubMed

Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 × 2 × 3m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH(4) loadings up to 300 lCH(4)/m(2)d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH(4)/m(2)d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH(4)/m(2)d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH(4) emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration. PMID:22749719

Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

2012-12-01

86

Beneficial Use of Shredded Tires as Drainage Material in Cover Systems for Abandoned Landfills  

E-print Network

hazard, an aesthetic nuisance, and waste of a valuable resource. A scrap tire stockpile or dump provides. The stockpiled tires represent a public health hazard, an aesthetic nuisance, and waste of a valuable resource; Landfills; Recycling; Slope stability; Drainage. Author keywords: Waste tires; Landfill cover; Drainage

87

USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS FOR DAILY COVER AT MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The current (ca. 1992) applicability of alternative materials as daily cover at landfills was assessed from an operational, performance, environmental, and economic perspective. he types of products and materials considered included commercially available foams, spray-ons and geo...

88

Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect

An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

2003-06-01

89

Alternative Landfill Cover and Monitoring Systems for Landfills in Arid Environments  

SciTech Connect

In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the mixed waste disposal unit U-3ax/bl at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. This facility consists of eight drainage lysimeters measuring 10 feet in diameter, 8 feet deep, and backfilled with native soil. The lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two were left bare, two were revegetated with native species, and two were allowed to revegetate with invader species (two are reserved for future studies). The lysimeters are instrumented with an array of soil water content and soil water potential sensors and have sealed bottoms so that any drainage can be measured. All sensors are working properly and indicate that the bare lysimeters are the wettest, as expected. The vegetated lysimeters, both seeded and those allowed to revegetate with invader species, are significantly drier than the bare cover treatments. No drainage has occurred in any of the lysimeters. The Accelerated Site Technology Deployment program under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology provided the funding for this project with the objective of reducing the uncertainty associated with the performance of monolayer-evapotranspiration waste covers in arid regions such as the one deployed at U-3ax/bl.

S. E. Rawlinson

2002-09-01

90

Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

2014-08-01

91

Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States); Trujillo, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-08-01

92

Use of the time domain reflectrometry in hydraulic studies of multilayered landfill covers for closure of waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing hydraulic and capillary engineered barriers. Seepage is being evaluated as a function of slope length for each plot, as well as interflow, runoff, and precipitation, using an automated water flow datalogging system that routinely collects hourly data. Soil water content within these 16 field plots has been routinely monitored four times a day since November 1991 using time domain reflectrometry techniques with an automated and multiplexed measurement system. Volumetric water content is measured with a pair of 60-cm-long waveguides at each of 212 locations. One set of waveguides was emplaced vertically in four locations in every soil layer to determine soil water inventory in each field plot. A second set of waveguides was emplaced horizontally in several soil layers to provide a more detailed picture of soil water dynamics close to soil layer interfaces. Field data is presented showing pulses of soil water moving through the soil and engineered barriers with high temporal and spatial resolution.

Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Martin, C.E.

1994-04-01

93

Use of impervious covers and carbon adsorption for the control of leachate production in municipal landfills  

E-print Network

USE OF IMPERVIOUS COVERS AND CARBON ADSORPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF LEACHATE PRODUCTION IN MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS A Thesis by RICHARD CHARLES CARMICHAEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Civil Engineering USE OF IMPERVIOUS COVPRS AND CARSON ADSOPPTION FOR THL CONTPOI OF LEACHATE PRODUCTION IN MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS A Thesfs by RICHARD CHARLES CARsIICHAEL Approved...

Carmichael, Richard Charles

1979-01-01

94

Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590kg\\/m3 and 740kg\\/m3). Gas samples were

Claire Hurst; Philip Longhurst; Simon Pollard; Richard Smith; Bruce Jefferson; Jan Gronow

2005-01-01

95

Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

96

A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING FINAL COVERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter examines how rules are used as a knowledge representation formalism in the domain of hazardous waste management. A specific example from this domain involves performance evaluation of final covers used to close hazardous waste landfills. Final cover design and associ...

97

Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest  

SciTech Connect

Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

2000-02-01

98

Empirical gas emission and oxidation measurement at cover soil of dumping site: example from Malaysia.  

PubMed

Methane (CH?) is one of the most relevant greenhouse gases and it has a global warming potential 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO?), risking human health and the environment. Microbial CH? oxidation in landfill cover soils may constitute a means of controlling CH? emissions. The study was intended to quantify CH? and CO? emissions rates at the Sungai Sedu open dumping landfill during the dry season, characterize their spatial and temporal variations, and measure the CH? oxidation associated with the landfill cover soil using a homemade static flux chamber. Concentrations of the gases were analyzed by a Micro-GC CP-4900. Two methods, kriging values and inverse distance weighting (IDW), were found almost identical. The findings of the proposed method show that the ratio of CH? to CO? emissions was 25.4 %, indicating higher CO? emissions than CH? emissions. Also, the average CH? oxidation in the landfill cover soil was 52.5 %. The CH? and CO? emissions did not show fixed-pattern temporal variation based on daytime measurements. Statistically, a negative relationship was found between CH? emissions and oxidation (R(2) = 0.46). It can be concluded that the variation in the CH? oxidation was mainly attributed to the properties of the landfill cover soil. PMID:23054277

Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Basri, Hassan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; El-Shafie, Ahmed Hussein

2013-06-01

99

Methane flux and oxidation at two types of intermediate landfill covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emissions were measured on two areas at a Florida (USA) landfill using the static chamber technique. Because existing literature contains few measurements of methane emissions and oxidation in intermediate cover areas, this study focused on field measurement of emissions at 15-cm-thick non-vegetated intermediate cover overlying 1-year-old waste and a 45-cm-thick vegetated intermediate cover overlying 7-year-old waste. The 45cm thick

Tarek. Abichou; Jeffery Chanton; David Powelson; Jill Fleiger; Sharon Escoriaza; Yuan Lei; Jennifer Stern

2006-01-01

100

Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the second year, covers with the M plant mixture produced considerably more percolation (10 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (3 cm). This is likely due to a decrease in the aboveground biomass for the M plant mixture from year 1 (1008 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (794 g m{sup -2}) and an increase for the I plant mixture from year 1 (644 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (1314 g m{sup -2}). Over the 2-year period, the mean annual rates of percolation for the covers with the M and I plant mixtures were 7 and 8 cm yr{sup -1}, which are below the OEPA standard. The results suggest the application of ET covers be extended to northwest Ohio and other humid regions.

Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: kristopher.barnswell2@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: daryl.dwyer@utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-12-15

101

Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals. PMID:23528999

Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

2013-06-01

102

A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and field-validated an annual inventory model for California landfill CH4 emissions that incorporates both site-specific soil properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1-D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site-specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction, gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, and methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. Moreover, current IPCC national inventory models for landfill CH4 emissions based on theoretical gas generation have high uncertainties and lack comprehensive field validation. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC "Tier III" criteria, has been field-validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. CALMIM accurately predicts soil temperature and moisture trends with emission predictions within the same order of magnitude as field measurements, indicating an acceptable initial model comparison in the context of published literature on measured CH4 emissions spanning 7 orders of magnitude. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user-selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site-specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist.

Spokas, K.; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.

2011-12-01

103

Reuse of MSWI bottom ash mixed with natural sodium bentonite as landfill cover material.  

PubMed

The research described in this study had the aim of evaluating the reuse of incinerator slag, mixed with sodium bentonite, for landfill capping system components. A characterization was performed on pure bottom ash (BA) samples from an incinerator in the north of Italy. The results show that the BA samples had appropriate properties as covers. The compacted dry unit weight of the studied BA (16.2 kN m(-3)) was lower than the average value that characterizes most conventional fill materials and this can be considered advantageous for landfill cover systems, since the fill has to be placed on low bearing capacity ground or where long-term settlement is possible. Moreover, direct shear tests showed a friction angle of 43°, corresponding to excellent mechanical characteristics that can be considered an advantage against failure. The hydraulic conductivity tests indicated a steady-state value of 8 × 10(-10) m s(-1) for a mixture characterized by a bentonite content by weight of 10%, which was a factor 10 better than required by Italian legislation on landfill covers. The results from a swell index test indicated that fine bentonite swelled, even when divalent cations were released by the BA. The leaching behaviour of the mixture did not show any contamination issues and was far better than obtained for the pure BA. Thus, the BA-bentonite mixture qualified as a suitable material for landfill cover in Italy. Moreover, owing to the low release of toxic compounds, the proposed cover system would have no effect on the leachate quality in the landfill. PMID:23478909

Puma, Sara; Marchese, Franco; Dominijanni, Andrea; Manassero, Mario

2013-06-01

104

A water balance study of four landfill cover designs varying in slope for semiarid regions  

SciTech Connect

The goal of disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and to the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose a hazard. In order to achieve this, the performance of a landfill cover design without an engineered barrier (Conventional Design) was compared with three designs containing either a hydraulic barrier (EPA Design) or a capillary barrier (Loam and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier Designs). Water balance parameters were measured since 1991 at six-hour intervals for four different landfill cover designs in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Whereas runoff generally accounted for only 2-3% of the precipitation losses on these designs, similar values for evapotranspiration ranged from 86% to 91%, with increased evapotranspiration occurring with increases in slope. Consequently, interflow and seepage usually decreased with increasing slope for each landfill cover design. Seepage consisted of up to 10% of the precipitation on the Conventional Design, whereas the hydraulic barrier in the EPA Design effectively controlled seepage at all slopes, and both of the capillary designs worked effectively to eliminate seepage at the higher slopes.

Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Salazar, J.A.

1997-02-01

105

Alternative Landfill Cover and Monitoring Systems for Landfills in Arid Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the mixed waste disposal unit U-3ax\\/bl at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. This facility consists of eight drainage lysimeters measuring 10 feet in diameter, 8 feet deep, and backfilled with native soil. The lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two were left

S. E. Rawlinson

2002-01-01

106

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON UNDERLYING SOILS AND GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Three municipal landfill sites in the eastern and central United States were studied to determine the effects of the disposal facilities on surrounding soils and groundwater. Borings were made up the groundwater gradient, down the groundwater gradient and through the landfill. So...

107

Methane flux and oxidation at two types of intermediate landfill covers  

SciTech Connect

Methane emissions were measured on two areas at a Florida (USA) landfill using the static chamber technique. Because existing literature contains few measurements of methane emissions and oxidation in intermediate cover areas, this study focused on field measurement of emissions at 15-cm-thick non-vegetated intermediate cover overlying 1-year-old waste and a 45-cm-thick vegetated intermediate cover overlying 7-year-old waste. The 45 cm thick cover can also simulate non-engineered covers associated with older closed landfills. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. The arithmetic means of the measured fluxes were 54 and 22 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} from the thin cover and the thick cover, respectively. The peak flux was 596 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin cover and 330 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick cover. The mean percent oxidation was significantly greater (25%) at the thick cover relative to the thin cover (14%). This difference only partly accounted for the difference in emissions from the two sites. Inverse distance weighing was used to describe the spatial variation of flux emissions from each cover type. The geospatial mean flux was 21.6 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick intermediate cover and 50.0 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin intermediate cover. High emission zones in the thick cover were fewer and more isolated, while high emission zones in the thin cover were continuous and covered a larger area. These differences in the emission patterns suggest that different CH{sub 4} mitigation techniques should be applied to the two areas. For the thick intermediate cover, we suggest that effective mitigation of methane emissions could be achieved by placement of individualized compost cells over high emission zones. Emissions from the thin intermediate cover, on the other hand, can be mitigated by placing a compost layer over the entire area.

Abichou, Tarek [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida A and M University, Florida State University, College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)]. E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu; Chanton, Jeffery [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Powelson, David [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Fleiger, Jill [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Escoriaza, Sharon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida A and M University, Florida State University, College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lei, Yuan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida A and M University, Florida State University, College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Stern, Jennifer [Department of Geology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

2006-07-01

108

PREDICTION/MITIGATION OF SUBSIDENCE DAMAGE TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Characteristics of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste landfills and of landfilled hazardous wastes have been described to permit development of models and other analytical techniques for predicting, reducing, and preventing landfill settlement and related cove...

109

Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel overlain by 110 cm loam & sandy loam. No gas recovery. Site 100% vegetated.

Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

2012-12-01

110

Case study of landfill reclamation at a Florida landfill site.  

PubMed

A landfill reclamation project was considered to recover landfill airspace and soil, reduce future groundwater impacts by removing the waste buried in the unlined area, and optimize airspace use at the site. A phased approach was utilized to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the reclamation project; based on the results of these evaluations, approximately 6.8 ha of the unlined cells were reclaimed. Approximately 371,000 in-place cubic meters of waste was mined from 6.8 ha in this project. Approximately 230,600 cubic meters of net airspace was recovered due to beneficial use of the recovered final cover soil and reclaimed soil as intermediate and daily cover soil, respectively, for the current landfill operations. This paper presents the researchers' landfill reclamation project experience, including a summary of activities pertaining to reclamation operations, an estimation of reclamation rates achieved during the project, project costs and benefits, and estimated composition of the reclaimed materials. PMID:23089299

Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Johnson, Patrick

2013-01-01

111

A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and once in ten year events, respectively, whereas corresponding values for runoff were 13% and 16%; these changes were accompanied by corresponding decreases in evapotranspiration, which accounted for 86% and only 78% of the precipitation occurring on the average and once in ten year even~ respectively.

David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

1998-09-01

112

Isotopic tracing of landfill leachates and pollutant lead mobility in soil and groundwater.  

PubMed

Here we provide evidence of the capability of stable lead isotopes to trace landfill leachate in a shallow groundwater. The municipal landfill we have investigated is located in southeastern France. It has no bottom liner, and wastes are placed directly on the ground. Stable lead isotopes allow the characterization of this landfill leachate signature (206Pb/207Pb = 1.189 +/- 0.004) that is clearly different from that of the local atmosphere (206Pb/207Pb = 1.150 +/- 0.006) and crustal lead (206Pb/207Pb = 1.200 +/- 0.005). Piezometers located in the direct vicinity of the landfill generally display this contaminant imprint. The landfill plume is monitored up to 1000 m downgradient of the landfill, in very good agreement with evaluation from chloride concentration. Meanwhile, 206Pb/207Pb ratios measured at a piezometer located 4600 m downgradient of the landfill suggest a contamination by the landfill plume. This result shows that the complexity of a pollutant plume dispersion in this shallow groundwater system requires several independent tracers to clearly resolve origin and transport pathways for contaminants. Furthermore, seasonal rainfall variation for this Mediterranean mixed Quaternary alluvion reservoir and the use of KCl fertilizers might favor an efficient remobilization of atmospheric lead in plowed soils and its transfer into groundwater as shown by lead isotope systematics. PMID:14594365

Vilomet, J D; Veron, A; Ambrosi, J P; Moustier, S; Bottero, J Y; Chatelet-Snidaro, L

2003-10-15

113

Steel slags in a landfill top cover--experiences from a full-scale experiment.  

PubMed

A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ?50 l (m(2)a)(-1) for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m(2)a)(-1) for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance. PMID:24393476

Andreas, L; Diener, S; Lagerkvist, A

2014-03-01

114

Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.  

PubMed

Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture. PMID:25254294

Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

2015-01-01

115

Improving the aeration of critical fine-grained landfill top cover material by vegetation to increase the microbial methane oxidation efficiency.  

PubMed

The natural methane oxidation potential of methanotrophic bacteria in landfill top covers is a sustainable and inexpensive method to reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere. Basically, the activity of methanotrophic bacteria is limited by the availability of oxygen in the soil. A column study was carried out to determine whether and to what extent vegetation can improve soil aeration and maintain the methane oxidation process. Tested soils were clayey silt and mature compost. The first soil is critical in light of surface crusting due to vertical erosion of an integral part of fine-grained material, blocking pores required for the gas exchange. The second soil, mature compost, is known for its good methane oxidation characteristics, due to high air-filled porosity, favorable water retention capacity and high nutrient supply. The assortment of plants consisted of a grass mixture, Canadian goldenrod and a mixture of leguminous plants. The compost offered an excellent methane oxidation potential of 100% up to a CH(4)-input of 5.6l CH(4)m(-2)h(-1). Whereas the oxidation potential was strongly diminished in the bare control column filled with clayey silt even at low CH(4)-loads. By contrast the planted clayey silt showed an increased methane oxidation potential compared to the bare column. The spreading root system forms secondary macro-pores, and hence amplifies the air diffusivity and sustain the oxygen supply to the methanotrophic bacteria. Water is produced during methane oxidation, causing leachate. Vegetation reduces the leachate by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, leguminous plants support the enrichment of soil with nitrogen compounds and thus improving the methane oxidation process. In conclusion, vegetation is relevant for the increase of oxygen diffusion into the soil and subsequently enhances effective methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. PMID:21169005

Bohn, Sonja; Brunke, Paul; Gebert, Julia; Jager, Johannes

2011-05-01

116

LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

117

Using fiber optics to detect moisture intrusion into a landfill cap consisting of a vegetative soil barrier.  

PubMed

The intrusion of moisture into landfills can pose a health hazard because of the possibility that the moisture will carry harmful substances into the groundwater. Early detection of moisture anywhere within these landfills is essential if corrective action is to be taken well before an occurrence of this kind. This paper presents the results of a field-scale simulation test of the use of fiber optics to detect the presence of moisture within landfill covers, using a detection method based on the thermal response of soils as a function of their moisture content. By sending electrical current through an embedded stainless-steel tube, soils of varying moisture content were heated and time-dependent temperature measurements were obtained with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor system. The optical fiber itself lay within the tube, but its temperature was a function of how rapidly heat was conducted into the surrounding medium. The results of this experiment, which are in agreement with those obtained using more traditional "point" sampling and laboratory analysis, are presented along with the strengths and limitations of the thermal-response method of detecting moisture. PMID:13678370

Weiss, Jonathan D

2003-09-01

118

Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash-sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners.  

PubMed

Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash-sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 2(7-1) fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material x ash ratio and ash ratio x compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (alpha=0.05). Freezing on five freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R(adjusted)(2) values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 x 10(-11)m s(-1) and 8.9 x 10(-10)m s(-1) if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm(-3), the ash ratio between 20% and 75% and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10(-9)m s(-1). PMID:19541338

Herrmann, Inga; Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger; Kumpiene, Jurate; Maurice, Christian; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders

2009-08-01

119

Assessment of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate Contaminated to Soil: A Case Study of Kham Bon Landfill, Khon Kaen Province, NE Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of heavy metals in landfill leachate contaminated to soil was investigated. Soil samples were collected at different times of the year as well as at various locations and depths in and around the landfill and throughout the contaminated area. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the heavy metals, namely Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn were significant concentrations in the soil within a radius of 2,000 m from the landfill. The Spearman`s rank correlation coefficient indicated that the appearance of high Cation exchange capacity, clay content and organic matter are statistically correlated with the high heavy metals accumulation. Moreover, the Fe and Mn oxide/oxyhydroxides plays important role in controlling heavy metals sink in soil as pointed out by the spearman ‘s rank correlation coefficient which corresponding to the soil type, red loess with high iron oxide, in the study area.

Chuangcham, Udomporn; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Charusiri, Punya; Milne-Home, William; Lertsirivorakul, Rungruang

120

Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing gas migration.  

PubMed

Field experiments investigating lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark during a one-year period were conducted. A significant seasonal variation, with low concentrations of methane and high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the summer, caused by methane oxidation was observed. There was a good correlation between pressure above the barometric pressure and the methane concentration in the soil, indicating that advective flow was the controlling process. This was confirmed by calculations. Diurnal measurement during a drop in barometric pressure showed that lateral migration of landfill gas was a very dynamic system and the concentrations of LFG at a specific place and depth changed dramatically within a very short time. The experiments showed that change in barometric pressure was an important factor affecting gas migration at the Skellingsted landfill in Denmark. PMID:11721997

Christophersen, M; Kjeldsen, P

2001-04-01

121

Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing gas migration.  

PubMed

Field experiments investigating lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark during a one-year period were conducted. A significant seasonal variation, with low concentrations of methane and high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the summer, caused by methane oxidation was observed. There was a good correlation between pressure above the barometric pressure and the methane concentration in the soil, indicating that advective flow was the controlling process. This was confirmed by calculations. Diurnal measurement during a drop in barometric pressure showed that lateral migration of landfill gas was a very dynamic system and the concentrations of LFG at a specific place and depth changed dramatically within a very short time. The experiments showed that change in barometric pressure was an important factor affecting gas migration at the Skellingsted landfill in Denmark. PMID:12201689

Christophersen, M; Kjeldsen, P

2001-12-01

122

USING WINTER COVER CROPS TO IMPROVE SOIL AND WATER QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews literature about the impacts of cover crops in cropping systems that affect soil and water quality and presents limited new information to help fill knowledge gaps. Cover crops grow during periods when the soil might otherwise be fallow. While actively growing, cover crops increase solar energy harvest and carbon flux into the soil, providing food for soil

S. M. Dabney; J. A. Delgado; D. W. Reeves

2001-01-01

123

LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was focused on the performance, design, testing and selection of filters used for leachate collection drains at the base of landfills, waste piles and other solid waste facilities. Geotextiles due to their manufactured uniformity, ease-of placement and savings in lan...

124

Study of Soil Washing for Remediation of Pb and Zn Contaminated Coastal Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of analyzing the pre-treatment process of Pb, Zn in contaminated coastal landfill soil presented by Korean Soil Analysis Method, the each concentration was presented 577.00mg/kg, 3894.34mg/kg. This soil was critically contaminated with Pb and Zn because it was exceeded the Standard of soil contamination(2area: Pb-400mg/kg, Zn-600mg/kg). Soil remediation efficiency of the soil washing process for the removal of Pb and Zn was determined to be consistent with the results. The batch experiment on the several washing solutions(HCl, HNO3), washing solutions concentrations(0.1-0.8M) and the ratio of soil vs. solution for soil washing(1:3, 1:5 and 1:10) was performed. The results of experiments, washing time was appropriate in 30 minutes. The removal efficiency of soil washing increased as the ratio of soil vs. washing solution increased. But, in the case of heavy metals, the soil vs. solution for soil washing was determined as the optimal ratio of 1 : 5. Five consecutive soil washing with 0.5M of HCl and HNO3 solutions were performed. Results of experiments, in case of Pb was removed by target removal efficiency from soil on the twice washing. With in case of Zn was over on the first washing by target removal efficiency, but suggesting that twice consecutive soil washing is desirable as stability at field. Results of consecutive soil washing experiments, the removal efficiency maintained lower than 10 % after the 4th washing. From the results, demanding consecutive washing is not recommended. Results about the heavy metal contaminated soil washing experiments of the coastal landfill, in the case of HCl with more than 0.5 M of solution was performed at 1:5 of soil ratio vs. solution, 30 minutes of washing time and 2-3 consecutive soil washing. And in the case of HNO3 with 0.8 M of solution was performed various ratios of soil vs. washing solution, suggesting that 2-3 consecutive soil washing was reached to Pb and Zn target removal efficiency. Key words : landfill soil; washing solution; heavy metal contamination; soil remediation; soil washing; soil contamination

Park, S.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

125

Evaluation of groundwater and soil pollution in a landfill area using electrical resistivity imaging survey.  

PubMed

Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachate and its migration through refuse. This study was conducted in order to determine the extent of groundwater and soil pollution within and around the landfill of Seri Petaling located in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. The condition of nearby surface water was also determined. An electrical resistivity imaging survey was used to investigate the leachate production within the landfill. Groundwater geochemistry was carried out and chemical analysis of water samples was conducted upstream and downstream of the landfill. Surface water was also analyzed in order to determine its quality. Soil chemical analysis was performed on soil samples taken from different locations within and around the landfill in the vadose zone (unsaturated zone) and below the water table (in the soil saturated zone). The resistivity image along line L-L1 indicated the presence of large zones of decomposed waste bodies saturated with highly conducting leachate. Analysis of trace elements indicated their presence in very low concentrations and did not reflect any sign of heavy metal pollution of ground and surface water or of soil. Major ions represented by Na, K, and Cl were found in anomalous concentrations in the groundwater of the downstream bore hole, where they are 99.1%, 99.2%, and 99.4%, respectively, higher compared to the upstream bore hole. Electrical conductivity (EC) was also found in anomalous concentration downstream. Ca and Mg ions represent the water hardness (which is comparatively high downstream). There is a general trend of pollution towards the downstream area. Sulfates (SO4) and nitrates (NO3) are found in the area in low concentrations, even below the WHO standards for drinking water, but are significantly higher in the surface water compared to the groundwater. Phosphate (PO4) and nitrite (NO2), although present in low levels, are significantly higher at the downstream. There is no significant difference in the amount of fluoride (F) in the different locations. In the soil vadose zone, heavy metals were found to be in their typical normal ranges and within the background concentrations. Soil exchangeable bases were significantly higher in the soil saturated zone compared to the vadose zone, and no significant difference was obtained in the levels of inorganic pollutants. With the exception of Cd, the concentration ranges of all trace elements (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Ni) of Seri Petaling landfill soils were below the upper limits of baseline concentrations published from different sources. PMID:11568845

Ahmed, A M; Sulaiman, W N

2001-11-01

126

Producers seed cover crops to provide a soil cover or barrier against soil erosion.  

E-print Network

, cover crops can improve the soil by adding organic matter, nutrients, and stability and by acting cover, mulches, green manure, nurse crops, smother crops, and forage and food for animals or humans crop or system will provide all these benefits. There- fore, experimentation may be necessary before

Kaye, Jason P.

127

Soil-gas survey at the solid waste landfill - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A soil-gas survey to determine the lateral distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents in the vadose zone, and possibly ground water, was conducted at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. For a 2-year period, three trenches just inside the western perimeter of the landfill had received liquid discharges of both sewage and washwater, which contained solvents. Ground-water monitoring wells, installed a few months after liquid discharge had been discontinued, indicated very low levels (less than 10 ppb) of solvents exist in the ground water downgradient from the disposal trenches. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Evans, J.C.; Fruland, R.M.; Glover, D.W.; Veverka, C.

1989-12-01

128

Methane emissions from MBT landfills  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

2013-09-15

129

Effects of ammonium on the activity and community of methanotrophs in landfill biocover soils.  

PubMed

The influence of NH4(+) on microbial CH4 oxidation is still poorly understood in landfill cover soils. In this study, effects of NH4(+) addition on the activity and community structure of methanotrophs were investigated in waste biocover soil (WBS) treated by a series of NH4(+)-N contents (0, 100, 300, 600 and 1200mgkg(-1)). The results showed that the addition of NH4(+)-N ranging from 100 to 300mgkg(-1) could stimulate CH4 oxidation in the WBS samples at the first stage of activity, while the addition of an NH4(+)-N content of 600mgkg(-1) had an inhibitory effect on CH4 oxidation in the first 4 days. The decrease of CH4 oxidation rate observed in the last stage of activity could be caused by nitrogen limitation and/or exopolymeric substance accumulation. Type I methanotrophs Methylocaldum and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis and Methylosinus) were abundant in the WBS samples. Of these, Methylocaldum was the main methanotroph in the original WBS. With incubation, a higher abundance of Methylobacter was observed in the treatments with NH4(+)-N contents greater than 300mgkg(-1), which suggested that NH4(+)-N addition might lead to the dominance of Methylobacter in the WBS samples. Compared to type I methanotrophs, the abundance of type II methanotrophs Methylocystis and/or Methylosinus was lower in the original WBS sample. An increase in the abundance of Methylocystis and/or Methylosinus occurred in the last stage of activity, and was likely due to a nitrogen limitation condition. Redundancy analysis showed that NH4(+)-N and the C/N ratio had a significant influence on the methanotrophic community in the WBS sample. PMID:24794017

Zhang, Xuan; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Su, Yao; He, Ruo

2014-06-01

130

A comparison of two models for simulating the water balance of soil covers under semi-arid conditions  

SciTech Connect

Numerical water-balance modeling of store-and-release soil covers for hypothetical mine tailings was conducted using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and SoilCover models. The objective of the modeling was to compare the utility of both models in a semi-arid environment. Although values for input parameters were chosen to make simulations as identical as possible between models, differences in model solution methods and discretization led to different water-balance predictions. Specifically, SoilCover predicted less percolation than HELP, because HELP uses simplified water-routing algorithms which may over predict infiltration and under predict subsequent evapotranspiration. Since SoilCover explicitly solves physically based governing equations for heat and water flow, its predictions more accurately represent the water balance in semi-arid regions where evapotranspiration dominates, HELP can only conservatively predict percolation in dry environments.

Chammas, G.A.; Geddis, M.; McCaulou, D.R.

1999-07-01

131

THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS FOR DAILY COVER AT MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS. A Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-93/172)  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation was conducted to assess the applicability of currently available (ca. 1992) alternative materials for use as daily cover at landfills. Information on characteristics, material and equipment requirements, methods of preparation and application, climatic and ope...

132

Relation between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to put the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of some pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relation between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants and this fact, together with their lack of depth and compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

2015-02-01

133

INVESTIGATION OF LANDFILL LEACHATE POLLUTANT ATTENUATION BY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this laboratory study using 11 soils from 7 major orders in the U.S., the movement and retention of As, Be, Cd, CN, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn when carried by municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate through soils was influenced by the individual properties of the elements,...

134

The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca-As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill. PMID:25528268

Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

2015-03-15

135

Effect of Cover Crops on Soil Fungal Diversity and Biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of various cover crops (sordan, mustard, canola, honeysweet, and fallow) to influence soil fungal biomass and diversity were tested in a potato field in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were randomly selected from each cover crop plot and soil fungal communitie...

136

Remote sensing of crop residue cover and soil tillage intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of plant litter or crop residues in agricultural fields is an important consideration for reducing soil erosion and increasing soil organic C. Current methods of quantifying crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the spatial variability of residue cover within fields or across large regions. Our objectives were to evaluate several spectral indices for measuring crop residue cover using

C. S. T. Daughtry; P. C. Doraiswamy; E HUNTJR; A. J. Stern; J MCMURTREYIII; J. H. Prueger

2006-01-01

137

Rates of forest floor decomposition and soil forming processes as indicators of forest ecosystem functioning on a polluted dredged sediment landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of intensive monitoring of forest floor decomposition rates and soil forming processes after afforestation of a calcareous upland dredged sediment landfill with an oxidised surface soil are presented. Nutrient status of the sediment substrate favours tree growth and allows for afforestation and thus an integration in the landscape. Soil processes on the landfill resulted in small differences between the

Bart Vandecasteele; Bruno De Vos; Bart Muys; Filip M. G. Tack

2005-01-01

138

About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

2013-04-01

139

Remote sensing of crop residue cover and soil tillage intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues on the soil surface reduce soil erosion and affect water infiltration, evaporation, and soil temperatures. Crop residues also influence the flow of nutrients, carbon, water, and energy in agricultural ecosystems. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for monitoring large areas. One promising remote sensing approach for discriminating crop residues from soil is based on a

C. S. T. Daughtry; P. C. Doraiswamy; A. L. Russ

2003-01-01

140

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo- p -dioxins in subsurface soil, superficial dust, and air extracts from a contaminated landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of soil, dust and air from a National Priorities List Landfill have been found to contain distinct profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The different extracts show subtle differences in toxicities and the soil extract has been shown to cause both Ah receptor mediated effects and Ah receptor independent effects in immature female rats. Evidence of open burning at the

L. G. Hansen; P. W. O'Keefe

1996-01-01

141

Soil salivation from landfill leachates: Effects on the macronutrient content and plant growth of four grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a greenhouse pot bioassay, four wild herbaceous species were tested for their response to three landfill leachates with different degrees of contamination. Irrigation with leachates gradually increased soil salinity significantly. The responses of each species to soil salination were different. H. murinum was the most salt-tolerant species and the legumes were the most sensitive, especially T. tomentosum. The Na

A. J. Hernández; M. J. Adarve; A. Gil; J. Pastor

1999-01-01

142

REMOTE SENSING CROP RESIDUE COVER AND SOIL TILLAGE INTENSITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop residues play important roles in reducing soil erosion and increasing soil organic carbon. Current methods of quantifying crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the spatial variability of residue cover within fields or across large regions. Our objectives were to measure crop resi...

143

Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former hospital landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former hospital landfill located in a 75-acre study area near the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia, from April to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone of a creek adjacent to the landfill and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Results from the hyporheic-zone assessment in the unnamed tributary adjacent to the study area indicated that total petroleum hydrocarbons and octane were the most frequently detected organic compounds in groundwater beneath the creek bed. The highest concentrations for these compounds were detected in the upstream samplers of the hyporheic-zone study area. The effort to delineate landfill activity in the study area focused on the western 14 acres of the 75-acre study area where the hyporheic-zone study identified the highest concentrations of organic compounds. This also is the part of the study area where a debris field also was identified in the southern part of the 14 acres. The southern part of this 14-acre study area, including the debris field, is steeper and not as heavily wooded, compared to the central and northern parts. Fifty-two soil-gas samplers were used for the July 2010 soil-gas survey in the 14-acre study area and mostly detected total petroleum hydrocarbons, and gasoline and diesel compounds. The highest soil-gas masses for total petroleum hydrocarbons, diesel compounds, and the only valid detection of perchloroethene were in the southern part of the study area to the west of the debris field. However, all other detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons greater than 10 micrograms and diesel greater than 0.04 micrograms, and all detections of the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were found down slope from the debris field in the central and northern parts of the study area. Five soil-gas samplers were deployed and recovered from September 16 to 22, 2010, and were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents or explosives. Chloroacetophenones (a tear gas component) were the only compounds detected above a method detection level and were detected at the same location as the highest total petroleum hydrocarbons and diesel detections in the southern part of the 14-acre study area. Composite soil samples collected at five locations were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents. None of the inorganic constituents exceeded the regional screening levels. One surface-water sample collected in the western end of the hyporheic-zone study area had a trichlorofluoromethane concentration above the laboratory reporting level and estimated concentrations of chloroform, fluoranthene, and isophorone below laboratory reporting levels.

Falls, Fred W.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2011-01-01

144

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

145

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L. [Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Mushovic, P.S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

146

Assessment of soil-gas and groundwater contamination at the Gibson Road landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil-gas and groundwater assessments were conducted at the Gibson Road landfill in 201 to provide screening-level environmental contamination data to supplement the data collected during previous environmental studies at the landfill. Passive samplers were used in both assessments to detect volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil gas and groundwater. A total of 56 passive samplers were deployed in the soil in late July and early August for the soil-gas assessment. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected at masses greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram in all samplers and masses greater than 2.0 micrograms in 13 samplers. Three samplers located between the landfill and a nearby wetland had TPH masses greater than 20 micrograms. Diesel was detected in 28 of the 56 soil-gas samplers. Undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected, but undecane was the most common diesel compound with 23 detections. Only five detections exceeded a combined diesel mass of 0.10 microgram, including the highest mass of 0.27 microgram near the wetland. Toluene was detected in only five passive samplers, including masses of 0.65 microgram near the wetland and 0.85 microgram on the southwestern side of the landfill. The only other gasoline-related compound detected was octane in two samplers. Naphthalene was detected in two samplers in the gully near the landfill and two samplers along the southwestern side of the landfill, but had masses less than or equal to 0.02 microgram. Six samplers located southeast of the landfill had detections of chlorinated compounds, including one perchloroethene detections (0.04 microgram) and five chloroform detections (0.05 to0.08 microgram). Passive samplers were deployed and recovered on August 8, 2011, in nine monitoring wells along the southwestern, southeastern and northeastern sides of the landfill and down gradient from the eastern corner of the landfill. Six of the nine samplers had TPH concentrations greater than 100 micrograms per liter. TPH concentrations declined from 320 micrograms per liter in a sampler near the landfill to 18 micrograms in a sampler near the wetland. Five of the samplers had detections of one or more diesel compounds but detections of individual diesel compounds had concentrations below a method detection level of 0.01 microgram per liter. Benzene was detected in three samplers and exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 5 micrograms per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations of benzene, and therefore BTEX, were 6.1 micrograms per liter in the sampler near the eastern corner of the landfill, 27 micrograms per liter in the sampler near the wetland, and 37 micrograms per liter in the sampler at the southern corner of the landfill. Nonfuel-related compounds were detected in the four wells that are aligned between the eastern corner of the landfill and the wetland. The sampler deployed nearest the eastern corner of the landfill had the greatest number of detected organic compounds and had the only detections of two trimethylbenzene compounds, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The two up gradient samplers had the greatest number of chlorinated compounds with five compounds each, compared to detections of four compounds and one compound in the two down gradient samplers. All four samplers had detections of 1,1-dichloroethane which ranged from 42 to 1,300 micrograms per liter. Other detections of chlorinated compounds included trichloroethene, perchloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chloroform.

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2012-01-01

147

Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

1995-05-01

148

Influence of cover crops and soil amendments on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) production and soil nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yields and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolorrS. bicolor var. sudanense), were grown and returned to the soil with fallow

Qingren Wang; Yuncong Li; Waldemar Klassen; Zafar Handoo

2007-01-01

149

Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (?g) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 ?g in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 ?g, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2012-01-01

150

Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was obtained on Dystric Lithosol.

Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

2009-04-01

151

Geoelectrical investigation of old\\/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old\\/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The

Maxwell A. Meju

2000-01-01

152

Willow growth in response to nutrients and moisture on a clay landfill cap soil. II: Water use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water use by willow (Salix viminalis L.) was studied in lysimeters containing clay landfill cap and sandy loam soils under different watering and amendment regimes. With plentiful water and amendments, seasonal ET increased annually and was highest in the sandy loam, increasing from 360lplant?1 in the establishment year to almost 1200lplant?1 in the third year. Seasonal ET was highly correlated

Peter J. Martin; William Stephens

2006-01-01

153

Comparison of soil moisture dynamics across different land covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture and its dependency on local or regional scale characteristics, such as soil texture, land cover and topography as well as weather and climate anomalies, is a fundamental feature for environmental applications. In a recent study based on a network of grassland stations in Switzerland (Mittelbach and Seneviratne 2012), it was shown that the spatio-temporal variability of absolute soil moisture is clearly distinct from the spatio-temporal variability of temporal soil moisture anomalies, and that regional-scale patterns of soil moisture dynamics could clearly be identified at the scale of Switzerland. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these conclusions apply across land cover types. In the current study, we investigate differences in soil moisture dynamics at paired grassland-forest sites and their dependency either on dynamic or static site properties. The analysis is based on three-year continuous soil moisture measurements at three paired grassland and nearby forest sites of the SwissSMEX (http://www.iac.ethz.ch/url/research/SwissSMEX) soil moisture network. The three paired sites are located in different climatic regions of Switzerland. They are characterized by similar meteorological conditions but within the pairs differences in topography (elevation, slope, aspect) and soil properties are found. At all sites continuous measurements of soil moisture are available in four different depths, from 5 cm to 50 cm. The analyses of daily mean soil moisture at the single depths and integrated over the 50 cm soil column reveal different behaviour with respect to absolute soil moisture levels and temporal soil moisture dynamics between grassland and forest sites during the whole three-year period. Focusing on the recession of soil moisture during precipitation-free periods, a seasonal dependency is observed with strongest recession in summer for both land covers. However, a different behaviour is found in spring and autumn. While stronger recession is found over grassland in spring, the forest sites indicate stronger recession in autumn, with most pronounced differences at deeper depths. This investigation thus suggests that differences in soil moisture dynamics across land cover types depend on the dynamics of the vegetation cover and less on static site properties. Reference: Mittelbach, H., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2012: A new perspective on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture: temporal dynamics versus time invariant contributions. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2169-2179.

Mittelbach, Heidi; Henschel, Florian; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

2013-04-01

154

Nitrogen Mineralization of Cover Crop Residues in Calcareous Gravelly Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical legumes like sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea L.) and aeschynomene (Aeschynomene evenia L.) have potential as alternative cover crops in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N mineralization rates of three cover crops [aeschynomene (AE), sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense L.), and sunn hemp (SH)] residues used to amend a calcareous gravelly soil in order to

R. B. Rao; Y. C. Li

2003-01-01

155

Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.  

PubMed

This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners. PMID:16376067

Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

2006-01-01

156

Microwave Backscatter Dependence on Surface Roughness, Soil Moisture, and Soil Texture: Part II-Vegetation-Covered Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an experimental investigation to determine the relationship between radar backscatter coefficient ¿° and soil moisture for vegetation-covered soil. These results extend a previous report which showed the experimental relationship between ¿° and soil moisture for bare soil [1]. It is shown that the highest correlation between ¿° and soil moisture is 0.92 for the combined response

Fawwaz Ulaby; Gerald Bradley; Myron Dobson

1979-01-01

157

Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-12-01

158

Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert  

SciTech Connect

Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

2004-05-12

159

Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

2009-04-01

160

Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and to evaluate measures of control over the operation of landfill areas. Therefore, the technology of monitoring of landfills, based on reception and processing of multispectral data of different spatial resolution in the specialized software, enables us to detect and to analyze MSW, and to assess their impact on the ecological state of the environment. The introduction of space-based monitoring of MSW will save material and financial resources aimed at identification of solid wastes, assessment of their state and evolution in space and time, especially on vast areas, for example, on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

161

Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.  

PubMed

Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

2013-11-01

162

INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) PRODUCTION AND SOIL NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yield and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (So...

163

Prediction of the water balance of two soil cover systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil cover systems are widely used for containment of municipal solid waste, hazardous and mine waste, with the objective\\u000a of limiting the ingress of precipitation and oxygen. The ability to predict their long-term performance is crucial, as their\\u000a failure would result in the release of contaminants to the environment. However, monitoring covers over the long term to derive\\u000a the information

Celestina Adu-Wusu; Ernest K. Yanful; Lisa Lanteigne; Mike O’Kane

2007-01-01

164

Effect of planting covers on herbicide persistence in landscape soils.  

PubMed

Recent monitoring shows that the majority of urban streams in the United States are contaminated by pesticide residues, and the contamination is mainly due to runoff from residential landscapes. In this study we evaluated the effect of landscape planting on persistence of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba in soil under laboratory conditions. The herbicides exhibited substantially different persistence in the same soil type that had been subjected to different planting practices for about 6 years. In the 0-10 cm surface layer, the half-life of 2,4-D was 30.7 d in soil under trees, which was about 20 times longer than in soil planted with turf grass (1.6 d). The difference in 2,4-D persistence was closely correlated to the number of 2,4-D-degrading bacteria that had evolved in the soils. The half-life of dicamba was much longer in soil under a tree canopy (149 d) than in mulched soil (7.9 d). The rate of dicamba degradation was proportional to soil organic matter content. This study indicates that planting practices can modify soil chemical properties and microbial activity and may further affect pesticide runoff potential by influencing pesticide degradation. Characterizing pesticide behavior as a function of planting covers may improve our understanding of pesticide runoff in urban environments and also help to identify strategies for minimizing pesticide contamination to urban streams. PMID:12854718

Gan, J; Zhu, Y; Wilen, C; Pittenger, D; Crowley, D

2003-06-15

165

Kinetics of biological methane oxidation in the presence of non-methane organic compounds in landfill bio-covers  

SciTech Connect

In this experimental program, the effects of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) on the biological methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation process were examined. The investigation was performed on compost experiments incubated with CH{sub 4} and selected NMOCs under different environmental conditions. The selected NMOCs had different concentrations and their effects were tested as single compounds and mixtures of compounds. The results from all experimental sets showed a decrease in CH{sub 4} oxidation capacity of the landfill bio-cover with the increase in NMOCs concentrations. For example, in the experiment using compost with 100% moisture content at 35 deg. C without any NMOCs the V{sub max} value was 35.0 mug CH{sub 4}h{sup -1}g{sub wetwt}{sup -1}. This value was reduced to 19.1 mug CH{sub 4}h{sup -1}g{sub wetwt}{sup -1} when mixed NMOCs were present in the batch reactors under the same environmental conditions. The experimental oxidation rates of CH{sub 4} in the presence of single and mixed NMOCs were modeled using the uncompetitive inhibition model and kinetic parameters, including the dissociation constants, were obtained. Additionally, the degradation rates of the NMOCs and co-metabolic abilities of methanotrophic bacteria were estimated.

Albanna, Muna, E-mail: muna.albanna@gju.edu.j [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa; Fernandes, Leta [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2010-02-15

166

Runoff prediction for final landfill closure  

SciTech Connect

Modeling surface water runoff from closed lined landfills requires an understanding of moisture migration through the final surface cover. This paper provides the results of an experimental study to evaluate, on a bench-scale, the runoff of a geomembrane lined surface cover system for short-duration, high intensity storm events. The experiment(s) were designed to assess total runoff and infiltration for constant flow storm events. Experimental regression models were developed to provide accurate estimate of such storm events for solid waste landfills. The independent variables in the model include: intensity-duration of the storm event, and soil cover hydraulic conductivity. A clear linear relation was demonstrated in the experiments based on mass balance results. The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.97. The factorial analysis demonstrated negligible interaction between the variables and no significant effect from slope of the final soil cover.

Murphy, R.J.; Garwell, E.J.

1999-07-01

167

Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

168

[Investigation of polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover and different soil moisture].  

PubMed

Compared with the spectral detection method, polarization detection could obtain more information of the target. For example, the polarization detection could be applied to interpret the refractive index and the surface roughness of the object, or retrieve the soil moisture, etc. Polarization detection provides a new approach to quantitative retrieval of soil moisture, and this is very important in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and ecology. The polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover,which is a example of mixed pixel in remote sensing, were researched with experiments, and the relationship between the polarization characteristics and soil moisture was also explored. The results showed that the polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover are mainly determined by the area of bare soil, and are strongly relevant with the soil moisture. For the results of experiments in this paper, the IDOLP of soil surface with low vegetation cover increased with increasing soil moisture when the viewing angle of instrument was between 20 degree and 60 degree, while the incident angle of light source was fixed at 40 degree. This paper offered a new method to retrieve moisture content of soil with low vegetation cover. PMID:21284189

Zhang, Qiao; Sun, Xiao-bing; Hong, Jin

2010-11-01

169

Application of ecological risk assessment based on a novel TRIAD-tiered approach to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill.  

PubMed

The Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) is a reliable tool for communicating risk to decision makers in a comprehensive and scientific evidence-based way. In this work, a site-specific ERA methodology based on the TRIAD approach was applied to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill, as a case study to implement and validate such ERA methodology in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Initially, the procedure consisted of the application of a Parameter Selection Module aimed at selecting the most suitable parameters for the specific characteristics of the landfill contaminated soil, taking into consideration the envisioned land use, intended ecosystem services and nature of contaminants. Afterwards, the selected parameters were determined in soil samples collected from two sampling points located downstream of the abovementioned landfill. The results from these tests were normalized to make them comparable and integrable in a risk index. Then, risk assessment criteria were developed and applied to the two landfill contaminated soil samples. Although the lack of a proper control soil was evidenced, a natural land use was approved by the ERA (at Tier 2) for the two landfill contaminated soils. However, the existence of a potential future risk resulting from a hypothetical soil acidification must be considered. PMID:25659305

Gutiérrez, Laura; Garbisu, Carlos; Ciprián, Estela; Becerril, José M; Soto, Manu; Etxebarria, Javier; Madariaga, Juan M; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Epelde, Lur

2015-05-01

170

Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously update data sets on soil moisture retention, especially during long periods of drought. As such, description of the soil cover water balance will be more elaborate as the soil moisture profile will be described in terms of temporal and spatial variability. Moreover, this field data set can lend support on the evaluation of the potential use of mine wastes as cover materials with respect to their hydrologic and geochemical properties.

Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

2014-05-01

171

The selective soil covering mechanism of weed harrows on sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of intra-row mechanical weed control is important to reduce the reliance on herbicides in arable crops and vegetables. Covering weeds by soil is an important weed control mechanism of weed harrows. A shallow post-emergence harrow cultivation controls weeds but also damages the crop to some extent. This paper explores how plants get covered by soil and how a plant’s

D. A. G. Kurstjens; U. D. Perdok

2000-01-01

172

Vertical migration of leachate pollutants in clayey soils beneath an uncontrolled landfill at Huainan, China: a field and theoretical investigation.  

PubMed

To assess the extent of leachate migration, continuous samples of clayey soils (about 9m) were obtained beneath a 17-year old uncontrolled landfill in southeastern China. The soil samples were sub sectioned and analyzed to determine the concentrations of chloride, sodium and COD in the pore water. Total nitrogen and soil organic matter content of the soil samples were also determined. Leachate-derived chloride was detected in the clayey soil to a maximum depth of 9m. Sodium and COD were found to migrate into the soils to depths of 3-4m due to the attenuation of solutes by the soil organic matter and clay minerals at the shallow soils. The estimated migration depths for the chloride are 3m in the case of pure diffusion. Advection and mechanical dispersion were found to be more important than molecular diffusion for this site with an 8m high leachate mound. By comparing the results obtained by the mathematical modeling for layered advection-dispersion problem with the measured concentration profiles, the ranges of the effective diffusion coefficient, retardation factor and dispersivity of the soils were estimated. Better fits are obtained by employing an artificial effective interface about 1m above the observed interface. The clayey soils showed a relatively high attenuation capacity for COD with the estimated retardation factor of 5. PMID:24144934

Zhan, T L T; Guan, C; Xie, H J; Chen, Y M

2014-02-01

173

Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil: effects on soil properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Replacement of fallow in crop-fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow with winter and spring CCs for five years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), a...

174

Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2011-01-01

175

Soil phosphorous influence on growth and nutrition of tropical legume cover crops in acidic soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In tropical regions, the use of cover crops in crop production is an important strategy in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems. Phosphorus deficiency in tropical soils is one of the most yield limiting factors for successful production of cover crops. A greenhouse experiment was conduct...

176

Willow growth in response to nutrients and moisture on a clay landfill cap soil. I. Growth and biomass production.  

PubMed

The growth and biomass production by willow (Salix viminalis L.) was studied in lysimeters containing Oxford clay landfill cap soil with different amendments, bulk densities and watering regimes. Three years from planting, stem biomass in well-watered plants was least (0.28 kg plant(-1)) with high bulk density soil (1480 kg m(-3)) and no nutritional amendment but was increased 10-fold (2.53 kg plant(-1)) by reducing soil bulk density (1200 kg m3) and adding amendments. In comparison, on a sandy loam soil it was 6.23 kg plant(-1). There were similar differences in number of stems plant(-1), stem basal area plant(-1) and plant leaf area which can be attributed to low nitrogen and phosphorus levels in Oxford clay. Water stress reduced stem biomass production by 26-37% and caused higher root:stem ratios. These were also higher on Oxford clay than on the sandy loam. Successful biomass production from willow on Oxford clay landfill caps will therefore require nutritional amendment. PMID:16216728

Martin, Peter J; Stephens, William

2006-02-01

177

Geoelectrical investigation of old/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The main elements of the model are the site boundaries, age and nature of anthropogenic deposits, depth and dip of the layers of refuse and sealing materials, the integrity and shape of the capping zones or separating walls and basal floor slopes, the position of concealed access roads in the site, the water table (or perched water bodies within the refuse) and the presence of leachate. The attendant geotechnical, hydrogeological, and bio-geochemical constraints at such sites are also incorporated in the model for consistency of practical solutions to landfill problems. The nature of anthropogenic deposits and the spatial-temporal characteristics of leachates are reviewed in a geoelectrical context. The analogy between waste degradation and leaching, and the well-known weathering processes of supergene mineral enrichment and saprolite formation in crystalline rocks is explored, and used to develop a conceptual resistivity-vs.-depth model for landfill sites. The main tenet of the model is that vertical conductivity profiles will attain maximum values in the zone of mineral enrichment near the water table and tail-off away from it. This conceptual resistivity model is shown to be consistent with non-invasive observations in landfill sites in different geographical environments. Power-law relationships are found to exist between some geoelectrically important hydrochemical parameters (fluid conductivity, chloride content and total dissolved solids) in leachates and leachate-contaminated groundwater from some landfill sites. Since some chemical parameters of fill are known to vary consistently with time, a plausible hydrochemical and age-deductive scheme for saturated fill is proposed for geoelectrical models of landfills without significant amounts of metal. Practical suggestions are made for a consistent approach in geoelectrical investigation and diagnosis of old landfill sites. A few field examples are used to illustrate the diagnosis approach.

Meju, Maxwell A.

2000-05-01

178

Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect

A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

2004-11-01

179

Soil carbon sequestration via cover crops- A meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC) and have thus a huge potential to sequester SOC. This can primarily be achieved by increasing carbon inputs into the soil. Replacing winter fallows by cover crop cultivation for green manure has many benefits for the soil and forms an additional carbon input. An increase in carbon concentration has been reported in several studies worldwide. However, the effect on SOC stocks, as well as the influence of environmental parameters and management on SOC dynamics is not known. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate those issues. A total of 33 studies, comprising 47 sites and 147 plots were compiled. A pedotransfer function was used to estimate bulk densities and calculate SOC stocks. SOC stock change was found to be a linear function of time since introduction, with an annual sequestration rate of 0.32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Since no saturation was visible in the observations, we used the model RothC to estimate a new steady state level and the resulting total SOC stock change for an artificial "average cropland". The total average SOC stock change with an annual input of 1.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 was 16.76 Mg C ha-1 for the average soil depth of 22 cm. We estimated a potential global SOC sequestration of 0.12±0.03 Pg C yr-1, which would compensate for 8 % of the direct annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

2014-05-01

180

Winter cover cropping influence on nitrogen mineralization, presidedress soil nitrate test, and corn yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization and availability of cover crop N to the succeeding crop are critical components in the management of soil N to reduce N leaching. The effects of several leguminous and non-leguminous cover crops on soil N availability, N mineralization potential, and corn (Zea mays L.) yield were examined. The cover crops had variable effects on soil N availability and

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju; E. Jellum

1996-01-01

181

Theory of Erosion on Soil-Covered Slopes Author(s): W. E. H. Culling  

E-print Network

control, soil creep being the responsible agency. A pre- viously proposed statistical theory of soil creepTheory of Erosion on Soil-Covered Slopes Author(s): W. E. H. Culling Source: The Journal of Geology. http://www.jstor.org #12;THEORY OF EROSION ON SOIL-COVERED SLOPES1 W. E. H. CULLING 44 Grenville Close

182

Cover distributions of vascular plants in relation to soil chemistry and soil depth in a granite rock ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability in the cover distribution of vascular plants, accounted for by soil chemical properties and soil depth, on a granite slope with shallow autochtonous soil in southeast Sweden was evaluated using multivariate statistical regression and graphical methods. Soil acidity and soil depth were, to an often high degree, able to account for the variability in the distributions of the

Germund Tyler

1996-01-01

183

Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (principal investigators)

1983-01-01

184

Soils and the soil cover of the taiga zone in the northern Urals (upper reaches of the Pechora River)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The territory in the upper reaches of the Pechora River is characterized by the predominance of Al-Fe-humus and metamorphic soils with gley features developing under the middle taiga fir-spruce forests rather than gley-podzolic soils as had been considered before. Some of the described soil profiles represent intergrades between brown taiga soils (burozems) and gleysols; these soils are absent in the new Russian soil classification system. General regularities of the soil cover are controlled by the geomorphic position of the soils on slopes and by the conditions of ground moistening and lateral soil water flows. The development of modern soil cover patterns is determined by the impact of herbaceous and woody vegetation, bioturbation of the soils by windfalls, the presence of dead tree trunks on the soil surface, and other factors.

Semikolennykh, A. A.; Bovkunov, A. D.; Aleinikov, A. A.

2013-08-01

185

Land Cover Differences in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen at Fort Benning, Georgia  

SciTech Connect

Land cover characterization might help land managers assess the impacts of management practices and land cover change on attributes linked to the maintenance and/or recovery of soil quality. However, connections between land cover and measures of soil quality are not well established. The objective of this limited investigation was to examine differences in soil carbon and nitrogen among various land cover types at Fort Benning, Georgia. Forty-one sampling sites were classified into five major land cover types: deciduous forest, mixed forest, evergreen forest or plantation, transitional herbaceous vegetation, and barren land. Key measures of soil quality (including mineral soil density, nitrogen availability, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, as well as properties and chemistry of the O-horizon) were significantly different among the five land covers. In general, barren land had the poorest soil quality. Barren land, created through disturbance by tracked vehicles and/or erosion, had significantly greater soil density and a substantial loss of carbon and nitrogen relative to soils at less disturbed sites. We estimate that recovery of soil carbon under barren land at Fort Benning to current day levels under transitional vegetation or forests would require about 60 years following reestablishment of vegetation. Maps of soil carbon and nitrogen were produced for Fort Benning based on a 1999 land cover map and field measurements of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under different land cover categories.

Garten Jr., C.T.

2004-02-09

186

COVER CROPS ENHANCE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER, CARBON DYNAMICS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FUNCTION IN A MEDITERRANEAN VINEYARD AGROECOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Impacts of soil tillage and cover crops on soil carbon (C) dynamics and microbiological function were investigated in a vineyard grown in California’s Mediterranean climate. We 1) compared soil organic matter (SOM), C dynamics and microbiological activity of two cover crops [Trios 102 (Triticale x T...

187

Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions  

E-print Network

Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions Oklahoma State University, United States KEYWORDS: Ground temperature; Moisture transport; Snow cover; Soil with significant earth contact. A numerical model for heat and moisture transfer in partially frozen soils has been

188

The effects of cover crops on soil physical properties and nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops improve soil aggregate stability, increase water infiltration, and legume cover crops also fix nitrogen and scavenge nutrients that are subject to leaching. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in Indiana to measure growth of different cover crops and their effects on soil properties. The objective of the greenhouse experiment was to study the response of three varieties of

Mohammad Zaman Amini

2011-01-01

189

Role of Cover Crops in Improving Soil and Row Crop Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops play an important role in improving productivity of subsequent row crops by improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. The objective of this article is to review recent advances in cover crops practice, in the context of potential benefits and drawbacks for annual crop production and sustained soil quality. Desirable attributes of a cover crop are the ability

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; B. A. Bailey

2005-01-01

190

Microbial Biomass and Activities in Soil Aggregates Affected by Winter Cover Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

vegetable cropping systems (Burket et al., 1997); how- ever, it is unclear whether legumes or nonlegumes are Winter cover crops may increase soil organic matter (SOM) and the most suitable for this task. Leguminous winter cover improve soil structure in intensively managed summer vegetable crop- ping systems. Our study examined the influence of three cover crop crops have the potential

I. C. Mendes; A. K. Bandick; R. P. Dick; P. J. Bottomley

1999-01-01

191

Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required.

Krook, Joakim, E-mail: joakim.krook@liu.se [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-03-15

192

Fall cover crops boost soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which can lead to reduced inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fall cover crops provide multiple benefits to producers. These benefits include pathogen and pest protection, drought protection, weed control, reduced soil erosion, nutrient acquisition and retention, increased soil organic matter, and conservation of soil water by improvement of soil structure th...

193

The Challenges of Implementing Conservation Tillage and Cover Crops in Clay Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation practices, such as reduced tillage and cover crops, can improve soil quality and increase soil moisture for crop production. Benefits to production, soil quality, and water conservation have been observed especially in areas with rapidly draining soils. While historically enjoying high ...

194

Soil organic carbon and water content effects on remote crop residue cover estimation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage (CT) systems help protect the soil and environment, and improve net farm profitability. CT methods leave increased amounts of crop residue cover (CRC) on the soil surface, minimizing soil erosion and evaporation. CT uses less fuel, disturbs soil less, and requires less fertili...

195

Conservation tillage and cover cropping influence soil properties in San Joaquin Valley cotton-tomato crop  

E-print Network

the addition of cover- crop residues increased soil carboncover crop residues have been shown to effectively control weeds, reduce soilcover crop, soil salinity increased signi?cantly. Above, researchers evaluate no-till planting into tomato residues.

Veenstra, Jessica; Horwath, William; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Munk, Dan

2006-01-01

196

Short-term effects of cover crop incorporation on soil carbon pools and nitrogen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crops are increasingly used to maintain water quality and\\u000a agoecosystem productivity. Cover crop incorporation influences transient\\u000a soil microbial dynamics and nutrient availability at an early growth\\u000a stage of subsequent crops. Short-term (less than or equal to 35 d)\\u000a effects of cover crop incorporation on soil C pools and N availability\\u000a were evaluated using sandy loam soils from organically

S Hu; NJ Grunwald; AHC vanBruggen; GR Gamble; LE Drinkwater; C Shennan; MW Demment

1997-01-01

197

Willow growth in response to nutrients and moisture on a clay landfill cap soil. II: Water use.  

PubMed

Water use by willow (Salix viminalis L.) was studied in lysimeters containing clay landfill cap and sandy loam soils under different watering and amendment regimes. With plentiful water and amendments, seasonal ET increased annually and was highest in the sandy loam, increasing from 360 l plant(-1) in the establishment year to almost 1200 l plant(-1) in the third year. Seasonal ET was highly correlated with leaf area duration. Amendment of Oxford clay resulted in increases in plant leaf area, dry matter production and seasonal ET. Water stress reduced seasonal ET by 10-14% in the second year and 25-41% in the third. Water use efficiency was low for the un-amended clay treatment (1.4 g kg(-1)) but was similar in the amended clay (5.0 g kg(-1)) and sandy loam (4.9 g kg(-1)). This highlights the interdependence of water use and biomass production in willow. PMID:16216729

Martin, Peter J; Stephens, William

2006-02-01

198

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

SciTech Connect

A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

199

The effects of different soil cover management practices on plant biodiversity and soil properties in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different soil cover management practices on plant biodiversity and soil properties in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards Madzaric S., Aly A., Ladisa G. and Calabrese G. The loss of natural plant cover due to the inappropriate soil cover management is often a decisive factor for soil degradation in Mediterranean area. This accompanied with typical climate, characterized by cool, wet winters and hot and dry summers leads to soil erosion and loss of productivity. Due to simplification of agricultural practice and to the attempt to decrease cost of production, keeping soil bare is a widespread agricultural practice in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards (AOOs). The consequences of this are degradation of soil quality and reduction of plant biodiversity. In last year's some alternative practices are proposed in order to protect soil and biodiversity. One of these practices is the "grassing" i.e. covering the soil by selected autochthonous plant species. Objectives of our study are: (1) to evaluate impact of different soil cover management practices on soil properties and plant biodiversity in AOOs and (2) to define a minimum indicators' set (Minimum Data Set - MDS) to evaluate the effectiveness of different agricultural practices in environmental performance of AOOs. A comparison was carried on considering two management systems (conventional vs. organic) and three agricultural practices: conventional with bare soil (CON), organic with soil covered by selected autochthonous species (MIX) and organic left to the native vegetation (NAT). In general a clear positive influence of organic management system was recognized. Some soil quality indicators (physical, chemical and biological) showed responsiveness in describing the effects of management system and agricultural practices on soil properties. The both approaches with vegetation cover on the soil surface (either sowing of mixture or soil left to the natural plant cover) performed better than conventional one with repeated tillage and bare soil during the whole year. This is peculiarly visible in the case of soil erosion that presents an enormous problem in Mediterranean region. No clear differences resulted between the two organic practices for soil management (natural cover and grassing). Key words: organic agriculture, ecological indicators, agricultural practices, soil quality, olive groves

Madzaric, Suzana; Aly, Adel; Ladisa, Gaetano; Calabrese, Generosa

2014-05-01

200

Final closure cover for a Hanford radioactive mixed waste disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a preliminary design for a RCRA mixed waste landfill final closure cover. The cover design was developed by a senior class design team from Seattle University. The design incorporates a layered design of indigenous soils and geosynthetics in a layered system to meet final closure cover requirements for a landfill as imposed by the Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303 implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

Johnson, K.D.

1996-02-06

201

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01

202

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31

203

Evidence for an underground runoff and soil permeability at the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) buried waste pilot project: needs for a specific landfill implantation code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from geophysical investigations (electrical resistivity, electromagnetic mapping and seismic refraction) on an empty excavated rack of the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) pilot landfill evidenced a more permeable soil than found by a feasibility study and the presence of an underground runoff underneath the rack. The problem was to evaluate the degree of confidence of the feasibility study, based on 76 10-m drilling cores only, 6 of them performed on the studied rack. To the contrary of what is claimed in the feasibility study a threat of lixiviate pollution is real. It is more than urgent to elaborate a code for landfill implantation in Algeria, which should include mandatory geophysical prospecting and deeper drilling cores. Keywords: Landfill, Geophysical prospecting, Underground runoff, Permeability, Algeria.

Djadia, Leila; Abtout, Abdslam; Boudella, Amar

2014-05-01

204

Cover crop effects on the fate of N following soil application of swine manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal grain cover crops increase surface cover, anchor corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] residues, increase infiltration, reduce both rill and interrill erosion, scavenge excess nutrients from the soil, and are easily obtained and inexpensive compared to other cover crop options. The use of cereal grain cover crops in fields where manure application occurs should increase

T. B. Parkin; T. C. Kaspar; J. W. Singer

2006-01-01

205

What's left? - Investigations on soil cover of conservation tillage methods in Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most accepted and a practicable method to prevent soil from erosion is conservation tillage. If conservation tillage practices are performed in a proper way soil is protected from wind and water erosion. This study deals with the effectivity of conservation tillage practices under real field conditions. Therefore we i) carried out rainfall simulation experiments employing conservation tillage practices which had been proposed by farmers to test whether actual conservation tillage practices would be effective, ii) did an observation of mean soil cover on arable land after seeding in Lower and Upper Austria for field sites where conservation tillage was funded. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in the years 2011 and 2012 for various conservation tillage treatments consisting of different mulching and no tillage techniques. To evaluate results on surface runoff and erosion we additionally measured soil cover, bulk densities and surface roughness of the experimental plots. Soil cover estimation of the arable land in Lower and Upper Austria which is funded for conservation tillage practices was done in 2012 and 2013. Altogether on 146 randomly chosen field sites soil cover was estimated by using an object-based image analysis method. Results reveal that the effectiveness of conservation tillage was depending on the existence of a sufficient soil cover. However, under conditions of actual farm practices, a sufficient soil cover was not obtained for mulching treatments in 2011 and only partially in 2012. Therefore, mulching treatments partially gained even higher surface runoff and soil loss rates than conventional tillage practices. Due to their high soil cover, soil loss and surface runoff of no tillage treatments were very small as compared to all other tested treatments. The results of the soil cover estimation in Lower and Upper Austria show that under practicable land use a mean soil cover of 12 percent can be reached, what's rather low in a sense of soil erosion prevention compared to the results of our rainfall simulation experiments and literature.

Bauer, Thomas; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter

2014-05-01

206

Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.  

PubMed

Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity. PMID:22980909

Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

2013-01-01

207

Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

2009-04-01

208

Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

1991-05-01

209

Radar backscattering measurement of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band and full polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study is to measure backscattered power of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during monsoon season and relate backscattered power to the density of vegetation over soil. The measurement was conducted at an experimental field located in the campus of Assam Engineering College, Guwahati, India. The soil sample consists of Silt and Clay in higher proportions as compared to Sand. The scatterometer system consists of dual-polarimetric square horn antennas, Power meter, Klystron, coaxial cables, isolator and waveguide detector. The polarization of the horn antennas as well as the look angle can be changed in the set-up. The backscattering coefficients were calculated by applying a radar equation for the measured values at incident angles between 30° and 60° for full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH), respectively, and compared with vegetation cover over soil for each scatterometer measurement simultaneously. The VH polarization and 60° look angle are found to be the most suitable combination of configuration of an X-band scatterometer for distinguishing the land cover targets such as bare soil and vegetation covered soil. From the analysis of the results, polarimetric scatterometer data appear to be promising to distinguish the land cover types such as bare soil and soil completely covered by vegetation. The results of this study will help the scientists working in the field of active microwave remote sensing.

Goswami, B.; Kalita, M.

2014-11-01

210

Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. The known benefits of winter cover crops include reduced nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and weed germination, but evidence of improvements in soil productivity would provide further incentive for famers to implemen...

211

Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

Poffenbarger, Hanna

2010-01-01

212

Landfill Methane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

213

Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.  

PubMed

Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil

2008-09-01

214

COTORAN WASH-OFF FROM COVER CROP RESIDUES AND DEGRADATION IN GIGGER SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crop residues on no-till soil will intercept a portion of applied herbicides. Thus, herbicide efficacy in no-till systems depends,in part, on rainfall to wash the herbicide onto the soil. Tillage and cover crop residue may also influence degradation of a herbicide in soil. This series of studies examined Cotoran (fluometuron, N,N ­ dimethyl-Nr-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) urea) wash- off from native vegetation,

L. A. Gaston; D. J. Boquet; S. D. Dotch; M. A. Bosch

215

The short-term cover crops increase soil labile organic carbon in southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the effects of cover crops on soil labile organic carbon (C), especially in Australia.\\u000a In this study, two cover crop species, i.e., wheat and Saia oat, were broadcast-seeded in May 2009 and then crop biomass was\\u000a crimp-rolled onto the soil surface at anthesis in October 2009 in southeastern Australia. Soil and crop residue samples were

Xiaoqi Zhou; Chengrong Chen; Shunbao Lu; Yichao Rui; Hanwen Wu; Zhihong Xu

216

Evaluation of Spectral Indices for Estimating Crop Residue Cover and Soil Carbon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long term use of conservation tillage practices can lead to increased soil organic carbon (SOC) compared to intensively tilled soils. However, monitoring soil tillage intensity over large areas for assessing changes in SOC is difficult. Remote sensing can potentially estimate crop residue cover, a...

217

Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of crop residues in agricultural fields influences soil erosion and soil carbon sequestration. Remote sensing methods can efficiently assess crop residue cover and tillaje intensity over many fields in a region. Although the reflectance spectra of soils and crop residues are often s...

218

TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SOIL NITROGEN AND COTTON AND SORGHUM YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till, and chisel till ), four cover c...

219

Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of crop residues (non-photosynthetic vegetation) in agricultural fields influences soil erosion and soil carbon sequestration. Remote sensing methods can efficiently assess crop residue cover and related tillage intensity over many fields in a region. Although the reflectance spectra of soils and crop residues are often similar in the visible, near infrared, and the lower part of the shortwave

Guy Serbin; Craig S. T. Daughtry; E. Raymond Hunt; James B. Reeves; David J. Brown

2009-01-01

220

Examining Changes in Soil Organic Carbon with Oat and Rye Cover Crops Using Terrain Covariates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crops have the potential to increase soil organic C in the corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation in the upper Midwest. Management effects on soil C, however, are often difficult to measure because of the spatial variation of soil C across the landscape. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oat

T. C. Kaspar; T. B. Parkin; D. B. Jaynes; C. A. Cambardella; D. W. Meek; Y. S. Jung

2006-01-01

221

EXAMINING CHANGES IN SOIL ORGANIC CARBON WITH OAT AND RYE COVER CROPS USING TERRAIN COVARIATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter cover crops have the potential to increase soil carbon (C) in the corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation in the upper Midwest. Management effects on soil C, however, are often difficult to measure because of the spatial variation of soil C across the landscape. The objec...

222

Accounting for green vegetation and soil spectral properties to improve remote sensing of crop residue cover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage methods are beneficial as they disturb soil less and leaves increased crop residue cover (CRC) after planting on the soil surface. CRC helps reduce soil erosion, evaporation, and the need for tillage operations in fields. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to due to less fos...

223

Effects of Cover Cropping, Solarization, and Soil Fumigation on Nematode Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of sustainable soil-borne pest management strategies on the soil ecosystem were compared to that of methyl bromide fumigation using nematode community analysis. A field experiment was conducted in 2003 and repeated in 2004. Soil treatments carried out in summer months included methyl bromide (MB) fumigation, solarization (S) for 6 weeks, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cover cropping for 3 months (CP), combination of

K.-H. Wang; R. McSorley; N. Kokalis-Burelle

2006-01-01

224

Differentiation of the soil cover in the lower Ob River valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific features of the soil cover in the lower reaches of the Ob River are analyzed. The physicochemical properties and composition of the floodplain soils in different parts of the valley and on different floodplain elements are given. A comparative geographical analysis of the accumulation of macro-and microelements in the floodplain soils as a result of alluviation processes in the

E. G. Nechaeva

2008-01-01

225

Nitrogen mineralization and availability of mixed leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas non-leguminous cover crops such as cereal rye (Secale cereale) or annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) are capable of reducing nitrogen (N) leaching during wet seasons, leguminous cover crops such as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) improve soil N fertility for succeeding crops. With mixtures of grasses and legumes as cover crop, the goal of reducing\\u000a N leaching while increasing soil N

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju

1998-01-01

226

Management of cruciferous cover crops by mowing for soil and water conservation in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of cover crops in Mediterranean olive orchards has increased due to serious soil erosion problems and surface water contamination by herbicides. In these areas, the annual precipitation regime is strongly seasonal, with dry summers that require killing the cover crop before it competes with the trees for water. Cruciferous species are being introduced as cover

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

227

Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

228

Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO? levels: the added value of the isotope (?¹³C and ?¹?O CO?; ?¹³C and ?D CH?) approach.  

PubMed

We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach (?¹³C and ?¹?O of CO?; ?¹³C and ?D of CH?) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO? levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH? oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH? is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH? oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. ?¹³C of CO? samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere. PMID:22608681

Widory, D; Proust, E; Bellenfant, G; Bour, O

2012-09-01

229

Tracking quicksilver: estimation of mercury waste from consumer products and subsequent verification by analysis of soil, water, sediment, and plant samples from the Cebu City, Philippines, landfill.  

PubMed

Source attribution of mercury (Hg) is critical for policy development to minimize the impact of Hg in wastes. Mercury content of consumer products and its subsequent release into the waste stream of Cebu City, Philippines, is estimated through surveys that employed validated, enumerator-administered questionnaires. Initially, a citywide survey (n?=?1636) indicates that each household annually generates 1.07 ppm Hg (i.e., mg Hg/kg waste) and that linear and compact fluorescent lamps (17.2 %) and thermometers (52.1 %) are the major sources of Hg. A subsequent survey (n?=?372) in the vicinity of the city's municipal solid waste landfill shows that residents in the area annually generate 0.38 ppm Hg per household, which is less than the citywide mean; surprisingly though, less affluent respondents living closer to the landfill site reported more Hg from thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Analysis of collected soil (0.238 ppm), leachate water (6.5 ppb), sediment (0.109 ppm), and three plants (0.393 to 0.695 ppm) shows no significant variation throughout five stations in and around the landfill site, although the period of collection is significant for soil (P?=?0.001) and Cenchrus echinatus (P?=?0.016). Detected Hg in the landfill is considerably less than the annual estimated release, indicating that there is minimal accumulation of Hg in the soil or in plants. As a result of this project, a policy brief has been provided to the Cebu City council in aid of hazardous waste legislation. PMID:25712628

Buagas, Dale Jo B; Megraso, Cristi Cesar F; Namata, John Darwin O; Lim, Patrick John Y; Gatus, Karen P; Cañete, Aloysius M L

2015-03-01

230

Design, construction, and monitoring of landfills. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book is now available in a new edition--updated to keep pace with today`s highly regulated environmental climate. In addition to probing the best ways to design and build landfills, as well as how their performance is monitored over time. The book shows how to comply with the new regulations. It also covers landfill issues, emerging liner and cover technology, and seismic stability analysis, and offers detailed design steps and easy-to-follow worked examples. The following topics are included: site selection; leachate and gas generation; waste characterization; natural attenuation landfills; containment landfills; liner material; design of landfill elements; landfill construction; performance monitoring; landfill operation and economic analysis.

Bagchi, A.

1994-12-31

231

Landfill restoration and biodiversity: a case of study in Northern Italy.  

PubMed

Landfilling is a worldwide common waste treatment method. Final recovery usually consists of capping the area with top soil on which vegetation can grow. Depending on the suitability of the recovery pattern, landfill sites can work as potential reserve of semi-natural habitats. A recovery pattern applied to land reclamation of two hazardous waste landfills sited in Northern Italy (Po floodplain) was studied to assess the results in terms of biodiversity. These landfills lie within a landscape dominated by intensive agriculture. After final sealing, both landfills were covered by soil on which a meadow was sown and a hedgerow was planted around the borders. One of the compared areas was not provided with a pond and the hedgerow was incomplete. Butterflies and birds were used as indicators, and their seasonal abundance was related to habitat structure and ecological factors. Meadows grown on both areas supported a rich butterfly population (30 species), including some species that are by now uncommon in the Po floodplain. In both areas butterfly abundance was affected by summer drought. The birds' community included 57 species; 16 Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) were observed. Each bird community was different in the compared study areas because of their different size and habitat structure. For example, landfill A, provided with a pond and a more complex structure of the hedgerow, supported a richer birds community (52 species versus 39). Both restored landfills worked well as a stepping stone for migratory birds, but they were a reproductive habitat of poor quality. PMID:25161277

Camerini, Giuseppe; Groppali, Riccardo

2014-08-01

232

DESIGNING AND SPECIFYING LANDFILL By: Timothy D. Stark,1  

E-print Network

until the first cell of the adjacent new lined landfill opened. The closed site consists of about 30 acres. The landfill site is flat, sandy, with groundwater near the surface. The landfill is unlined1 DESIGNING AND SPECIFYING LANDFILL COVERS By: Timothy D. Stark,1 Erik J. Newman,2 and Kenneth R

233

Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

234

Changes of Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen with Cover Crops and Irrigation in a Tomato Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand how soil microbial biomass was influenced by incorporated residues of summer cover crops and by water regimes, soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were investigated in tomato field plots in which three leguminous and a non-leguminous cover crop had been grown and incorporated into the soil. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea

Q. R. Wang; Y. C. Li; W. Klassen

2007-01-01

235

Landfill methane oxidation response to vegetation, fertilization, and liming  

SciTech Connect

Landfills are the fourth largest global source and the largest US source (USDOE, 1997) of anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions. Since gram-for-gram, CH{sub 4} has 21 times the 100-yr global-warming potential of CO{sub 2} (USEPA, 1990). CH{sub 4} release into the atmosphere has important implications for global climate change. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetation, N fertilizers, and lime addition on landfill CH{sub 4} oxidation. Columns filled with compacted sandy loam and sparged with synthetic landfill gas were used to simulate a landfill cover. Grass-topped and bare-soil columns reduced inlet CH{sub 4} by 47 and 37%, respectively, at peak uptake; but the rate for both treatments was about 18% at steady state. Nitrate and NH{sub 4} amendments induced a more rapid onset of CH{sub 4} oxidation relative to KCl controls. However, at steady state, NH{sub 4} inhibited CH{sub 4} oxidation in bare columns but not in grassed columns. Nitrate addition produced no inhibitory effects. Lime addition to the soil consistently enhanced CH{sub 4} oxidation. In all treatments, CH{sub 4} consumption increased to a peak value, then declined to a lower steady-state value; and all gassed columns developed a pH gradient. Neither nutrient depletion nor protozoan grazing could explain the decline from peak oxidation levels. Ammonium applied to grassed cover soil can cause transient reductions in CH{sub 4} uptake, but there is no evidence that the inhibition persists. The ability of vegetation to mitigate NH{sub 4} inhibition indicates that results from bare-soil tests may not always generalize to vegetated landfill caps.

Hilger, H.A.; Wollum, A.G.; Barlaz, M.A.

2000-02-01

236

Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-soil relationships in the surface soil layer affect other processes in agroecosystems, including crop productivity, nitrate leaching and plant-pest interactions. This study investigated the effect of altering surface soil dynamics, using a winter cover crop rotation, on biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil profile. Two cover crop treatments, phacelia and Merced rye (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. ‘Phaci’, and Secale cereale

L. J. Wyland; L. E. Jackson; W. E. Chaney; K. Klonsky; S. T. Koike; B. Kimple

1996-01-01

237

COMPACTED SOIL BARRIERS OF ABANDONED LANDFILL SITES ARE LIKELY TO FAIL IN THE LONG-TERM  

EPA Science Inventory

Buried wastes are isolated from the environment by barriers constructed entirely or in part of compacted soil. he chief concern in barrier design has been to isolate the waste in the short term by preventing movement of water into and through the waste. owever, in the long term a...

238

[Physicochemical and biological characteristics of coastal saline soil under different vegetation cover].  

PubMed

Taking seven plots of coastal saline soil under different vegetation cover in North Jiangsu as study sites, this paper studied the seasonal fluctuations of soil basic physicochemical and biological characteristics, and analyzed the relationships between these fluctuations and vegetation cover. In the test plots, there was a greater variability of soil basic physicochemical and biological characteristics. The average soil electrical conductivity was lower in crop plots (0.95 dS m(-1)) than in natural vegetation plots (2.77 dS m(-1)), but parts of the crop plots showed an increased soil electrical conductivity compared with pre-planting. Overall, the soil fertility of the plots was generally at a low level, with the hydrolysable nitrogen content averagely lower than 50 mg kg(-1), available phosphorus content (except fertilized plots) lower than 3 mg kg(-1), and organic matter content less than 1%. Due to fertilization, the soil conditions in crop plots somewhat improved. For the test coastal saline soil, its electrical conductivity and nutrient level were the key factors affecting the vegetation distribution and plant growth, and soil electrical conductivity was most important. There existed close correlations between soil nitrogen and phosphorus contents and soil microbial amount. The seasonal fluctuations of soil characteristics were closely related with vegetation type and human disturbance, being relatively stable under higher vegetation coverage and lesser human disturbance, and dramatic in bare land and castor experimental plots. PMID:21774319

Zhou, Jian; Li, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Qin, Pei

2011-04-01

239

Pendimethalin Wash?Off from Cover Crop Residues and Degradation in a Loessial Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage and cover crops affect soil biological, chemical and physical properties that control the fate of herbicides in soil. Effects of conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) and either native winter annual vegetation, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) on degradation of pendimethalin [N?(1?ethylpropyl)?3,4?dimethyl?2,6?dinitrobenzenamine] were investigated. Effect of pendimethalin sorption on residues of these cover crops on

L. A. Gaston; D. J. Boquet; M. A. Bosch

2003-01-01

240

Analysis of observed soil moisture patterns under different land covers in Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAn understanding of the soil moisture variability is necessary to characterize the linkages between a region's hydrology, ecology and physiography. In the changing land use scenario of Western Ghats, India, where deforestation along with extensive afforestation with exotic species is being undertaken, there is an urgent need to evaluate the impacts of these changes on regional hydrology. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to understand spatio-temporal variability of soil water potential and soil moisture content under different land covers in the humid tropical Western Ghats region and (b) to evaluate differences if any in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content as influenced by nature of land cover. To this end, experimental watersheds located in the Western Ghats of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India, were established for monitoring of soil moisture. These watersheds possessed homogenous land covers of acacia plantation, natural forest and degraded forest. In addition to the measurements of hydro-meteorological parameters, soil matric potential measurements were made at four locations in each watershed at 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm depths at weekly time intervals during the period October 2004-December 2008. Soil moisture contents derived from potential measurements collected were analyzed to characterize the spatial and temporal variations across the three land covers. The results of ANOVA ( p < 0.01, LSD) test indicated that there was no significant change in the mean soil moisture across land covers. However, significant differences in soil moisture with depth were observed under forested watershed, whereas no such changes with depth were noticed under acacia and degraded land covers. Also, relationships between soil moisture at different depths were evaluated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression models for prediction of soil moisture from climatic variables and antecedent moisture condition were developed and tested. A regression model relating near-surface soil moisture (50 cm) with profile soil moisture content was developed which may prove useful when surface soil moisture contents derived from satellite remote sensing are available. Overall results of this study indicate that while the nature of land cover has an influence on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture, other variables related to topography may have a more dominant effect.

Venkatesh, B.; Lakshman, Nandagiri; Purandara, B. K.; Reddy, V. B.

2011-02-01

241

Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of cover crops biomass, mixed with the soil on different dates and with the use of different tools in field conditions. The cover crop biomass had a beneficial influence on the total porosity of the 0-20 cm layer of the soil after winter. The highest porosity was achievedwith cover crops of buckwheat, phacelia and mustard, the lowest with rye. During the vegetation period the highest porosity of soil was observed in the ridges. Among the remaining non-ploughing cultivations, pre-winter use of stubble cultivator proved to have a beneficial influence on the soil porosity, providing results comparable to those achieved in conventional tillage. The differential porosity of the soil was modified not only by the catch crops and the cultivation methods applied, but also by the sample collection dates, and it did change during the vegetation period. The highest content of macropores after winter was observed for the phacelia cover crop, and the lowest in the case of cultivation without any cover crops. Pre-winter tillage with the use of a stubble cultivator increased the amount of macropores in soil in spring, and caused the biggest participation of mesopores as compared with other non-ploughing cultivation treatments of the soil. The smallest amount of mesopores was found in the ridges.

B?a?ewicz-Wo?niak, M.; Konopiñski, M.

2013-09-01

242

Improved Remote Crop Residue Cover Estimation by Incorporation of Soil and Residue Information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modern agricultural practices are increasingly making use of conservation (reduced- and no-till) methods, in order to minimize soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content. These methods result in increased crop residue cover after planting when compared to conventional tillage metho...

243

Mapping crop Residue Cover and Soil Tillage Intensity Using Remote Sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently crop residues were managed primarily to reduce soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon, but demands for biofuels may remove much of the residue. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the temporal and spatial variability of crop residu...

244

Winter Cover Crop Biomass for Biofuel Production, Implications for Soil Coverage and Profitability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High residue winter cover crops are critical for maximizing conservation tillage system benefits, including reductions in soil erosion, improved soil productivity, higher crop yields and greater net returns from crop production. With the increasing demand for biofuel production, the potential to har...

245

Effects of cover cropping on soil and rhizosphere microbial community structure in tomato production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Black polyethylene film is frequently used in vegetable farming systems to promote rapid warming of the soil in spring, conserve soil moisture, and suppress weeds. Alternative systems have been developed using cover cropping with legumes to provide a weed-suppressive mulch while also fixing nitrogen...

246

Influence of Herbicide-Desiccated Cover Crops on Biological Soil Quality in the Mississippi Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crop residue management (CRM) systems on selected biological properties (microbial biomass\\/populations and soil enzyme activity) of Dundee soils under two cropping systems was investigated. In a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) study, the influence of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) with and without an annual ryegrass cover crop (Lolium multiforum Lam.) on these properties was determined. Annual

S. C. Wagner; R. M. Zablotowicz; M. A. Locke; R. J. Smeda; C. T. Bryson

247

Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

248

Effects of Vegetation Cover on the Microwave Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction in sensitivity of the microwave brightness temperature to soil moisture content due to vegetation cover is analyzed using airborne observations made at 1.4 and 5 GHz. The data were acquired during six flights in 1978 over a test site near Colby, Kansas. The test site consisted of bare soil, wheat stubble, and fully mature corn fields. The results

Fawwaz T. Ulaby; Mohammad Razani; Myron C. Dobson

1983-01-01

249

Changes in Soil Moisture with Cover Crops and Tillage: Impact on Cotton Yield and Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The alluvial soils of the lower Mississippi River flood plain are highly productive, but low in organic matter. Use of irrigation in the area has increased in order to ensure adequate yield return. Use of cover crops has been used in other areas to increase soil organic matter and improve infiltrati...

250

Cover and floristics of microphytic soil crusts in relation to indices of landscape health  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive field survey of 282 sites over 500 000 km2 of rangeland in eastern Australia was carried out to investigate the relationships between cover and floristics of microphytic soil crusts and indices of landscape health. Empirical quadrat-based data were used to calculate three indices of landscape health (soil stability, infiltration capacity and nutrient status) according to the method of

D. J. Eldridge; T. B. Koen

1998-01-01

251

COVER CROP EFFECT ON SOIL CARBON FRACTIONS UNDER CONSERVATION TILLAGE COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops may influence soil carbon (C) sequestration and microbial activities by providing additional residue C to soil. We examined the influence of legume [crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)], blend [a mixture of legumes containing balansa clover (Tri...

252

Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

2010-05-01

253

Size-fractionation and characterization of landfill leachate and the improvement of Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity in soil and aged refuse  

SciTech Connect

Leachate was collected from an anaerobic lagoon at Shanghai Laogang refuse landfill, the largest landfill in China, and the sample was separated into six fractions using micro-filtration membranes, followed by ultra-filtration membranes. Several parameters of the samples were measured, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total solids (TS), pH, total phosphate (TP), total nitrogen (TN), fixed solids (FS), NH{sub 4}{sup +}, orthophosphate, color, turbidity, and conductivity. These parameters were then quantitatively correlated with the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane used. Organic matter in the dissolved fraction (MW < 1 kDa) predominated in the leachate, accounting for 65% of TOC. Thermal infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the filter residues. Asymmetric and symmetric stretching of methyl and methylene groups, and of functional groups containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms, were observed. In addition, the ability of two different samples to adsorb heavy metals was tested. Cu{sup 2+} was chosen as the representative heavy metal in this study, and the samples were soil; aged refuse, which had spent 8 years in a conventional sanitary landfill; and samples of soil and aged refuse treated for 48 h with leachate in the ratio of 5 g of sample per 50 ml of leachate. Cu{sup 2+} uptake by the raw soil was {approx}4.60 {mu}g/g, while uptake by the leachate-contacted soil and leachate-contacted aged refuse were 5.66 and 5.11 {mu}g/g, respectively. These results show that the organic matter in the leachate enhanced the capacity of aqueous solutions to adsorb Cu{sup 2+}.

Lou Ziyang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chai Xiaoli; Niu Dongjie; Ou Yuanyang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: Zhaoyoucai@mail.tongji.edu.cn

2009-01-15

254

Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successional stage may determine strength and causal direction of interactions among abiotic and biotic factors; e.g., species that facilitate the establishment of other species may later compete with them. We evaluated multivariate hypotheses about abiotic and biotic factors shaping biological soil crusts (BSCs) in early and late successional stages. We surveyed vegetation and BSC in the shrub-steppe ecosystem of the Columbia Basin. We analyzed the relationships with bryophyte and lichen covers using structural equation models, and analyzed the relationships with BSC composition using Indicator Species Analysis and distance-based linear models. Cover, indicator species, and composition varied with successional stage. Increasing elevation and bryophyte cover had higher lichen cover early in succession; these relationships were negative in the later successional stage. Lichen cover did not appear to impede B. tectorum cover, but B. tectorum appeared to strongly negatively affect lichen cover in both stages. Biological soil crust composition varied with bunchgrass cover in the early successional stage, but with elevation and B. tectorum cover later in succession. Our findings support the hypotheses that as succession progresses, the strength and direction of certain community interactions shift, and B. tectorum leads to reductions in biological soil crust cover regardless of successional stage.

Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Bakker, J.D.; Grace, J.B.

2013-01-01

255

Differentiation of the soil cover in the lower Ob River valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific features of the soil cover in the lower reaches of the Ob River are analyzed. The physicochemical properties and\\u000a composition of the floodplain soils in different parts of the valley and on different floodplain elements are given. A comparative\\u000a geographical analysis of the accumulation of macro-and microelements in the floodplain soils as a result of alluviation processes\\u000a in the

E. G. Nechaeva

2008-01-01

256

Improved Remotely-Sensed Estimates of Crop Residue Cover by Incorporating Soils Information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Remote sensing allows for the rapid determination of crop residue cover. The Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI) has been shown to more accurately estimate residue cover and non-photosynthetic vegetation than other indices. CAI is useful as values are linear areal mixtures of soil and residue spectra...

257

Grass cover crop and tillage method on watermelon production on porous soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Cogn.] production in the Southern Plains is often on well-drained soil, which makes conservation of water difficult. Established cover crops can conserve moisture, but it needs to be determined what cover and tillage method provides the most benefit to watermel...

258

Integrating choice of variety, soil amendments, and cover crops to optimize organic rice production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have completed our first year of this project to determine the impact of winter cover crops, soil amendments, and rice varieties on organic rice production at Beaumont, TX. Two winter cover crops were established successfully and the amounts of dry biomass produced were 4,690 and 5,157 lb/acre f...

259

Capturing residual soil nitrogen with winter cereal cover crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wide-spread drought during the 2012 summer has resulted in reduced crop growth, poor yields, and an anticipated increase in residual nitrate (NO3) nitrogen (N) in the soil profile. This residual N can potentially increase NO3-N losses to ground and/or surface waters, as well as increase carry-ov...

260

The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was measured by dessication. All the measurements were conducted during the summer (August 2008). The results show that the litter cover control the erosion processes. The orange leaves lying on the floor can reduce the soil losses to negligible values when the cover is higher than 60 %. After 20 % of litter cover the soil losses are dramatically reduced to values lower than 50 % of the soil losses under bare soil conditions. The litter cover also reduces the runoff rates, but the reduction is in 50 % for 80 % litter cover. The 20 % litter cover results only in a small reduction in the runoff discharge. The research conducted demonstrate that the farmers should maintain the leaves on the floor (do not brush them as they use to do) to control the high erosion rates. This research study is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

2012-04-01

261

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-08-01

262

Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution from surfaces capped with a soil layer. This study reveals divergent GEM emission patterns among landfill cells of different ages, and provides essential emission estimates for formulating Hg emission reduction strategies for a large landfill.

Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

2013-11-01

263

Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1) GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion of production systems, (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3) GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4) GCRPS showed lower ?15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5) GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

2015-02-01

264

Differentiation of the soil cover in the lower Ob River valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific features of the soil cover in the lower reaches of the Ob River are analyzed. The physicochemical properties and composition of the floodplain soils in different parts of the valley and on different floodplain elements are given. A comparative geographical analysis of the accumulation of macro-and microelements in the floodplain soils as a result of alluviation processes in the middle and lower reaches of the Ob River is suggested. The evolution of the floodplain soils and the results of the development of stratified humus horizons, changes in the hydrological regime, and cessation of floods are discussed.

Nechaeva, E. G.

2008-11-01

265

Frequency and distribution patterns of zoosporic fungi from moss-covered and exposed forest soils.  

PubMed

Uniflagellate zoosporic "fungi" (=Chytridiomycota and the zoosporic protista Hyphochytriomycota) are common inhabitants of soil. However, at what scale differences in their spatial distribution can be detected is poorly known. The first objective of this study was to assess the association of organismal distribution and frequency with two microhabitats: moss-covered and exposed forest soils, at four macroscopically similar but spatially separate sites in the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains of Virginia. The second objective was to provide statistically either acceptance or denial of inferences derived from sampling regimes involving a more limited number of samples. To evaluate the scale where distributional differences may occur within a site, protocols involved four collection regimes and random point and linear transect sampling. Chytrid frequency on thalli of two moss genera was greatest in the soil surrounding and under the moss rhizoids. Random point sampling methods suggested differences in zoosporic fungal frequency between moss-covered soil and the exposed soil adjacent to mosses, as well as between two moss taxa. Linear transect sampling methods also suggested differences in zoosporic fungal frequencies between moss-covered soil and soil proximal to mosses. However, statistical analysis of random point samples using a goodness-of-fit test demonstrated that there was no significant difference in frequency of zoosporic fungi from moss-covered soil and exposed soil proximal to mosses. More importantly, there was a significant difference in the frequency of ubiquitous and common zoosporic fungal species between different moss/soil complexes. This study demonstrates that differences in chytrid distribution can be detected at a microscale while at a larger scale, similarity in frequency and distribution was found. PMID:21156550

Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J

2002-01-01

266

RESPONSE OF THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY TO SOIL FUMIGATION AND MUSTARD COVER CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fumigants such as metam-sodium, used in potato production of the Columbia Basin of WA, are very effective for the control of soil borne pathogens, weeds, and nematodes that reduce crop yield and quality. Soil fumigation has been assumed to have minor impacts on the general soil microbial commun...

267

Effect of land-use practice on soil moisture variability for soils covered with dense forest vegetation of Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little is known about the landuse management effect on soil moisture and soil pH distribution on a landscape covered with dense tropical forest vegetation. This study was conducted at three locations where the history of the landuse management is different. Soil moisture was measured using a 6-cm three-rod Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) probe. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the top 5-cm at the up, mid, and foothill landscape position from the same spots where soil moisture was measured. The results showed that soil moisture varies with landscape position and depth at all three locations. Soil pH and moisture variability were found to be affected by the change in landuse management and landscape position. Soil moisture distribution usually expected to be relatively higher in the foothill (P3) area of these forests than the uphill (P1) position. However, our results indicated that in the Luquillo and Guanica site the surface soil moisture was significantly higher for P1 than P3 position. These suggest that the surface and subsurface drainage in these two sites may have been poor due to the nature of soil formation and type.

Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Senwo, Z.; Shaffer, D.; Zou, X.

1998-01-01

268

A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

2013-10-01

269

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are inadequate, plants suffer nitrogen deficiency but when the levels are excessive, nitrates (NO3-N) can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The experimental site, a 10 m wide and 80 m long area at the bottom of a vineyard was selected in Sicily. The soil between vine rows and upslope of the buffer strip (seeded with Lolium perenne) and non-buffer strips (control) was managed conventionally and with one of two cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. L. perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. V. sativa cover crop management contribute with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduce the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-04-01

270

Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.  

PubMed

Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. PMID:23624425

Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

2013-07-30

271

Mitigating the effects of soil and residue water contents on remotely sensed estimates of crop residue cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues on the soil surface decrease soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon and the management of crop residues is an integral part of many conservation tillage systems. Current methods of measuring residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the spatial variability of residue cover over large fields. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of water

C. S. T. Daughtry; E HUNTJR

2008-01-01

272

Effects of tillage and winter cover cropping on microbial substrate-induced respiration and soil aggregation in two Japanese fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that cover cropping could increase soil microbial activities under various tillage systems and that increased microbial activities would improve soil properties. Soil sampling was conducted at two fields in Japan in 2009. At the Ibaraki field (Andosol, clay loam), three tillage practices (no-tillage, plowing to 30?cm, and rotary tillage to 15?cm) and three types of winter cover cropping

Tomomi Nakamoto; Masakazu Komatsuzaki; Toshiyuki Hirata; Hajime Araki

2012-01-01

273

The influence of annual precipitation, topography, and vegetative cover on soil moisture and summer drought in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of annual precipitation and vegetation cover on soil moisture and on the length of the summer drought was estimated quantitatively using 9 years of soil moisture data collected at Echo Valley in southern California. The measurements support the conclusions that in the semi-arid mediterranean climate a soil drought will occur regardless of vegetation cover and annual precipitation, but

P. C. Miller; D. K. Poole

1983-01-01

274

COVER CROPS AND CULTIVATION: IMPACTS ON SOIL N DYNAMICS, NITROUS OXIDE EFFLUX, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FUNCTION IN A MEDITERRANEAN VINEYARD AGROECOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Impacts of soil tillage and cover crops on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and microbiological function were investigated in a vineyard grown in California’s Mediterranean climate. We compared soil N dynamics, N availability and N2O emissions in a vineyard agroecosystem of two cover crops [Trios 102 (Tri...

275

Snow Cover Depletion and Soil Moisture Recharge at Three Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) Meteorological Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing concern regarding water supply in arid and semiarid regions, knowledge of water resources in the Earth's cold regions is critical. Snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are elements used in hydrologic modeling and climate modeling, as well as remote sensing applications. Modeled snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are important parameters in hydrologic forecasting. We evaluate the ability of a one-dimensional mass and energy balance model (SNTHERM.89) to predict snow-cover depletion and to test the accuracy of Fast All season Soil STrength (FASST) in modeling the evolution of soil moisture recharge based on data from three NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) sites. The objective is to evaluate the model's ability to predict observations at three CLPX sites: Buffalo Pass (near Steamboat Springs, CO); St. Louis Creek (in the Fraser Experimental Forest, CO); and Illinois River (located in North Park, CO). The three sites were chosen for their diverse climatic and physiographic differences. The Buffalo Pass site has a deep snowpack with discontinuous forest cover dominated by Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). The St. Louis site has a moderate snowpack depth and forest cover dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The Illinois River site is irrigated grassland with no forest cover.

Holcombe, J. D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.

2003-12-01

276

Bringing new life to old landfills  

SciTech Connect

On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

Rabasca, L.

1996-01-01

277

[Responses of net soil nitrogen mineralization rate in moss-covered soil to hydrothermic factors in Shapotou regions, northern China].  

PubMed

Undisturbed soil cores were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (-10, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 40 degrees C) and moistures (29%, 58%, 85% and 170% of field water content, FWC) to analyze the effect of moss crusts, which were sampled from the natural vegetation area of Shapotou, on soil nitrogen transformation and their responses to hydrothermic factors. Results showed that immobilization was the dominant form of nitrogen transformation at the lower temperatures (<15 degrees C), and when the temperature surpassed 25 degrees C, the nitrogen transformation rate significantly increased. The nitrogen transformation rate in the moss-covered soil was more sensitive to temperature variation than in the bare soil, and the highest temperature sensitivity was at 85% FWC. It indicated that the existence and succession of moss crusts facilitated nitrogen transformation. In addition, the nitrogen transformation rates of two microhabitats increased initially and then declined with the increasing moisture, and the maximum nitrogen transformation rate was observed at 85% FWC. Significant interactive effects were found between temperature and moisture in the moss-covered soil. While, the greater enhancement in nitrogen transformation rate appeared at higher temperatures (25-40 degrees C ) and moderate moisture levels (58% FWC and 85% FWC). It was concluded that the existence and succession of moss crusts would increase the ability of soil nitrogen supply, promote nitrogen cycling and even contribute to the restoration of soil ecosystem. PMID:24830238

Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Hao

2014-02-01

278

Soil moisture and soil loss study under different cover densities in Ultisolsin Pernambuco State semi-arid (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Brazil occurs a large loss of soil and water runoff due to soil erosion especially in rural areas. The soil moisture monitoringhas been a practice increasingly important in agriculture, especially in regions where water scarcity is high and rainfed cropping is adopted. The soil cover is one of the factors that minimize these effects of degradation arising from agricultural land use. To monitor the water content in the soil profile, point measurements were performed using an FDR equipment, which is a capacitance probe, Diviner 2000 ® model, the Sentek Pty Ltd, Australia. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of soil water content under different types of ground cover, using a probe and the Diviner soil loss in the semi-arid Pernambuco. The study was carried out in the Municipality of Pesqueira-PE, located in the State of Pernambuco, in the Alto Ipanema Representative Basin, with average annual rainfall of 730 mm and average annual potential evapotranspiration of 1683 mm. The soil of the study areas is classified as Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol abruptly (Area A) and typical Eutrophic Yellow Ultisol (Area B). For this, study three experimental plots were installed in two different areas, totalling six plots, bounded by brick, with 4.5 m wide and 11 m long in the direction of the slope, under three soil cover conditions. The treatments involved in this study are: bare soil (SD); with cactus (P) and natural cover (CN). The water content in soil was evaluated at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m at the soil profile and sediment sampling were carried out fortnightly between April and July 2011 (rainy season). In this work we used cumulative precipitation for seven and fourteen days before the readings with the Divinerprobe. The highest rainfall is concentrated during the months of May and July of 2011, and May is the month with the highest cumulative rainfall. April received the lowest rainfall, considered the driest. The water content in the soil indicates that in all treatments there was a greater storage of water with increased rainfall and reduced runoff. In area A treatment with CN had a larger increase in moisture at all depths. These results prove that the presence of vegetation is important for the semi-arid region, especially during drought periods. In the area B, at a depth of 0.10 m, the cactus had the highest increase of moisture, while at depths of 0.20 and 0.30 m above the ground there was a lower water storage. This result is related to the fact that in areas with high vegetation density results in a higher water consumption due to the demand of the plants, resulting in less moisture compared to the bare soil plot. The erosion results obtained show that the highest soil losses occurred in the condition without cover and it can be verified that it was influenced by the presence or absence of cover used and demonstrated to be effective (CN and P) to control erosion, providing a greater protective effect in the soil to reduce the area exposed to the raindrops impact.

Borges, T. K. S.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Santos, T. E. M.; Silva Junior, V. P.; Siqueira, G. M.

2012-04-01

279

Soil microbial, fungal, and nematode responses to soil fumigation and cover crops under potato production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (metam sodium) and 1,3 dichloropropene are widely used in potato production for the control of soil-borne\\u000a pathogens, weeds, and plant parasitic nematodes that reduce crop yield and quality. Soil fumigation with metam sodium has\\u000a been shown in microcosm studies to significantly reduce soil microbial populations and important soil processes such as C\\u000a and N mineralization. However, few published

H. P. Collins; A. Alva; R. A. Boydston; R. L. Cochran; P. B. Hamm; A. McGuire; E. Riga

2006-01-01

280

Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key question is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectivity of snow is the most important process by which snow cover can impact climate, through lower surface temperatures and increased surface pressures. The results to date were obtained for model runs with present-day conditions. We are currently analyzing runs made with projected forcings for the 21st century to see if these results are modified in any way under likely scenarios of future climate change. An intriguing new statistical technique involving 'clustering' is developed to assist in this analysis.

Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Erickson, David J., III; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

281

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

282

Are biodiversity indices of spontaneous grass covers in olive orchards good indicators of soil degradation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, to date there are very few studies assessing the environmental quality and extent of such covers. In this study, we described and compared the biodiversity indicators associated to herbaceous vegetation in two contrasting olive orchards in order to evaluate its relevance and quality. In addition, biodiversity patterns and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analyzed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shannon's and Pielou's indices. Sorensen's index obtained in the two olive orchard catchments showed notable differences in composition, probably linked with the different site conditions. The catchment with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation), with average annual soil losses over 10 t ha-1 and a more intense management, presented the highest biodiversity indices. In absolute terms, the diversity indices were reasonably high in both catchments, despite the fact that agricultural activity usually severely limits the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil was found in the catchment with the worst site conditions, average annual soil losses of 2 t ha-1 and the least intense management. Therefore, the biodiversity indicators associated to weeds were not found to be suitable for describing the soil degradation in the study catchments.

Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

2015-03-01

283

Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also mechanically killed by several tractor passes. Ground cover was evaluated by a field surveys (4 per year) in which the same areas were measured at an approximate density of 4 samples/ha. In each point, over a 0.25 m2 area ground cover was measured using photographs, then point measurements were interpolated using method of Inverse Distance Weighting methods, to generate continuous distribution maps. The spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover in both farms presented a notably different patterns in both farms. In "La Conchuela", maximum values of cover can be reached in winter (61%, Dec-2011) while in "Arroyo Blanco", the maximum values were observed during the spring (50% May-2011) and are dramatically lower in the seasons of summer and autumn. These differences are justified by the influence of the management, the precipitation regime and the soil qualities such as the depth. On the other hand, the large spatial variability of ground cover measurements in both catchments, with coefficients of variation between 41 and 167%, was mainly led by the topography. In both farms the highest values of ground cover were found in those areas with deeper soils located in also in converging areas where surface runoff is concentrated. In the highest and shallowest area, soil management operations might improve the establishment of the vegetation as well as to address the growing in the most erosive periods. Finally, the impact of grass cover on the hydrological and erosive responses in the catchment is also discussed. References Aguilera, L. 2012. Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar. Evaluación espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba. Gómez, J.A., Giráldez, J.V. Erosión y degradación de suelos. In: Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía. Gómez, J.A. (Editor). Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla, p. 45-86. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009. Soil management effects on ru

Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

2013-04-01

284

Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerations over the distribution of the organic matter in the soil cover of Transylvania Plain (Romania) Horea Cacovean*, Titus Man**, Teodor Rusu*** *OSPA-Cluj- 1Faglui street, Cluj Napoca, RO-40048, Romania- turda75@yahoo.com ** Faculty of Geographie, University of Babes-Bolyai, 5-7 Clinicilor street, Cluj Napoca, RO-400006, Romania *** Faculty of Agriculture, USAMV, 3-5 Calea Manastur street,Cluj Napoca, RO-400372, Romania Soil degradation has become a major concern in the Transylvania Plain. Erosion, landslides, salinization, gleysation, and loss of humus are the main forms of soil deterioration in that region. This factsheet deals with the role of organic matter in soil productivity and the effects of various management practices and abandonment of the lands on soil organic matter. Soils in Transylvania Plain are analyzed concerning the amount of humus they contain. The influence of soil texture, climatic variables, and soil management on the qualitative soil humus content was studied in the top 20 cm of different managed loess soils of more then 100 profiles along a climosequence in that region. Taken together, soil, landform, land use and vegetation data suggest: (1) summit positions are relatively stable with immobilizing humus environments; (2) the content of humus increase progressively down steep at the contact with the floodplains; 3) without the influx of organic materials, erodible backslopes may become humus depleted as it happen the poor inputs of grassland and forest litter are mixed with surface soil horizon; 4) influx of mixed sediment and organic materials from backslopes maintains concentrations of humus on footslopes and toeslopes. This influence was more pronounced in the heavy clayey soils, suggesting that the accumulation of humus was enhanced by organo-mineral interactions. Entrenchment of drainage ways can circumvent these translocation processes. The results underscore the importance of functional connectivity between upland hillslopes and alluvial soils.

Cacovean, Horia; Man, Titus; Rusu, Teodor

2010-05-01

285

Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative.

Wallace, I.P.

1991-01-01

286

Comparison of Seasonal Soil Microbial Process in Snow-Covered Temperate Ecosystems of Northern China  

PubMed Central

More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC) within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N) ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G-) to gram positive (G+) bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring. PMID:24667929

Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei; Chen, Weile; Zhang, Naili; Zeng, Hui

2014-01-01

287

Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.  

PubMed

Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. PMID:23968554

Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

2014-02-01

288

Soil nitrous oxide emissions in long-term cover crops-based rotations under subtropical climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that cover crops can enhance soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, but the magnitude of increase depends on the quantity and quality of the crop residues. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term (19 and 21 years) no-till maize crop rotations including grass [black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb)] and legume cover crops [vetch (Vigna

Juliana Gomes; Cimélio Bayer; Falberni de Souza Costa; Marisa de Cássia Piccolo; Josiléia Acordi Zanatta; Frederico Costa Beber Vieira; Johan Six

2009-01-01

289

Multiple-Year Water Balance of Soil Covers in a Semiarid Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface covers are used to close hazardous and low-level radioactive sites for time frames ranging from hundreds of years to millennia or more. In the absence of data for such durations, the long-term performance of such barriers can only be represented with short-term tests or inferred from analogs and modeling. This paper provides evidence of field performance of soil covers

Michael J. Fayer; Glendon W. Gee

2006-01-01

290

A field-validated model for landfill methane emissions inclusive of seasonal methane oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to natural wetlands, atmospheric methane (CH4) has multiple anthropogenic sources with high uncertainties, including rice production, ruminant animals, natural gas leakages, biomass burning, and landfills. For an improved IPCC Tier III methodology for landfill CH4 emissions in California, we have developed a new science-based, field-validated inventory model which decouples emissions from a historical reliance on a theoretical first order kinetic model for CH4 generation potential. The model (CALMIM, CAlifornia Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely-available JAVA tool which estimates net CH4 emissions to the atmosphere for any landfill cover soil over a typical annual cycle, including (1) the effect of engineered gas extraction; (2) the physical effects of daily, intermediate, and final cover materials to retard emissions; and (3) seasonal soil moisture and temperature effects on both gaseous transport and methanotrophic CH4 oxidation. Linking site-specific data with existing globally-validated USDA models for annual climate and soil microclimate (Global TempSim; Global RainSim; Solarcalc; STM2), this model relies on 1-D diffusion as the major driver for emissions. Importantly, unlike current inventory methods based on modeled generation, the driving force for emissions (e.g., the CH4 concentration gradient) can be directly compared to field data. Methane oxidation is scaled to maximum rates over the full range of moisture and temperature conditions based on extensive supporting laboratory studies using California landfill cover soils. Field validation included meteorological data, soil moisture/temperature measurements, and seasonal (wet/dry) CH4 emissions & oxidation measurements for daily, intermediate, and final cover soils over two annual cycles at a northern (Monterey County) and southern California (Los Angeles County) landfill. The model accurately predicted soil temperature and moisture trends for individual cover materials with acceptable order-of-magnitude predictability for field emissions within the context of published literature spanning 7 orders of magnitude. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user-selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site-specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist.

Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Chanton, J.

2010-12-01

291

Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect

This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-01

292

Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key question in the study of the hydrologic cycle is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. GAPP region in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. We have also made sensitivity studies with exaggerated soil moisture and snow cover anomalies in order to determine the physical processes that may be important. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. The initial state of soil moisture does not appear important, a result that held whether simulations were started in late winter or late spring. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and hence climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectivity of snow is the most important process by which snow cover can impact climate, through lower surface temperatures and increased surface pressures. In early winter, the amount of solar radiation is very small and so this albedo, effect is inconsequential while in late winter, with the sun higher in the sky and period of daylight longer, the effect is much stronger. The results to date were obtained for model runs with present-day conditions. We are currently analyzing runs made with projected forcings for the 21st century to see if these results are modified in any way under likely scenarios of future climate change.

Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

293

Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key question in the study of the hydrologic cycle is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. We have also made sensitivity studies with exaggerated soil moisture and snow cover anomalies in order to determine the physical processes that may be important. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. The initial state of soil moisture does not appear important, a result that held whether simulations were started in late winter or late spring. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and hence climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectively of snow is the most important process by which snow cover cart impact climate, through lower surface temperatures and increased surface pressures. In early winter, the amount of solar radiation is very small and so this albedo effect is inconsequential while in late winter, with the sun higher in the sky and period of daylight longer, the effect is much stronger.

Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Erickson, David J., III; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

294

Unsaturated hydrologic flow parameters based on laboratory and field data for soils near the mixed waste landfill, technical area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory tests conducted on soil core samples obtained prior to an instantaneous profile test conducted west of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The instantaneous profile test was conducted to measure in situ hydrologic parameters controlling unsaturated flow and contaminant transport in the near - surface vadose zone. Soil core samples from the instantaneous profile test plot were tested in the Sandia National Laboratory`s Environmental Restoration Project Hydrology Laboratory to measure saturated hydraulic conductivity and the relationships between moisture content and soil water tension. Data from laboratory tests and the instantaneous profile field test were then modeled using the computer code RETC to quantify moisture content, soil water tension, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relationships. Results content, soil verified that a combination of laboratory and field data yielded a more complete definition of hydrologic properties than either laboratory or field data alone. Results also indicated that at native moisture contents, the potential for significant unsaturated aqueous flow is limited, while at saturated or near - saturated conditions, preferential flow may occur.

Roepke, C.S. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, W.R.; Nguyen, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

295

Cover Crop and Liquid Manure Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in a Corn Silage System.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to a lack of surface residue and organic matter inputs, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production is one of the most demanding cropping systems imposed on our soil resources. In this study, our objective was to determine if using cover/companion crops and/or applying low-solids liquid dair...

296

Addition of cover crops enhances no-till potential for improving soil physical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the use of cover crops (CC) is growing. Inclusion of CC may be a potential strategy to boost no-till performance by improving soil physical properties. To assess this potential, we utilized a wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)]-grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] rotation, four N rate...

297

CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND COVER CROP INFLUENCES ON COTTON PRODUCTION ON SOUTHEASTERN USA COASTAL PLAIN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A majority of the 2.9 million acres of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produced in the Southeastern USA is located on Coastal Plain sandy soils that can benefit from conservation cropping systems. An understanding of cover crop and tillage system interactions is needed within specific environments to...

298

Cover crop, soil amendments, and variety effects on organic rice production in Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major challenges in organic rice production include optimization of nutrient utilization, weed management, and variety selection. In this study, we tested the effects of two soil amendment products, two fertilizer rates, and three cover cropping systems (clover, ryegrass, and fallow) on organic ...

299

Elemental contents of plants growing on soil-covered retorted shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (F, B, Mo, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Hg, Se, and As) were determined in plants growing on various depths of soil covering retorted (Paraho) shale. The plants that were sampled include: Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), western wheat-grass (Agropyron smithii), Sherman's big bluegrass (Poa ampla), Utah sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale),

A. P. Schwab; W. L. Lindsay; P. J. Smith

2009-01-01

300

Influence of Cover Crops in Rotation on Populations of Soil Nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pot experiment was carried out in south Florida to elucidate suppressive or antagonistic effects of several cover crops grown in rotation on soil nematode populations. The crops were two marigolds, Tagetes patula L. 'Dwarf Double French Mix' (MI), and Tagetes patula L. 'Lemon Drop' (MII), Indian m...

301

Tillage and Cover Effects on Soil Microbial Properties and Fluometuron Degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS, in 1994 and 1995 to determine the influence of tillage (no tillage [NT] or conventional tillage [CT]) and a ryegrass cover crop in a cotton production system on soil microbial populations and enzyme activity. Fluometuron degradation was evaluated unde...

302

The impact of fall cover crops on soil nitrate and corn growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporating cover crops into current production systems can have many beneficial impacts on the current cropping system including decreasing erosion, improving water infiltration, increasing soil organic matter and biological activity but in water limited areas caution should be utilized. A fiel...

303

Frequent fire affects soil nitrogen and carbon in an African savanna by changing woody cover.  

PubMed

When tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems burn, considerable amounts of N present in the biomass fuel may be released. This ultimately results in a loss of fixed N to the atmosphere. It is often assumed that this volatilization loss of N with frequent fire will result in a reduction of plant-available N and total system N. By changing the amount of woody biomass fire may, however, also have indirect effects on N and C dynamics. Here we consider the effects of 50 years of frequent fire on total soil N and soil organic C (SOC) and total soil N in a mesic savanna in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We also determine how changes in woody biomass may affect total soil N and SOC. We measured soil and fine root N and C concentrations as well as total soil N and SOC pools in four burning treatments, including fire exclusion, of a long-term fire experiment. Our results show that regardless of soil depth, fire treatment had no significant effect on total soil N and SOC. Our results also show that under trees total soil N and SOC concentrations of the surface soil increase, and pools of N and SOC increase to a depth of 7 cm. However, the extent to which soil N and C dynamics differed under canopies and away from canopies was dependent on fire treatment. Our results show that the effect of fire on soil N and C is mediated both through the indirect effect of changes in woody cover and the direct effects of fire (volatilization losses of nutrients). We suggest that woody thickening in this mesic savanna will have pronounced effects on long-term N and C dynamics. PMID:20213154

Coetsee, Corli; Bond, William J; February, Edmund C

2010-04-01

304

PermanganateCandlesClean ContaminationatFormerCozadLandfill  

E-print Network

paraffin-based permanganate candles are prepped for lowering down a borehole at a Cozad landfill site wherePermanganateCandlesClean ContaminationatFormerCozadLandfill U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E B R A S K landfill. For the past year and a half, University of Nebraska­Lincoln soil environmental chemist Steve

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

305

SOIL STRENGTH IN SE COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER FALLOW AND WINTER RYE COVER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In southeastern US Coastal Plain hardpan soils, inverse linear relationships have been found relating average soil strength within the top 60 cm of the profile and yield for corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We expected to find a similar relationsh...

306

Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality  

SciTech Connect

Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

2014-06-01

307

Phytoremediation of landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

Jones, D.L. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom); Owen, A.G. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

308

Winter rye cover crop management influences on soil water, soil nitrate, and corn development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop can be seeded after corn (Zea mays L.) silage to mitigate some of the environmental concerns associated with this cropping system. Rye can be managed as a cover crop by chemical termination or harvested as for forage. A field study was conducted in Morris,...

309

Multiple-Year Water Balance of Soil Covers in a Semiarid Setting  

SciTech Connect

Surface covers are used to close hazardous and low-level radioactive sites for time frames ranging from hundreds of years to millennia or more. In the absence of data for such durations, the long-term performance of such barriers can only be represented with short-term tests or inferred from analogs and modeling. This paper provides evidence of field performance of soil covers for periods up to 17 years. The results of lysimeter studies from a semi-arid site in Washington State show that a soil cover of 1.5 m of silt loam above a sand/gravel capillary break can eliminate drainage. The results were similar if plants were present or not, demonstrating the robustness of the design. Furthermore, reducing the silt loam thickness to 1.0 m (as might occur via erosion), with or without plants, did not lead to drainage. When irrigated to mimic 3x precipitation conditions, the vegetated Hanford Barrier continued to prevent drainage. Overall, the results showed no diminution in performance during the 17 years of testing. Only when plants were eliminated completely from the 3x precipitation test did drainage occur (rates ranged from 6 to 16 mm/yr). In a separate test, replacing the top 0.2 m of silt loam with dune sand and reducing the plant cover did not lead immediately to the onset of drainage, but soil matric heads within the silt loam noticeably increased. This observation suggests that dune sand migration onto a surface cover has the potential to reduce a cover’s ability to minimize deep drainage.

Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-03-01

310

High retention of N P nutrients, soil organic carbon, and fine particles by cover crops under tropical climate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover cropping system has shown a potential to improve soil quality and carbon sequestration but the residue decomposition rates determined by biotic and abiotic factors play a crucial role to reach such objectives. Legume and non-legume cover crop residues were applied to the surface of two soils i...

311

Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Historically, Florida soils stored the largest amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) among the conterminous U.S. states (2.26 Pg). This region experienced rapid land use/land cover (LULC) shifts and climate change in the past decades. The effects of these changes on SOC sequestration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the change in SOC stocks in Florida to determine if soils have acted as a net sink or net source for carbon (C) over the past four decades and 2) identify the concomitant effects of LULC, LULC change, and climate on the SOC change. A total of 1080 sites were sampled in the topsoil (0-20 cm) between 2008 and 2009 representing the current SOC stocks, 194 of which were selected to collocate with historical sites (n = 1251) from the Florida Soil Characterization Database (1965-1996) for direct comparison. Results show that SOC stocks significantly differed among LULC classes--sugarcane and wetland contained the highest SOC, followed by improved pasture, urban, mesic upland forest, rangeland, and pineland while crop, citrus and xeric upland forest remained the lowest. The surface 20 cm soils acted as a net sink for C with the median SOC significantly increasing from 2.69 to 3.40 kg m(-2) over the past decades. The SOC sequestration rate was LULC dependent and controlled by climate factors interacting with LULC. Higher temperature tended to accelerate SOC accumulation, while higher precipitation reduced the SOC sequestration rate. Land use/land cover change observed over the past four decades also favored the C sequestration in soils due to the increase in the C-rich wetland area by ~140% and decrease in the C-poor agricultural area by ~20%. Soils are likely to provide a substantial soil C sink considering the climate and LULC projections for this region. PMID:25010945

Xiong, Xiong; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, D Brenton; Ross, C Wade; Harris, Willie G; Comerford, Nicolas B

2014-09-15

312

Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover  

PubMed Central

The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (?-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased ?-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, ?-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the original substrate should be previously assessed on a site by site basis. PMID:24984137

Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

2014-01-01

313

Improvement of remote sensing of crop residue cover by accounting for green vegetation and soil spectral properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage methods are beneficial as they disturb soil less and leaves increased crop residue cover (CRC) after planting on the soil surface. CRC helps reduce soil erosion, evaporation, and the need for tillage operations in fields. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to due to less fos...

314

Role of vegetation cover on soil water balance in two Mediterranean areas: semiarid and dry at southeastern of Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a limited resource in the semiarid areas, which affects both, the population services, the economic growth, like the natural ecosystems stability. In this context, an accurate knowledge of soil water balance and role of the vegetation cover contribute to improve the management of resources water and forest. These studies are increasingly important, if we consider the latest Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In this paper the main objectives were focused on:(1)To determine the soil water balance on two different climatic conditions, semiarid and dry climate and(2) Assess the effect of vegetation (structure and cover) on soil water balance under the studied climatic conditions. For this purpose we used HYDROBAL ecohydrological model, which calculates at a daily resolution the water flows through of the vegetation canopy, estimates daily soil moisture and predicts deep drainage from the unsaturated soil layer into the aquifer. In order to achieve these objectives, we have selected two sites in the south-eastern of Spain, on soils calcareous and different climatic conditions. Ventós site in a semiarid Mediterranean area and Confrides site in a dry Mediterranean area, with 303 and 611 mm of annual precipitation respectively. Both sites, the predominant vegetation are afforestations with Pinus halepensis on dry grasslands with some patches of thorn shrublands and dwarf scrubs; but it show difference on trees density, cover and height of pines.Soil water balance was determined in each site using HYDROBAL ecohydrological model on one hydrological year (October 2012 and September 2013).Model inputs include climatic variables (daily rainfall and temperature), as well as soil and vegetation characteristics (soil field capacity, soil wilting point, initial soil water content and vegetation cover index). Model outputs are interception, net rainfall, runoff, soil water reserves, actual evapotranspiration, direct percolation, and deep percolation (or aquifer recharge). In the last decade, HYDROBAL model has been used successfully in semiarid conditions, to assess the soil water balance on different vegetation cover types, and the effect of different land-use scenarios on water resources and aquifer recharge. Results highlight the role of vegetation cover type and volume of annual rainfall on the soil water balance. Both sites present similar percentage of vegetation cover(>80%), however in Ventós site (semiarid area), a lower pine cover (44%) and lower volume of annual rainfall produced differences in the soil water balance. In Confrides site (dry area), in spite of show the twice of annual rainfall, a higher pine cover (78%) reduced the net precipitation and consequently affected the soil water balance. An understanding the role of vegetation cover on soil water balance is a very useful tool to implement an optimal management of forest and water resources.

Manrique, Àngela; Ruiz, Samantha; Chirino, Esteban; Bellot, Juan

2014-05-01

315

Effect of cover crops and tillage system on symphylan (Symphlya: Scutigerella immaculata, Newport) and Pergamasus quisquiliarum Canestrini (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations, and other soil organisms in agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The garden symphylan (Scutigerella immaculata: Newport) is a common myriapod soil pest of vegetable crops in the Pacific Northwest and other regions of the US. Symphylans consume germinating seeds, plant roots, and above-ground plant parts in contact with the soil. Factors regulating symphylan populations in agricultural soil systems are poorly understood, particularly the effects of farming practices such as cover

R. E Peachey; A Moldenke; R. D William; R Berry; E Ingham; Eric Groth

2002-01-01

316

Remote sensing as a source of land cover information utilized in the universal soil loss equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, methods for gathering the land use/land cover information required by the USLE were investigated with medium altitude, multi-date color and color infrared 70-mm positive transparencies using human and computer-based interpretation techniques. Successful results, which compare favorably with traditional field study methods, were obtained within the test site watershed with airphoto data sources and human airphoto interpretation techniques. Computer-based interpretation techniques were not capable of identifying soil conservation practices but were successful to varying degrees in gathering other types of desired land use/land cover information.

Morris-Jones, D. R.; Morgan, K. M.; Kiefer, R. W.; Scarpace, F. L.

1979-01-01

317

Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

318

Microsite and litter cover effects on soil conditions and seedling recruitment in a saline agricultural system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful revegetation of saline land is dependent on seedling recruitment to maintain vegetative cover for lowering of saline\\u000a water tables and agricultural production. This paper examines seasonal effects of tree\\/shrub microsites and leaf-litter on\\u000a soil conditions and seedling recruitment in a saline grazing system planted with Eucalyptus sargentii Maiden tree rows (15 years old) and saltbush (Atriplex spp.) inter-rows (8 years old).

Claire Farrell; Christopher Szota; Richard J. Hobbs; Timothy D. Colmer

319

Chlorimuron ethyl sorption and desorption kinetics in soils and herbicide-desiccated cover crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between a herbicide and plant residue on the soil surface in plant residue management systems such as no-tillage or cover crop is of interest in terms of environmental fate of the herbicide. This study was designed to evaluate sorption and desorption of chlorimuron ethyl {ethyl 2-(((((4- chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)aminolc~bonyll~olsulfonyllbenzoic acid} in herbicide-desiccated rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa

Krishna N. Reddy; Martin A. Locke; Stephen C. Wagner; Robert M. Zablotowicz; Lewis A. Gaston; Reid J. Smeda

1995-01-01

320

Sulfide emissions from different areas of a municipal solid waste landfill in China.  

PubMed

Degradation of municipal solid waste in landfills generates sulfide compounds, which are considered one of the main sources of odor emissions. Field sampling was conducted at surfaces of operating, inoperative, and soil-covered areas of a landfill site in northern China to characterize the sulfide compounds. The results showed that dimethyl disulfide dominated the sulfide compounds, accounting for up to 73.6% of the total detected sulfide. With the biggest odor concentration of 365, diethyl sulfide was the most significant sulfide compound. The estimated sulfide emission rates at surfaces of operating and soil-covered areas were similar, and the emission rate of dimethyl disulfide at Surface of Operating Area was up to 345.9 ?g/m(3) h. Dimethyl disulfide could be released from the fresh waste, and its normalized concentration at 0.2 m beneath operating surface was 10.4 times that at 0.4 m. PMID:23948050

Yue, Dongbei; Han, Bing; Sun, Yue; Yang, Ting

2014-06-01

321

Assessing the Biometeorology of a Newly Established Reclamation Soil Cover in Fort McMurray, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several experimental watersheds have been established in the Fort McMurray region as part of a risk-based assessment of various reclamation strategies for oil sands mining. This study has been undertaken to specifically evaluate if the most cost-effective reclamation option (minimal soil depth) can retain sufficient moisture to promote plant development and return the area to a functional boreal ecosystem. The eddy covariance technique was used during the second post-reclamation growing season to quantify the exchange of energy and water vapour atop a 25 cm soil cover, situated on a south facing slope. The 2008 growing season was both hotter and wetter than normal, resulting in large seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) values (309 mm from May 10th - Oct 8th). The majority of available energy was partitioned into latent heat, resulting in a mean Bowen ratio of 0.75 and a Priestley-Taylor alpha coefficient approaching unity (mean = 0.87). A low mean daytime (0900 to 1700 hrs) decoupling coefficient (? = 0.31), which decreased bi- weekly with increasing LAI, suggests that ET at this site was predominantly controlled by canopy resistance (rc). A total derivative analysis of the Penman-Monteith equation was used to demonstrate the sensitivity of ET to changes in available radiation (Ra), vapour pressure deficit (D) and rc between months. Results indicate that ET was particularly influenced by rc during the driest month of July when soil moisture became limited and the vegetation became stressed. ET was more sensitive to changes in D prior to leaf-out and during senescence. Although too early to predict whether this soil cover will be successful in sustaining regeneration, this study provides some insight into the unique biometeorology of the initial stages of engineered soil covers. Over time, this may allow for the detection of specific environmental indicators that may preclude the impending success or failure of reclamation efforts.

Goodbrand, S. C.; Carey, S. K.

2009-05-01

322

DETECTING LANDFILL LEACHATE CONTAMINATION USING REMOTE SENSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for using remote sensing to detect landfill leachate contamination of ground and surface water is described. Among the topics covered are leachate indicators, spatial and temporal aspects of leachate detection, sensor selection, flight design and data interpretation...

323

Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.  

PubMed

Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies. PMID:24180104

Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

2013-09-01

324

Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

NONE

1994-02-01

325

Impact of Extreme Events and Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on the Evolution of a Mesa-top Waste Repository Cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberia model was used to optimize the design of a mesa-top waste repository cover at Los Alamos National Laboratory on the Pajarito Plateau in Northern New Mexico, USA. The cover was designed to meet criteria that the depth to waste from the cover surface would be greater than 1 meter after 1000 years of erosion. The model was run using two steady-state landscape forming events (2 and 5 year return periods) derived from a 20 year data set at the Santa Rita Experimental Watershed in Arizona, and hydraulic properties of two soils, loam and sandy loam. Although we were able to show that the final design cover met the performance criteria for both high and moderate erosion scenarios, concerns remained about the impact of extreme events. In addition, Hydrus simulations, based on saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) measurements from cores of cover material comprised of crushed tuff and a bentonite admixture, suggested that surface runoff on the cover might be orders of magnitude higher than the landscape forming runoff events used for the Siberia simulations. The Siberia runoff events were based on Ksat values for loam and sandy loam soils with identical texture (% sand , silt and clay) to the engineered cover soil, but these values assume soil structure that may or may not develop in the engineered cover. This work summarizes the impacts of both 1) the timing and size of extreme events and 2) the impact of soil structure and Ksat, on long-term repository cover evolution.

Crowell, K. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Lane, L. J.; Newman, B. D.; Schofield, T. G.

2005-12-01

326

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

327

Cover Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops are a beneficial tool for use in conservation tillage systems. Cover crop residues reduce soil erosion from water and wind, increase soil water availability for subsequent crops, enhance soil organic matter and biological activity, and can decrease labor and energy inputs. Cover crop...

328

A map of the soil cover patterns in the western part of the Transbaikal region (1: 500000 scale)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of soil surveys in the Khorinsk district of the Buryat Republic have been generalized on a map of the soil cover patterns on a scale of 1: 500000. The map reflects the soil cover patterns in the zones of mountainous tundra and taiga, mountainous forest-steppes, sand massifs on piedmonts, and plain steppes and dry steppes. The areas of each component of the soil combinations shown on the map have been calculated. In the course of the generalization of large-scale soil maps, information on the genetic types and subtypes of soils has been preserved. The new map adequately displays the real pattern of the soil distribution in the studied area.

Gonchikov, B.-M. N.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Davydova, T. V.

2009-07-01

329

Cleaner Landfills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

2000-01-01

330

Comparative Landfills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain solid and hazardous waste management. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require about two hours of class time, plus a few minutes a day for several weeks. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate what happens to garbage in landfills, and compare it to the process of burying trash. The activity is explained in depth in this lesson plan handout. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

331

Soil formation and mass fluxes in cover beds of the Kowarski Grzbiet (eastern Karkonosze Mountains)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karkonosze Mountains are a Hercynian mid-mountain range located in the Central Europe, at the border of Poland and the Czech Republic. Although granite is the dominant geology in the western and middle part of the mountain belt, the eastern part consists mainly of different types of the schists and gneiss. Small mountain glaciers that developed during the late Weichselian, periglacial conditions as well as an intense activity of slope processes during the Atlantic and at the Atlantic/Sub-Boreal transition have shaped the landscape during the Quaternary and formed sequences of cover beds which became the main parent material of soils. In our study we focused on the eastern, metamorphic part that is characterised by mica schist, amphibole schist and gneiss. A transect was studied along the slope of Skalny Stol (1281 m as.l) of the Kowarski Grzbiet having NW exposition. This transect included 5 profiles along a slope section from 1269 m asl to 1142 m asl. In all profiles, at least three layers could be distinguished: (a) a basal layer formed probably in the Younger Dryas with features of solifluction - found in almost every relief position (b) a transition periglacial zone, interpreted as a result of cryoturbation, and (c) a top cover having almost no rock fragments and most likely relatively young (Holocene) appeared in all profiles. However, in some soils, colluvial material was found in the topsoil. Within the stony cover bed, at the flat plateaus and in the upper section of slope Hyperskeletic and Skeletic Podzols have developed (the basal and transition layer contained amphibole schist and the top layer only mica schist). In the middle and lower slope position where gelisolifluction layers were detected, colluvial material was superimposed and as a consequence Cambisols and Stagnosols have developed. Consequently, the soil distribution pattern in this landscape is strongly affected by the arrangement of the slope deposits. Sediments having a different age and origin should reflect different weathering mechanisms and clay minerals formation and transformation processes. To check this hypothesis we: (i) identified clay minerals using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods, (ii) measured total element content in fine earth using X-ray fluorescence, (iii) calculated weathering indexes such as the (K+Ca)/Ti ratio, indexes A and B and (iv) measured erosion rates using 10Be in soils. These measurements confirmed the complex soil formation characteristics of the soils and demonstrated the highly dynamic system of slope deposits (in terms of matter fluxes).

Waroszewski, Jaroslaw; Egli, Markus; Brandová, Dagmar; Plötze, Michael; Kabala, Cezary; Kierczak, Jakub

2014-05-01

332

Conservation tillage, rotations, and cover crop affect soil quality in the Tennessee Valley: Particulate organic matter, organic matter, and microbial biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monocropping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with conventional tillage provides little carbon input to soil, increases erosion and promotes rapid oxidation of existing soil organic carbon (SOC). Management practices like conservation tillage, crop rotation, and cover cropping can impact soil carbon, ...

333

Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

2014-03-01

334

Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. PMID:25217742

Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

2014-12-01

335

Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

Widory, D., E-mail: d.widory@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 ave Claude Guillemin, 45000 Orleans (France); Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G. [BRGM, 3 ave Claude Guillemin, 45000 Orleans (France); Bour, O. [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

2012-09-15

336

The applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. [landforms, vegetation, soils, forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Five investigators report on the applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. Deficiencies due to lack of equipment, repetitive coverage and interpretation know-how are also reported on. Revision of lake shorelines is an immediate benefit. Basement system metasediments are rapidly differentiated, but dune areas are not readily distinguishable from sandy soils. Forest, moorland, high altitude grass, tea, and conifer plantations are readily distinguished, with podocarpus forest especially distinguishable from podocarpus/juniperus forest. In the arid areas physiographic features, indicating the major soil types, are readily identified and mapped. Preliminary vegetation type analysis in the Mara Game Reserve indicates that in a typical savannah area about 36% of the vegetation types are distinguishable at a scale of 1:1 million as well as drainage patterns and terrain features.

Omino, J. H. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

337

Technogenic contaminations of the soil-plant cover in the Primorsky Krai, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All economical development of the countries carries out monitoring as with the aim to estimate impact of the industrial enterprises and nuclear-energetic complexes as consequences of the nuclear accidents. The investigation the region of the Far East due to proximity to epicentre of accident on Fukushima-1 NPP is of a great interest. The aim of this work are radioecological investigations and estimate technogenic load on the ecosystems of tightly populated plots of the shore zone of the Vladivostok region. Eight plots were located on the investigated territory. The tree fall, forest litters and soils were sampling from the profile cuts of layer by layer, up to 20 cm. The artificial radionuclides (Sr-90 and Cs-134,137), as heavy metals and microelements (Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn) content in the prepared samples was determined. The stock of Sr-90 fluctuates from 0.3 to 1.3 kBq/m2 and Cs-137 was from 0.4 to 3.0 kBq/m2 in the examined soils. On the whole, the level of the radionuclides content in the soil cover is within the limits of the background that was formed in the belt between 50° and 60° of northern latitude. The presence in investigated samples of Cs-134 indicates to contribution of accidental fallout of Fukushima-1 into contamination of the components of the natural ecosystems. In a year's time after the accident the stock of this isotope in the soils was 0.01-0.20 kBq/m^2. It is by factor of 10-100 lower than the stock of Cs-137. Taking into account that the ratio Cs-134/Cs-137 on the moment of accident was equal to unity (1:1). It can be estimated the quantity of Cs-137 entering into environment during post - accident period. This quantity was an average 0.03-0.30 kBq/m2 (with correction on radionuclides decay). The observation for the state of the soil cover includes the estimate of the level and peculiarities of distribution in the soils of heavy metals and microelements. Their content in the soils is formed from Clarke number and additional industrial gas-aerosol fallout. The analysis of a large volume data permitted to calculate the maximal level of the elements content in a soil under influence only natural factors. It was established, that maximal content of Co, Zn, Mn in these soils exceed of their Clarke's numbers. Minimal elements content was found for a tree fall. As a rule, this content is by factor of 10-100 lower than the Clarke values. Maximal concentration is in the soil layer. At the same time the additional technogenic fall-out produces the double increasing of the content of Cu and Pb in the soil layer. For the rest elements the concentrations increased on 8-32%. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the grant for integrative research between the Ural and Far Eastern Branches of the Russian Academy of Sciences (12-C-4-1001).

Molchanova, Inna; Pozolotina, Vera; Mikhailovskaya, Ludmila; Antonova, Elena; Zhuravlev, Yury; Timofeeva, Yana; Burdukovsky, Maxim

2013-04-01

338

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work focuses on the characterization of natural, spatially variable, semivegetated landscapes using a linear, stochastic, canopy-soil reflectance model. A first application of the model was the investigation of the effects of subpixel and regional variability of scenes on the shape and structure of red-infrared scattergrams. Additionally, the model was used to investigate the inverse problem, the estimation of subpixel vegetation cover, given only the scattergrams of simulated satellite scale multispectral scenes. The major aspects of that work, including recent field investigations, are summarized.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

339

Cover Crops, Tillage, and Glyphosate Effects on Chemical and Biological Properties of a Lower Mississippi Delta Soil and Soybean Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adoption of sustainable cropping systems, including cover crops and no-tillage practices can promote soil conservation and improve soil quality. However, the selection of the best management practices to increase crop production is needed. A field study was conducted from 2001 to 2005 at Stone...

340

CARBON SUPPLY AND STORAGE IN TILLED AND NON-TILLED SOILS AS INFLUENCED BY COVER CROPS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon sequestration, as a process to reduce atmospheric CO2 level, can be influenced by crop management practices in tilled and non-tilled soils due to differences in crop residue C returned to the soil and rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (...

341

Cover crops and sampling date effect on on-farm soil carbon pools under conservation tillage cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops may influence soil C sequestration and microbial activities by providing additional residue C to soil. We examined the influence of legume (crimson clover), nonlegume (rye), blend (a mixture of legumes containing balansa clover, hairy vetch, and crimson clover], and rye + blend mixture c...

342

Carbon mineralization in the soils under different cover crops and residue management in an intensive protected vegetable cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cropping under plastic greenhouses, a common practice in intensive Chinese vegetable production systems, has led to the decline of soil productivity and crop yields. A 4-year greenhouse experiment on cucumber double-cropping systems was conducted in Changping country, Beijing, China, to investigate the effects of summer cover crops and residue management on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), C mineralization and

Yongqiang Tian; Juan Liu; Xuhui Wang; Lihong Gao

2011-01-01

343

Black oat cover crop management effects on soil temperature and biological properties on a Mollisol in Texas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of mowing (no mowing, flail mowing, or sickle mowing) management of a black oat (Avena strigosa [Schreb.]) cover crop on soil microenvironmental conditions and on microbial biomass, dissolved organic C (DOC), soil inorganic N, resin-extractable...

344

Cover crops tillage and glyphosate effects on chemical and biological properties of a Lower Mississippi Delta soil and soybean yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adoption of sustainable cropping systems, including cover crops and no-tillage practices can promote soil conservation and improve soil quality. However, the selection of the best management practices to increase crop production is needed. A field study was conducted from 2001 to 2005 at Stone...

345

The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term

David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

2001-01-01

346

Direct drilling of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) into a cover crop: effects on soil physical conditions and crop establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct drilling of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) into an autumn sown cover crop may reduce field work in spring and environmental damage, such as soil erosion and nitrate leaching, but the balance of its negative and positive effects on crop establishment is unknown. This study compared the effects of drilling sugar beet directly into a cover crop of wheat

G. Richard; J. Boiffin; Y. Duval

1995-01-01

347

Influence of Cover Crops and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization on Tomato and Snap Bean Production and Soil Nitrate Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial vegetable production depends almost solely on inorganic fertilizers. In an era of environmental sensitivity, enrichment of soils with green manures and cover crops may reduce the dependence on these fertilizers while maintaining and enhancing crop yields. The objectives of this research were to determine (1) if supplemental nitrogen (N) at 60 or 120 kg · ha following winter cover

Robert J. Dufault; Dennis R. Decoteau; J. Thomas Garrett; K. Dean Batal; Darbie Granberry; Jeanine M. Davis; Greg Hoyt; Douglas Sanders

2000-01-01

348

Effect of cover crop on soil physical and chemical properties of an alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several leguminous and graminaceous cover crops on soil physical and chemical properties was studied on a moderately eroded Alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina Faso during the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. Cover crops sown in 1986 were Macroptilium artropurpureum, M. lathyroides, Vigna radiata var. radiata, Cajanus cajan, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus, Psophocarpus palustris, Digitaria

N. R. Hulugalle

1988-01-01

349

Cover crop nitrogen availability to conventional and no?till corn: Soil mineral nitrogen, corn nitrogen status, and corn yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding seasonal soil nitrogen (N) availability patterns is necessary to assess corn (Zea mays L.) N needs following winter cover cropping. Therefore, a field study was initiated to track N availability for corn in conventional and no?till systems and to determine the accuracy of several methods for assessing and predicting N availability for corn grown in cover crop systems. The

Jeffrey D. Vaughan; Greg D. Hoyt; Arthur G. Wollum II

2000-01-01

350

Carbon Supply and Storage in Tilled and Nontilled Soils as Influenced by Cover Crops and Nitrogen Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume (hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)), non- legume (rye (Secale cereale L.)), biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops

Upendra M. Sainju; Bharat P. Singh; Wayne F. Whitehead; Shirley Wang

2006-01-01

351

Partial least-squares regression for linking land-cover patterns to soil erosion and sediment yield in watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are strong ties between land cover patterns and soil erosion and sediment yield in watersheds. The spatial configuration of land cover has recently become an important aspect of the study of geomorphological processes related to erosion within watersheds. Many studies have used multivariate regression techniques to explore the response of soil erosion and sediment yield to land cover patterns in watersheds. However, many landscape metrics are highly correlated and may result in redundancy, which violates the assumptions of a traditional least-squares approach, thus leading to singular solutions or otherwise biased parameter estimates and confidence intervals. Here, we investigated the landscape patterns within watersheds in the Upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China and examined how the spatial patterns of land cover are related to the soil erosion and sediment yield of watersheds using hydrological modeling and partial least-squares regression (PLSR). The results indicate that the watershed soil erosion and sediment yield are closely associated with the land cover patterns. At the landscape level, landscape characteristics, such as Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI), aggregation index (AI), largest patch index (LPI), contagion (CONTAG), and patch cohesion index (COHESION), were identified as the primary metrics controlling the watershed soil erosion and sediment yield. The landscape characteristics in watersheds could account for as much as 65% and 74% of the variation in soil erosion and sediment yield, respectively. Greater interspersion and an increased number of patch land cover types may significantly accelerate soil erosion and increase sediment export. PLSR can be used to simply determine the relationships between land-cover patterns and watershed soil erosion and sediment yield, providing quantitative information to allow decision makers to make better choices regarding landscape planning. With readily available remote sensing data and rapid developments in geographic information system (GIS) technology, this practical and simple PLSR approach could be applied to a variety of other watersheds.

Shi, Z. H.; Ai, L.; Li, X.; Huang, X. D.; Wu, G. L.; Liao, W.

2013-08-01

352

Effect of five tree crops and a cover crop in multi-strata agroforestry at two fertilization levels on soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at

Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech

2000-01-01

353

Species-diversified plant cover enhances orchard ecosystem resistance to climatic stress and soil erosion in subtropical hillside*  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring plants in agroecosystem evidently play an important role in ecosystem stability. Field studies on the ecological effects of native plants conserved in orchard and their resistance to adverse climatic stress, and soil erosion were conducted from 1998 to 2001 in a newly developed Changshan-huyou (Citrus changshan-huyou Y.B. Chang) orchard. The experimental area covered 150 ha in typical red soil hilly region in southeastern China. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with six combinations of twelve plant species with four replications. All species used were native in the orchard. Plots were 15×8 m2 and separated by 2 m buffer strips. Precipitation, soil erosion in rainstorm days and aboveground biomass of plant community when rainstorm days ended, soil temperature and moisture under various plant covers during seasonal megathermal drought period, antiscourability of soil with different root density under various simulated rainfalls were measured. Plant cover significantly decreased the daily highest and mean soil temperature and its daily variation in hot-drought season, but there was no significant difference of the alleviation among various plant covers. Plant covers significantly increased the soil moisture in seasonal megathermal drought period. Better moisture maintenance and soil erosion reduction was found when the plant species numbers in cover plant communities increased from one to eight. Higher root density in plant communities with higher species richness increased significantly the antiscourability of the soil. It was suggested that conserving plant communities with diversified native species could produce the best positive ecological effects on citrus orchard ecosystem stability. PMID:15362189

Chen, Xin; Yang, Yi-song; Tang, Jian-jun

2004-01-01

354

Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

1988-01-01

355

Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

2002-12-01

356

Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

2010-09-01

357

Effect of plant cover on distribution of soil organic matter pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies reported that quality and quantity of primary production and also the rate of litter decomposition determine the carbon (C) content and its distribution in soils. Our objective was to examine how the type of plant cover affects C sequestration in the following pools: unprotected, spatial inaccessible, interacting with silt and clay, and biochemically protected SOM. The large lysimeters of Moscow State University allowed quantification of C stocks under broadleaf forest (Acer platanoides and Quercus robur), coniferous forest (Picea abies) and agricultural crops (9-field rotation), while other soil forming factors affecting SOC content were identical. In 1965 the lysimeters (S=9 m2, depth=1.5 m) were filled with carbonate free clay loam taken in Moscow region, originated from the Valday glaciation, and plant communities listed above were planted. We collected soil samples from the mineral horizons, from 0-5 cm depth, in spring 2012. The soils were physically separated by combination of the particle size and density fractionations (8 fractions in total), and C and N contents were analyzed. The total C and N contents in non-fractionated soil were higher under broadleaf forest (66 and 3.1 g kg-1), than under coniferous forest (34.5 and 1.23 g kg-1) and agricultural crops (13.7 and 0.9 g kg-1). Under forests 45-50% of Ctotal and 30% of Ntotal were in the unprotected pool, in agricultural soil these percentages were in 3 times less. The greatest portions of protected C were in spatial inaccessible pool: 28, 32 and 40% of the Ctotal for broadleaf forest, coniferous forest and agricultural crops, respectively. However, the total C amount in this pool under agricultural crops was in 3 times less, than under forests. This is indicative for the loss of C-rich macroaggregates and an increase of C-depleted microaggregates in agricultural soils due to the plowing. The amounts of C, stabilized by interactions with silt and clay, were nearly the same (3-6 g kg-1) because of the identical texture of soil parent material. The portion of biochemically protected C was maximal in agricultural soil - 27%, whereas on forest plots it was 2 times less. The amount of C in this pool did not strongly differ among the investigated soils, but C/N ratio was lower under agricultural crops than under forests. This indicates deeper degradation of organics in cultivated soil, N addition by fertilization, and a growing contribution of microbially-derived C to the biochemically protected pool. Wide C/N ratio in biochemically protected pool in the forest soils reflects the accumulation of primary recalcitrant plant substances with high C/N such as lignin and cellulose. Thus, forest vegetation contributes mainly to the SOM sequestration in the spatial inaccessible pool and is source of the high amount of non-protected C. Under agricultural crops however, the most of SOM is stabilized by interactions with silt and clay and is stabilized biochemically.

Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ryzhova, Irina

2013-04-01

358

The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

2002-02-26

359

The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will help to distinguish potential regional differences needed in ET cover design. Although both sites are at similar latitudes, the NTS is located in a transition zone between the Mojave and southern Great Basin deserts, while SNL is located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. Differences in vegetation and seasonality of precipitation between the sites are significant.

David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

2001-10-18

360

Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

Eagleson, P. S.

1985-01-01

361

Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.  

PubMed

Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information about specific projects using ET covers. There are three general approaches for non-conventional cover systems to achieve approval for installation; the first is when equivalent performance to conventional final cover systems can be demonstrated directly on site. This is the approach used by the Sandia study, by most ACAP sites, and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. A second approach is used when there are data from a site specific study such as an ACAP installation at a site that has analogous soil and climate conditions. Several sites in Colorado and Southern California have achieved approval based on data from similar sites. The third most common approach for regulatory approval is by installation of data collection systems with the agreement that the permanence of the ET cover installation is contingent on success of the cover in meeting certain performance goals. This article is intended as an introduction to the topic and is not intended to serve as guidance for design or construction, nor indicate the appropriateness of using an ET cover systems at a particular site. PMID:22574378

Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

2012-01-01

362

Migration of inorganic ions from the leachate of the Rio das Ostras landfill: a comparison of three different configurations of protective barriers.  

PubMed

Batch tests and diffusion tests were performed to analyze the efficiency of a protective barrier in a landfill consisting of compacted soil with 10% bentonite compared to the results obtained for only compacted soil and for compacted soil covered with a 1-mm-thick HDPE geomembrane; the soil and leachate were collected from the Rio das Ostras Landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diffusion tests were performed for periods of 3, 10 and 60 days. After the test period, the soil pore water was analyzed and the profiles for chloride, potassium and ammonium were determined along a 6-cm soil depth. The results of the batch tests performed to define sorption parameters were used to adjust the profiles obtained in the diffusion cell experiment by applying an ion transfer model between the interstitial solution and the soil particles. The MPHMTP model (Multi Phase Heat and Mass Transfer Program), which is based upon the solution of the transport equations of the ionic contaminants, was used to solve the inverse problem of simultaneously determining the effective diffusion coefficients. The results of the experimental tests and of the model simulation confirmed that the compacted soil with 10% bentonite was moderately efficient in the retention of chloride, potassium and ammonium ions compared to the configurations of compacted soil with a geomembrane and compacted soil alone, representing a solution that is technically feasible and requires potentially lower costs for implementation in landfills. PMID:25042116

Lacerda, Cláudia Virgínia; Ritter, Elisabeth; Pires, João Antônio da Costa; de Castro, José Adilson

2014-11-01

363

Laboratory and numerical modeling of water balance in a layered sloped soil cover with channel flow pathway over mine waste rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macropores developed in barrier layers in soil covers overlying acid-generating waste rock may produce preferential flow through\\u000a the barrier layers and compromise cover performance. However, little has been published on the effects of preferential flow\\u000a on water balance in soil covers. In the current study, an inclined, layered soil cover with a 10-cm-wide sand-filled channel\\u000a pathway in a silty clay

Qing SongErnest; Ernest K. Yanful

2011-01-01

364

Fate and Transport of Pharmaceutical Compounds Applied to Turf-Covered Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semi-arid regions, the use of treated wastewater for landscape irrigation is becoming common practice and a significant asset to conserve potable water supplies. Public interest and lack of field-scale data are leading to a concern that compounds found in reuse water could persist in the environment and contaminate groundwater. As part of a larger study, 2-yr experiments were conducted in CA and NV, where reuse water was the primary source of non-ambient water input. A total of 13 compounds were studied, all originating in irrigation water applied to soil covered in turf or left bare. The target compounds included atenolol, atorvastatin, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and trimethoprim. Analytical protocols for all compounds (detection at ng/L range) were established before the study commenced. The goals of the research were to increase available data on the fate and transport of these target compounds in turfgrass/soil systems, and to use these data to assess long-term risk from using water containing these compounds. Experiments conducted at two scales are discussed here: lysimeter-scale and field-scale. At the lysimeter-scale, 24 drainage lysimeters (120 cm thick) were exposed to treated wastewater as an irrigation source. Lysimeters varied by soil type (two types), soil cover (bare- versus turf-covered) and leaching fraction (5% and 25%). Upper and lower boundary conditions were monitored throughout the study. Water samples were collected periodically after water breakthrough. After the study, soil samples were analyzed for compound mass, allowing compound mass balance and removal to be assessed. At the field-scale, passive drain gages (Decagon Devices) were installed in triplicate in fairways at four operational golf courses, one in NV and three in CA, all with histories of using treated wastewater. The gages measure water fluxes through the 60-cm thick column and store water for subsequent sampling and analysis. Irrigation water was sampled and analyzed for input mass. Using output mass, removal efficiencies could also be assessed. Results of the lysimeter study showed that mass fluxes were reduced to less than 1 g/ha/yr for all compounds (sulfamethoxazole was highest at 0.25 g/ha/yr). Solute breakthrough was concentrated during fall and winter periods when turf was overseeded and sites received winter precipitation. Results of the golf course study were similar, showing scalability. We report more than 100 instances of target compounds detected in water that percolated through the turf and upper 60 cm of soil, but with total mass fluxes of <0.1 g/ha throughout the study. Sulfamethoxazole, meprobamate, and carbamazepine were most commonly found in drainage water, but gemfibrozil, diclofenac, naproxen, and triclosan were also found in more than one sample. The results allowed for a preliminary risk assessment to be conducted. Based on our results, restricting the use of recycled water, based solely on the presence of PPCPs should only be considered at sites where soils are extremely sandy and irrigation regimes are not based on an evapotranspiration feedback approach.

Young, M.; Green, R. L.; Devitt, D.; McCullough, M.; Wright, L.; Vanderford, B. J.; Snyder, S. A.

2012-12-01

365

A rule-based image analysis approach for calculating residues and vegetation cover under field conditions for soil erosion studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of soil cover by residues and vegetation is a fundamental issue for soil erosion, because the amount of cover is a basic driver for erosion risk. Soil cover measurement in the field and catchment scale is sometimes very time consuming or subjective. Our ambition for this study was to develop a quick and easy-to-handle field method for calculating the amount of different soil cover types, i.e. dead and living biomass, in a single-step analysis at field scale. We used an object-based image analysis methodology (OBIA) to quantify different cover types. Classification of the images used resulted in the following classes: residues, vegetation, stones, shadow and uncertainty. The shadow and uncertainty classes were used as an image quality parameter. We compared this method to manual image analysis for the range of between 0 and 50% total cover and different catch crops and winter crops. To increase the accuracy of manual analysis, it was necessary to repeat the assessment five times per image. Degree of agreement between the OBIA method and manual assessment for each of the three different cover types was in the region of 0.8 (r2 = 0.78 for total cover, r2 = 0.75 for residue cover, r2 = 0.82 for vegetation cover). Slopes of the regression intercepts between manual and automated analysis were not different from 1 for total cover and vegetation cover. 95% confidence intervals for the regression lines indicate that confidence limits at total soil cover of 25% (the mean of the investigated range of soil cover) are similar for both the manual evaluation (CI95% = 2.8) and the OBIA method (CI95% = 3.1). The time needed for evaluation was calculated at 115 min per manual image classification and 15 min per automated image classification, which we regard as a major advantage of the OBIA methodology. Finally we suggest that, while similar accuracies of evaluation for both methods have been obtained, the OBIA method allows greater objectivity because of predefined classification algorithms and thus the possibility of back tracing results.

Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter

2013-04-01

366

Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain.  

PubMed

The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (<53, 53-250, and 250-2000 ?m) was determined. Results showed soil depth to be a significant factor in soil C stocks in all soil particle sizes. Distance to tree was a significant factor determining soil C stocks in the whole soil and the 250-2000 ?m soil fraction. To 1 m depth, mean total C storage at 2, 5, and 15 m from cork oak was 50.2, 37, and 26.5 Mg ha(-1), respectively. Taking into account proportions of land surface area containing these C stocks at varying distances to trees to 1 m depth, with a tree density of 35 stems ha(-1), estimated landscape soil C is 29.9 Mg ha(-1). Greater soil C stocks directly underneath the tree canopy suggest that maintaining or increasing tree cover, where lost from disease or management, may increase long term storage of soil C in Mediterranean silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring. PMID:21643613

Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

2011-07-01

367

Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Storages of Soils Covering Yedoma Deposits in the Lena River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena River Delta (LRD) is located in northeast Siberia and extends over a soil covered area of around 21,500 km2. LRD likely stores more than half of the entire soil organic carbon (SOC) mass stored in deltas affected by permafrost. LRD consists of several geomorphic units. Recent studies showed that the spatially dominating Holocene units of the LRD (61 % of the area) store around 240 Tg of SOC and 12 Tg of nitrogen (N) within the first meter of ground. These units are a river terrace dominated by wet sedge polygons and the active floodplains. About 50 % of these reported storages are located in the perennially frozen ground below 50 cm depth and are excluded from intense biogeochemical exchange with the atmosphere today. However, these storages are likely to be mineralised in near future due to the projected temperature increases in this region. A substantial part of the LRD (1,712 km2) belongs to the so-called Yedoma Region, which formed during the Late Pleistocene. This oldest unit of the LRD is characterised by extensive plains incised by thermo-erosional valleys and large thermokarst depressions. Such depressions are called Alases and cover around 20 % of the area. Yedoma deposits in the LDR are known to store high amounts of SOC. However, within the LRD no detailed spatial studies on SOC and N in the soils overlying Yedoma and thermokarst depressions were carried out so far. We present here our 'investigation in progress' on soils in these landscape units of the LRD. Our first estimates, based on 69 pedons sampled in 2008, show that the mean SOC stocks for the upper 30 cm of soils on both units were estimated at 13.0 kg m2 ± 4.8 kg m2 on the Yedoma surfaces and at 13.1 kg m2 ± 3.8 kg m2 in the Alases. The stocks of N were estimated at 0.69 kg m2 ± 0.25 kg m2and at 0.70 kg m2 ± 0.18 kg m2 on the Yedoma surfaces and in the Alases, respectively. The estimated SOC and N pools for the depth of 30 cm within the investigated part of the LRD add to 20.9 Tg and 1.1 Tg, respectively. The Yedoma surfaces (1,313 km2) store 17.1 ± 6.3 Tg SOC and 0.9 ± 0.3 Tg N, whereas the Alases (287 km2) store 3.8 ± 1.1 Tg SOC and 0.2 ± 0.05 Tg N within the investigated depth of 30 cm. Further analyses of the soil core material collected in 2013 will provide SOC and N pool estimates for a depth of 100 cm including both, the seasonally active layer and the perennially frozen ground. With continuing advanced analyses of an available digital elevation model, slopes will be designated with their extents and inclinations since the planar extents of slopes derived from satellite imagery do not correspond to the actual slope soil surface area, which is vital for spatial SOC and N storage calculations as well as trace gas release estimates. The actual soil surface area of slopes will be calculated prior to result extrapolations.

Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2014-05-01

368

The Effect of Leaf Litter Cover on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion in Northern China  

PubMed Central

The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05). Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R?=?0.99, p<0.05), and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h?1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p?0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes. PMID:25232858

Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

2014-01-01

369

The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.  

PubMed

The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05). Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R?=?0.99, p<0.05), and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h-1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p?0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes. PMID:25232858

Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

2014-01-01

370

Comment on "Evaluation of evapotranspirative covers for waste containment in arid and semiarid regions in the southwestern USA"  

SciTech Connect

Landfill covers relying on a balance between soil water storage and evapotranspiration (ET) as the primary means to control drainage have been described in the recent paper by Scanlon et al. (2005) in the Vadose Zone Journal. These so-called "ET Covers" have been receiving considerable interest in the past few years as economically viable cover systems for landfills in arid and semi-arid environments (Hauser et al. 2001, Madalinksi et al. 2003) Scanlon et al. (2005) have provided a summary of their studies in Texas and New Mexico, demonstrating an acceptable performance of ET covers in minimizing drainage under their test conditions. Further, they illustrate with both measurement and modeling that capillary barriers (fine soils over coarse soils) similar in concept to those previously built and tested at Los Alamos, NM and Hanford, WA over the past 20 years, store more water than surface barriers that have uniform profiles.

Gee, Glendon W.; Benson, C H.; Albright, William H.

2006-05-26

371

Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

Striegl, R.G.; Wickland, K.P.

2001-01-01

372

An experimental investigation to characterise soil macroporosity under different land use and land covers of northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated macropore flow is the dominant hydrological process in tropical and subtropical hilly watersheds of northeast India. The process of infiltration into saturated macroporous soils is primarily controlled by size, network, density, connectivity, saturation of surrounding soil matrix, and depthwise distribution of macropores. To understand the effects of local land use, land cover and management practices on soil macroporosity, colour dye infiltration experiments were conducted with ten soil columns (25 × 25 × 50 cm) collected from different watersheds of the region under similar soil and agro-climatic zones. The sampling sites included two undisturbed forested hillslopes, two conventionally cultivated paddy fields, two forest lands abandoned after Jhum cultivation, and two paddy fields, one pineapple plot and one banana plot presently under active cultivation stage of the Jhum cycle. Digital image analyses of the obtained dye patterns showed that the infiltration patterns differed significantly for different sites with varying land use, land cover, and cultivation practices. Undisturbed forest soils showed high degree of soil macroporosity throughout the soil profile, paddy fields revealed sealing of macropores at the topsoil due to hard pan formation, and Jhum cultivated plots showed disconnected subsoil macropores. The important parameters related to soil macropores such as maximum and average size of macropores, number of active macropores, and depthwise distribution of macropores were estimated to characterise the soil macroporosity for the sites. These experimentally derived quantitative data of soil macroporosity can have wide range of applications in the region such as water quality monitoring and groundwater pollution assessment due to preferential leaching of solutes and pesticides, study of soil structural properties and infiltration behaviour of soils, investigation of flash floods in rivers, and hydrological modelling of the watersheds.

Shougrakpam, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Rupak; Dutta, Subashisa

2010-10-01

373

Holocene climate evolution, human occupation, soil erosion and vegetation cover change in southeast Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is commonly reported as the European region that is most affected by soil degradation. The degradation of Mediterranean soils has often been linked to inappropriate agricultural practices during the last decades besides its typical semiarid conditions. The present-day landscape in Southeast Spain is the result of a long occupation history. To have a better understanding of the impact of human societies on soil degradation, the main shifts in vegetation cover, climate and human occupation have to be taken into account. Recently published paleo-environmental data from continental pollen sequences, high-resolution marine cores, and estimations of the past Sea Surface Temperature (SST) of the Alborán Sea provide new insights in the evolution of the Mediterranean climate and vegetation during the Holocene. These data allow overcoming some of the shortcomings of previous studies on the interaction between humans and the landscape that were mainly based on extrapolations of site-specific information from continental deposits and archeological sites and large-scale regional correlations. Our compilation of multi-continental proxies from the Iberic Peninsula indicates that environmental conditions are strongly related to climatic oscillations and strongly correlated with the North Atlantic changes. By use of a vertical approach, several aridification episodes were detected from marine and continental records at 12000-11600 (H), 11100-10800 (G), 10300-9900 (F), 8600-8000 (E), 5500-4600 (D), 4000-3400 (C), 2700-2400 (B), 1800-1300 (A) cal. years BP. The data suggest that those severe aridification phases were most likely climatically induced, not human-driven and well correlated with the Bond events. We observe a clear association between climate, vegetation cover and sediment fluxes for the period from 12000 to 4600 cal. years BP. In contrast, during the last 4600 years, the reconstruction of various eco-historical periods indicated a weak to low association between sediment fluxes and climatic shifts. Periods of improved climatic conditions were associated with both low (end of Post Argaric-Omeya-Nazarene) and high (Chalcolithic-Roman-Early Phoenician I) erosion rates. Various prosperous civilizations (such as Agarics, Phoenicians and Romans) defined by a demographic explosion and associated with an overexploitation of natural resources, are accompanied with higher sediment fluxes. At the moment, we cannot exclude the possibility that the weak association observed between sediment fluxes and human-climatic factors for the last 4600 years is an artifact resulting from the low temporal resolution of soil erosion data from local sites compared to the high-resolution climatic data. It is clear that high-resolution data on sediment fluxes are required to test these hypotheses further.

Bellin, Nicolas; Vanacker, Veerle

2010-05-01

374

Surface energy balance model of transpiration from variable canopy cover and evaporation from residue-covered or bare-soil systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface energy balance model based on the Shuttleworth and Wallace (Q J R Meteorol Soc 111:839–855, 1985) and Choudhury and Monteith (Q J R Meteorol Soc 114:373–398, 1988) methods was developed to estimate evaporation from soil and crop residue, and transpiration from crop canopies. The model\\u000a describes the energy balance and flux resistances for vegetated and residue-covered surfaces. The

Luis Octavio Lagos; Derrel L. Martin; Shashi B. Verma; Andrew Suyker; Suat Irmak

2009-01-01

375

Late Holocene deforestation of a tree line site: estimation of pre-fire vegetation composition and black spruce cover using soil charcoal  

E-print Network

and black spruce cover using soil charcoal Hugo Asselin and Serge Payette Asselin, H. and Payette, S. 2005 and black spruce cover using soil charcoal. Á/ Ecography 28: 801Á/805. Anatomical identification of soil charcoal fragments was used to reconstruct the pre- fire vegetation composition of a tree line site

Asselin, Hugo

376

Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope  

E-print Network

biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH4 oxidation., 1998). The main com- ponents of biogas are CH4 (50­60%) and carbon dioxide (CO2; 40­50%). A major

377

Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the emission resumed its original state before the recirculation. It should be noted that the change in emission was only limited near the pipe. No overall change in emission was observed from the cell due to the recirculation. The comparison between the emissions from the conventional and ELR cell showed an overall higher emission from the ELR cell which could be attributed to the overall higher gas generation from the ELR cell as well. The gas extraction had a direct impact on emission, the emission dropped substantially right after the gas extraction from the landfill. However, the gas was extracted once in a month and comparison with the amount of gas extraction and emission showed that the emission decreased as the gas extraction increased. An attempt was made to incorporate the effect of ELR operation and the gas extraction in the estimating the methane emission from the landfills. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed using the statistical tool SAS. The developed model was validated and the model showed an excellent agreement between the predicted emission and the measured emission from the landfills (average variation 9.6%).

Samir, Sonia

378

EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND A SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE ON THE RETENTION OF CD, NI, PB, AND ZN IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...

379

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

SciTech Connect

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-03-31

380

Willow water uptake and shoot extension growth in response to nutrient and moisture on a clay landfill cap soil.  

PubMed

Extension growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) and changes in soil water were measured in lysimeters containing clay and sandy loam soils with different amendment and watering treatments. No water uptake was found below 0.3m in the nutritionally poor unamended clay; amendment with organic matter to 0.4m depth resulted in water extraction down to 0.5m depth whereas in the sandy loam, there was greater extraction from all depths down to 0.6m. With water stress, wilting of plants occurred when the volumetric soil water content at 0.1m was about 31% in the clay and 22% in the sandy loam. Compared with shoots on plants in the amended clay, those in the unamended treatment showed reduced extension growth, little increase in stem basal area (SBA) and a small shoot leaf area, resulting from a reduced number of leaves shoot(-1) and a small average area leaf(-1). Water stress also reduced shoot extension growth, SBA gain and the leaf area on extension growth. Shoot growth rates were significantly correlated with air temperature and base temperatures between 2.0 and 7.6 degrees C were indicated for the different treatments. These studies have helped to explain some of the large treatment effects described previously on biomass production and plant leaf area. PMID:18023343

Martin, Peter J; Stephens, William

2008-09-01

381

On the current state of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model.  

PubMed

The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is the most widely applied model to calculate the water balance of cover and bottom liner systems for landfills. The paper summarizes the 30year history of the model from HELP version 1 to HELP 3.95 D and includes references to the three current and simultaneously available versions (HELP 3.07, Visual HELP 2.2, and HELP 3.95 D). A sufficient validation is an essential precondition for the use of any model in planning. The paper summarizes validation approaches for HELP 3 focused on cover systems in the literature. Furthermore, measurement results are compared to simulation results of HELP 3.95 D for (1) a test field with a compacted clay liner in the final cover of the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder from 1988 to 1995 and (2) a test field with a 2.3m thick so-called water balance layer on the landfill Deetz near Berlin from 2004 to 2011. On the Georgswerder site actual evapotranspiration was well reproduced by HELP on the yearly average as well as in the seasonal course if precipitation data with 10% systematic measurement errors were used. However, the increase of liner leakage due to the deterioration of the clayey soil liner was not considered by the model. On the landfill Deetz HELP overestimated largely the percolation through the water balance layer resulting from an extremely wet summer due to an underestimation of the water storage in the layer and presumably also due to an underestimation of the actual evapotranspiration. Finally based on validation results and requests from the practice, plans for improving the model to a future version HELP 4 D are described. PMID:25690410

Berger, Klaus U

2015-04-01

382

Effects of continuous cover forestry on soil moisture pattern - Beginning steps of a Hungarian study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays Hungarian foresters encounter a new challenge. The traditional management practices do not meet anymore with the demand of the civil society. The good old clearcut is no more a supported technology in forest regeneration. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induces much higher spatial variability compared to the even aged, more or less homogeneous, monoculture stands. The gap cutting is one of the proposed key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain ideal conditions for the seedlings. Among other open questions for example how the surrounding trees modify the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we established four research plots to study the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in the forest gap and the surrounding undisturbed stand. Each plot is located in oak (Quercus spp.) stands. Natural regeneration of oak stands is more problematic in our climate compared to the beech (Fagus sylvatica) which is located in the more humid or semi-humid areas of our country. All plots are located in the western part of Hungary: close to Sopron, Bejcgyertyános, Vép and Vajszló settlements. The last plot is an extensive research area, which is located in the riparian zone of a tributary of Feketevíz River. We monitor here the close-to-surface groundwater level fluctuation with pressure transducers. With a diurnal fluctuation based method it is possible to quantify the evapotranspiration differences between the gap and the stand. In two of the remaining stands (Bejcgyertyános and Vép) the gaps were opened in 2010. The monitoring of soil moisture began in 2013. A mobile sensor is used to monitor soil-moisture in a regular grid. The spatial variability of soil-moisture time-series shows a characteristic pattern during the growing-season. The plot in Sopron was established in 2013. Gaps with three different sizes were opened and fenced round to close out wild game. The initial status of the gap was recorded by a terrestrial laser scanner (LIDAR). From the resulting 3D point cloud high-resolution digital terrain and canopy surface model are derived which will help the planned numerical modelling. To prevent the unnecessary disturbance in this plot, two perpendicular transects were selected in each gap. The soil-moisture is monitored along these lines together with additional investigations, for example throughfall, and litter interception, tension disc infiltrometry, plant composition and cover. The microclimatic parameters such as near surface air temperature, relative humidity, radiation, wind speed and soil temperature is continuously recorded along the transects and compared to a nearby reference meteorological station located at an open area. Acknowledgment: The research was financially supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 joint EU-national research project

Kalicz, Péter; Bartha, Dénes; Brolly, Gábor; Csáfordi, Péter; Csiszár, Ágnes; Eredics, Attila; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Király, Géza; Kollár, Tamás; Korda, Márton; Kucsara, Mihály; Nótári, Krisztina; Kornél Szegedi, Balázs; Tiborcz, Viktor; Zagyvai, Gergely; Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita

2014-05-01

383

Hydraulic properties and leachate level analysis of Kimpo metropolitan landfill, Korea.  

PubMed

Hydraulic properties of waste and cover soil from Kimpo Metropolitan Landfill were experimentally measured by laboratory tests. The degree of compaction was changed to identify the effect on hydraulic conductivity, field capacity, and permanent wilting point. Properties were utilized in developing a reliable numerical tool for leachate analysis. HELP, a simulation model for hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance, was adopted for that purpose. For calibration, results from simulation using the parameter values measured by laboratory tests were compared against the field data. The model was applied to predict the leachate level change according to the degree of compaction and cover soil thickness variation. It was found that the increase in the degree of compaction for intermediate cover soil and waste results in the decrease of field capacity and hydraulic conductivity, hence, the increase of leachate level. The effect of cover layer thickness on the leachate level was minor. Based on the findings from laboratory and numerical experiments, a guideline for reclamation practice was recommended. PMID:11952173

Jang, Y S; Kim, Y W; Lee, S I

2002-01-01

384

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, the Area 3 Landfill Complex at Tonopah Test Range, consists of eight landfill sites, Corrective Action Sites (CASS), seven of which are landfill cells that were closed previously by capping. (The eighth CAS, A3-7, was not used as a landfill site and was closed without taking any corrective action.) Figure 1 shows the locations of the landfill cells. CAU 424 closure activities included removing small volumes of soil containing petroleum hydrocarbons, repairing cell covers that were cracked or had subsided, and installing above-grade and at-grade monuments marking the comers of the landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 424 are detailed in Section 5.0, Post-Closure Inspection Plan contained, in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--283. The Closure Report (CR) was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1999. The CR includes compaction and permeability results of soils that cap the seven landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000, and November 20, 2000. The inspections were preformed after the NDEP approval of the CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklist and photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

K. B. Campbell

2001-06-01

385

Nitrous oxide emissions from a municipal landfill.  

PubMed

The first measurements of nitrous oxide (N20) emissions from a landfill by the eddy covariance method are reported. These measurements were compared to enclosure emission measurements conducted at the same site. The average emissions from the municipal landfill of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area were 2.7 mg N m(-2) h(-1) and 6.0 mg N m(-2) h(-1) measured bythe eddy covariance and the enclosure methods, respectively. The N20 emissions from the landfill are about 1 order of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from Northern European agricultural soils, and 2 orders of magnitude higher than the highest emissions reported from boreal forest soils. Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N20 emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. Expressed as a greenhouse warming potential (GWP100), the N2O emissions make up about 3% of the total GWP100 emission of the landfill. The emissions measured by the two systems were generally of similar magnitude, with enclosure measurements showing a high small-scale spatial variation. PMID:16295838

Rinne, Janne; Pihlatie, Mari; Lohila, Annalea; Thum, Tea; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas; Vesala, Timo

2005-10-15

386

2-Liter Landfill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners gain a better understanding of how household/school waste breaks down in a landfill. Learners collect trash and then create miniature landfills in 2-liter bottles. Learners record observations about their landfills at least once a week for a month. This activity is part of a larger curriculum related to amphibians and conservation.

2012-12-20

387

MUNICIPAL LANDFILL GAS CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

New regulations relative to air emissions from municipal landfills may require the installation of gas collection systems at landfills. As landfill gas (LFG) is collected, water and other vapors in the gas condense in the system or are purposely removed in the normal treatment of...

388

LANDFILL GAS MEASUREMENT METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methane from landfills contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The development of cost-effective methods for measuring diffuse emissions from landfills remains a difficult issue for regulators and landfill operators. Currently, two major options are available: (1) above-ground methods which quantif...

389

AgRISTARS: Early warning and crop condition assessment. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissive (10.5 to 12.5 microns) and reflective (0.55 to 1.1 microns) data for ten day scenes and infrared data for six night scenes of southern Texas were analyzed for plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration. Heat capacity mapping mission radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures, significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration, and related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures.

Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator); Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.

1981-01-01

390

Variation in Aboveground Cover Influences Soil Nitrogen Availability at Fine Spatial Scales Following Severe Fire in Subalpine Conifer Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following fire, fine-scale variation in early successional vegetation and soil nutrients may influence development of ecosystem\\u000a structure and function. We studied conifer forests burned by stand-replacing wildfire in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA)\\u000a to address two questions: (1) How do the variability and spatial structure of aboveground cover and soil nitrogen availability\\u000a change during the first 4 years following stand-replacing fire? (2)

Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme; Erica A. H. Smithwick; Daniel B. Tinker; Jun Zhu

391

Influences of Spatial Scale and Soil Permeability on Relationships Between Land Cover and Baseflow Stream Nutrient Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Little Miami River (LMR) basin, dominated by agriculture, contains two geologically-distinct regions; a glaciated northern\\u000a till plain with soils three times more permeable than a southern, pre-Wisconsinan drift plain. The influences of two landscape\\u000a measures, percent row crop cover (%RCC, computed at three spatial scales), and soil permeability (PERM), on baseflow nutrient\\u000a concentrations were modeled using linear regressions. Quarterly

F. Bernard Daniel; Michael B. Griffith; Michael E. Troyer

2010-01-01

392

Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover.

Bessom, W.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-11-01

393